Sample records for wireless weather stations

  1. A low cost wireless data acquisition system for weather station monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Benghanem

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the development of wireless data acquisition system (WDAS) for weather station monitoring is described. It is based on the Emitter\\/Receiver architecture and it does not require the physical connection of the monitored systems to the data collection server. The proposed system consists of a set of sensors for measuring meteorological parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, pressure, wind

  2. Weather Stations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  3. Backyard Weather Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students use their senses to describe what the weather is doing and predict what it might do next. After gaining a basic understanding of weather patterns, students act as state park engineers and design/build "backyard weather stations" to gather data to make actual weather forecasts.

  4. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  5. Make Your Own Weather Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this OLogy activity, kids learn about climate and atmospheric conditions by making their own weather station. The activity begins with an overview that explains that weather happens in the atmosphere, where conditions are always changing. Students are given step-by-step, illustrated directions to make a wind vane, a rain gauge and a barometer. The activity includes a printable Weather Chart and wind vane cutouts.

  6. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  7. Micro Weather Stations for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Kaiser, William J.; VanZandt, Thomas R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Tillman, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A global network of weather stations will be needed to characterize the near-surface environment on Mars. Here, we review the scientific and measurement objectives of this network. We also show how these objectives can be met within the cost-constrained Mars Surveyor Program by augmenting the Mars Pathfinder-derived landers with large numbers of very small (less than 5 liter), low-mass (less than 5 kg), low-power, low-cost Mini-meteorological stations. Each station would include instruments for measuring atmospheric. pressures, temperatures, wind velocities, humidity, and airborne dust abundance. They would also include a data handling, telemetry, power, atmospheric entry, and deployment systems in a rugged package capable of direct entry and a high-impact landing. In this paper, we describe these systems and summarize the data-taking strategies and data volumes needed to achieve the surface meteorology objectives for Mars.

  8. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Schmidt, J. [Joe Schmidt, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  9. Each new car a weather station

    E-print Network

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Each new car a weather station SCIENCE FACULTYMAGAZINE THE SECRET OF CLOUDS Atmospheric researchers studying clouds and particles in the air to solve the climate problem No 2 2013 Faculty of Science New art

  10. Paradata for 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

  11. Wireless sensor network for monitoring soil moisture and weather conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) was developed and deployed in three fields to monitor soil water status and collect weather data for irrigation scheduling. The WSN consists of soil-water sensors, weather sensors, wireless data loggers, and a wireless modem. Soil-water sensors were installed at three...

  12. Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

  13. WEATHER DATA PROCESSOR USING COMMERCIAL WEATHER STATION SYSTEM TO GENERATE CATTLE LIVESTOCK SAFETY INDEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production facilities exist in environments that may differ significantly from the conditions at the closest weather station. Additionally, the Livestock Safety Index is no longer available over commercial radio/television stations for many livestock production areas. A need exists to inte...

  14. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rachelle Tuttle

    2005-10-25

    Meteorologists study the weather by recording and analyzing data. You can become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. After a while, you\\'ll notice the weather patterns that allow meteorologists to forecast the weather. Tasks: 1. As a group you will build a weather station outside. 2. Your group will build instruments to measure the weather. 3. Each person will record the data in personal weather journals. Process: 1.Since weather happens outside, you\\'ll need to make ...

  15. Baseband Architecture Design for FutureWirelessBase-Station Receivers

    E-print Network

    Cavallaro, Joseph R.

    Baseband Architecture Design for FutureWirelessBase-Station Receivers Sridhar Rajagopal Thesis UNIVERSITY Baseband Architecture Design for Future Wireless Base-Station Receivers by Sridhar Rajagopal of Computational and Applied Mathematics Houston, Texas May, 2000 #12;ABSTRACT Baseband Architecture Design

  16. The New Weather Station for the VLA Bryan Butler, Wayne Koski

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    The New Weather Station for the VLA Bryan Butler, Wayne Koski EVLA Memo 179 May 13, 2014 1.0 Introduction The weather station of the VLA (see e the location of the new weather station, its tower and instrumentation, some

  17. Optimal Relay Station Placement in Broadband Wireless Access Networks

    E-print Network

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    by replacing one long- distance low-rate link with multiple short-distance high- rate links, but also dueOptimal Relay Station Placement in Broadband Wireless Access Networks Bin Lin, Pin-Han Ho, Member, Member, IEEE Abstract--To satisfy the stringent requirement of capacity enhancement in wireless networks

  18. Weather satellite picture receiving stations, APT digital scan converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C. H.; Kamowski, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The automatic picture transmission digital scan converter is used at ground stations to convert signals received from scanning radiometers to data compatible with ground equipment designed to receive signals from vidicons aboard operational meteorological satellites. Information necessary to understand the circuit theory, functional operation, general construction and calibration of the converter is provided. Brief and detailed descriptions of each of the individual circuits are included, accompanied by a schematic diagram contained at the end of each circuit description. Listings of integral parts and testing equipment required as well as an overall wiring diagram are included. This unit will enable the user to readily accept and process weather photographs from the operational meteorological satellites.

  19. A secure mobile IP implementation for windows-based wireless LAN stations using special network drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Luo; P. Henry

    2003-01-01

    As wireless LAN is widely deployed, it is desired to support mobile IP for wireless LAN stations such that they can keep sessions alive when a change of wireless LAN environment happens. However, currently it is difficult to add secure mobile IP functions to windows-based wireless LAN stations, because it usually requires modification of windows components, a very troublesome task

  20. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hendricks

    2007-12-06

    Introduction: How much do you know about weather? What kinds of weather do we have surrounding us? What is the weather like today? You may know a lot about weather already, you may not. Either way, you will learn more now as we take a look into what causes our weather and the methods we use to record and predict it. We will all become meteorologists, which are scientists who study the atmosphere and can predict weather. Put on your raincoats, and lets started! Task: You are the resident meteorologist at a local news station. It is your job to record and predict the weather each day, and then present it that night on the evening news. Not only should you be able to show the weather that we will be experiencing right ...

  1. SURFACE WATER VAPOR EXCHANGES ON THE GREENLAND ICE SHEET DERIVED FROM AUTOMATED WEATHER STATION DATA

    E-print Network

    Box, Jason E.

    1 SURFACE WATER VAPOR EXCHANGES ON THE GREENLAND ICE SHEET DERIVED FROM AUTOMATED WEATHER STATION.D. Geography) Surface Water Vapor Exchanges on the Greenland Ice Sheet Derived From Automated Weather Station observations are used to estimate surface water vapor exchanges at Greenland ice sheet sites and for the ice

  2. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  3. Fair Bandwidth Allocation of a Wireless Base Station

    E-print Network

    Molnár, Sándor

    ). With the deployment and increasing use of these access technologies, the capacity of a radio cell can frequentlyFair Bandwidth Allocation of a Wireless Base Station Gy¨orgy Mikl'os Traffic Analysis and Network Performance Laboratory Ericsson Telecommunications Hungary Email: Gyorgy.Miklos@eth.ericsson.se H­1037

  4. Modeling a Wireless Network for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Yaprak, Ece; Lamouri, Saad

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of wireless local area network (LAN) simulation modeling methods to the hybrid LAN architecture designed for supporting crew-computing tools aboard the International Space Station (ISS). These crew-computing tools, such as wearable computers and portable advisory systems, will provide crew members with real-time vehicle and payload status information and access to digital technical and scientific libraries, significantly enhancing human capabilities in space. A wireless network, therefore, will provide wearable computer and remote instruments with the high performance computational power needed by next-generation 'intelligent' software applications. Wireless network performance in such simulated environments is characterized by the sustainable throughput of data under different traffic conditions. This data will be used to help plan the addition of more access points supporting new modules and more nodes for increased network capacity as the ISS grows.

  5. Message Queueing Analysis in Wireless Networks with Mobile Station Failures and Handoffs

    E-print Network

    Lyu, Michael R.

    in mobile wireless environments while maintain- ing network connections by a wireless interface. The AP, no computational messages can be transmitted between the APs and the MS. 1 #12;Wireless computing enables usersMessage Queueing Analysis in Wireless Networks with Mobile Station Failures and Handoffs Xinyu Chen

  6. Wireless remote weather monitoring system based on MEMS technologies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC). Experimental results show that the resistance of the micro temperature sensor increases linearly with input temperature, with an average TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance) value of 8.2 × 10(-4) (°C(-1)). The resistance of the pressure sensor also increases linearly with air pressure, with an average sensitivity value of 3.5 × 10(-2) (?/kPa). The sensitivity to humidity increases with ambient temperature due to the effect of temperature on the dielectric constant, which was determined to be 16.9, 21.4, 27.0, and 38.2 (pF/%RH) at 27 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The velocity of airflow is obtained by summing the variations in resistor response as airflow passed over the sensors providing sensitivity of 4.2 × 10(-2), 9.2 × 10(-2), 9.7 × 10(-2) (?/ms(-1)) with power consumption by the heating resistor of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 W, respectively. The passage of air across the surface of the flow sensors prompts variations in temperature among each of the sensing resistors. Evaluating these variations in resistance caused by the temperature change enables the measurement of wind direction. PMID:22163762

  7. Wireless Remote Weather Monitoring System Based on MEMS Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC). Experimental results show that the resistance of the micro temperature sensor increases linearly with input temperature, with an average TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance) value of 8.2 × 10?4 (°C?1). The resistance of the pressure sensor also increases linearly with air pressure, with an average sensitivity value of 3.5 × 10?2 (?/kPa). The sensitivity to humidity increases with ambient temperature due to the effect of temperature on the dielectric constant, which was determined to be 16.9, 21.4, 27.0, and 38.2 (pF/%RH) at 27 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The velocity of airflow is obtained by summing the variations in resistor response as airflow passed over the sensors providing sensitivity of 4.2 × 10?2, 9.2 × 10?2, 9.7 × 10?2 (?/ms?1) with power consumption by the heating resistor of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 W, respectively. The passage of air across the surface of the flow sensors prompts variations in temperature among each of the sensing resistors. Evaluating these variations in resistance caused by the temperature change enables the measurement of wind direction. PMID:22163762

  8. The Trajectory of Giant Iceberg B15a: Preliminary Observations using GPS and Automatic Weather Stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. MacAyeal; J. Thom; A. Bliss; G. Weidner; B. D. Kerman; M. Lazzara; C. R. Stearns

    2001-01-01

    In January 2001, three automatic weather and GPS monitoring stations were deployed on the 150 by 50 km iceberg known as B15a. These stations relay GPS coordinates and surface wind measurements on an hourly basis through the ARGOS satellite relay system. The intended purpose of these measurements is to provide information that is superior to that available from tracking the

  9. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. LAi

    2007-02-08

    This project will help you understand the weather and investigate weather interactively. What are the components of weather? How do you measure weather? Investigate the WeatherScholastic: Weather WatchWeatherWeather Center for Our 4th Grade ...

  10. Science Sampler: Weather RATS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Taft

    2006-02-01

    Weather RATS, or Weather Research and Tracking Systems, is a collaborative effort among a national network of K-12 students, their teachers, wireless weather stations, internet data sharing, and professional engineers and meteorologists. Weather Rats is a new way to teach K-12 science and technology by tracking and comparing weather data from schools in Massachusetts, Arizona, Oklahoma, and Puerto Rico. In addition, it is hoped through this enriching project that Weather RATS will inspire many more students, especially girls and minorities, to pursue careers in science and engineering as a result of this project.

  11. Assessment of wind energy potential locations in Oman using data from existing weather stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sultan AL-Yahyai; Yassine Charabi; Adel Gastli; Saleh Al-Alawi

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes five years hourly wind data from twenty-nine weather stations to identify the potential location for wind energy applications in Oman. Different criteria including theoretical wind power output, vertical profile, turbulence and peak demand fitness were considered to identify the potential locations. Air density and roughness length, which play an important role in the calculation of the wind

  12. Wind Climate Analyses for National Weather Service Stations in the Southeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    Wind speed and direction data have been collected by National Weather Service (NWS) Stations in the U.S. for a number of years and presented in various forms to help depict the climate for different regions. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is particularly interested in the Southeast since mesoscale models using NWS wind observations are run on a daily basis

  13. Power consumption analysis for mobile stations in hybrid relay-assisted wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziaul Haq Abbas; Frank Y. Li

    2010-01-01

    While Internet access using mobile or wireless technologies has become ubiquitous these days, the energy consumption aspect of such connections has not been studied in-depth yet. In this paper, a hybrid wireless network, which consists of a cellular component and a relay-assisted ad hoc component, is studied focusing on energy consumption by mobile stations with respect to the amount of

  14. Meteorological data for water years 1988-94 from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Davies, W.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes meteorological data collected from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from as early as April 1987 through September 1994. The measurements include solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind vector magnitude, wind direction, wind vector direction, barometric pressure, and precipitation. Measurements were made very 10 seconds and averaged every 15 minutes. The data were collected as part of the geologic and hydrologic site-characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. Precipitation at the site ranged from a low of 12 millimeters total for water year 1989 to a high of 312 millimeters total for water year 1993. Air temperature ranged from a low of 15.1 degrees Celsius in December 1990 (water year 1991) to a high of 41.9 degrees Celsius in July 1989 (water year 1989). The weather station network also provides information on the spatial variability of precipitation and temperature.

  15. 47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the...wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the...or offers for sale or lease, low power auxiliary stations capable of operating...

  16. Undergraduate Earth System Science Education: Project-Based Learning, Land-Atmosphere Interaction, and a Newly Established Student Weather Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.

    2004-12-01

    Undergraduate students conducted a semester-long research project as part of a special topics course that launched the Austin College Weather Station in spring 2001. The weather station is located on restored prairie roughly 100 km north of Dallas, Texas. In addition to standard meteorological observations, the Austin College Weather Station measures surface quantities such as soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation, infrared radiation, and soil heat flux. These additional quantities are used to calculate the surface energy balance using the Bowen ratio method. Thus, the Austin College Weather Station provides valuable information on land-atmosphere interaction in a prairie environment. This project provided a remarkable learning experience for the students. Each student supervised two instruments on the weather station. Students skillfully learned instrumentation details and the physical phenomena measured by the instruments. Team meetings were held each week to discuss issues such as station location, power requirements, telecommunication options, and data acquisition. Students made important decisions during the meetings. They would then work collaboratively on specific tasks that needed to be accomplished before the next meeting. Students also assessed the validity of their measurements after the weather station came on-line. With this approach, students became the experts. They utilized the scientific method to think critically and to solve problems. For at least a semester, students became Earth system scientists.

  17. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Stearns

    2008-10-25

    This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

  18. Terrestrial photography as a complementary measurement in weather stations for snow monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Rafael; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2015-04-01

    Snow monitoring constitutes a basic key to know snow behaviour and evolution, which have particular features in semiarid regions (i.e. highly strong spatiotemporal variability, and the occurrence of several accumulation-melting cycles throughout the year). On one hand, traditional snow observation, such as snow surveys and snow pillows have the inconvenience of a limited accessibility during snow season and the impossibility to cover a vast extension. On the other hand, satellite remote sensing techniques, largely employed in medium to large scale regional studies, has the disadvantage of a fixed spatial and temporal resolutions which in some cases are not able to reproduce snow processes at small scale. An economic alternative is the use of terrestrial photography which scales are adapted to the study problem. At the microscale resolution permits the continuous monitoring of snow, adapting the resolution of the observation to the scales of the processes. Besides its use as raw observation datasets to calibrate and validate models' results, terrestrial photography constitutes valuable information to complement weather stations observations. It allows the discriminating possible mistakes in meteorological observations (i.e. overestimation on rain measurements) and a better understanding of snow behaviour against certain weather agents (i.e. blowing snow). Thus, terrestrial photography is a feasible and convenient technique to be included in weather monitoring stations in mountainous areas in semiarid regions.

  19. Micro weather stations for in situ measurements in the Martian planetary boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Kenny, T. W.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Tillman, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Viking Lander meteorology measurements show that the Martian planetary boundary layer (PBL) has large diurnal and seasonal variations in pressure, wind velocity, relative humidity, and airborne dust loading. An even larger range of conditions was inferred from remote sensing observations acquired by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters. Numerical models indicate that these changes may be accompanied by dramatic vertical and horizontal wind shears (100 m/s/km) and rapid changes in the static stability. In-situ measurements from a relatively small number surface stations could yield global constraints on the Martian climate and atmospheric general circulation by providing ground truth for remote sensing instruments on orbiters. A more complete understanding of the meteorology of the PBL is an essential precursor to manned missions to Mars because this will be their working environment. In-situ measurements are needed for these studies because the spatial and temporal scales that characterize the important meteorological processes near the surface cannot be resolved from orbit. The Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Program will provide the first opportunity to deploy a network of surface weather stations for a comprehensive investigation of the Martian PBL. The feasibility and utility of a network of micro-weather stations for making in-situ meteorological measurements in the Martian PBL are assessed.

  20. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATION IN THE PERPETUAL FROST CLIMATE OF EAST ANTARCTICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Ranalkar; B. Amudha; N. T. Niyas; R. D. Vashistha

    In the year 2006-07, India Meteorological Department (IMD) expanded and upgraded its network of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) by induction of 125 satellite linked AWS. A central receiving earth station in complete redundancy mode is also established at INSAT AWS Laboratory, IMD, Pune for reception of data through KALPANA1 (74 °E) satellite in near real time. IMD has planned to

  1. STATISTICAL CORRELATIONS OF SURFACE WIND DATA: A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE STATION AND A NEARBY AEROMETRIC MONITORING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a statistical analysis of wind data collected at a network of stations in the Southeast Ohio River Valley. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which wind measurements made by the National Weather Service (NWS) station at the Tri-State Airp...

  2. Compact multi-probe antenna test station for rapid testing of antennas and wireless terminals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Duchesne; Philippe Garreau; Nicolas Robic; Arnaud Gandois; Per Olaf Iversen; Gianni Barone

    2004-01-01

    Rapid characterization and pre-qualification measurements are becoming more and more important for the ever-growing number of small antennas, mobile telephones and other wireless terminals. There is a need driven by the wireless industries for a smart test set-up with reduced dimensions and capable of measuring radiating devices. Satimo has developed a compact, mobile and cost-effective test station called StarLab which

  3. Compact multiprobe antenna test station for rapid testing of antennas and wireless terminals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Duchesne; Ph. Garreau; N. Robic; A. Gandois; P. O. Iversen; G. Barone

    2004-01-01

    Rapid characterization and prequalification measurements are becoming more and more important for the evergrowing number of small antennas, mobile phones and other wireless terminals. There is a need driven by the wireless industries for a smart test set-up with reduced dimensions and capable of measuring radiating devices. Satimo has developed a compact, mobile and cost-effective test station called StarLab which

  4. Development of Data Video Base Station in Water Environment Monitoring Oriented Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kong Yifan; Jiang Peng

    2008-01-01

    Water environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, date video base station and remote monitoring center. For the sake of realizing to monitor large range waters such as reservoir, wetland, lake, river and ocean etc, the monitoring system has the function of perception, acquisition, processing and transmission for video-information in key

  5. IEEE Wireless Communications August 200466 1536-1284/04/$20.00 2004 IEEE Mobile station N

    E-print Network

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    IEEE Wireless Communications · August 200466 1536-1284/04/$20.00 © 2004 IEEE Mobile station N. In internetworking implementation, handoff performance should also be considered. Mobile IP handoff delay can approaches are actually only effective on registration signaling delays. For instance, a micro

  6. AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2006-01-01

    We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and AWS.it, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the AWS.it readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the AWS.it readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with AWS.it is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an AWS.it quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from AWS.it was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is, based on the latest evaluation, limited by the amount of attitude control gas on the EOS Aqua spacecraft, which is expected to last through 2015.

  7. The effect of weather and climate on traffic accidents, crime, and mortality in Bryan-College Station, Texas

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Timothy Richard

    1973-01-01

    of weather on road and traffic conditions "which can be perceived visually by the driver" actually increase the driver's concentration and hence do not cause 10 any significant rise in the number of traffic accidents (Kohn, 1956). Other researchers have...THE EFFECT OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE ON TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS, CRIME, AND MORTALITY IN BRYAN-COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS A Thesis by TIMOTHY RICHARD CAMPBELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  8. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides these two Websites on weather. The first site serves as a major hub for information related to weather, with links to primary data sources, forecasts, maps, images (such as the latest satellite imagery for North America), and a wealth of other data, including space weather. Researchers will also find links to national weather research centers and other related agencies.

  9. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Jennie

    2009-10-22

    What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

  10. Optimal base station placement for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Shi, Yi; Ding, Xu; Wei, Zhenchun

    2015-01-01

    We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC. PMID:25594600

  11. Polymer optical fibre network for feeding wireless LAN antenna stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMJ Koonen; Anthony Ng' oma; Boom van den HPA; I Tafur Monroy; PFM Smulders; GD Khoe

    2002-01-01

    A novel method is presented to transport microwave signals over graded-index polymer optical fibre (GIPOF) networks feeding radio access points in high-capacity wireless LANs. It relies on optical frequency multiplying, by sweeping a laser wavelength over a number of free spectral ranges of a simple periodic optical filter at the access points. It enables a cost-effective system implementation, and easy

  12. Using Satellite Imagery with ET Weather Station Networks to Map Crop Water Use for Irrigation Scheduling: TOPS-SIMS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration estimates for scheduling irrigation must be field specific and real time. Weather station networks provide daily reference ET values, but users need to select crop coefficients for their particular crop and field. A prototype system has been developed that combines satellite image...

  13. High-resolution evapotranspiration estimates for California using satellite imagery and weather station measurements and the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, F.; Hart, Q. J.; Ustin, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Spatially distributed potential Evapotranspiration, ET0, has been calculated to produce daily and hourly ET0 maps for the State of California at 2 km2 resolution. Hourly NOAA GOES imager satellite visible data are used to predict daily radiation. These are combined with interpolated California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) weather station meteorological data for temperature, wind speed and humidity to satisfy the Penman-Monteith ET0 equation. In the next step, we investigate the use of the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to improve the spatial estimates of daily evapotranspiration for the state of California. CIMIS real-time weather station and real-time satellite data are integrated into a prognostic version of the WRF model using its data nudging scheme. This paper we compares spatially interpolated climate parameters and evapotranspiration to the output of WRF with and without data assimilation of CIMIS data. The research assists California's Department of Water Resources to better monitor water use and water management. In addition to the scientific advances in understanding short- term weather systems and their impacts on plant resources, there is considerable societal importance, given impacts of current droughts and predictions for significantly reduced winter snow packs in California under some climate change scenarios.

  14. ULF Waves Observed at MAGDAS Stations as Probes for Litho-Space Weather Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kiyohumi

    K.Yumoto, Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University started the MAGDAS Project effectively in May of 2005, with the installation of the first unit in Hualien, Taiwan (Yumoto et al., 2006, 2007). Since then, over 50 units have been deployed around the world. They are concentrated along three chains: (1) North and South of Japan (the so-called "210o Magnetic Meridian Chain"), (2) Dip Equator Chain, and (3) Africa Chain (the so-called "96o Magnetic Meridian Chain"). The main goals of MAGDAS project are: (1) study magnetospheric pro-cesses by distinguishing between temporal changes and spatial variations in the phenomena, (2) clarify global structures and propagation characteristics of magnetospheric variations from higher to equatorial latitudes, and (3) understand global generation mechanisms of the Solar-Terrestrial phenomena (see Yumoto, 2004). From MAGDAS observations, ULF waves are found to be used as good probes for litho-space weather study in developing and developed countries. In the present paper, we will introduce the following examples: Pc 5 magnetic amplitudes at lower-latitude MAGDAS station show a linear relation with the solar wind velocity, thus we can use the Pc 5 amplitudes as a monitoring probe of the solar wind velocity. Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations have skin depth comparable with the depth of epicentre of earthquakes in the lithosphere. Therefore, we can use Pc 3-4 as a probe for detecting ULF anomaly and precursors associated with great earthquakes. Pi 2 magnetic pulsations are observed globally at MAGDAS stations located at high, middle, low, and equatorial latitudes in night-and day-time. We can use the Pi 2s as a good indicator of onsets of magnetospheric substorms. Sudden commencements (sc), sudden impulse (si), and solar flare effects (sfe) create magnetic variations at MAGDAS stations. Therefore, MAGDAS data can be used as a probe of interplanetary shocks and interplanetary discontinuities in the solar wind, and solar flare on the solar surface, respectively.

  15. Boreal Atmospheric circulation patterns on the basis of the world network weather station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, V. A.; Moskalenko, L. V.; Golenko, N. N.; Golenko, M. N.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the recent developments of various methods of data representation in meteorology, the image of the globe-scale atmospheric circulation system has appeared. Basically, the circulation assessment is based on the indirect teleconnection method and rotated principal component analysis of the sea level pressure or geopotential height fields. These methods have several constraints because of the integration of intermittent and frontal atmospheric synoptic variability.As follows from the work of prof. B.L. Dzerdzeevskii, due to the existing of Arctic blocking processes, simplified geostrophic wind concept on the basis of the low-frequency baric patterns of the permanent centers of action, should be reconsidered in more details. For this purpose, weather station direct in-situ data with the use of progressive vector diagrams for wind speed and direction time series visualization are appropriate. Wind diagrams incorporate various fluctuations with time scales from synoptic to climatic, which can be considered without any filtration applied. The subject of work is to study the long-term wind regimes in the Northern Hemisphere, with the aim to obtain atmospheric circulation patterns in the regions of interest, in particular induced by the NAO(North Atlantic oscillation), EAWR(East Atlantic-West Russia) and SH(Siberian High) centers of action at different time and space scales. The analysis is based on the standard meteorological data (including wind direction and speed) of WMO network weather stations in the period since 1998 up to the present. For intercalibration and validation, NCEP-NCAR and QuickSCAT sea winds databases were considered, as well. Basic features of the wind variability are governed by the relevant types of the large-scale synoptic atmospheric processes, which depend upon the state of the global atmospheric circulation, their large-scale gyres and separate smaller vorticity cells. All the individual wind diagrams appear as having rather simple low-frequency structure. Long-term wind variations were splitted to winter and summer seasons. Schematic view of the troposhere circulation in NCP(North-Caspian Pattern) or EAWR baric permanent structure was not confirmed by the data in hand. According to the weather stations around the Black Sea, the climatic winds have cyclonic vorticity, the center of rotation being located approximately over Turkey. The evolution of fields from small to large time scales is carried out by the "universal" set of wind vector variations, which due to their crucial role deserves a special name "Elementary cycle" (EC). Typical EC variations are described by a cyclic wind change from one persistent direction to another. The similarity of EC variations at different time scales is considered as wind fractality. It is shown, that the fractality is due to recurrence of basic regional baric synoptic fields. Fractal dimensions on the basis of wavelet decomposition and statistical significance using Monte Carlo technique were estimated.

  16. Task Partitioning Wireless Base-station Receiver Algorithms on Multiple DSPs and FPGAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sridhar Rajagopal; Bryan Jones; Joseph R. Cavallaro

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a multiprocessor solution to meet real-time requirements of implementing advanced algorithms for multiuser channel esti- mation and detection for third and fourth genera- tion wireless base-station receivers. We identify the key bottlenecks in the algorithms and task- partition the algorithms on multiple processors. We get speedups, ranging from 1.19X to 5.92X for a dual-DSP implementationdue to both

  17. Estimation of mobile station position and velocity in multipath wireless networks using the unscented particle filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed M. Olama; Seddik M. Djouadi; Ioannis G. Papageorgiou; C. D. Charalambous

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method based on wave scattering model for tracking a user. The 3D wave scattering multipath channel model of Aulin is employed together with particle filtering to obtain mobile station location and velocity estimates with high accuracy. This model takes into account non-line-of-sight and multipath propagation environments, which are usually encountered in wireless fading channels. The proposed

  18. Simple Random Sampling-Based Probe Station Selection for Fault Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rimao; Qiu, Xuesong; Rui, Lanlan

    2011-01-01

    Fault detection for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied intensively in recent years. Most existing works statically choose the manager nodes as probe stations and probe the network at a fixed frequency. This straightforward solution leads however to several deficiencies. Firstly, by only assigning the fault detection task to the manager node the whole network is out of balance, and this quickly overloads the already heavily burdened manager node, which in turn ultimately shortens the lifetime of the whole network. Secondly, probing with a fixed frequency often generates too much useless network traffic, which results in a waste of the limited network energy. Thirdly, the traditional algorithm for choosing a probing node is too complicated to be used in energy-critical wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we study the distribution characters of the fault nodes in wireless sensor networks, validate the Pareto principle that a small number of clusters contain most of the faults. We then present a Simple Random Sampling-based algorithm to dynamic choose sensor nodes as probe stations. A dynamic adjusting rule for probing frequency is also proposed to reduce the number of useless probing packets. The simulation experiments demonstrate that the algorithm and adjusting rule we present can effectively prolong the lifetime of a wireless sensor network without decreasing the fault detected rate. PMID:22163789

  19. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps. Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. Teachers looking to incorporate this site in their classroom can check out the "Teacher's Guide" for helpful hints on using the site with students.

  20. Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

  1. Analysis of fog occurrence on E11-A75 Motorway, with weather station data in relation to satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, M.; Bernardin, F.; Favier, B.; Mallet, E.; Laurantin, O.

    2010-07-01

    Transport is often disturbed in wintertime by fog occurrence causing delay. Fog may also be responsible for dramatic accidents causing injuries and fatalities. For meteorological weather services, fog is defined as when visibility is less than 1000 m. However, for road traffic, when visibility becomes less than 200 m, fog is considered a traffic hazard for road transport. Fog forecast remains a difficult task. Satellite observation combined with surface measurements by a network of road weather stations can provide short-term information that could be useful to assist traffic authorities in taking decisions relating to traffic control measures or drivers information. Satellite images allow to identify cloud types and to establish a map of the risk of fog occurrence. The surface measurements help to discriminate between low clouds and fog. The analysis method has already been tested last winter on some case studies on the motorway E11-A75 in Auvergne region in France, thanks to a network of 15 weather stations along the 300 km of motorway. In the highest area that is between 580 and 1100 m, the value of the relative humidity has been analysed in relation to the visibility measured by a diffusiometer and the observations of road maintenance staff. The main results will be presented and connected to the traditional synoptic network of Météo-France. In order to improve the map of fog risks, the requirement to have relevant data has been pointed out, especially for the relative humidity near the ground surface (i.e. 2 m above the ground). To go further in this investigation, one weather station, at the Col de la Fageole, has been identified as having the greatest occurrence of dense fog, i.e. less than 200 m. Then it has been decided to enrich the instrumentation at this observation point later on with a present weather sensor and with a camera. This paper will focus on the physical data of the weather station. It will be examined how the additional data of the new sensor, the meteorological visibility and the discrimination of the nature of precipitation will help to improve the analysis.

  2. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Caitlin

    2009-10-21

    In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

  3. Wireless Video System for Extra Vehicular Activity in the International Space Station and Space Shuttle Orbiter Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Yin C.; Boster, John; Hwu, Shian; Watson, John C.; deSilva, Kanishka; Piatek, Irene (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Wireless Video System (WVS) provides real-time video coverage of astronaut extra vehicular activities during International Space Station (ISS) assembly. The ISS wireless environment is unique due to the nature of the ISS structure and multiple RF interference sources. This paper describes how the system was developed to combat multipath, blockage, and interference using an automatic antenna switching system. Critical to system performance is the selection of receiver antenna installation locations determined using Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) techniques.

  4. 50 years return period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

    2014-08-01

    Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or on long-term applications with positive results. New standards like CENELEC EN 50341-1 (2012) take into account for the overhead line design characteristic loads, i.e. 50 years return period loads. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model as described in ISO 12494 annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a POT (Peak Over Threshold) method.

  5. Workgroup Report: Base Stations and Wireless Networks—Radiofrequency (RF) Exposures and Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Valberg, Peter A.; van Deventer, T. Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves—wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephonic systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephony and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

  6. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Information Series 02-2 Weather Data Compiled for

    E-print Network

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Virginia-2 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Weather Data Compiled for Blackstone, Virginia: 1949-2001 W.M. Tilson C. D. Teutsch W. B. Wilkinson III Southern Piedmont Agricultural Research and Extension Center Virginia Tech November 2002 This and other

  7. The Optimization Based Dynamic and Cyclic Working Strategies for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Base Stations and Wireless Energy Transfer Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating “bottleneck” sensor nodes is also developed in this paper. PMID:25785305

  8. The optimization based dynamic and cyclic working strategies for rechargeable wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating "bottleneck" sensor nodes is also developed in this paper. PMID:25785305

  9. One-Dimensional Coupled Ecosystem-Carbon Flux Model for the Simulation of Biogeochemical Parameters at Ocean Weather Station P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, S.; McClain, C.; Christian, J.; Wong, C. S.

    2000-01-01

    In this Technical Publication, we describe the model functionality and analyze its application to the seasonal and interannual variations of phytoplankton, nutrients, pCO2 and CO2 concentrations in the eastern subarctic Pacific at Ocean Weather Station P (OWSP, 50 deg. N 145 deg. W). We use a verified one-dimensional ecosystem model, coupled with newly incorporated carbon flux and carbon chemistry components, to simulate 22 years (1958-1980) of pCO2 and CO2 variability at Ocean Weather Station P (OWS P). This relatively long period of simulation verifies and extends the findings of previous studies using an explicit approach for the biological component and realistic coupling with the carbon flux dynamics. The slow currents and the horizontally homogeneous ocean in the subarctic Pacific make OWS P one of the best available candidates for modeling the chemistry of the upper ocean in one dimension. The chlorophyll and ocean currents composite for 1998 illustrates this premise. The chlorophyll concentration map was derived from SeaWiFS data and the currents are from an OGCM simulation (from R. Murtugudde).

  10. Evaluation of radar and automatic weather station data assimilation for a heavy rainfall event in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tuanjie; Kong, Fanyou; Chen, Xunlai; Lei, Hengchi; Hu, Zhaoxia

    2015-07-01

    To improve the accuracy of short-term (0-12 h) forecasts of severe weather in southern China, a real-time storm-scale forecasting system, the Hourly Assimilation and Prediction System (HAPS), has been implemented in Shenzhen, China. The forecasting system is characterized by combining the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) package. It is capable of assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity data from multiple Doppler radars as well as surface automatic weather station (AWS) data. Experiments are designed to evaluate the impacts of data assimilation on quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) by studying a heavy rainfall event in southern China. The forecasts from these experiments are verified against radar, surface, and precipitation observations. Comparison of echo structure and accumulated precipitation suggests that radar data assimilation is useful in improving the short-term forecast by capturing the location and orientation of the band of accumulated rainfall. The assimilation of radar data improves the short-term precipitation forecast skill by up to 9 hours by producing more convection. The slight but generally positive impact that surface AWS data has on the forecast of near-surface variables can last up to 6-9 hours. The assimilation of AWS observations alone has some benefit for improving the Fractions Skill Score (FSS) and bias scores; when radar data are assimilated, the additional AWS data may increase the degree of rainfall overprediction.

  11. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saremi Naeini, Mohammadali; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is one of the most important dynamic factors determining soil erodibility, because it affects the stability of soil aggregates and threshold velocities for particle detachment by wind. Soil moisture should, therefore, be included in wind erosion risk assessments. However, despite its importance, soil moisture content is often ignored in the analysis of wind data for wind erosion studies. The main reason most probably being the lack of soil moisture sensors in conventional climate stations. Soil moisture at a given point in time is determined by rain (e.g. rainfall amount, duration), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data, such as daily precipitation, hourly/sub hourly ambient air temperature and hourly/sub hourly relative humidity. This new method was used to identify periods of wet and dry soil moisture conditions of a time series from 20 weather stations in Denmark. The length of the time series varied between 8 to 37 years and depended on data availability at each station. To analyse if the proposed method is applicable for wind erosion studies, a Wilcoxon and t-test was used to analyse in total 360 different scenarios. Significant differences were found between the conventional and the proposed approach, which indicates that using wind data without the influence of soil moisture most likely lead to an overestimation of the wind erosion risk. It is, therefore, strongly recommended for wind erosion risk assessments to associate more importance to winds that occur during dry times of the year, by including soil moisture into the calculations.

  12. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach\\/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kabas; A. Leuprecht; C. Bichler; G. Kirchengast

    2010-01-01

    South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km ×

  13. A procedure for automated quality control and homogenization of historical daily temperature and precipitation data (APACH): part 1: quality control and application to the Argentine weather service stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Boulanger; J. Aizpuru; L. Leggieri; M. Marino

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes the quality-control component of an automatic procedure (APACH: A Procedure for Automated Quality\\u000a Control and Homogenization of Weather Station Data) developed to control quality and homogenize the historical daily temperature\\u000a and precipitation data from meteorological stations. The quality-control method is based on a set of decision-tree algorithms\\u000a analyzing separately precipitation and minimum and maximum temperature. All

  14. Spatio-temporal analyses of correlation between NOAA satellite RFE and weather stations' rainfall record in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyene, Ephrem Gebremariam; Meissner, Bernd

    The study analysed monthly satellite RFE (rainfall estimates) from NOAA (National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration) and monthly rainfall records (January 1996-December 2006) collected from weather stations by NMA (National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia). Can the RFE data be used reliably to analyse seasonal rainfall variability? After doing spatio-temporal analyses of the two datasets, a significant correlation during the important rainy seasons, summer and spring and a low correlation during winter was shown. In conclusion the RFE images can be used reliably for early warning systems in the country and to empower decision makers on the consequences caused by the changes in the magnitude, timing, duration, and frequency of rainfall deficits on different spatial and temporal scales.

  15. Nonfederal Automated Weather Stations and Networks in the United States in the United States and Canada: A Preliminary Survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Steven J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.

    1992-04-01

    Not all weather data are collected by federal agencies. Fueled by the need for more specific meteorological data in real or near-real time, the number of automated weather stations (AWSS) and AWS networks has expanded to the state and private sector over the past decade. This study employed a survey to determine the spatial extent and disposition of these nonfederal AWSs and AWS networks in the United States and Canada, the type of measurements taken, the operating procedures (i.e., maintenance and data-retrieval techniques), and the uses of the data (e.g., research, public service, agency needs). The rapid growth and expansion in the number of AWSs and networks can be viewed as a positive step toward expanding data available for meteorological research and service. As AWS networks continue to grow and expand in the United States and Canada, it is recommended that an AWS climatic database be established. With proper logistical coordination and the cooperation of network operators, development of such a database can become reality.

  16. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K\\/sub T\\/ for 248 national weather service stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel; S. D. Whitaker

    1980-01-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling

  17. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel; S. D. Whitaker

    1980-01-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling

  18. Teachers guide for building and operating weather satellite ground stations for high school science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. J.; Gotwald, T.

    1981-01-01

    A number of colleges and universities are operating APT direct readout stations. However, high school science teachers have often failed to realize the potential of meteorological satellites and their products as unique instructional tools. The ability to receive daily pictures from these satellites offers exciting opportunities for secondary school teachers and students to assemble the electronic hardware and to view real time pictures of Earth from outer space. The station and pictures can be used in the classroom to develop an approach to science teaching that could span many scientific disciplines and offer many opportunities for student research and participation in scientific processes. This can be accomplished with relatively small expenditures of funds for equipment. In most schools some of the equipment may already be available. Others can be constructed by teachers and/or students. Yet another source might be the purchase of used equipment from industry or through the government surplus channels. The information necessary for individuals unfamiliar with these systems to construct a direct readout for receiving real time APT photographs on a daily basis in the classroom is presented.

  19. Station Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Ertl

    2007-11-03

    This project will allow users to become acquainted with station models that are found on weather maps. Students will study the various atmospheric variables that are depicted on a station model and then practice on an interactive station model program. Part 1 - Being able to read and interpret weather maps is a very important skill in meteorology. One of the most basic skills of predicting the weather is being able to interpret a station model of a given location. A station model is a bundle of information that ...

  20. A Dozen Years of Temperature Observations at the Summit: Central Greenland Automatic Weather Stations 1987-99.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Steffen, Konrad; Box, Jason E.; Stearns, Charles R.

    2001-04-01

    On 4 May 1987, the first automatic weather station (AWS) near the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet began transmitting data. Air temperature records from this site, AWS Cathy, as well as nearby AWS at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project II (GISP2, now Summit) camp have been combined with Special Sensor Microwave Imager brightness temperature data to create a composite temperature history of the Greenland summit. This decadal-plus-length (4536 days) record covers the period from May 1987 to October 1999 and continues currently. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperature data from AWS Cathy (May 1987-May 1989), AWS GISP2 (June 1989-November 1996), and AWS Summit (May 1996 and continuing). Despite the 35-km distance between them, the AWS Cathy data have been converted to the equivalent basis of temperatures from the AWS GISP2 and AWS Summit locations. The now completed `Summit' temperature time series represents a unique record that documents a multiyear temperature recovery after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 and that initiates a baseline needed for climate change detection.

  1. Long-range wireless mesh network for weather monitoring in unfriendly geographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Ayala, Manuel; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Soto-Zarazúa, Genaro M; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Bazán Trujillo, Rey D; Porrás-Trejo, Rafael E

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a long-range wireless mesh network system is presented. It consists of three main parts: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Base Terminal Units (BTUs) and a Central Server (CS). The RTUs share a wireless network transmitting in the industrial, scientific and medical applications ISM band, which reaches up to 64 Km in a single point-to-point communication. A BTU controls the traffic within the network and has as its main task interconnecting it to a Ku-band satellite link using an embedded microcontroller-based gateway. Collected data is stored in a CS and presented to the final user in a numerical and a graphical form in a web portal. PMID:22164008

  2. Direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations. Addendum to the Insolation Data Manual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel

    1982-01-01

    Average monthly data are presented that depict the long-term geographic distribution of direct normal solar radiation in the US. Some terms are defined, the model for estimating hourly direct normal insolation is described, and its validation is discussed. Direct normal radiation is then tabulated for 235 National Weather Service Stations, given as monthly and annual averages in units of kJ\\/m(2)-day,

  3. Analysis of daily rainfall of the Sahelian weather-station Linguère (Senegal) - Trends and its impacts on the local population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strommer, Gabriel; Brandt, Martin; Diongue-Niang, Aida; Samimi, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    In the 20th century, the West African Sahel has been a hot-spot of climatic changes. After severe drought-events in the 1970s and 1980s which were followed by a significant drop in annual precipitation, rainfall seems to increase again during the past years. Most studies are based on monthly or yearly datasets. However, many processes and events which are important for the local population depending on rainfall are not related to monthly or annual precipitation but are related to intra-annual, often daily scales. During this study, interviews with farmers and herders were conducted in the Senegalese Sahel. The results show, that wet months with unsuitably distributed precipitation can cause more harm than bringing benefits - depending on the phenological stage of the plants. Agricultural crops for example need rainfall breaks. On the other hand, natural herbaceous vegetation tolerates longer wet periods. So, a wet season can still hide dry spells that alter crops and vegetation development. Based on the results of these interviews, this study developed two indexes, one for local farmers and one for herders separately, showing if the year was favorable for them or not. The indexes integrate the length of rainy seasons, intensity and frequency of rainfall events, breaks between events and also the previous year. This way, each year is assigned to one of 5 classes. Using daily rainfall data of the Linguère weather-station (from the Senegal Meteorological Service, ANACIM), trends of the indexes from 1945 to 2002 are detected and compared to results of the interviews. Statistically relating the indexes to yearly and monthly data demonstrates, how much information can be gathered by those datasets. Furthermore, changes in intensity and frequency are related with yearly and monthly sums showing relations between daily data and annual sums. For example, a high correlation (r=0.73) between the amount of rain days (> 1 mm) and the annual rainfall is observed in Linguère.

  4. Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser

    E-print Network

    Balser, Dana S.

    Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser #12;Weather Resources 1. Weather Stations 2. Weather Forecasts (NOAA/Maddalena) 3. Pyrgeometer 4. 86 GHz Tipping Radiometer 5. 12 GHz Interferometer #12;Weather Parameters 1 May 2004 to 1 March 2007 speedwindousInstantaneV :Hz)(12StationWeather e

  5. Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides Clay Creech Phil Barbour #12;HMSC Weather Station #12;Temp-Humidity Sensor at Library #12;http://weather.hmsc.oregonstate.edu #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Archived Data is Available every 15 mins. #12;#12;A pyranometer measures solar radiation #12;#12;National Weather Service

  6. Weather Station Emergency Instructions

    E-print Network

    de Leon, Alex R.

    .ca/emergencyplan/node/28 Last Updated: 9-Jan-14 Primary Assembly Point: Physical Plant - Room 100 Alternative Assembly the building and proceed to the Assembly Point If you have information regarding the emergency call Campus using a different line if possible Utilize call trace if on cell-phone or off-campus phone (key *69

  7. Performance approximation of a multi-base station slotted ALOHA for wireless LAN's

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sakakibara

    1992-01-01

    Abstract: It has been reported that the capture effect can improve performance of slotted ALOHA systems. We can expect further improvement by increasing the number of base stations. The performance of such slotted ALOHA systems with multiple base stations is analyzed with the aid of the equilibrium point analysis. Not only the capture effect but also the packet dropping due

  8. Multiple-Objective Metric for Placing Multiple Base Stations in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    networks affects the coverage of sensor nodes, the tolerance against faults or attacks, the energy of sensor nodes after the failure of base stations represents the fault tolerance of a network. Third of a network. Fourth, the standard deviation of the degree of base stations represents the average delay

  9. OpenWeather: a peer-to-peer weather data transmission protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Yanes

    2011-01-01

    The study of the weather is performed using instruments termed weather stations. These weather stations are distributed around the world, collecting the data from the different phenomena. Several weather organizations have been deploying thousands of these instruments, creating big networks to collect weather data. These instruments are collecting the weather data and delivering it for later processing in the collections

  10. Rendezvous Design Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks with a Mobile Base Station

    E-print Network

    of such WSNs is the signifi- cantly increased latency in data collection due to the low movement speed--wireless communication; F.2.2 [Analysis of Algorithms and Problem Complexity]: Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems--Routing networks (WSNs) that must operate for an extended period of time on limited power supplies

  11. Data Transmission and Base-Station Placement for Optimizing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    in digital communication have enabled the creation of large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [3, 36]. WSNs have a vast number of applications, including mili- tary surveillance and tracking, environmental monitoring, human-centric applications and robotics (see, e.g., the survey of Arampatzis et al. [4]). A WSN

  12. Linking the Annual Variation of Snow Radar-derived Accumulation in West Antarctica to Long-term Automatic Weather Station Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, B.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P.; Paden, J. D.; Leuschen, C.; Purdon, K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the snow accumulation rate on polar ice sheets is important in assessing mass balance and ice sheet contribution to sea level rise. Measuring annual accumulation on a regional scale and extending back in time several decades has been accomplished using the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Snow Radar on the NASA DC-8 that is part of NASA's Ice-Bridge project. The Snow Radar detects and maps near-surface internal layers in polar firn, operating from 2- 6 GHz and providing a depth resolution of ~4 cm. During November 2011, Snow Radar data were obtained for large areas of West Antarctica, including a flight segment that passed within ~70 km of Byrd Station (80°S, 119°W). Byrd Station has a very long automatic weather station (AWS) record, extending from present to 1980, with 3 relatively brief gaps in the record. The AWS data for Byrd Station were obtained from the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC) at the University of Wisconsin. The L1B Snow Radar data products, available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), were analyzed using layer picking software to obtain the depth of reflectors in the firn that are detected by the radar. These reflectors correspond to annual markers in the firn, and allow annual accumulation to be determined. Using the distance between the reflectors and available density profiles from ice cores, water equivalent accumulation for each annual layer back to 1980 is obtained. We are analyzing spatial variations of accumulation along flight lines, as well as variations in the time series of annual accumulation. We are also analyzing links between annual accumulation and surface weather observations from the Byrd Station AWS. Our analyses of surface weather observations have focused on annual temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind extremes (e.g. 5th and 95th percentiles) and links to annual snow accumulation. We are also examining satellite-derived sea ice extent records for the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas sector (60°W-120°W) over the same 31-year time period and comparing results to annual snow accumulation. Results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

  13. 78 FR 6344 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ...communications base stations and components thereof. The complaint names as respondents Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson of Sweden and Ericsson Inc. of Plano, TX. Proposed respondents, other interested parties, and members of the public are...

  14. On Deployment of Multiple Base Stations for Energy-Efficient Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Yunyue; Wu, Qishi; Cai, Xiaoshan; Du, Xiaojiang; Kwon, Ki-Hyeon

    2010-01-01

    Data transmission from sensor nodes to a base station or a sink node often incurs significant energy consumption, which critically affects network lifetime. We generalize and solve the problem of deploying multiple base stations to maximize network lifetime in terms of two different metrics under one-hop and multihop communication models. In the one-hop communication model, the sensors far away from base stations always deplete their energy much faster than others. We propose an optimal solution and a heuristic approach based on the minimal enclosing circle algorithm to deploy a base station at the geometric center of each cluster. In themore »multihop communication model, both base station location and data routing mechanism need to be considered in maximizing network lifetime. We propose an iterative algorithm based on rigorous mathematical derivations and use linear programming to compute the optimal routing paths for data transmission. Simulation results show the distinguished performance of the proposed deployment algorithms in maximizing network lifetime.« less

  15. 50-year return-period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

    2014-11-01

    Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or long-term applications with positive results. New standard like CENELEC EN 580341-1 (2012) take into account characteristic loads, i.e. 50-year return-period loads, for the overhead line design. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model, as described in ISO 12494 standard (2001), annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a peak-over-threshold (POT) method. A practical method to determine the 90% confidence intervals of those characteristic values is given. As it is demonstrated that there is only one value of the ice class (IC) masses proposed by ISO 12494 in each confidence interval, characteristic loads can be easily expressed in terms of ICs. That method shows that ICs ranging from R1 (0.5 kg m-1) to R5 (5 kg m-1) could be used for overhead line design in France.

  16. Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

  17. Weather Maps in Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charles Burrows

    In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

  18. Near field in the vicinity of wireless base-station antennas: an exposure compliance approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastián Blanch; Jordi Romeu; Angel Cardama

    2002-01-01

    Great social concern has risen about the potential health hazard of living near a cellular telephony base-station antenna, and certain technical questions have been posed on the appropriate way to measure exposure in its vicinity. In this paper, a standard spherical near-near field transformation is proposed to obtain the electromagnetic field close to the antenna in free space conditions. The

  19. Optimal Base-Station Locations in Two-Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    surveys, WSNs have some unparalleled features: quick on-demand (re)deployment and virtually free (WSNs) consisting of sensor clusters deployed around strategic locations, and base-stations (BSs) whose constitute the upper tier of two-tiered WSNs. Since heterogeneous ANs are battery-powered and energy

  20. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

    2010-12-01

    South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which MapServer is used to import spatial data by its database interface and to generate images of static geographic formats. However, a Java applet is additionally needed to display these images on the users local host. Furthermore, station data are visualized as time series by the scripting language PHP. Since February 2010, the visualization of gridded data products is a first step to a new data portal based on OpenLayers. In this GIS framework, all geographic information (e.g., OpenStreetMap) is displayed with MapServer. Furthermore, the visualization of all meteorological parameters are generated on the fly by a Python CGI script and transparently overlayed on the maps. Hence, station data and gridded data are visualized and further prepared for download in common data formats (csv, NetCDF). In conclusion, measured data and generated data products are provided with a data latency less than 1-2 hours in standard operation (near real time). Following an introduction of the processing system along the lines above, resulting data products are presented online at the WegenerNet data portal.

  1. A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Szymanski

    2008-01-01

    A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations\\u000a (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP,\\u000a IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a

  2. Towards a new surrogate-based non-Gaussian non-Markovian multi-station weather generator using self organising maps for weather classification applied to daily rain sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, T.; Venema, V.

    2009-04-01

    We are developing a new multi-station weather generator, i.e. an algorithm that generates time series for a number of climate stations in a region conditioned on the large-scale circulation. The algorithm is based on the so-called surrogate data approach. It is very similar to the Iterative Amplitude Adjusted Fourier Transform (IAAFT) algorithm used to generate surrogate data. Surrogate data is synthetic data with the distribution of values and the power spectrum of an example data set. The algorithm can thus work with any distribution and power spectrum. As the power spectrum is equivalent to the auto-correlation function (ACF) any temporal auto-correlation can be specified. If desired the ACF can also be approximated by a power law or an exponential law. We have adapted the algorithm such that the distribution can be different for different categories. In this way we can specify the distributions belonging to the large-scale circulations patterns (Großwetterlagen). Furthermore, a modification was made to improve the reproduction of the cross correlations between the stations. The large-scale circulation patterns were classified using so-called Self Organising Maps (SOM). Since no assumptions regarding the underlying data are required, SOMs present an objective unsupervised clustering method which is able to map any arbitrary linear or non-linear data distribution. Unlike common approaches the atmospheric states are clustered to get a preferable high number of unique precipitation probability density functions at each station. The cost function was redefined so that the precipitation distributions were as different as possible. We optimized the input domain and the number of categories using a simulated annealing algorithm. The approach was tested on 30 years of data from a network of 8 stations with daily precipitation sums in the Rhineland region. In a first test, we have generated a surrogate network of 30 years based on 30 years of data. In this way we can study the reconstruction of the network under optimal conditions. Later the algorithm will be trained, applied and validated using disjoint consecutive data. The temporal variability of the average precipitation is well described by this approach. Distributions of the daily rain sums are reconstructed exactly. Admittedly, the average length of dry spells are slightly underestimated. The cross correlation matrix was reproduced with deviations of a few percent.

  3. A processing-modeling routine to use rough data from automatic weather stations in snowpack mass dynamics modeling at fine temporal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Jommi, Cristina; Pepe, Monica

    2015-04-01

    We discuss a proposal of coupled routine to process rough data from automatic weather stations at an hourly resolution and to model snowpack mass dynamics. Seasonal snow represents an important component of the water cycle in mountain environment, and the modeling of its mass dynamics is a living topic in modern hydrology, given the expected modifications of the climate in the near future. Nevertheless, model forcing, calibration and evaluation operations are often hampered by the noisiness of rough data from automatic weather stations. The noise issue include, among others, non-physical temperature-based fluctuations of the signal or gauge under-catch. Consequently, it can be difficult to quantify precipitation inputs, accumulation/ablation periods or melt-runoff timing and amounts. This problem is particularly relevant at fine temporal resolution (e.g., the hourly one). To tackle this issue, 40 SNOTEL sites from western US are here considered, and the proposed processing-modeling routine is applied on multi-year datasets to assess its performances to both process hourly data and model snowpack dynamics. A simple one-layer snowpack model is used for this purpose. Specific attention is paid to remove sub-daily erroneous oscillations of snow depth. Under these assumptions, we can separate events of different types and recover catch deficiency by means of a data-fusion procedure that relies on the mass conservation law, instead of site- or instrument-specific relations. Since the considered model needs the calibration of two parameters, and given that sub-daily physical oscillations in snow depth data are difficult to be separated from instrument noise, a coupled processing-modeling procedure has been designed. Results prove that noise can be successfully removed from data, and that sub-daily data-series can be exploited as useful sources to model snowpack dynamics.

  4. Monitoring ice-capped active Vol?an Villarrica, southern Chile, using terrestrial photography combined with automatic weather stations and global positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Andrés; Corripio, Javier G.; Brock, Ben; Clavero, Jorge; Wendt, Jens

    Volcán Villarrica (39°25?12?S, 71°56?27?W; 2847 m a.s.l.) is an active ice-capped volcano located in the Chilean lake district. The surface energy balance and glacier frontal variations have been monitored for several years, using automatic weather stations and satellite imagery. In recent field campaigns, surface topography was measured using Javad GPS receivers. Daily changes in snow-, ice- and tephra-covered areas were recorded using an automatic digital camera installed on a rock outcrop. In spite of frequently damaging weather conditions, two series of consecutive images were obtained, in 2006 and 2007. These photographs were georeferenced to a resampled 90 m pixel size SRTM digital elevation model and the reflectance values normalized according to several geometric and atmospheric parameters. The resulting daily maps of surface albedo are used as input to a distributed glacier-melt model during a 12 day mid-summer period. The spatial pattern of cumulative melt is complex and controlled by the distribution of airfall and wind-blown tephra, with extremely high melt rates occurring downwind of the crater and exposed ash banks. The camera images are also used to visualize the pattern of glacier crevassing. The results demonstrate the value of terrestrial photography in understanding the energy and mass balance of the glacier, including the generation of meltwater, and the potential value of the technique for monitoring volcanic activity and potential hazards associated with ice-volcano interactions during eruptive activity.

  5. Composite Temperature Record from the Greenland Summit, 1987-1994: Synthesis of Multiple Automatic Weather Station Records and SSM/I Brightness Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, C. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Bindschadler, R. A.; Alley, R. B.; Stearns, C. R.

    1996-06-01

    Air temperature (TA) records from automatic weather stations (AWS) in central Greenland and associated Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature (TB) data (37 GHz, vertical polarization) have been used to create a composite, daily, monthly, and annual average temperature record of the Greenland summit for the period 1987-1994. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperatures from a single station; AWS Cathy (May 1987 to May 1989), which was moved 28 km and became AWS Kenton (starting in June 1989 and continuing). The Cathy daily average TA record has been converted to the equivalent basis of Kenton by a technique based on the ratio of the contemporaneous daily average TB data from the two locations. The accuracy of this technique has been statistically tested using 16 months of contemporaneous TA and TB data from the GISP2 and Kenton AWS. The resulting composite temperature record provides a multiyear dataset for comparison to other climate records from the Greenland summit.

  6. Wireless environmental data acquisition for the international space station (for mission flights 3A, 4A, 5A and 7A.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Karl; Champaigne, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Invocon, Inc. has developed a next generation data acquisition and communications network to be deployed in, on, and around space structures under construction. This Wireless Instrumentation System (WIS) is a highly integrated remote data acquisition system for use in a wide variety of distributed sensor applications. Typical applications include modal analysis, condition-based maintenance, structural monitoring and manufacturing process control. Designed for NASA Johnson Space Center, the system will monitor critical temperatures during the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS), and verify structural dynamics models for the ISS on-orbit. Similar units are used on Navy aircraft for flight testing data acquisition. The relaying network is automatically configured by the imbedded system software, which provides for simple installation and consistent operation in almost any environment. The ability to relocate the data acquisition electronics near the sensors decreases setup costs and reduces ``noise'' induced on analog signals by long wires. The first WIS hardware items flew as a Risk Mitigation Experiment on STS-83 in November of 1996 and STS-94 in July of 1997. The next phase of WIS involves development of the IWIS or Internal Wireless Instrumentation System and the SWIS or Shuttle Wireless Instrumentation System. IWIS, the internal system, will be deployed by the astronauts inside the partially completed ISS to collect data on the impulse response of the structure. The Shuttle-based system (SWIS) will provide units installed on the outside of the Station modules prior to launch. As the ISS modules are removed from the Cargo Bay and transferred to the assembly point on the Station, the SWIS data gathering units will transfer sensor data from the ISS module to the Crew Compartment of the Shuttle where the data will be down-linked to Mission Control for use by the flight controllers.

  7. Comparison of hourly solar radiation from ground-based station, remote sensing sensors and weather forecast models: A preliminary study, in a coastal site of South Italy (Lamezia Terme).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Feudo, Teresa; Avolio, Elenio; Gullì, Daniel; Federico, Stefano; Sempreviva, Annamaria; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta

    2015-04-01

    The solar radiation is a very complex parameter to cope with due to its random and nonlinear characteristics depending on changeable weather conditions and complex orography. Therefore it is a critical input parameter to address many climatic, meteorological, and solar energy issues. In this preliminary study we made an intercomparison between the hourly solar MSG SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared) data product DSSF(Down-welling Surface Short-wave Flux) developed by LSA SAF( Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility), a pyranometer sensor (CNR 4 Net Radiometer - Kipp&Zonen) and two weather forecast models. The solar radiation datasets were obtained from a pyranometer sensor situated in Weather Station of CNR ISAC Lamezia Terme(38,88 LAT 16,24 LON), a satellite based product DSSF with spatial resolution of 3km and outputs of two weather forecast models. Models adopted are WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting) and Rams( Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)running operatively with a 3Km horizontal resolution. Both DSSF and model outputs are extracted at Latitude and Longitude previously defined. The solar radiation performance and accuracy are evaluated for datasets segmented into two atmospheric conditions clear and cloudy sky, and both conditions, additionally, for a quantitative analysis the exact acquisition times of satellite measurements was taken into account. The RMSE and BIAS for hourly, daily and monthly - averaged solar radiation are estimated including clear and sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Comparison between DSSF product, Solar Radiation ground based pyranometer measurements and output of two weather forecast models, made over the period June2013-December2013, showed a good agreement in this costal site and we demonstrated that the forecast models generally overestimate solar radiation respect the ground based sensor and DSSF product. As results in general the RMSE monthly-averaged are calculated for datasets DFFs vs ground-based station and vs weather forecast models are respectively about 75W/m2 and 100W/m^2.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind direction indicated the model error increased with the forecast period all four parameters. The hypothesis testing uses statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis is true. The goal of using the hypothesis test was to determine if the model bias of any of the parameters assessed throughout the model forecast period was statistically zero. For th is dataset, if this test produced a value >= -1 .96 or <= 1.96 for a data point, then the bias at that point was effectively zero and the model forecast for that point was considered to have no error. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed so the 45 WS would have an operational tool at their disposal that would be easy to navigate among the multiple stratifications of information to include tower locations, month, model initialization times, sensor heights and onshore/offshore flow. The AMU developed the GUI using HyperText Markup Language (HTML) so the tool could be used in most popular web browsers with computers running different operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and Linux.

  9. Weather impacts on space operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Madura; B. Boyd; W. Bauman; N. Wyse; M. Adams

    1992-01-01

    The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology

  10. Satellite Weather Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, R. Joe

    1982-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive (about $1,500) direct-readout ground station for use in secondary school science/mathematics programs. Includes suggested activities including, among others, developing map overlays, operating station equipment, interpreting satellite data, developing weather forecasts, and using microcomputers for data storage, orbit…

  11. Data Transmission and Base-Station Placement for Optimizing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor NetworksI

    E-print Network

    Ramasubramanian, Srinivasan

    of large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [2, 3]. WSNs have a vast number of applications, including military surveillance and tracking, environmental monitoring, human-centric applications and robotics (see

  12. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  13. A study of indoor propagation: Theory and results of the wireless communication system for the Space Station Freedom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Tobin; James E. Richie

    1993-01-01

    The experimental methods used to collect the propagation data from the Space Station Freedom are discussed. For the space station modules considered it can be seen that, when the units have a large number of random scatterers, the fields tend to follow a Rayleigh distribution when the transmitter is stationary and the receiver moves throughout the volume. If both transmitter

  14. Lessons Learned JSC Micro-Wireless Instrumentation Systems on Space Shuttle and International Space Station CANEUS 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on lessons learned from NASA Johnson Space Center's micro-wireless instrumentation is shown. The topics include: 1) Background, Rationale and Vision; 2) NASA JSC/Structural Engineering Approach & History; 3) Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System; 4) WLEIDS Confidence and Micro-WIS Lessons Learned; and 5) Current Projects and Recommendations.

  15. Geography & Weather. Weather Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Levine, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 35 activities that center around television and newspaper weather reports. Geography, weather, and other disciplines are included as well as various grade levels. Available resource materials are listed and their uses explained. Parent, administrator, and other faculty member involvement is emphasized. (KR)

  16. Managing base station location privacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Gorlatova; Roberto Aiello; Stefan Mangold

    2011-01-01

    Many of today's location services map locations of wireless base stations and use them to localize mobile devices. Severe security and privacy risks exist when unauthorized third-party location services are able to localize mobile devices. In this work we examine a software module that helps network operators to prevent third parties from aggregating wireless base station identifiers by making the

  17. Weathering and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

  18. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is designed to give students an understanding of how to forecast weather and how to use weather reports for their personal benefit. They will be able to tell what weather is, read weather instruments, understand basic cloud formations in relation to the weather, and make forecasts for two days in advance.

  19. Spatial extent of winter thaw events in eastern North America: historical weather records in relation to yellow birch decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES P.-A. B OURQUE; R O G E R M. C O Xw; ARREN J. A LLEN; A. A RP; N-RUI M ENG

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm (Weather Reader) was developed and used to analyze daily weather records from all existing Canadian and American weather stations of eastern North America (in excess of 2100 stations), from 1930 through 2000. Specifically, the Weather Reader was used to compile daily minimum, mean, and maximum air temperatures for weather stations with at least 30 years of data, and

  20. 47 CFR 1.911 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application...legal, and administrative data relating to each station in the Wireless Radio Services are maintained by the Commission in...

  1. 47 CFR 1.911 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application...legal, and administrative data relating to each station in the Wireless Radio Services are maintained by the Commission in...

  2. 47 CFR 1.911 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application...legal, and administrative data relating to each station in the Wireless Radio Services are maintained by the Commission in...

  3. 47 CFR 1.911 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application...legal, and administrative data relating to each station in the Wireless Radio Services are maintained by the Commission in...

  4. 47 CFR 1.911 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application...legal, and administrative data relating to each station in the Wireless Radio Services are maintained by the Commission in...

  5. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  6. Weather Vane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fresno Community Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this meteorology activity, learners build weather vanes using straws, paperclips, and cardstock. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes are used to understand and predict weather.

  7. Reviews Book: Marie Curie and Her Daughters Resource: Cumulus Equipment: Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Equipment: 3D Magnetic Tube Equipment: National Grid Transmission Model Book: Einstein's Physics Equipment: Barton's Pendulums Equipment: Weather Station Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Marie Curie and Her Daughters An insightful study of a resilient and ingenious family and their achievements Cumulus Simple to install and operate and with obvious teaching applications, this weather station 'donationware' is as easy to recommend as it is to use Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Good design and construction make for good results National Grid Transmission Model Despite its expense, this resource offers excellent value Einstein's Physics A vivid, accurate, compelling and rigorous treatment, but requiring an investment of time and thought WORTH A LOOK 3D Magnetic Tube Magnetic fields in three dimensions at a low cost Barton's Pendulums A neat, well-made and handy variant, but not a replacement for the more traditional version Weather Station Though not as robust or substantial as hoped for, this can be put to good use with the right software WEB WATCH An online experiment and worksheet are useful for teaching motor efficiency, a glance at CERN, and NASA's interesting information on the alpha-magnetic spectrometer and climate change

  8. New weather forecasting aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new, computerized weather analysis and display system developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is being used to provide air traffic controllers in Colorado with up-to-date information on weather systems that could affect aircraft within their control areas. The system, called PROFS (Prototype Regional Observing and Forecasting Services), was under development for four years at NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories in Boulder, and is undergoing operational evaluation at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in Longmont, Colo. FAA officials see the new system as a first step in upgrading the weather support services for the nation's air traffic control system. Originally created to help National Weather Service personnel with their forecasting duties (Eos, April 13, 1982, p. 233), the PROFS system was specially tailored for aviation use before being installed at the Longmont center. The system uses computers to process weather data from satellites, regional radar, wind profilers, a network of automated weather stations in eastern Colorado, and other sources, some of which are not normally available to forecasters. When this information is collected and formatted, weather personnel at the center can choose from several types of visual display on their terminals, depending on what information they require. The forecasters can then make printed copies of any display and distribute them within moments to controllers who use the information to alert air traffic to storms, wind shifts, and other weather disturbances.

  9. Regional chemical weather forecasting system CFORS: Model descriptions and analysis of surface observations at Japanese island stations during the ACE-Asia experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Uno; G. R. Carmichael; D. G. Streets; Y. Tang; J. J. Yienger; S. Satake; Z. Wang; Jung-Hun Woo; S. Guttikunda; M. Uematsu; K. Matsumoto; H. Tanimoto; K. Yoshioka; T. Iida

    2003-01-01

    The Chemical Weather Forecast System (CFORS) is designed to aid in the design of field experiments and in the interpretation\\/postanalysis of observed data. The system integrates a regional chemical transport model with a multitracer, online system built within the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. CFORS was deployed in forecast and postanalysis modes during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment

  10. UM Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

  11. Severe Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-04-01

    Meteorologists disagree as to what constitutes severe weather. However, most concur that thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, all considered to be "convective" weather, fit the definition of severe weather, which is a weather condition likely to cause hardship. This science guide will explore each of the three weather phenomena. By virtue of their locations, most students are familiar with at least one of the three severe weather events. Students who tour the web sites will have an opportunity to make connections between the familiar and the perhaps less understood weather events.

  12. BBC Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, the BBC offers an array of materials dealing with weather. Meteorologists can discover employment opportunities. Individuals with spectacular photographs of weather phenomenon can submit their images to the photo gallery. Students and educators can find introductory materials on basic weather concepts, forecasting, extreme events, and broadcasting the weather. The website offers fun weather-related games and projects, a meteorology glossary, and links to other educational websites.

  13. A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, T. H.

    A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP, IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a fixed transmission rate. A protocol such as IntServ is used to provision resources along an end-to-end path of BSs for GR sessions. The Guaranteed Rates between the BSs are then specified in a doubly stochastic traffic rate matrix, which is recursively decomposed to yield a low-jitter GR frame transmission schedule. In the resulting schedule, the end-to-end delay and jitter are small and bounded, and the cell loss rate due to primary scheduling conflicts is zero. For dual-channel WMNs, the MAC protocol can achieve 100% utilization, as well as near-minimal queueing delays and near minimal delay jitter. The scheduling time complexity is O(NFlogNF), where N is the number of BSs. Extensive simulation results are presented.

  14. 75 FR 9113 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ...Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz Band...Petition for Rulemaking Regarding Low Power Auxiliary Stations, Including Wireless Microphones...Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations (Wireless Microphones)....

  15. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D. (Menan, ID); Schmitt, Michael J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Warren F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  16. Achieving Fairness in Wireless LANs by Enhanced

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagesh S. P. Nandiraju; Hrishikesh Gossain; Dave Cavalcanti; Kaushik R. Chowdhury; Dharma P. Agrawal

    Abstract—Over the past few years, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have gained an increased attention and a large number of WLANs are being deployed in universities, companies, airports etc. Majority of the IEEE 802.11 based WLANs employ Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) in Wireless Access Points (AP) to arbitrate the wireless channel among Wireless Stations (STAs). However, DCF poses serious unfairness

  17. Weather Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This printable weather report is designed to help students easily note a field site's important meteorological details. The one-page PDF form asks for the following information: date, temperature, precipitation, weather type, and wind speed (based on environmental clues).

  18. Winter Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  19. Weather Talk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weather Talk is a primer on weather and naval meteorology. It provides a brief overview of major weather elements and is presented in a non-mathematical way, so that the reader will have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of weather and use it to their advantage and safety in planning and carrying out their own activities. The site explains temperature, wind, pressure, atmospheric moisture, air masses and fronts, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and climatology.

  20. An access point selection algorithm for heterogeneous stations

    E-print Network

    Fujiwara, Akihiro

    . The wireless LAN environment consists of access points (APs) and stations, and each station selects an available AP in order to connect to the Internet without any central- ized control. For the wireless LAN wireless network. Therefore, various centralized and decentralized AP selection algorithms[1, 2, 4, 6] have

  1. World Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elias, Jaume Sanchez

    2014-02-20

    What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

  2. Weather Watcher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Singer, Mike

    As spring progresses, weather conditions can continue to fluctuate dramatically, something that may foil vacation plans or other outings. Keeping that in mind, visitors may do well to download the Weather Watcher application created by Mike Singer. With this application, users may automatically retrieve the current weather conditions, look through hourly forecasts, keep abreast of severe weather alerts, and take a look at weather maps for almost any city world-wide. This application is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and above.

  3. New weather radar coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

  4. AN URBAN WEATHER GENERATOR COUPLING BUILDING SIMULATIONS WITH A PHYSICALLY BASED URBAN MODEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Bueno Unzeta; Leslie K. Norford; Rex Britter

    Building simulation programs predict the thermal performance of buildings under certain weather conditions. Weather information is usually taken from an available weather data file obtained from the closest meteorological station. However, the differences between the local urban climate and the conditions at the closest meteorological station can lead to inaccurate building simulation results. This paper presents an Urban Weather Generator

  5. Weather Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

  6. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

  7. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-09-01

    Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

  8. Activities of NICT space weather project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken T. Murata; Tsutomu Nagatsuma; Shinichi Watari; Hiroyuki Shinagawa; Mamoru Ishii

    2010-01-01

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place

  9. Planetary Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  10. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit developed a forecast tool that provides an assessment of the likelihood of local convective severe weather for the day in order to enhance protection of personnel and material assets of the 45th Space Wing Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  11. Interannual variability of Martian weather

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Leovy; J. E. Tillman; W. R. Guest; J. Barnes

    1985-01-01

    Pressure, temperature, imaging, and wind data from the Mutch Memorial Station, the Viking lander located in Mars' subtropics, are used to demonstrate the existence of two disctinct regimes of northern hemisphere winter weather on Mars. One of these regime is characterized by one or more intense global dust storms in which the optical depth reaches about 5 over most of

  12. Weather Tools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes. Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature.

  13. Gravestone Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leanne Wiberg

    2000-01-01

    In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

  14. Exploring Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2010-01-29

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

  15. Weather Creator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KShumway

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

  16. Sensor and Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Drozda

    Sensor and ad hoc wireless networks lack a fixed infras- tructure in the form of wireline, or base stations to support the communication. Instead, any participating wireless de - vice can act as a router, when a direct communication is not possible. Sensor and ad hoc wireless networks is an area of very active research. In this tutorial we discuss

  17. The Role of "Citizen Science" in Weather and Climate Research

    E-print Network

    The Role of "Citizen Science" in Weather and Climate Research Presented at PPSR 2012 August 4, 2012 50 years of weather records Early Traditions in Citizen Science #12;Benjamin Franklin #12;Joseph stations to help document Climate resources of the country And provide science-based weather forecasts

  18. MAC Layer -WiFi Case Study IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Andrew T.

    · Wireless host communicates with base station ­ base station = access point (AP) · Basic Service Set (BSS) (aka "cell") in infrastructure mode contains: ­ wireless hosts ­ access point (AP): base station ­ ad Addressing Address 2: MAC address of wireless host or AP transmitting this frame Address 1: MAC address

  19. Integrated All-silicon Thin-film Power Electronics on Flexible Sheets For Ubiquitous Wireless Charging Stations based on Solar-energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    from the solar modules to AC power for wireless device charging through patterned capacitive antennas. With 0.5-2nF transfer antennas and solar modules of 100cm2 , the system provides 47-120W of power at 11 powered by the solar modules (S1/2). Each module consists of solar cells in series and operates

  20. Use of NWS Weather Measurements for Cross-checking Local Weather Measurements

    E-print Network

    Crowley, G. D.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of an independent network of remote weather stations for building energy analysis to assist agencies participating in the Texas LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program. A review of the sensors and procedures...

  1. Astrophysics Noise: A Space Weather Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Sibeck, David G.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Robertson, Ina P.; Omidi, Nick

    2010-06-01

    Imagine the accuracy of terrestrial weather forecasts if society relied on only a handful of isolated weather stations to supply all the input to meteorological models. Yet that is precisely the daunting situation faced by space weather forecasters, who seek to predict when and how ejections of plasma from the Sun will interact with the Earth's magnetosphere. These interactions can damage spacecraft electronics, produce spurious global positioning and navigation readings, interfere with radio communications, and disrupt electrical power line grids on the ground. Though modern society increasingly relies on satellite technology and electrical conveniences, only a handful of operating heliophysics missions supply the bulk of space weather model inputs.

  2. The Weather Doctor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heidorn, Keith C.

    Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

  3. Weather and Climate Monitoring Protocol, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Kathryn; Power, Paula; Dye, Linda; Rudolph, Rocky

    2008-01-01

    Weather and climate are strong drivers of population dynamics, plant and animal spatial distributions, community interactions, and ecosystem states. Information on local weather and climate is crucial in interpreting trends and patterns in the natural environment for resource management, research, and visitor enjoyment. This document describes the weather and climate monitoring program at the Channel Islands National Park (fig. 1), initiated in the 1990s. Manual and automated stations, which continue to evolve as technology changes, are being used for this program. The document reviews the history of weather data collection on each of the five Channel Islands National Park islands, presents program administrative structure, and provides an overview of procedures for data collection, archival, retrieval, and reporting. This program overview is accompanied by the 'Channel Islands National Park Remote Automated Weather Station Field Handbook' and the 'Channel Islands National Park Ranger Weather Station Field Handbook'. These Handbooks are maintained separately at the Channel Island National Park as 'live documents' that are updated as needed to provide a current working manual of weather and climate monitoring procedures. They are available on request from the Weather Program Manager (Channel Islands National Park, 1901 Spinnaker Dr., Ventura, CA 93001; 805.658.5700). The two Field Handbooks describe in detail protocols for managing the four remote automated weather stations (RAWS) and the seven manual Ranger Weather Stations on the islands, including standard operating procedures for equipment maintenance and calibration; manufacturer operating manuals; data retrieval and archiving; metada collection and archival; and local, agency, and vendor contracts.

  4. Creating an Atmosphere for STEM Literacy in the Rural South through Student-Collected Weather Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lynn; Majumdar, Saswati; Bhattacharjee, Joydeep; Hanks, Anne Case

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an examination of a teacher professional development program in northeast Louisiana, that provided 30 teachers and their students with the technology, skills, and content knowledge to collect data and explore weather trends. Data were collected from both continuous monitoring weather stations and simple school-based weather stations

  5. Wild Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  6. Unisys Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Unisys weather website offers a host of weather analyses and forecasts. In the Analyses link, visitors can find satellite images as well as surface, upper air, and radar images. Visitors can learn the intricacies of Unisys's many forecast models such as the Nested Grid Model (NGM), Aviation Model, and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) Model. Users can find archived hurricane data for the Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific, and the Western Pacific. The site also furnishes archived surface maps, infrared satellite images, upper air charts, and sea surface temperature (SST) plots.

  7. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students will learn how to interpret weather patterns from satellite images, predict storm paths and forecast the weather for their area. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  8. Weather One

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    From the University of Illinois Extension comes the Weather One instructional Web site for kids. The lesson consists of six pages that cover various weather related topics including seasons, clouds, the atmosphere, wind, global warming, and storms. Each page describes the particular subject, provides related photographs, and contains several activities that reinforce the learning. For example, the clouds page shows how kids can make a cloud and create a collage out of simple material found around the house. The effective organization and clean look of the site will surely make it easy for students to follow and enjoy.

  9. Wonderful Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Broadhead

    2007-11-06

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday November 6th: Look at the five-day forecast for Logan Utah at Five Day Forecast in Utah. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make a bar graph for the ...

  10. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

  11. Wireless, automated monitoring for potential landslide hazards 

    E-print Network

    Garich, Evan Andrew

    2007-09-17

    to withstand extreme weather related conditions. The wireless, solar-powered soil moisture and tilt sensor node was installed on the Texas A&M University campus, allowing evaluation of system reliability and instrument durability. Lastly, potential future...

  12. Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/~lenny/WeatherRisk

  13. Superconducting microwave filter systems for cellular telephone base stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RANDY W. SIMON; ROBERT B. HAMMOND; STUART J. BERKOWITZ; BALAM A. WILLEMSEN

    2004-01-01

    In the second decade following the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), wireless communications has emerged as the earliest large commercial market. The enormous growth of the wireless industry coupled with its increasing technology demands has created a significant opportunity for HTS technology in wireless base stations. These systems combine high-performance HTS RF filters with cryocooled semiconductor preamplifiers to offer enhanced

  14. Today's Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

  15. Weather Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students discuss the characteristics of storms, including the relationship of weather fronts and storms. Using everyday materials, they develop models of basic lightning detection systems (similar to a Benjamin Franklin design) and analyze their models to determine their effectiveness as community storm warning systems.

  16. SECURING WIRELESS SECURING WIRELESS

    E-print Network

    such as an office building or building complex. Since they transmit data through radio frequencies, wireless function within the range of the wireless network, usually limited to an area such as an office building or building complex. Since they transmit data through radio frequencies, wireless networks are open

  17. Parameterisation of a global daily weather generator for terrestrial ecosystem modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D Friend

    1998-01-01

    Many global ecological models require globally-gridded daily weather data, but such data are not directly available from the current global network of weather stations. A method is described whereby a stochastic daily weather generator is parameterised to operate at the half-degree scale for the earth's terrestrial surface. The weather generator simulates 24 h shortwave irradiance, precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures,

  18. Could You Build a Satellite Tracking Station?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the procedures and activities involved in establishing a weather satellite tracking station. Discusses how the students and community participated in the project. Highlights the activities resulting from student efforts in the project. (ML)

  19. 47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER...DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.870 Wireless...devices. Television broadcast auxiliary licensees and motion...

  20. Weather Science Hotlist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    The Franklin Institute Online offers the metadata Web site Weather Science Hotlist. The page contains dozens of links organized into ten topics that include Online Exhibits, Weather Right Now, Background Information, Severe Weather, El Nino/ La Nina, Historical Weather, Career Connections, Activities, Atmosphere, and Weather Forecasting. A great source for anyone looking for online weather information.

  1. Weather Cycles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Mitchell

    2010-09-23

    We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

  2. THE USDA/AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE RESEARCH WEATHER NETWORK IN LAKE COUNTY, OHIO - 2002 UPDATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permanent meteorological stations have been installed in Northeast Ohio production nurseries to archive weather data during horticultural experiments. Insect and disease management research require detailed knowledge of weather conditions. Data such as soil moisture and temperature, air temperature...

  3. Evaluation of Fast Reroute in wireless mesh network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro ISHIMARU; Katsuichi NAKAMURA; Masato TSURU; Yuji OIE

    For expanding the coverage of wireless LAN in accordance with IEEE802.11 standard, much atten- tion has been paid to the wireless mesh network where wireless base stations (AP:Access Point) are arranged in a mesh-like topology and connected with each other through the wireless links. However, transient deterioration of the wireless communication occurs frequently due to interference with other electric waves

  4. Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2009-04-01

    We propose a new technique for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Water vapour plays a crucial part in a variety of atmospheric processes. As the most influential of greenhouse gases, it absorbs long-wave terrestrial radiation. The water vapour cycle of evaporation and recondensation is a major energy redistributing mechanism transferring heat energy from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere. Additionally, humidity has an important role in weather forecasting as a key variable required for initialization of atmospheric models and hazard warning techniques. However, current methods of monitoring humidity suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or a lack of precision when measuring near ground levels. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, the proposed method can provide moisture observations at high temporal and spatial resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used is already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which include absence of rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. We present results from real-data measurements taken from microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show very good agreement with surface station humidity measurements.

  5. Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Roussos, George

    1 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Wireless Sensor Networks George Roussos g Sensor, Test4, Increasing frequency Time (sec) Acceleration(g) Why "Real" Information is so Important Information ShoppingShopping ScienceScience SportsSports 6 WeatherWeather TechnologyTechnology Financial

  6. Weather Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This entertaining, interactive website is the perfect tool to educate users about the basics of weather forecasting and reporting. The two educational modules, created by EdHeads, each contain three levels and are designed for grades four through nine. While discovering how to predict a three-day forecast, students learn about warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, high and low pressure systems, isobars, and humidity. Teachers can find a helpful guide discussing how best to use the site as well as providing an overview of science standards, lesson plans, and pre- and post-tests for students.

  7. Weather Tamers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna R. Sterling

    2007-03-01

    Problem-based learning experiences that extend at least two weeks provide an opportunity for students to investigate a real-world problem while learning science content and skills in an exciting way. Meteorology provides a wealth of problems students can investigate while learning specific science concepts and skills found frequently in middle level national and state curricula standards. The hands-on activity described in this article helps students learn about the science behind weather events by planning, constructing, and testing models of cities exposed to a series of simulated hurricanes and tornado conditions.

  8. Mountain Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

  9. Weather Photography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ph.D. student Harald Edens describes himself as a "photographer of lightning, clouds, atmospheric optical phenomena and astronomy". His Web site entitled Weather Photography proves this by providing a stunning collection of photographs and movies of atmospheric optics, lightning, clouds, and astronomy. The author describes how the photographs were taken, what equipment was used, and even discusses many of the phenomenon being observed such as mirages and halos. An added bonus of this very interesting site is that the author generously allows free personal use of the photographs.

  10. Destructive Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    alizabethirwin

    2010-11-03

    What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

  11. Solar data acquisition wireless network for agricultural applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul Morais; J. Boaventura Cunha; M. Cordeiro; C. Serodio; P. Salgado; C. Couto

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a wireless data acquisition network for agricultural applications based on the Microchip PIC16C71, and the Intel 87C592 microcontrollers. The system uses a set of solar powered wireless data-acquisition stations (SPWAS) linked by radio frequency to a base station (BS). The base station has as main functions the control of the data-acquisition stations and the

  12. Development of a Global Fire Weather Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC = 1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRA's precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  13. NOAA/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M.; Laber, J. L.; Boldt, E.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a prototype debris flow early warning system for Southern California. The system uses USGS-defined rainfall rate thresholds for debris flows and burn area hazard maps to protect interests in and near burn areas of damaging and potentially deadly debris flows. Although common throughout Southern California, as witnessed by the December 25, 2003 storm in which sixteen people were swept to their deaths by debris flows generated from a recent burn area near Devore, debris flows are commonly misunderstood by the public. They are often perceived as rare events, are difficult to warn for with sufficient lead time, and present unique challenges when communicating proper calls to action to best save lives and property. Many improvements to the system have been realized since the project’s inception in 2005, including using more refined rainfall rate thresholds, use of burn area hazard maps, and the establishment of a tiered system to categorize the potential severity of flash floods and debris flows. These efforts have collectively resulted in a reduction of warning false alarms. However, the massive 400,000 hectare 2009 Station burn area in the Angeles National Forest of Los Angeles County has created numerous challenges to the early warning system. The geology of the area burned is highly susceptible to debris flows, due in part to the burn severity, soil types and steep slopes. Most importantly, the burn area is adjacent to and uphill of the highly populated lower foothills of the San Fernando Valley. NOAA/NWS and the USGS have thus worked closely with local response and preparedness agencies to analyze and communicate the threat and assist in developing a unified command response plan in preparation for flash flood and debris flows from this burn area. The early warning system was put to the ultimate test on February 6, 2010 when intense rainfall over the burn area produced very damaging but fortunately nonfatal flash flooding and debris flows. Unfortunately public and local agency response to NWS forecasts, watches, and warnings issued for this event was minimal. Possible causes of, and actions needed to improve upon, this minimal response are examined, including 1) complacency due to previous watch and warning false alarms, 2) underestimating the hazard threat due to local residents having not personally experienced a severe debris flow event in recent history if ever, 3) misinterpretation of NWS point precipitation forecasts and current limits of predictability related to forecasting specific locations and amounts of intense rainfall beyond 12-24 hours, 4) the challenges of ensuring NWS information is consistently received and interpreted among the multiple agencies and jurisdictions of the unified command, and 5) the likelihood that most people did not hear NWS warnings due to the event taking place late at night. Also examined are proper calls to action to protect life and property at a time when evacuations may put people in harm's way.

  14. The Weather Dude

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walker, Nick.

    2002-01-01

    The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

  15. Low cost DGPS wireless network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lucianaz; O. Rorato; M. Allegretti; M. Mamino; M. Roggero; F. Diotri

    2011-01-01

    This article depicts the development and test of a low cost wireless sensor network intended for use in severe environmental conditions. The test site is a serac located at 4100m above a populated area. It was needed to put in place a monitoring system able to trace displacement continuously and in all weather conditions. To achieve this goal starting from

  16. Weather Prediction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

  17. Winter Weather Checklists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Checklists Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  18. Hot Weather Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

  19. On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks Benyuan Liu

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks Benyuan Liu , Zhen Liu + , Don Towsley Department 704 Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 Abstract-- We study the throughput capacity of hybrid wireless networks stations are assumed to be connected by a high-bandwidth wired network and act as relays for wireless nodes

  20. Performance Analysis of Destination Multiplexing for Wireless LANs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youli Zhuang Ed Casas

    This paper describes the performance of the IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol (1) with and without destination multiplexing. IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, the most widely used standard for wireless Local Area Networks (LANs), allows the wireless channel to be effectively shared by portable computers or wireless stations. In this paper we consider the most common WLAN structure, one

  1. NOAA\\/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jackson; J. L. Laber; E. Boldt

    2010-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a prototype debris flow early warning system for Southern California. The system uses USGS-defined rainfall rate thresholds for debris flows and burn area hazard maps to protect interests in and near burn areas of damaging and potentially deadly debris flows.

  2. Performance of Routing Protocols for Real Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Becker; S. Schaust; E. Wittmann

    The main task of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is to collect data and either send it to a base station immediately or to store it locally until the data is requested by a base station. WSN form a wireless network without specific in- frastructure thus efficient routing protocols are necessar y to let a data packet find its way

  3. Optimized use of battery power in wireless Ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen Gupta; Preeti Saxena; A. K. Ramani; Rajkamal Mittal

    2010-01-01

    Wireless network is an emerging area for researchers. Wireless network can be deployed either in infrastructure mode or in Ad hoc mode. In an Infrastructure mode, mobile stations communicate with each other with the help of Base Station or Access Point (AP). It is similar to star topology of wired network. This Access Point makes communication easier between the nodes.

  4. The Weathering of Micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Ginneken, M.; Genge, M. J.; Folco, L.

    2014-09-01

    Despite the favorable conditions for their preservation, micrometeorites from Antarctica are affected by terrestrial weathering. Here we present a comprehensive work on the weathering of micrometeorites from Antarctica.

  5. Location Privacy in Wireless LAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leping Huang; Hiroshi Yamane; Kanta Matsuura; Kaoru Sezaki

    Current Wireless LAN(WLAN) specification require all stations to use globally unique fixed MAC addresses. The MAC address\\u000a is visible in all WLAN packets. Globally unique and fixed addresses enable an observer to collect history and profile data\\u000a of wireless users. This cause a serious location privacy breach especially in public access networks. Several protection methods\\u000a based on temporal address and

  6. Disruption-Tolerant Wireless Sensor Networking for Biomedical Monitoring in Outdoor Conditions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .1 [Computer Systems Organization]: Computer- Communication Networks--Wireless Communication Keywords wireless]. In a typical deployment scenario, one or several battery- powered wireless sensors are attached to a patient are wireless the patient can move freely around the base station, while an endless stream of data flows from

  7. Achieving Fairness in Wireless LANs by Enhanced IEEE 802.11 DCF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagesh S. P. Nandiraju; Hrishikesh Gossain; Dave Cavalcanti; Kaushik R. Chowdhury; Dharma P. Agrawal

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, wireless local area networks (WLANs) have gained an increased attention and a large number of WLANs are being deployed in universities, companies, airports etc. Majority of the IEEE 802.11 based WLANs employ distributed coordination function (DCF) in wireless access points (AP) to arbitrate the wireless channel among Wireless Stations (STAs). However, DCF poses serious unfairness

  8. A HIERARCHIAL STOCHASTIC MODEL OF LARGE SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND MULTIPLE STATION DAILY PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stochastic model of weather states and concurrent daily precipitation at multiple precipitation stations is described. our algorithms are invested for classification of daily weather states; k means, fuzzy clustering, principal components, and principal components coupled with ...

  9. Daily Weather from Monthly Averages -- Hocus Pocus, or Useful Tool?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Just how much can you legitimately extract from monthly statistics of daily weather parameters? In this paper we present the utility and limitations of a simple weather generator (CLIGEN) which has over 750 registered users, most of whom are international. CLIGEN's 4,000-plus station files of mont...

  10. WEATHER OBSERVATIONS - SUMMARY OF THE DAY - FIRST ORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Climatic Data Center makes available daily weather data for approximately 300 currently active National Weather Service stations, with a lag time (after end of data month) of about 8-10 weeks. Coverage includes the contiguous United States, Caribbean Islands, Pacific...

  11. 47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. 90.1333 ...SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services...1333 Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. (a)...

  12. Mutual authentication architecture in wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Huan Jiang; Hung-Lin Li; Yu-Jung Huang; Wei-Cheng Lin

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN, Wireless Sensor Network) is a kind of autonomous network with sensor nodes. It is different from traditional RFID system that the WSN is through the distribution of sensor nodes in different locations to monitor environmental conditions. The collected data from sensor nodes were sent back to the base station for further analysis and processing to compensate

  13. Fair Scheduling in Wireless Packet Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songwu Lu; Vaduvur Bharghavan; Rayadurgam Srikant

    1997-01-01

    Fair scheduling of delay and rate-sensitive packet flows over a wireless channel is not addressed effectively by most contemporary wireline fair scheduling algorithms because of two unique characteristics of wireless media: (a) bursty channel errors, and (b) location-dependent channel capacity and errors. Besides, in packet cellular networks, the base station typically performs the task of packet scheduling for both downlink

  14. Operational Numerical Weather Prediction at the Met Office and potential ways forward for operational space weather prediction systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Jackson

    2010-01-01

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place

  15. Real Time communication with Power Adaptation (RTPA) in wireless sensor network (WSN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. AliI; L. A. Latiff; R. A. Rahid; N. Fisal

    2006-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) has become a hot research area due to its important applications in military, health, home and other commercial areas. WSN is referred to as a group of sensors and base station(s) linked by wireless medium to perform sensing and decision-making tasks. In WSN, sensors gather information about the physical world, while base station takes decisions and

  16. The Weather and Climate

    E-print Network

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    The Weather and Climate Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades Shaun LovEjoy and DaniEL SChErTzEr #12;2/15/12 DRAFT TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 DRAFT 1 The Weather And The Climate:2 Emergent Laws, weather, low frequency weather and the climate1 1.2.7 The scaling of the atmospheric boundary conditions2

  17. Weather Derivative Valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewson, Stephen; Brix, Anders

    2005-04-01

    Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.

  18. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  19. Wireless System Tracks Esophageal Reflux WEDNESDAY, June 20 (HealthDay News) --A wireless monitoring system that uses electrical

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    HealthDay News) -- A wireless Copyright © 2007 ScoutNews, LLC. All rights reserved. Health News | Health Encyclopedia | Quizzes and Tools | Women's Health | Men's Health | Children's Health Page 1 of 2MyNDY-TV | News and Weather

  20. Using Weather Regimes to Diagnose Future Changes in Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz Madsen, Bo; Ditlevsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Mean sea level pressure over Europe and the North Atlantic can be clustered into a few distinct weather regimes. We show how these regimes can be used as predictors for precipitation. Rain gauges in Denmark are used as a case study. The k-means clustering algorithm is applied to the daily pressure fields obtained from reanalysis data. We identify 5 weather regimes for the winter (DJF) mean sea level pressure. By this algorithm, a specific weather regime is assigned to each day in the record. The relation between these regimes and the North-Atlantic Oscillation is investigated. The station-by-station precipitation for each weather regime is analyzed, noting the geographical differences. Significant differences in both frequency and severity of precipitation conditioned on weather regimes are found. Knowledge of the differences between weather regimes are valuable for future projections of precipitation and we use the weather regimes found in the reanalysis as a diagnostic tool to cluster the weather generated in a general circulation model for future scenarios. Analyzing the precipitation in the model conditioned on the weather regimes we find that the future winter precipitation changes as a result of changes in the weather regimes with more westerly flow and higher probability of precipitation.

  1. Integration of WirelessHART networks in Distributed Control Systems using PROFINET IO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Akerberg; M. Gidlund; T. Lennvall; J. Neander; M. Bjorkman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method to integrate WirelessHART networks in Distributed Control Systems (DCS) using PROFINET IO. By modeling the WirelessHART network in the Generic Station Description file, that describes a PROFINET IO device, the WirelessHART related configuration can be distributed from the central engineering stations. In this way, both process controller configuration and WirelessHART network configuration is

  2. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of stranded oils after the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uu Hyuk Yim; Sung Yong Ha; Joon Geon An; Jong Ho Won; Gi Myung Han; Sang Hee Hong; Moonkoo Kim; Jee-Hyun Jung; Won Joon Shim

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil were stranded along 375km of coastline in Western Korea. Stranded oils were monitored for their identity and weathering status in 19 stations in three provinces. The results obtained using a weathering model indicated that evaporation would be a dominant weathering process immediately

  3. Changes in North American extremes derived from daily weather data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Peterson; Xuebin Zhang; Manola Brunet-India; Jorge Luis Vázquez-Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Detailed homogeneity assessments of daily weather observing station data from Canada, the United States, and Mexico enabled analysis of changes in North American extremes starting in 1950. The approach used a number of indices derived from the daily data, primarily based on the number of days per year that temperature or precipitation observations were above or below percentile thresholds. Station

  4. Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  5. Broadcast media and the dissemination of weather information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, J.

    1973-01-01

    Although television is the public's most preferred source of weather information, it fails to provide weather reports to those groups who seek the information early in the day and during the day. The result is that many people most often use radio as a source of information, yet preferring the medium of television. The public actively seeks weather information from both radio and TV stations, usually seeking information on current conditions and short range forecasts. forecasts. Nearly all broadcast stations surveyed were eager to air severe weather bulletins quickly and often. Interest in Nowcasting was high among radio and TV broadcasters, with a significant portion indicating a willingness to pay something for the service. However, interest among TV stations in increasing the number of daily reports was small.

  6. Towards securing mintroute in wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Islam Hegazy; Reihaneh Safavi-Naini; Carey Williamson

    2010-01-01

    In a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the sensor nodes rely upon a multi-hop routing protocol to relay their data to the base station. However, most WSN routing protocols are vulnerable to attacks in which a malicious node can disrupt the routes, drop, modify, or divert data away from the base station. In this paper, we use the ns-2 network simulator

  7. On handoffs in packetized wireless systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Haas; Chih-Lin I

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we present a handoff scheme for a packetized wireless systems that does not require any real-time processing to determine the association of a mobile with a base station. In particular, in our scheme, a single ALOHA-type universal signaling channel that is used to establish, update, and terminate associations between mobiles and base stations. The signaling channel is

  8. The Weather Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Emma Grasser

    2012-09-27

    This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

  9. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  10. Interactive Weather Information Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.

  11. Weather and Precipitation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Jones

    2012-04-12

    How are different types of weather common in our everyday life? How can we use what we know about weather to go about everyday activities? First, use the Weather Chart to write down what you learn from each website. Then, go to Weather Information Website #1 and click on "What's the Weather?" to dress the bear for the day. Make sure you write it down on your graphic organizer. Next, go to Weather Information Website #3 and explore at least 5(clouds, thunderstorms, winter storms, etc.) of ...

  12. What will be the weather like tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christelle, Guilloux

    2014-05-01

    Since June 2010, our school is part of the network '"météo à l'école'": it hosts an autonomous weather station, approved by Météo France , which measures continuously the temperature and precipitation. The data is transmitted by a GSM module to a computer server. After its validation by Météo France, it is send online every day on a public accessible website : http://www.edumeteo.org/ The MPS Education ( Scientific Methods and Practices) in junior high school classes (one hour and half per week throughout the school year ) makes full use of data from the networks '"météo à l'école'" data and Météo France. Three scientific disciplines :; Mathematics, Life and Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Chemistry are part of a schedule defined after consultation and educational coherence to enable students to: - Discovering and understanding the operation of the sensors station, weather satellites ... - Operating satellite images, studying of the atmosphere and weather phenomena (formation of a storm, for example) - Operating collected data (networks 'météo à l'école' and Météo France) to identify climatic differences between regions, seasons, and their effects on living beings (study of the greenhouse effect and climate warming among others). The ultimate goal is to discover used tools and data to produce a weather forecast. We work for these purposes with the Cité de l'Espace in Toulouse (weather Pole) and the head forecaster Meteo France Merignac.

  13. Internet Weather Links: Weather and Weather Related Lesson Plans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Internet Weather Links is a collection of lesson plans provided by the Utah Education Network's Weather Report Web site. The activities are organized by grade level from kindergarten to fourth grade and include such topics as Sunny Colors, Weather in a Box, Changes Due to Freezing, and Geological Features. Each lesson is well organized with explanations of its objectives, intended learning outcomes, and instructional procedures. Downloadable documents, related links, extensions to the lesson, and even rating systems for teachers are also provided, making it a great resource especially for use with younger students.

  14. Global ionospheric weather

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, D.T.; Doherty, P.H.

    1994-02-28

    In the last year, the authors have studied several issues that are critical for understanding ionospheric weather. Work on global F-region modeling has consisted of testing the Phillips Laboratory Global Theoretical Ionosphere Model. Comparisons with both data and other theoretical models have been successfully conducted and are ongoing. GPS observations, as well as data analysis, are also ongoing. Data have been collected for a study on the limitations in making absolute ionospheric measurements using GPS. Another study on ionospheric variability is the first of its kind using GPS data. The observed seasonal total electron content behavior is consistent with that determined from the Faraday rotation technique. Work on the FAA's Phase 1 Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS) Satellite Navigation Testbed Experiment also continues. Initial results indicate that stations using operational WADGPS should be located no greater than 430 km apart. Work comparing the authors electron-proton-H atom model to both observations and other models has been generally successful. They have successfully modeled the creation of high-latitude large-scale plasma structures using two separate mechanisms (time-varying global convection and meso-scale convection events).

  15. Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  16. Estimation of average hop count using the grid pattern in multi-hop wireless ad-hoc network

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    Estimation of average hop count using the grid pattern in multi-hop wireless ad-hoc network R station centralised wireless network, the multi-hop wireless ad-hoc network probably provides a flexible as concerned with its performance, throughputs of the multi-hop wireless ad-hoc networks are often believed

  17. Intelligent weather agent for aircraft severe weather avoidance

    E-print Network

    Bokadia, Sangeeta

    2002-01-01

    avoidance capability has increased. In this thesis, an intelligent weather agent is developed for general aviation aircraft. Using a radar image from an onboard weather radar, the intelligent weather agent determines the safest path around severe weather...

  18. Carrying microwave signals in a GIPOF-based wireless LAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMJ Koonen; A Ng'oma; Boom van den HPA; I Tafur Monroy; PFM Smulders; GD Khoe

    2001-01-01

    By applying fast sweeping of the laser wavelength at the headend station and a multi- passband optical filter at the antenna stations, multi-GHz radio signals can be distributed cost-effectively using GIPOF links in a wireless LAN. Data signal transparency and simple antenna stations are obtained. First simulations have shown the feasibility of the system concept.

  19. Channel Access Unfairness of Wireless LAN Access Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lopez-Aguilera; M. Heusse; F. Rousseau; A. Duda; J. Casademont

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present an evaluation of chosen wireless LAN access methods involving stations with different bit error rates: n-1 stations in ideal transmission conditions (BER = 0) and 1 station with a given bit error rate (BER ne 0). The simulation results show that the IEEE 802.11 DCF and its modifications (Slow Decrease, AOB) are very sensitive to

  20. On Observing the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Crane

    2004-05-01

    In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

  1. Winter Weather: Hypothermia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... be successfully resuscitated. More Information: Frostbite Disasters & Severe Weather ... Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  2. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Outdoor Safety Winter PSAs and Podcasts Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  3. In Depth Winter Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    Winter Weather is an In-Depth Special Report form the National Center for Atmospheric Research. It contains articles, images, activities, video clips, and interactive graphs to inform learners about meteorology and weather in the colder seasons.

  4. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  5. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  6. Variation of radio field strength and radio horizon distance over three stations in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adediji, A. T.; Ismail, Mahamod; Mandeep, J. S.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we present seasonal results of radio field strength and radio horizon distance derived from the computation of surface refractivity through in-situ measurement of temperature, relative humidity and pressure across three stations (Akure, Minna and Enugu) in Nigeria. The measurements of the tropospheric parameters were made using a Davis Wireless Weather Station (Integrated Sensor Suite, ISS) installed on the ground surface at each of the stations. The study utilized data for two years of measurement (January 2008-December 2009). Results show that the values of surface refractivity were low during the dry season months and high during the wet season months. The lowest values of 323, 313 and 281 N-units were observed in February for Akure, Enugu and Minna respectively, while maximum values of 372, 375 and 365 N-units were observed in September, October and August for the respective locations. Also, the average value of field strength variability was found to be 6.67, 5.62 and 7.48 for Akure, Enugu and Minna respectively.

  7. Wireless Instrumentation System and Power Management Scheme Therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Blalock, Norman N. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A wireless instrumentation system enables a plurality of low power wireless transceivers to transmit measurement data from a plurality of remote station sensors to a central data station accurately and reliably. The system employs a relay based communications scheme where remote stations that cannot communicate directly with the central station due to interference, poor signal strength, etc., are instructed to communicate with other of the remote stations that act as relays to the central station. A unique power management scheme is also employed to minimize power usage at each remote station and thereby maximize battery life. Each of the remote stations prefembly employs a modular design to facilitate easy reconfiguration of the stations as required.

  8. How's the Weather Today?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks students to think about the weather in their area and introduces them to weather and temperature trends in different latitudes of the United States. They will look at the current weather map and record the high temperatures for a few cities. They will conclude by drawing pictures of themselves outdoors in their hometown and in another place that has different weather.

  9. Enviropedia: Introduction to Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

  10. Stormfax Weather Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-06-10

    This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

  11. Performance Measurement of 802.11a Wireless Links from UAV to Ground Nodes with Various Antenna Orientations

    E-print Network

    Kung, H. T.

    Performance Measurement of 802.11a Wireless Links from UAV to Ground Nodes with Various Antenna measured performance of 802.11a wireless links from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to ground stations-station elevations. By comparing the performance of 32 simultaneous pairs of UAV and ground station configurations

  12. Space Weather Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Environment Center

    The Space Weather Now page is intended to give the non-technical user a "plain language" look at space weather. It includes information about relevant events and announcements, data from and about different instruments and satellites watching various aspects of space weather, alerts and advisories, daily themes of products and services, and links appropriate for the various groups of users.

  13. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  14. Weather Girl Goes Rogue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deep Rogue Ram

    This humorous video suggests what might happen if a weather forecaster reported the weather in the context of climate change. There is a sharp contrast between the anchor focusing on short-term local concerns and the weather forecaster describing what is happening on a long-term global basis.

  15. Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic

    This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

  16. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  17. METEOROLOGICAL Weather and Forecasting

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Weather and Forecasting EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa U.S.A. Yun-Ching Lin submitted to Weather and Forecasting July 05, 2010 Corresponding author: Dr. Mong-Ming Lu, Central Weather

  18. Spaceborne weather radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Meneghini; Toshiaki Kozu

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of

  19. Weather Data Gamification 

    E-print Network

    Gargate, Rohit

    2013-07-25

    . With the huge amount of weather data available, we have designed and developed a fantasy weather game. People manage a team of cities with the goal of predicting weather better than other players in their league, and in the process gain an understanding...

  20. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

  1. Time changes in a subtropical cloud and weather system as revealed by meteorological satellite data

    E-print Network

    Randerson, Darryl

    1962-01-01

    were recorded at NASA 15 l ~ 4diosonde Sg&ions 0 Pi/el Stations' W -wm~* Figure 1. --Radiosonde and Pibal stations 17 readout stations and the copies were obtained from the National Weather Records Center. Rectification - Orientation Procedure...

  2. Weather affects us

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimmy

    2009-11-09

    2nd grade weather unit. The students will learn how weather affects us in our daily lives Read and view the video on meteorologists Kid Meteorologist Learn about clouds - watch S'cool Clouds All About Clouds Do scholastic: weather watch and game Weather Read winter storms Interactive Weather Web Pages Read a reason for the season A Reason for the Season Read about precipitation Precipitation Read and view video on flooding Flood: Farming and Erosion Read about air pressure It's a Breeze: How Air Pressure Affects You Read about Hurricanes Hurricanes Do the activities and read ...

  3. Gongguan Metro Station NTU Hospital Metro Station

    E-print Network

    Hung, Shih-Hao

    Gongguan Metro Station NTU Hospital Metro Station 3 2 1 2 3 4 SE61 SE1 S71 SE63 SE74 SE73 SE72 SE Railway Station Taipei Railway Station To Shandao Temple Metro Station To Daan Park Sec. 3, Jianguo S. Rd. To Jianguo Expressway Sec. 2, Fuxing S. Rd. To Technology Building Metro Station

  4. Development of a Wireless Remote Monitoring System Utilizing Multiple Wireless Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Shinichi; Hattori, Tetsuo

    A novel remote monitoring system for all day outdoor observation using multiple wireless sensors and wireless communication (Handy phone and PHS) is proposed. The whole system consists of three parts: (i) a host station that is PC (Personal Computer), (ii) remote station that contains a camera controlled by CPU and power supply (battery attached by solar cell), and (iii) multiple wireless sensors having each ID signal. The remote station usually works by an event-driven method based on the wireless sensor signals. Because of this event-driven method, various multi-vision systems are easily configurable. This paper describes the details of the system and evaluates the possibility of the application of the system. Since some of the systems are now really running in many places, we can consider that the effectiveness of the system is shown by the fact in a practical sense.

  5. National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

  6. Association information management using MAC subnet addressing in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Chur Yang; Jong-Deok Kim

    2012-01-01

    Station association information, such as an associated mesh router is required to support communication between legacy stations in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN). Current IEEE 802.11s draft standard specifies two mechanisms to maintain the station association information: Proxy Registration Procedure (PRP) and Association Discovery Protocol (ADP). Each of them has structural limitations in that mesh routers always maintain a station association

  7. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  8. Station Identifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stepan

    1968-01-01

    This paper describes an end office tributary identifier which sends to a toll center the calling subscriber's directory number. It is arranged to interface with the Bell System's centralized automatic message accounting (CAMA) centers. The electronic identifier operates on either a terminal per line, a terminal per station, or mixed basis. In operating, it feeds an ac signal on the

  9. Channel, Deadline, and Distortion (CD2 Scheduling for Video Streams Over Wireless

    E-print Network

    Chan, Carri W.

    at the base station (BS) or access point (AP) play a key role in determining the perfor- mance of wireless1 Channel, Deadline, and Distortion (CD2 ) Aware Scheduling for Video Streams Over Wireless Aditya scheduling of multimedia traffic on the downlink of a wireless communication system. We examine a scenario

  10. Multichannel Virtual Access Points for Seamless Handoffs in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to enable inter-AP communications. A station can join the wireless network by associating with an AP. WhenMultichannel Virtual Access Points for Seamless Handoffs in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks Maria Laboratory UMR 5217, France {berezin,rousseau,duda}@imag.fr Abstract--Within IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area

  11. Wireless Smart Grid Design for Monitoring and Optimizing Electric Transmission in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aryadevi Remanidevi Devidas; Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Electricity losses in India during transmission and distribution are extremely high and vary between 30 to 45%. Wireless network based architecture is proposed in this paper, for monitoring and optimizing the electric transmission and distribution system in India. The system consists of multiple smart wireless transformer sensor node, smart controlling station, smart transmission line sensor node, and smart wireless consumer

  12. NOAA Daily Weather Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

    2011-01-01

    The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

  13. Adaptive Call Admission Control for Multimedia Wireless Networks with QoS Provisioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidal Nasser; Hossam S. Hassanein

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel Quality of Service Adaptive Call Admission Control (QoS-AdCAC) framework for next generation broadband wireless cellular networks supporting wireless multimedia services with different classes of traffic and diverse bandwidth requirements. In this work, each base station locally, independently of other base stations in the network, differentiates between new and handoff calls for each class of traffic

  14. Competitive scheduling in wireless collision channels with correlated channel state

    E-print Network

    Parrilo, Pablo A.

    We consider a wireless collision channel, shared by a finite number of mobile users who transmit to a common base station. Each user wishes to optimize its individual network utility that incorporates a natural tradeoff ...

  15. Delay gains from network coding in wireless networks

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Ebad

    2007-01-01

    We consider a single-hop cellular wireless system with a single source (base station) broadcasting a stream of incoming files to multiple receivers over stochastic time-varying channels with non-zero erasure probabilities. ...

  16. Space Weather Media Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This is version 3 of the space Weather Media Viewer, created to work with the space Weather Action Center to see near-real time data and to provide additional images and resources available for educational use. It features easy downloads that can also be added to news reports and space weather reports. It was designed for ease in adding any media (videos, images) data.

  17. Everything Weather- Archived Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

  18. Weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

  19. Weather and Climate Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.

  20. Winter weather activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whitney Frankovic

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

  1. Modelling and planning fixed wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Hurley; Stuart M. Allen; Desmond Ryan; Richard K. Taplin

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  This paper describes a mathematical model for the automated design of fixed wireless access networks (FWA) through the automatic\\u000a selection and configuration of base station sites. An optimisation algorithm is presented which generates the fixed wireless\\u000a access network infrastructure design, and results are presented to illustrate the use of the model and its implementation.\\u000a Economic measures based on the net

  2. Weather assessment and forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

  3. Net-Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Net-Weather presents a host of meteorological information for the UK at this website. Users can find out seasonal, monthly, 10-day, and additional relevant weather forecasts. The Charts and Data link offers live satellite images, links to numerous forecast models, and data on sea temperatures and anomalies. For people who like winter and snow, the website offers interesting stories about famous British winters as well as snow reports. The Net-Weather Forum is a great place to discuss any weather-related topic.

  4. Winter Storm (weather)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aubree Miller

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

  5. Living in the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-12-13

    What is weather? Is climate different from weather? It doesn't matter where you live or where you travel, weather patterns influence your daily life. In this guide, students will engage in exploring and predicting the conditions in the atmosphere that are responsible for weather patterns and climatic conditions, and investigate how extreme weather impacts humans and the environment. While many of the keywords embedded into the "Living in the Weather" themes will be familiar, do your students really understand them? This guide provides teacher-tested, reliable links that allow you and your students to "surf" the internet in a quest to better understand how atmospheric conditions directly relate to weather on Earth. Understanding weather and climate can be a great opportunity for you to engage students in topics and themes that connect Earth and space science, life science, and physical science in a real way. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) focus on the study of weather and climate and their impact on human life. This guide uses the ongoing work and technology of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (known to the public simply as NOAA). NOAA scientists study our planet Earth in a global way. Working together with scientists worldwide, NOAA scientists study the diversity of living organisms (including humans) and their impact on our environment--not only in our country but in every country and continent around the world.

  6. Washington Post Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

  7. The space-weather enterprise: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siscoe, G.

    2000-09-01

    Space-weather impacts society in diverse ways. Societies' responses have been correspondingly diverse. Taken together these responses constitute a space weather ``enterprise'', which has developed over time and continues to develop. Technological systems that space-weather affects have grown from isolated telegraph systems in the 1840s to ocean and continent-spanning cable communications systems, from a generator electrifying a few city blocks in the 1880s to continent-spanning networks of high-tension lines, from wireless telegraphy in the 1890s to globe-spanning communication by radio and satellites. To have a name for the global totality of technological systems that are vulnerable to space weather, I suggest calling it the cyberelectrosphere. When the cyberelectrosphere was young, scientists who study space weather, engineers who design systems that space weather affects, and operators of such systems - the personnel behind the space-weather enterprise - were relatively isolated. The space-weather enterprise was correspondingly incoherent. Now that the cyberelectrosphere has become pervasive and indispensable to most segments of society, the space weather enterprise has become systematic and coherent. At present it has achieved considerable momentum, but it has barely begun to realize the level of effectiveness to which it can aspire, as evidenced by achievements of a corresponding but more mature enterprise in meteorology, a field which provides useful lessons. The space-weather enterprise will enter a new phase after it matures roughly to where the tropospheric weather enterprise is now. Then it will become indispensable for humankind's further global networking through technology and for humankind's further utilization of and expansion into space.

  8. Wearable and Ultra Low Power Wireless System for Physiological Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Figueiredo; J. Cardona; K.-P. Hoffmann; P. M. Mendes

    \\u000a A wearable and ultra low-power wireless system is proposed for remote monitoring of physiological parameters. The developed\\u000a system monitors the electrocardiogram (ECG), activity and temperature, transmitting the signals to a remote base station via\\u000a a wireless link, and also allows for wireless battery recharging. An acquisition module was designed solely with low power\\u000a and small form factor electronic components. The

  9. Digital wireless electromagnetic interference (EMI) data acquisition system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Siew; Y. Wang; M. Faheem

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new digital wireless data acquisition system that cam be used to measure electro-magnetic interference (EMI) in power stations or other similar harsh environments. It comprises of a remote acquisition unit (RAU), a wireless data communication network (WDCN) and a PC-based control platform. Using digital technology, the system transmits a signal (transient or steady state) of short

  10. A Cooperative MAC protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Panwar, Shivendra S.

    A Cooperative MAC protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Thanasis Korakis, Zhifeng Tao , Yevgeniy. In this paper, we extend a cooperative MAC protocol called CoopMAC [1] into the ad hoc network environment1. Extensive simulations in a large scale wireless ad- hoc network (150 stations) show that CoopMAC

  11. NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

  12. Multilingual Weather Forecast Generation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianfang Yao; Dongmo Zhang; Qian Wang

    The MLWFA (Multilingual Weather Forecasts Assistant) system will be demonstrated. It is developed to generate the multilingual text of the weather forecasts automatically. The raw data from the weather observation can be used to generate the weather element chart. According to the weather change trend, the forecasters can directly modify the value Of the element on the chart, such as

  13. Language Learning Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauber, Sandra K.

    1981-01-01

    Describes use of learning stations at elementary and secondary levels. Explains vocabulary, grammar, conversation, listening, reading and culture stations; materials and equipment for stations; management concerns. (BK)

  14. Improving performance of TCP over wireless networks 

    E-print Network

    Mehta, Miten N.

    1998-01-01

    the Retransmission Delay C. Selectively Delaying Dupacks . D. Explicit Loss Notification to the Receiver (ELNR Messages) E. Variants of Local Retransmissions F. WH Link Layer Sends Error Information to WH Trans- port Layer 42 43 44 44 45 45 CHAPTER Page... is a wireless link. Such a path is illustrated in Figure 1. In Figure 1, FH (fixed host) is the node sending data on the TCP connection, and WH (wireless host) is the intended recipient of the data. BS (base station) provides access to the wireless...

  15. Home Weatherization Visit

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  16. People and Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

  17. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  18. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  19. Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

  20. Weather Vane and Anemometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this meteorology activity, learners construct simple devices to measure the direction and speed of wind. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes and generators work to analyze weather patterns. Note: a drill and other specialty tools are required for this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

  1. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  2. Northwest Weather Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Palewicz

    This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

  3. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  4. Weather and radar interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Booth

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of weather on radar system performance. This discussion were based on computer simulations and climatological data. The relationships between frequency and range were explored as they interact with the weather. This effort is being conducted in the RF Technology Division of the Applied Sensors, Guidance, and Electronics Directorate, US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development,

  5. Advanced Aviation Weather Forecasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn M. Wolfson; David A. Clark

    2006-01-01

    n The U.S. air transportation system faces a continuously growing gap between the demand for air transportation and the capacity to meet that demand. Two key obstacles to bridging this gap are traffic delays due to en route severe- weather conditions and airport weather conditions. Lincoln Laboratory has been addressing these traffic delays and related safety problems under the Federal

  6. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2011-06-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  7. Wireless Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wireless is just another name for radio. And of course, wireless is certainly not new. It was discovered in the late 1800s and quickly developed in the early 1900s by Marconi and others. Radio has many uses which include radio broadcasting (AM, FM, digital and satellite), 2-way radio (public service, aircraft, marine, etc.), personal and hobby (CB, FRS, ham radio, RC, etc.), and telemetry. Cell phones are two way radios as are wireless local area networks. TV, radar, satellites, and navigation systems like GPS are radio. Today radio is mostly taken for granted. However over the past decades, radio has changed our lives. The developments with the greatest impact are cell phones, wireless local area networks (WLANs) for computers, and short range radios for a variety of applications. These applications are today referred to as wireless. This module introduces you to basic radio concepts.

  8. Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

    2010-09-01

    The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications. Agriculture remains the number one industry in North Dakota and its success will always be dependent on the weather.

  9. Predicting the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth explores the science behind predicting the weather. First, the United States Search and Rescue Task Force describe the basic tools and knowledge used to create weather forecasts (1). Students can find concise, clear explanations of weather, fronts and air masses, high and low pressure, precipitation, and water vapor and humidity as well. By performing the activities presented in the second website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection (2). This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Third, Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps (3 ). Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. The fourth website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather (4). Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Next, NOAA provides graphics for five forecast models: the ETA, the Global Forecast System (GFS), the Wave Watch III (WW3), the Nested Grid model (NGM), and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) (5). Outputs are available for North America, North Pacific, Western North Atlantic, and the Polar Ice Drift. Users can find links to detailed descriptions of the inputs and history of each model. Sixth, the British government's Met Office describes numerical modeling and its components (6). Students and educators can learn about the future in forecasting as well as educational opportunities with the Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET).

  10. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  11. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  12. Weather Event Simulator Weather Event Simulator

    E-print Network

    Training Branch National Weather Service Norman, OK John Ferree Warning Decision Training Branch National for Applied Behavioral Science D iscus Audio/ Teac Le #12;Learn By DoingLearn By Doing #12;Simulations Improve ­ All Major Airlines ­ Flight Schools #12;Simulations Improve Job Performance Simulations Improve Job

  13. Exploiting Wireless Link Dynamics in Wireless Sensor

    E-print Network

    Mannheim, Universität

    Kolloquium Exploiting Wireless Link Dynamics in Wireless Sensor Networks Professor Dr. Klaus Wehrle wireless links that rapidly shift between reliable and unreliable periods of transmissions. To this end, we wireless networks to exploit wireless link dynamics instead of bypassing them for the sake of stability

  14. Health dynamic measurement of tall building using wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, J. P.; Li, H. W.; Xiao, Y. Q.; Li, Q. S.

    2005-05-01

    Health Monitoring is very important for large structures like suspension- and cable-stayed bridges, offshore platforms, tall buildings and so on. Due to recent developments in new sensor systems, wireless communication systems, Internet-based data sharing and monitoring, advanced technologies for structure health monitoring (SHM) have been caused much more attentions, in which the wireless sensor network is recently received special interests. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of large populations of wirelessly connected nodes, capable of computation, communication, and sensing. In this paper, a wireless sensor networks based health monitoring system for tall buildings has been explored integrated with wireless sensing communication, computation, data management and data remote access via Internet. Firstly, a laboratory prototype was designed and developed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed system. Wireless sensor nodes were deployed on a test structure, the data being sensed by the sensor nodes in the network is eventually transmitted to a base station, where the information can be accessed. Through a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, IEEE802.11b), the simulated data was transferred among personal computers and wireless sensor nodes peripherals without cables. And then, a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) includes eight sensor nodes and one base station was installed on Di Wang Tower to verify the performance of the present system in-depth. Finally, comparisons between WSN and cable-based monitoring analytical acceleration responses of field measurement have been performed. The proposed system is shown to be effective for structural health monitoring.

  15. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that ba...

  16. Space Weather CD

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-10

    This is a software package about space weather: what it is and what it does in space and here on Earth. The disc includes software that displays movies and images of the aurora and of the Sun in various wavelengths from the ground and from orbiting NASA spacecraft; a tutorial about what space weather is and how the aurora is formed; and more. Users will also find real-time space weather conditions from current satellite missions and can download the latest data without leaving the Space Weather application. A TicTacToe game is also included that tests space weather knowledge. The disc contains many other Space Weather resources, programs, sounds, and games for use at home or school, and there are several educational websites included in full on the disc for offline viewing. In addition there is an exhaustive list of links to a variety of space weather resources available online. The disc is available for free from a number of sites if downloaded.

  17. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for northwest Himalaya in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Singh; A. Ganju

    2008-01-01

    Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations\\u000a in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya). The model searches past similar cases from historical dataset\\u000a of reference observatory in each mountain range based on current situation. The searched past similar cases of each mountain\\u000a range are used to draw weather forecast for

  18. Climatology and trends in some adverse and fair weather conditions in Canada, 1953–2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolan L. Wang

    2006-01-01

    This study characterizes the climatology and trends of some adverse and fair weather occurrence in Canada, on the basis of reliable long-term records of hourly weather and bright sunshine observations at about 90 Canadian stations for the period 1953–2004. The results show that fair or no-weather (i.e., no precipitation or visibility obscuration) trends are generally consistent with the sunshine trends,

  19. Feasibility of TAMDAR: an aircraft-based weather data collection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Kauffmann; Erol Ozan; Yesim Sireli

    2004-01-01

    The tropospheric airborne meteorological data and reporting (TAMDAR) system is a new meteorological data collection system carried aloft by participating aircraft to gather weather data and relay this information to ground-based receiving stations for distribution into the national system for weather data dissemination. These improved forecasts provide a wide range of societal benefits including enhanced air safety and improved operational

  20. On handoffs in packetized wireless systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Haas; Chih-Lin I

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a handoff scheme for a packetized wireless system that does not require any real-time processing to determine the association of a mobile with a base station. In particular, a single ALOHA-type universal signaling channel is used to establish, update, and terminate associations between mobiles and base stations, and is based on a quasi-periodic transmission of a mobile's

  1. On handoffs in packetized wireless systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Haas; Chih-Lin I

    1993-01-01

    A handoff scheme is presented for a packetized wireless system that does not require any real-time processing to determine the association of a mobile with a base station. The scheme is based on a single ALOHA-type universal signaling channel that is used to establish, update, and terminate associations between mobiles and base stations. This is achieved by semi-periodic transmission of

  2. Weather satellite launched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    NASA launched on 24 May the weather satellite GOES-N, the first of the new N series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The satellite, which becomes GOES-13 once it reaches its final orbit, joins the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration collection of weather satellites that provide the agency with data for weather forecasts and warnings. The GOES-N series has several improvements over previous GOES satellites. A highly stable pointing platform will allow improved performance from the satellite's sounder-which gathers atmospheric data- and its imager. In addition, the satellite will enable NOAA to improve forecasts and warnings of solar disturbances.

  3. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

  4. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This website uses real time data for many activities for learning about the weather. It can be modified to fit virtually any grade level. The project is broken up into 3 sets of lessons; Introductory Activities, Real Time Data Activities, and Language Arts Activities. Each lesson gives a recommended time for completion, to help keep students and teachers on track. There is a helpful teachers guide section with background information about real time data, curriculum standards, and assessment suggestions. Th students gallery has many examples of real projects other students have already created. There is also a helpful reference guide, with information on real time weather, projects, and weather lesson plans.

  5. Sun, weather, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships, that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown causal mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climatic trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments.

  6. Weather Observing Fundamentals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2014-03-11

    "Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

  7. World Weather Information Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.

  8. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features visual resources and supporting data that illustrate the relationship between weather and climate. Resources are divided by topic including climate resources, weather forecasting, warnings and data, and evidence for global warming. Visualizations and data sets include GIS-based animated maps, static maps, simple animations, and links to real-time stream gauge data. This site provides an array of visual resources that help demonstrate the difference between weather and climate and may be incorporated into lectures, labs, or other activities.

  9. Interplanetary sources of space weather disturbances in 1997 to 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Dmitriev; N. B. Crosby; J.-K. Chao

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-five disturbed intervals from 1997 through 2000 were analyzed and selected on the basis of space weather effect occurrences such as significant compression of the dayside magnetosphere, strong magnetic storms, ionospheric perturbations, relativistic electron enhancements, and increases in the rate of data failures and radiation doses on board the Mir station. Solar wind disturbances were considered as the main factor

  10. Weather satellite products in the Flight Service Automation System (FSAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Henline

    1984-01-01

    The activity discussed in this report was conducted to determine the acceptability and operational effectiveness of various techniques for displaying and distributing Weather Satellite Imagery within an Automated Flight Service Station (AFSS) environment. Primary consideration was given to the effectiveness of the displayed data together with the presentation format used for evaluations and demonstrations. Second, man-machine relationships and some hardware\\/software

  11. Placement of access points in wireless local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faisal A. Al-nasser; Mansour A. Al-dajani; Uthman Baroudi; Shokri Z. Selim

    2009-01-01

    There are basic design elements in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) architecture to provide good service for the users like locations, number and transmission power of the Access Points (APs), also known as Base Stations (BSs). The number of deployed stations has a direct impact on the cost of the WLAN. Moreover, the intercell interference is affected by the number

  12. Rates of Chemical Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Passow

    In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

  13. Sun, weather, and climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Herman; R. A. Goldberg

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather\\/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5)

  14. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This standards-based unit has been created for use by students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, students develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities. The lesson plans have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum, and to allow for flexibility in implementation.

  15. Weather Radar Network Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesc Junyent; V. Chandrasekar

    2008-01-01

    The Engineering Research Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) is investigating the use of dense networks of short-range radars for weather sensing. A first test-bed of this new paradigm is currently deployed in southwest Oklahoma. The potential benefits of closely deployed, overlapping, short-range weather radars are easy to see intuitively amounting to a greater ability to measure

  16. An Ocean of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will investigate the close relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere to determine the extent the ocean affects the Earth's weather in the South Atlantic Bight region. As they study this relationship, students will learn that the ocean and atmosphere work together as a system. They will experiment to find out that heat transfer from the ocean is a cause of much of Earth's weather and will make and explain an ocean water cycle.

  17. Experimental Analysis of Practically Efficient Algorithms for Bounded-Hop Accumulation in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Gianluca

    : in fact, if the distance-power gra- dient is grater than one, a long hop of length d is much more-Hoc Wireless Networks Andrea E. F. Clementi Miriam Di Ianni Angelo Monti Gianluca Rossi1 Riccardo Silvestri-hoc wireless network consists of a set of radio stations connected by wireless links. In an ad hoc network

  18. Wireless Personal Communications (2007) 42:465478 DOI 10.1007/s11277-006-9203-x c Springer 2006

    E-print Network

    Bahk, Saewoong

    2007-01-01

    base stations (BSs) or access points (APs) in addition to the wireless terminals for establishing in that they support only single-hop communication bet- ween the BS (or AP) and wireless terminals. ExpandingWireless Personal Communications (2007) 42:465­478 DOI 10.1007/s11277-006-9203-x c Springer 2006

  19. The Design and Implementation of Energy-aware Data Gathering Techniques (EDGE) for In-building Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YookChun Kwon; Dongkyun Kimt; C. K. Toh; Joungsik Kim

    2007-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, application-dependent protocols are usually needed. In our application, each room in a building is equipped with a sensor node which can detect a fire and transmit its identifier to a monitoring station. In addition, the monitoring station needs to monitor the current status of each room periodically. To support such an application using the wireless sensor

  20. 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

  1. Recall of Television Weather Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A Minneapolis/St. Paul telephone survey revealed that most people interviewed relied on radio weather reports for weather information, that the amount of weather information retained from radio and television forecasts was minimal, and that most people were satisfied with television weather reports. (GW)

  2. MetLink: Weather and Climate Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MetLink is a public resource created by the Royal Meteorological Society to assist educators seeking to edify their students about meteorology and climatology. The well-designed website has six primary sections, including Observations and Data, Teachers, and Resource of the Week. This last area is a fine place to start, as it brings together a range of well-considered resources that might include anything from a cloud identification key to a set of interactive graphics demonstrating the formation of thunderstorms. In the Observations and Data area, visitors can learn about weather stations in Britain, meteorology fieldwork, and over a dozen different weather experiments. The Teachers area contains links to curricular materials, including guides for in-class demonstrations, quizzes, and fact sheets. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive email updates about the work of the Royal Meteorological Society.

  3. Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks.

    PubMed

    Messer, Hagit; Zinevich, Artem; Alpert, Pinhas

    2006-05-01

    The global spread of wireless networks brings a great opportunity for their use in environmental studies. Weather, atmospheric conditions, and constituents cause propagation impairments on radio links. As such, while providing communication facilities, existing wireless communication systems can be used as a widely distributed, high-resolution atmospheric observation network, operating in real time with minimum supervision and without additional cost. Here we demonstrate how measurements of the received signal level, which are made in a cellular network, provide reliable measurements for surface rainfall. We compare the estimated rainfall intensity with radar and rain gauge measurements. PMID:16675693

  4. Wireless communication and environmental health safety standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaydar M. Quboa; Bariq. M. Abaoy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the University of Mosul Campus is considered as an outdoor wireless propagation case study for environmental fields. For this case study, the fields emitted from Asia Cell mobile base station identifier ID 4194 are measured, simulated and compared with the available electromagnetic safety standards such as ICNIRP, FCC, EUROPEAN, and Salzburg standards. The measurements are carried out

  5. Effects of base station antenna height and mobile terminal movement on the vector propagation channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adnan Kavak; Weidong Yang; Kapil R. Dandekar; Guanghan Xu

    1999-01-01

    In wireless communications, propagation characteristics of smart antenna systems can be described by vector channels. In order to accurately characterize and model vector channels, extensive measurements in realistic wireless environments are needed. This paper studies the variation of vector channels in non-stationary propagation environments which are caused by (a) deploying the base station antenna at different heights and keeping the

  6. Real-time Prioritized Call Admission Control in a Base Station Scheduler

    E-print Network

    Lockwood, John W.

    a call admission control policy that is designed to make e cient use of the limited wireless channel. Section 3 describes the wireless network model and call admission assumptions. Section 4 providesReal-time Prioritized Call Admission Control in a Base Station Scheduler Jay R. Moorman jrmoorma

  7. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used to study the correlation between soil moisture and the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), obtained from remote sensing data, which will allow us to produce soil moisture maps for the whole control area. These soil moisture fields will then be compared to those obtained from HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model ). Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations will also be performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign will consist of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD provided by the Technical University of Denmark (TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer provided by TKK, (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system provided by Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC), (iv) IR sensor provided by the Finnish Institute of Maritime Research (FIMR), (v) a low resolution digital video camera Together with the ground soil moisture measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements obtained from the Valencia Anchor Station site will be used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature so as to have satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test retrieval algorithms. The spatialization of the ground measurements up to a SMOS pixel will be carried out by using a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model (SUR- FEX) from Mátéo France. Output data, particularly soil moisture, will then used to simulate ee the L-band surface emission through the use of the L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model. This paper will present an overview of the whole Valencia Anchor Station Experimental Plan making more emphasis on the development of the ground activities which are considered a key element for the performance of the different validation components.

  8. Weather pattern climatology of the Great Plains and the related wind regime

    SciTech Connect

    Barchet, W.R.

    1982-11-01

    The meteorology of the Great Plains can be described as a constant progression of air masses, fronts and cyclonic storm systems. Each of these meteorological conditions can be characterized by identifiable isobaric and related weather parameter patterns. Nine such patterns have been defined to type the weather patterns in the Great Plains. Time series of weather pattern types were produced for 62 stations on the Great Plains. Statistical analyses of these time series produced annual and seasonal frequencies of occurrence of the weather pattern types. Maps of the annual and seasonal frequency of occurrence of weather pattern type are presented for the Great Plains. Persistence and alternation frequencies match what is expected for traveling temperate latitude cyclones, anticyclones and fronts. The wind regime for stations at which the anemometer height and location was constant (and known) for a minimum of three consecutive years was stratified by weather pattern type. Statistical analyses were made to show the response of the wind to the large-scale distribution of air pressure associated with a weather pattern type. The response of the wind to the weather pattern is a site-specific result of the interaction of the large-scale meteorology with local terrain, surface roughness and atmospheric stability. Mean wind speed discriminates between pairs of weather pattern types with better than 75% confidence for more than two-thirds of the possible pairs of weather pattern types.

  9. Weather and The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Merritt

    2005-10-15

    Students will be able to do activities dealing with weather and water cycles. Learn what makes weather wet and wild, forcast and predict weather. Webweather For Kids Learn about tornadoes and hurricanes. Kidstorm Learn about the water cycles. water Cycles Now click on the following link: Interactive weather maker 1. How much change in temperature is needed to make it snow? On the right side of the page click on Weather Detective Web Quest. Follow the ...

  10. The effects of weather on daily mood: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Denissen, Jaap J A; Butalid, Ligaya; Penke, Lars; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2008-10-01

    The present study examines the effects of six weather parameters (temperature, wind power, sunlight, precipitation, air pressure, and photoperiod) on mood (positive affect, negative affect, and tiredness). Data were gathered from an online diary study (N = 1,233), linked to weather station data, and analyzed by means of multilevel analysis. Multivariate and univariate analyses enabled distinction between unique and shared effects. The results revealed main effects of temperature, wind power, and sunlight on negative affect. Sunlight had a main effect on tiredness and mediated the effects of precipitation and air pressure on tiredness. In terms of explained variance, however, the average effect of weather on mood was only small, though significant random variation was found across individuals, especially regarding the effect of photoperiod. However, these individual differences in weather sensitivity could not be explained by the Five Factor Model personality traits, gender, or age. PMID:18837616

  11. Wireless Communications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    Wireless communications is an industry that is growing at an incredible rate. Cellular phones are the most obvious example of this trend; it is hard to go anywhere without seeing someone using one. Rapidly advancing technologies and lower prices are making this all possible. At the current pace, there seems to be no limit to what is possible in the wireless industry.To learn about the events that led up to present day wireless communications, this site offers a very informative history of telecommunications (1) that goes all the way back to the time of carrier pigeons. A good introduction to wireless networking can be found in this mini-tutorial (2). The best parts of this tutorial are the discussions of many recent wireless developments and technologies. There are a few interactive games and activities that are supposed to be instructive and entertaining, but some of them can be annoying. For the more technically savvy user, the third site (3) starts by describing many of the principles that drive current wireless systems. The second part examines the technologies that will be used in future generations of services. To build on this material, the third generation mobile communications systems (3G) is the central topic at 3G Newsroom (4), providing breaking news about the development of 3G technology. Additionally, the site has an excellent introduction to 3G, including its applications and specifications. One of the advancements that is paving the way toward 3G is Bluetooth, which is explained in great detail here (5). This technology is capable of very high data transfer rates, but there are some limitations, which are all discussed in the articles on the site. Although Bluetooth is raising plenty of interest, this recent news story (6) is creating more than its share of debate. It outlines a very controversial move by the FCC to allow the use of ultrawideband technology in commercial wireless applications. The author explains in simple terms why there are so many concerns about something that could revolutionize wireless systems. The evolution of the global system for mobile communications (GSM) is traced at GSM World (7). Here users can learn about the roots of the wireless industry as well as what is in store for the future. A special section addresses health concerns associated with mobile phone use. Radio was one of the earliest form of wireless communication, and the Invention of Radio (8) documents the people and events that made it what it is today. The stories of such famous scientists and inventors as Marconi, DeForest, and Armstrong are told in brief accounts, and there is even a link to the well known War of the Worlds radio broadcast.

  12. The Emergency Email and Wireless Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a free public service, the Emergency Email and Wireless Network provides citizens with email, cell phone, or pager notifications from your local, regional, and national government sources. Users can choose to receive information about severe weather in their area; electric, gas, and water outages; daily weather forecasts; national disaster news; and more. On the registration page, visitors input their email address, home county, zip code, and the type of notification they would like, and can even block the service during certain times of the day.

  13. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station

    E-print Network

    .e. beginning 4 November) there were 12 days with the maximum wind gust 20 mph and 4 days with the max. wind gust 30 mph. The days with wind gusts 30 were: 5 Nov 08: 31 mph from 330º at 14:00 MST 6 Nov 08: 35

  14. 75 FR 6316 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz Band...Petition for Rulemaking Regarding Low Power Auxiliary Stations, Including Wireless Microphones...Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

  15. 75 FR 3639 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz Band...Petition for Rulemaking Regarding Low Power Auxiliary Stations, Including Wireless Microphones...Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...

  16. Oceans, Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Lightle

    2006-01-01

    What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

  17. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  18. Evaporation over a Heterogeneous Mixed Savanna-Agricultural Catchment using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Barrenetxea, G.; Vetterli, M.; Yacouba, H.; Repetti, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Small scale rain fed agriculture is the primary livelihood for a large part of the population of Burkina Faso. Regional climate change means that this population is becoming increasingly vulnerable. Additionally, as natural savanna is converted for agriculture, hydrological systems are observed to become less stable as infiltration is decreased and rapid runoff is increased to the detriment of crop productivity, downstream populations and local water sources. The majority of the Singou River Basin, located in South East Burkina Faso is managed by hunting reserves, geared to maintaining high populations of wild game; however, residents surrounding the protected areas have been forced to intensify agriculture that has resulted in soil degradation as well as increases in the frequency and severity of flooding and droughts. Agroforestry, or planting trees in cultivated fields, has been proposed as a solution to help buffer these negative consequences, however the specific hydrologic behavior of the watershed land cover is unknown. We have installed a distributed sensor network of 17 Sensorscope wireless meteorological stations. These stations are dispersed across cultivated rice and millet fields, natural savanna, fallow fields, and around agroforestry fields. Sensorscope routes data through the network of stations to be delivered by a GPRS connection to a main server. This multi hop network allows data to be gathered over a large area and quickly adapts to changes in station performance. Data are available in real time via a website that can be accessed by a mobile phone. The stations are powered autonomously by small photovoltaic panels. This deployment is the first time that these meteorological stations have been used on the African continent. Initial calibration with measures from 2 eddy covariance stations allows us to calculate the energy balance at each of the Sensorscope stations. Thus, we can observe variation in evaporation over the various land cover in the watershed. This research will both contribute to scientific understanding of West African vegetation and inform local reforestation and agricultural management. Concurrent to this scientific research, the community is improving natural resource management efforts including reforestation, a botanical garden and environmental education. Our hope is that the results of our evaporation modeling will inform local farmers and thus help improve their adaption to changing weather patterns and land cover.

  19. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  20. Titan's Methane Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Henry G.

    2012-05-01

    Conditions in Titan's troposphere are near the triple point of methane, the second most abundant component of its atmosphere. Our understanding of Titan's lower atmosphere has shifted considerably in the past decade. Ground-based observations, Hubble Space Telescope images, and data returned from the Cassini and Huygens spacecraft show that Titan's troposphere hosts a methane-based meteorology in direct analogy to the water-based meteorology of Earth. What once was thought to be a quiescent place, lacking in clouds or localized weather and changing only subtly on long seasonal timescales, is now understood to be a dynamic system with significant weather events regularly occurring against the backdrop of dramatic seasonal changes. Although the observational record of Titan's weather covers only a third of its 30-year seasonal cycle, Titan's atmospheric processes appear to be more closely analogous to those of Earth than to those of any other object in our solar system.

  1. Development of a formula to determine outdoor residential water consumption in College Station, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Winkelblech, Audrey Kristen

    1997-01-01

    This thesis reports the findings of a telephone survey, public tax records, and water bills of 233 randomly selected single family detached residences, built between 1992 and 1994 in College Station, Texas. Weather information consisting of average...

  2. M Station, Austin 

    E-print Network

    Mathon, S.

    2011-01-01

    SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station 81 10849 $0.00/sf 100% Native Plants 76 $1.00/sf (total) ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station 81 10849 $0.00/sf 100% Native Plants Concrete Paving 76 $1....00/sf (total) ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station 81 10849 $0.00/sf 100% Native Plants Concrete Paving Pervious Concrete Sidewalks 76 $1.00/sf (total) ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station 81...

  3. Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This background chapter reviews the basic principles of meteorology that educators need to guide inquiry activities in the classroom. Topics include structure of the atmosphere, Coriolis effect, water cycle, greenhouse effect, cyclones, anticyclones, and jet streams. This is chapter 2 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

  4. Wonderful World of Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

  5. Wisconsin Weather Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Wisconsin meteorologists and folklorists along with Wisconsin teachers created this website to offer classroom materials "that integrate earth science, social studies, language arts, and math." Students can learn about severe weather and the importance of forecasting by listening to and reading people's accounts. Each lesson contains benchmarks and standards for grades four, eight, and twelve; as well as many fun activities. The website features a concise glossary and many links where teachers can discover more resources. Visitors who remember the weather discussed, such as the Ice Bowl of 1967, can find out how to submit their accounts to the website.

  6. Indigenous Weather Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

  7. Weather and Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2008-11-25

    This course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, providing information about reliable public health services, tools, and resources.

  8. Weather Depot 1.21

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a quote commonly misattributed to Mark Twain goes, "Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does a thing about it." This little program from the folks at Weather Depot won't allow users to modify weather conditions, but it will let users customize their own weather planner (with hourly and daily updates), view regional radar, and view a map of current temperatures around the United States. Additionally, users may look up current road conditions, and view weather Web cams. Weather Depot 1.21 is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and higher.

  9. Weatherization Works!: Weatherization Assistance Program Close-Up Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    The United States demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  10. Space Weather Forecasting at NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.; Evans, R. M.; Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing research forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to its critical role in space weather education. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. In this presentation, we will focus on how near real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable space weather forecasting and quality space weather products provided by our Center. A few critical near real-time data streams for space weather forecasting will be identified and discussed.

  11. Space Weather Research in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhantayev, Zh.; Kryakunova, O.; Nikolayevskiy, N.; Zhumabayev, B.

    2014-02-01

    In Kazakhstan there is an experimental complex for space weather study and forecasting. This complex is situated near Almaty (Kazakhstan). It includes an experimental setup for records of cosmic ray intensity (neutron monitor) at the altitude of 3340 m above sea level, a magnetic observatory ´Alma-Ataª, an optical interferometer SATI for recording the emission of night sky, an ionospheric sounder and a solar radio telescope. Nowadays the measurements of the solar radio flux at frequencies of 1.078 GHz and 2.8 GHz (10.7 cm) is carried out on the regular basis with 1-second time resolution. A new Callisto radio spectrometer (eC37) was installed and configured while the ´Orbitaª ground station. All data are represented on the web site of the Institute of the Ionosphere (www.ionos.kz) in real time. Since July 2006 the space environment prediction laboratory represents the fore cast of geomagnetic activity every day on the same site.

  12. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  13. Ultrahigh-Bitrate Wireless Data Communications via THz-Links; Possibilities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The data rate in the communication networks increases by a two number digit every year. Even today's mobile, wireless devices offer a large number of high-bitrate data services reaching from entertainment over information to communication. However, for the so called last-mile problem, for the connection of the network with remote cellular base stations and for other wireless links ultrahigh-bitrate connections are required. Another important application of ultrahigh-bitrate wireless links is the very fast rebuilding of a network infrastructure after natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and blizzards. Contrary to optical links, carrier waves in the submillimeter-wave, or THz-region of the electromagnetic spectrum offer a high capacity and reliability even under worst weather conditions like a strong rain or dense fog. The THz-range has a large bandwidth so that even with simple modulation formats a quite high bitrate can be transmitted. However, ultrahigh bitrates require spectrally efficient modulation formats and these formats require THz-sources with a very high quality, i.e. low phase noise and narrow linewidth. Here an overview of the possibilities and challenges for ultrahigh bitrate transmission and the generation of high-quality THz-waves is given and a method for the generation of very stable and precise millimeter and THz waves is presented. In first proof of concept experiments a linewidth of < 1 Hz and a phase noise of < -130 dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz from the carrier was measured in the microwave range.

  14. Low-Power Radio Communication in Industrial Outdoor Deployments: The Impact of Weather

    E-print Network

    Roedig, Utz

    Low-Power Radio Communication in Industrial Outdoor Deployments: The Impact of Weather Conditions Computing Deparment, Lancaster, UK {j.brown,u.roedig}@lancaster.ac.uk Abstract. Industry recognizes wireless sensor networks as one of the next major technical and economical shifts in automation and control

  15. Weather automation studies at the Otis Weather Test Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Chisholm

    1978-01-01

    A description of the Otis Weather Test Facility (WTF) is presented, taking into account the distribution of surface-based and tower-mounted instrumentation at the WTF, the automation of the rotating beam ceilometer, the present weather decision tree, and slant visual range techniques. A demonstration model of a Modular Automated Weather System (MAWS) is also considered. The versatility of MAWS results from

  16. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  17. Winter Storms Weather Quizzes

    E-print Network

    and report more exact measurements. As it comes closer to land, special weather radars track the hurricane, the sea may rise as high as 25 feet above normal high tide! That is taller than six kids standing on each up all the small things laying around your yard, like toys, tools and flower pots and bring them

  18. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  19. Weather, Climate, and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  20. Winds, Weather, and Deserts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 17 questions on the topic of wind and weathering, which covers the Coriolis Effect and wind characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit an answer and are provided immediate verification.

  1. Weather in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The ATS-111 weather satellite, launched on November 18, 1967, in a synchronous earth orbit 22,000 miles above the equator, is described in this folder. The description is divided into these topics: the satellite, the camera, the display, the picture information, and the beneficial use of the satellite. Photographs from the satellite are included.…

  2. Sunspots and Space Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation for students in how sunspots impact space weather between the Sun and Earth. Students research solar maximum and minimum as well as recent sunspot numbers to determine a connection between the numbers and solar activity. This page is accompanied by a page of websites for further resources.

  3. METEOROLOGICAL Monthly Weather Review

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado Submitted to Monthly Weather Review 9 September 2010 Corresponding Author Address: Angela K. Rowe Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State subsequent freezing to produce graupel. Similar features were also observed in an isolated cell over

  4. Blogging About the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Evans

    2010-04-01

    Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

  5. Weathering crusts on peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Kurt; Stober, Ingrid; Müller-Sigmund, Hiltrud

    2015-05-01

    Chemical weathering of dark-green massive peridotite, including partly serpentinized peridotite, produces a distinct and remarkable brown weathering rind when exposed to the atmosphere long enough. The structure and mineral composition of crusts on rocks from the Ronda peridotite, Spain, have been studied in some detail. The generic overall weathering reaction serpentinized peridotite + rainwater = weathering rind + runoff water describes the crust-forming process. This hydration reaction depends on water supply from the outcrop surface to the reaction front separating green peridotite from the brown crust. The reaction pauses after drying and resumes at the front after wetting. The overall net reaction transforms olivine to serpentine in a volume-conserving replacement reaction. The crust formation can be viewed as secondary serpentinization of peridotite that has been strongly altered by primary hydrothermal serpentinization. The reaction stoichiometry of the crust-related serpentinization is preserved and reflected by the composition of runoff waters in the peridotite massif. The brown color of the rind is caused by amorphous Fe(III) hydroxide, a side product from the oxidation of Fe(II) released by the dissolution of fayalite component in olivine.

  6. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Padilha; Hisao Takahashi; Eurico de Paula; Hanumant Sawant; Haroldo de Campos Velho; Icaro Vitorello; Joaquim Costa; Jonas Souza; José Cecatto; Odim Mendes; Walter Demétrio Gonzalez Alarcon

    2008-01-01

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the

  7. Weather Specialist (AFSC 25120).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This correspondence course is designed for self-study to help military personnel to attain the rating of weather specialist. The course is organized in three volumes. The first volume, containing seven chapters, covers background knowledge, meteorology, and climatology. In the second volume, which also contains seven chapters, surface…

  8. Weather and the Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on weather and objects in the sky includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  9. The Weather Watchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Background information and six activities on predicting weather are provided. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also included are several ready-to-copy worksheets. (JN)

  10. Gulf of Maine: Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

  11. Space Weather: A Research Perspective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Research Council (NRC) sponsors the Space Weather: A Research Perspective Website. Space weather occurs due to the behavior of the sun, the "nature of Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere, and our location in the solar system." Space weather research will be useful for space weather forecasting, satellite troubleshooting, and gaining a greater understanding of Earth's place in space. To further understand space weather, the user can browse through sections such as What is Space Weather, The Elements of Near-Earth Space, Practical Consequences of Space Weather, and Earth-Space Meteorology, among others. Each section provides images, diagrams, and descriptions. Weather links and resources, as well as a glossary, round out the site.

  12. Wireless services business plan

    E-print Network

    Koh, Bong (Bong Dug)

    2005-01-01

    The primary goals of this thesis were to analyze the market for wireless applications/services and create a business plan for a viable wireless application. There has been tremendous hype relating to wireless data services ...

  13. Energy Efficient Sensor, Relay and Base Station Placements for Coverage, Connectivity and Routing

    E-print Network

    Venkatesan, S.

    Energy Efficient Sensor, Relay and Base Station Placements for Coverage, Connectivity and Routing­0688 Email:*maulin@student.utdallas.edu, {chandra, venky}@utdallas.edu Abstract-- We consider a wireless nodes, relay nodes and base stations for guaranteed coverage, connectivity, bandwidth and robustness. We

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS 1 Base Station Sleeping and Resource Allocation

    E-print Network

    management in cellular networks where base stations (BSs) are equipped with energy harvesting devices, using is uniformly distributed. Index Terms Energy harvesting, resource allocation, base station sleeping, dynamic the surrounding environment to support wireless data transmission, known as energy harvesting technology

  15. A wide-area bird monitoring system using geographically distributed base stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Mase; Takehiro Kajita; Yunzhe Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In the proposed bird monitoring system, a bird-tag, equipped with GPS, is attached on the bird body. Base stations are geographically distributed in a wide interest area to receive the GPS data sets from bird-tags using low power wireless transmission system. A data center collects the GPS data from the base stations to track the position of each bird. Simple

  16. A unscented particle filtering approach to estimating competing stations in IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Zheng; Junshan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The number of competing stations has great impact on the network performance of wireless LANs. It is therefore of great interest to obtain accurate estimation of the number of competing stations so that adaptive control mechanisms can be carried out accordingly. Based on the observation that this estimation problem is nonlinear\\/non-Gaussian in nature, we propose to use a sequential Monte

  17. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  18. Wireless Tots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lee-Allison

    2003-01-01

    The first wireless technology program for preschoolers was implemented in January at the Primrose School at Bentwater in Atlanta, Georgia, a new corporate school operated by Primrose School Franchising Co. The new school serves as a testing and training facility for groundbreaking educational approaches, including emerging innovations in…

  19. Wireless Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Discusses wireless access-control equipment in the school and university setting, particularly the integrated reader lock at the door with a panel interface module at the control panel. Describes its benefits, how it works, and its reliability and security. (EV)

  20. Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Hefeeda; M. Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Early detection of forest fires is the primary way of minimizing their dam- ages. We present the design of a wireless sensor network for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires according to the Fire Weather Index (FWI) System which is one of the most comprehensive forest fire danger rating systems in

  1. Space-based wireless sensor networks: Design issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya Vladimirova; Christopher P. Bridges; Jean R. Paul; Saad A. Malik; Martin N. Sweeting

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a satellite sensor network, which applies the concept of terrestrial wireless sensor networks to space. Constellation design and enabling technologies for picosatellite constellations such as distributed computing and intersatellite communication are discussed. The research, carried out at the Surrey Space Centre, is aimed at space weather missions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Distributed satellite system

  2. Prediction and Management in Energy Harvested Wireless Sensor Nodes

    E-print Network

    Simunic, Tajana

    present a fast, efficient and reliable solar prediction algorithm, namely, Weather-Conditioned Moving Average (WCMA) that is capable of exploiting the solar energy more efficiently than state: tajana@ucsd.edu Abstract--Solar panels are frequently used in wireless sensor nodes because they can

  3. Linking Space Weather Science and Decision Making (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    Linking scientific knowledge to decision making is a challenge for both the science and policy communities. In particular, in the field of space weather, there are unique challenges such as decision makers may not know that space has weather that poses risks to our technologically-dependent economy. Additionally, in an era of limited funds for scientific research, hazards posed by other natural disasters such as flooding and earthquakes are by contrast well known to policy makers, further making the importance of space weather research and monitoring a tough sell. Today, with industries and individuals more dependent on the Global Positioning System, wireless technology, and satellites than ever before, any disruption or inaccuracy can result in severe economic impacts. Therefore, it is highly important to understand how space weather science can most benefit society. The key to connecting research to decision making is to ensure that the information is salient, credible, and legitimate. To achieve this, scientists need to understand the decision makers' perspectives, including their language and culture, and recognize that their needs may evolve. This presentation will take a closer look at the steps required to make space weather research, models, and forecasts useful to decision makers and ultimately, benefit society.

  4. Weather Specialist/Aerographer's Mate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…

  5. Science Sampler: Clever with weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Crowder

    2011-02-01

    In eighth-grade Earth science at Louisville Middle School in Louisville, Colorado, students learn how large-scale weather patterns such as the jet stream and weather fronts interact to generate local weather conditions. The authors have developed a modeli

  6. Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

  7. Making a Space Weather Script

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, learners write space weather reports using current data about the Sun and create a broadcast script to present the researched information to an audience. Several activities are related to this lesson, including "Understanding our Sun", "Sharing New Knowledge", and “Making Your Space Weather Action Center" in the Space Weather teacher's guide.

  8. Space weather activities in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cole

    2004-01-01

    Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The Plan has three main platforms, space weather monitoring and service delivery, support for priority research, and outreach to the community. The details of monitoring, service, research and outreach activities are summarised. A ground-based network

  9. US weather satellites and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The weather satellites and services of the National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are discussed. The economy and public safety of Washington State, monitoring of the extreme weather conditions around Mount St. Helens and search and rescue satellites are included.

  10. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  11. NEWS ENTERTAINMENT SHOPJOBSHOMESCARSCLASSIFIEDS More about: RSS | Wireless Search Site/Web Yellow Pages Archive Register Now | Log Innmlkji nmlkj nmlkj

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    NEWS ENTERTAINMENT SHOPJOBSHOMESCARSCLASSIFIEDS More about: RSS | Wireless Search Site/Web Yellow Pages Archive Register Now | Log Innmlkji nmlkj nmlkj NEWS BUSINESS SPORTS LIFE OPINION WEATHER BLOGS Esophageal Reflux WEDNESDAY, June 20 (HealthDay News) - - A wireless monitoring system that uses electrical

  12. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

  13. Generation of Multivariate Surface Weather Series with Use of the Stochastic Weather Generator Linked to Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Farda, A.; Huth, R.

    2012-12-01

    The regional-scale simulations of weather-sensitive processes (e.g. hydrology, agriculture and forestry) for the present and/or future climate often require high resolution meteorological inputs in terms of the time series of selected surface weather characteristics (typically temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, humidity, wind) for a set of stations or on a regular grid. As even the latest Global and Regional Climate Models (GCMs and RCMs) do not provide realistic representation of statistical structure of the surface weather, the model outputs must be postprocessed (downscaled) to achieve the desired statistical structure of the weather data before being used as an input to the follow-up simulation models. One of the downscaling approaches, which is employed also here, is based on a weather generator (WG), which is calibrated using the observed weather series and then modified (in case of simulations for the future climate) according to the GCM- or RCM-based climate change scenarios. The present contribution uses the parametric daily weather generator M&Rfi to follow two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate/CZ (v.2) Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters will be derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from observational data in the Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include selected statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation (characteristics of the mean, variability, interdiurnal variability and extremes). (2) Testing a potential of RCM output for calibration of the WG for the ungauged locations. The methodology being examined will consist in using the WG, whose parameters are interpolated from the surrounding stations and then corrected based on a RCM-simulated spatial variability. The quality of the weather series produced by the WG calibrated in this way will be assessed in terms of selected climatic characteristics focusing on extreme precipitation and temperature characteristics (including characteristics of dry/wet/hot/cold spells). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

  14. Shannon bounds for large-scale wireless MAC's potential capacity in presence of errors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander B. Markhasin

    2008-01-01

    The reachable, real, throughput capacity of the various medium access control (MAC) protocols differs considerably. In fact, a wireless MAC protocol's current state information is dispersed at geographically distributed stations, and therefore is inaccessible in principle for the \\

  15. Russia's national space weather service in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Viatcheslav; Avdyushin, Sergei; Denisova, Valentina

    RWC Russia (Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow) -forecasting center unites activity of the National Heliogeophysics Service of Russia and the Regional Warning Center of ISES. Nowadays the centre operates and fulfils numerous functions such as space weather monitoring, collecting, working and handing out the data to both Russian and foreign customers, compiling and spreading various kinds of the space weather condition forecasts. The first regular space weather forecast is known to have been issued on June 10, 1974. Since then this kind of activity has been processed and issued permanently 7 days a week. During year 2009 there were more than 17000 various short terms (semi -day, 1,2,3 and five days) forecasts of the geomagnetic fields and ionosphere conditions, magnetic fields, flare activity, radiation hazard in polar zones and the satellites traces. In the end of 2008 the Institute of Applied Geophysics was provided with necessary subsidizing to support the Space Weather Center. The fundamental repairs of the Institute's building have begun and are being done at present. They are to be completed this year. The allocated funds are sufficient to start the technical renovation of the Service, including: provision of the staff with up-to-date computing machinery; up-grading the observation stations equipment; preparing the apparatus and instruments for monitoring the near-earth space by two of our satellites "Meteor" and "Electro" ("Electro" -geostationary satellite). The "Meteor" satellite (subpolar orbit on altitude of 900 km) equipped with complex including: measurements of electron fluxes with energy more than 0.15 MeV, and proton fluxes with energy more than 5 MeV (40 channels) was launched on September 2009. These data (as well as ionosphere and geomagnetic data) are available on Web page www.geospace.ru since 2 quarter of the2010.

  16. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  17. WATMnet: A Prototype Wireless ATM System for Multimedia Personal Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dipankar Raychaudhuri; Leslie J. French; Robert J. Siracusa; Subir K. Biswas; Ruixi Yuan; Parthasarathy Narasimhan; Cesar A. Johnston

    1997-01-01

    A prototype microcellular wireless asynchronous transfer mode network (WATMnet) capable of providing integrated multimedia communication services to mobile terminals is described in this paper. The experimental system's hardware consists of laptop computers (NEC Versa-M) with WATMnet interface cards, multiple VME\\/i960 processor-based WATMnet base stations, and a mobility-enhanced local-area ATM switch. The prototype wireless network interface cards operate at peak bit-rates

  18. Weather Crossword Puzzle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site features weather crossword puzzles. Topics include the Earth's atmosphere, temperature, precipitation, fronts, clouds, winds, hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, weather, lightning and thunder, how hurricanes form, and snow. Links at the bottom of the page allow users to reference other Windows to the Universe sites to help solve the puzzles. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  19. Terminal Doppler weather radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Michelson; W. W. Shrader; J. G. Wieler

    1990-01-01

    The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver\\/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator\\/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the

  20. National Weather Service Glossary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the National Weather Service (NWS). Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years; the glossary will aid users in better understanding NWS products. The glossary is searchable by keyword or browsable by letter of the alphabet.

  1. Improving energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks through scheduling and routing

    E-print Network

    R, Rathna; 10.5121/ijassn.2012.2103

    2012-01-01

    This paper is about the wireless sensor network in environmental monitoring applications. A Wireless Sensor Network consists of many sensor nodes and a base station. The number and type of sensor nodes and the design protocols for any wireless sensor network is application specific. The sensor data in this application may be light intensity, temperature, pressure, humidity and their variations .Clustering and routing are the two areas which are given more attention in this paper.

  2. Fast and Efficient IP Handover in IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    E-print Network

    Bouras, Christos

    Fast and Efficient IP Handover in IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs Ioanna Samprakou Christos J. Bouras the IP mobility area of 802.11 wireless Stations (STAs). The IEEE 802.11f Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP), handles the Layer 2 (L2) mobility of STAs during L2 (intra-network) handovers, and offers IP

  3. A Distributed Multi-service Resource Allocation Algorithm in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Medium

    E-print Network

    Zhuang, Weihua

    of the available resources from these networks, new mechanisms for bandwidth allocation and call admission control. The coordination among different available wireless access networks' base stations is established via the MT--Heterogeneous wireless networks, resource allo- cation, multi-homing, network utility, distributed solutions. I

  4. WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND MOBILE COMPUTING Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. 2010; 10:372382

    E-print Network

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    , admission control has been a major and challenging research topic in wireless access networks [1-based admission control scheme for a single shared wireless base station with opportunistic scheduling John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEY WORDS: call admission control; opportunistic scheduling; quality of service

  5. A Dynamic Trust Establishment and Management Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junqi Zhang; Rajan Shankaran; Mehmet A. Orgun; Vijay Varadharajan; Abdul Sattar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a trust establishment and management framework for hierarchical wireless sensor networks. The wireless sensor network architecture we consider consists of a collection of sensor nodes, cluster heads and a base station arranged hierarchically. The framework encompasses schemes for establishing and managing trust between these different entities. We demonstrate that the proposed framework helps to minimize

  6. Combating Wireless LAN MAC-layer Address Spoofing with Fingerprinting Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Güenther Lackner; Udo Payer; Peter Teufl

    2009-01-01

    Unwanted use of wireless networks has become a well- known problem in recent years. One attempt to solve this problem is the use of access control lists, which are asso- ciated with accredited MAC addresses. But since MAC addresses can be spoofed very easily, improved mecha- nisms are needed to attest the uniqueness of a dedicated wireless station. Today, all

  7. On the Efficiency of Using Multiple Hops in Fixed Relay Based Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    On the Efficiency of Using Multiple Hops in Fixed Relay Based Wireless Networks By Adrian Florea and Research acceptance of the thesis On the Efficiency of Using Multiple Hops in Fixed Relay Based Wireless of fixed radio relay stations forming multi-hop links, such a way the right balance between achieving

  8. Using packet-level information in handover and admission control schemes for wireless packet network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Bianchi; Ilenia Tinnirello

    2000-01-01

    The algorithm which selects the best candidate base station to connect to is a key component in handover and admission control schemes for wireless cellular networks. This paper shows that, in wireless packet networks based on dynamic channel slot assignment, this algorithm can exploit additional packet-level information. The idea is that connections consume a different amount of resources even if

  9. Effects of Solar Radio Bursts on Wireless Systems Dale E. Gary1

    E-print Network

    1 Chapter Effects of Solar Radio Bursts on Wireless Systems Dale E. Gary1 , Louis J. Lanzerotti1 of the potential for interference and interruption of service of wireless communications systems due to solar radio solar bursts, and the design of current base station systems make them vulnerable to problems near

  10. Proxies + Path Prediction: Improving Web Service Provision in Wireless-Mobile Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stathes Hadjiefthymiades; Lazaros F. Merakos

    2003-01-01

    Mobile computing is considered of major importance to the computing industry for the forthcoming years due to the progress in the wireless communications area. A proxy-based architecture for accelerating Web browsing in wireless customer premises networks is presented. Proxy caches, maintained in base stations, are constantly relo- cated to accompany the roaming user. A cache management scheme is proposed, which

  11. Hybrid model predictive control based on wireless sensor feedback: An experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Bemporad; Erik Henriksson; Karl Henrik Johansson

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and the exper- imental validation of model predictive control (MPC) of a hybrid dynamical process based on measurements collected by a wireless sensor network. The proposed setup is the prototype of an industrial application in which a remote station controls the process via wireless network links. The experimental platform is a laboratory process consisting of

  12. Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

  13. Review of national estuarine research reserve system station data during 2008 Gulf of Mexico hypoxia event

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly LaRue; Danielle Carpenter; Ian T. Sears

    2009-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) creates, integrates, and maintains a broad network of buoys and Coastal Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations. Data from these stations are used by the National Weather Service (NWS) in creating and verifying forecasts, as well as by the general public for commercial and recreational purposes. In addition to

  14. Wireless Network Esercitazioni

    E-print Network

    Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

    Wireless Network Esercitazioni Alessandro Villani avillani@science.unitn.it #12;Configurazione AP;AP 1200: Configurazione Wireless Ruolo in una rete Wireless: Root o repeater Speed: Basic: traffico trasmissione) dei client (estensioni CISCO). #12;AP 1200: Configurazione Wireless Configurazione parametri base

  15. EMC and wireless healthcare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Witters; Seth Seidman; Howard Bassen

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a critical part of addressing the risks related to the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) on active medical devices exposed to emissions from wireless technology. In addition, for wireless technology in healthcare to be safe, effective, reliable, and secure specific wireless issues must also be addressed including quality of service, coexistence with other wireless equipment, data

  16. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  17. Contemporary Wireless Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wireless means radio in its broadest sense. However, in the early 21st century, wireless refers primarily to the two dominant forms of wireless: cell phones and wireless local area networks (WLANs). This module describes the idea behind the cellular telephone system, how it works, and the primary technologies used in the US and throughout the world. This module also introduces the wireless local area network or WLAN. WLANs are radio-linked computers that are part of a larger network. The wireless links make portability and mobility of computers possible. This module also briefly introduces four common forms of short- range wireless: Bluetooth, ZigBee, ultra wideband (UWB) and RFID.

  18. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  19. Accuracy of site coordinates obtainable by a mobile lunar laser station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loumos, G. L.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.; Silverberg, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The accuracy with which a mobile lunar laser station can be located was the subject of a modeling study. The influence of the number and accuracy of fixed lunar ranging stations, the uncertainty in polar motion, and data loss due to weather and similar factors were considered, and the results are given in a cartographic form. In general, all three coordinates (for coordinates to latitude + or - 60 deg) were determined to better than the pole uncertainty, given three or more fixed sites and reasonable weather. This result indicates that one or more mobile stations would be suitable for the study of geotectonics.

  20. Paper submitted to Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities1 Field Qualification of Inexpensive Wireless System to Monitor Micro-Meter Crack2

    E-print Network

    health, wireless, crack, monitoring, micrometer, weather, blasting,20 vibrations, construction21 22 1 in this example by the measurement of micro-meter36 opening and closing of cracks on the interior walls

  1. Advancing Profiling Sensors with a Wireless Approach

    PubMed Central

    Galvis, Alex; Russomanno, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The notion of a profiling sensor was first realized by a Near-Infrared (N-IR) retro-reflective prototype consisting of a vertical column of wired sparse detectors. This paper extends that prior work and presents a wireless version of a profiling sensor as a collection of sensor nodes. The sensor incorporates wireless sensing elements, a distributed data collection and aggregation scheme, and an enhanced classification technique. In this novel approach, a base station pre-processes the data collected from the sensor nodes and performs data re-alignment. A back-propagation neural network was also developed for the wireless version of the N-IR profiling sensor that classifies objects into the broad categories of human, animal or vehicle with an accuracy of approximately 94%. These enhancements improve deployment options as compared with the first generation of wired profiling sensors, possibly increasing the application scenarios for such sensors, including intelligent fence applications. PMID:23443371

  2. A combined optical wireless indoor communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berceli, Tibor

    2007-10-01

    This new combined optical-wireless indoor communication system provides an economic and flexible approach for local area networks mainly in large buildings or in a group of several buildings. The radiation from the radio base stations of mobile networks cannot penetrate into large buildings completely. That problem is more serious at higher frequencies. The present approach offers a good solution to this problem. In this approach the wireless communication serves small picocells which are interconnected by an optical backbone. The performance of the system is enhanced by assigning a specific radio frequency for each picocell which enables the transmission of the wireless channels without altering their modulation formats. This method allows for a simple, and low-cost indoor communication system.

  3. WeatherPop 1.6.4

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Weather Pop is a small application that allows users to receive up-to-the-minute weather information for up to three US cities from the National Weather Service. WeatherPop is also fully customizable, as users can select weather update frequency, temperature display color, preferred weather information source, humidity, visibility, barometer, and other options. WeatherPop is fully compatible with all computers running Mac X operating system.

  4. Weather satellite deactivated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    NOAA 8, the polar-orbiting weather satellite that was revived last May after tumbling in its orbit for 11 months (Eos, July 2, 1985, p. 527), recently suffered additional setbacks and has been “deactivated” by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The satellite's only working oscillator faltered and caused episodes of tumbling in September, November, and December 1985, according to Gary K. Davis, manager of NOAA's satellite operations control center in Suitland, Md. In addition, the episode that began December 30 apparently was accompanied by the rupture of a damaged battery, sending what seem to be pieces of the battery's thermal blankets and shields into orbits near the satellite.

  5. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Hersey

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library

  6. Southwestern Research Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site profiles AMNH's Southwestern Research Station (SWRS), a year-round field station that allows biologists, geologists, and anthropologists to study the diverse environments and biotas of the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern Arizona. The site includes an overview of the field station and its work, information on courses offered, and information for visitors, researchers, interns and volunteers.

  7. Space Station - early

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    James Hansen wrote: 'Langley engineers check out the interior of the inflatable 24-foot space station in January 1962.'... 'The first idea for an inflatable station was the Erectable Torus Manned Space Laboratory. A Langley space station team led by Paul Hill and Emanuel 'Manny' Schnitzer developed the concept with the help of the Goodyear Aircraft Corporation.'

  8. The Origin of "Space Weather"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cade, William B.; Chan-Park, Christina

    2015-02-01

    Although "space weather" is a fairly recent term, there is a rich history of similar terms being used beginning in the middle to late 1800s. "Solar meteorology," "magnetic weather," and "cosmic meteorology" all appeared during that time frame. The actual first appearance of space weather can be attributed to the publication Science News Letter in 1957 (with the first modern usage in 1959) and was possibly coined by the editor at the time, Watson Davis.

  9. Climate signal and weather noise

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, C.E.

    1995-04-01

    A signal of small climate change in either the real atmosphere or numerical simulation of it tends to be obscured by chaotic weather fluctuations. Time-lagged covariances of such weather processes are used to estimate the sampling errors of time average estimates of climate parameters. Climate sensitivity to changing external influences may also be estimated using the fluctuation dissipation relation of statistical mechanics. Answers to many climate questions could be provided by a realistic stochastic model of weather and climate.

  10. Science Shorts: Organizing Weather Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly J. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Often in schools, children collect weather data as part of their morning meeting or calendar time. These common primary level activities lend themselves nicely to introducing the importance of organizing data. In this lesson, children and teacher work together to find a structure for recording precipitation, temperature, and other weather information. Older children compare how using different types of graphs changes what is communicated about their weather data.

  11. MIMO - A SOLUTION FOR ADVANCED WIRELESS ACCESS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Beach; D. P. McNamara; P. N. Fletcher; P. Karlsson

    The application of Smart Antenna technology to wireless communication systems has attracted considerable attention over the last decade or so, as a means of capacity enhancement. Here, the application of space-time processing using a single antenna array at the base-station has been considered in order to obtain interference reduction (both co-channel and multi-path) as well as range extension. More recently,

  12. High-altitude platforms for wireless communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Tozer; D. Grace

    2001-01-01

    The demand for high-capacity wireless services is bringing increasing challenges, especially for delivery of the'last mile'. Terrestrially, the need for line-of-sight propagation paths represents a constraint unless very large numbers of base-station masts are deployed, while satellite systems have capacity limitations. An emerging solution is offered by high-altitude platforms (HAPs) operating in the stratosphere at altitudes of up to 22

  13. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  14. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  15. Jetstream: An Online Weather School

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    Jetstream is an online weather school from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service. Materials featured here include a selection of modules on weather on the web, the atmosphere, global weather, synoptic meteorology and other topics. A certificate of completion for each module can be printed by students who successfully complete their work. A topic matrix provides access to the sections for each module, beginning with an introduction and ending with review questions. In addition, an appendix for teachers features a glossary, list of acronyms, downloading instructions, answers to review questions, and overviews of the lesson plans within each module.

  16. Using Forecasting to Teach Weather Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Y.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-09-01

    Weather affects our lives and hence, is a popular topic in daily conversations and in the media. Therefore, it is not only important to teach weather, but is also a good idea to use 'weather' as a topic in science teaching. Science education has two main objectives: to acquire scientific concepts and methods. Weather forecasting is an adequate theme to teach scientific methods because it is dependent on observation. However, it is not easy to forecast weather using only temporal observation. We need to know the tendency of 'weather change' via consecutive and/or continuous weather observation. Students will acquire scientific-observation skills through weather observation. Data-processing skills would be enhanced through a weather-forecasting contest. A contest should be announced within 5 days of school events, such as a school excursion and field day. Students submit their own weather forecast by gathering weather information through the internet, news paper and so on. A weather-forecasting contest compels the student to observe the weather more often. We currently have some different weather forecasts. For example, American weather-related companies such as ACCU weather and Weather Channel provide weather forecast for the many locations all over the world. Comparing these weather forecasting with actual weather, participants such as students could evaluate the differences between forecasted and actual temperatures. Participants will judge the best weather forecast based on the magnitude of the difference. Also, participants evaluate the 'hitting ratio' of each weather forecast. Students can learn elementary statistics by comparing various weather forecasts. We have developed our weather web-site that provides our own weather forecasting and observation. Students acquire science skills using our weather web-site. We will report our lessen plans and explain our weather web-site.

  17. Modular Wireless Data-Acquisition and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Medelius, Pedro; Mata, Carlos; Eckhoff, Anthony; Blalock, Norman

    2004-01-01

    A modular wireless data-acquisition and control system, now in operation at Kennedy Space Center, offers high performance at relatively low cost. The system includes a central station and a finite number of remote stations that communicate with each other through low-power radio frequency (RF) links. Designed to satisfy stringent requirements for reliability, integrity of data, and low power consumption, this system could be reproduced and adapted to use in a broad range of settings.

  18. UWB radio module design for wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid Baghaei Nejad; Meigen Shen; Tero Koivisto; Teemu Peltonen; Esa Tjukanoff; Hannu Tenhunen; Li-Rong Zheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an impulse-based ultra wideband (UWB) radio system for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications.\\u000a Different architectures have been studied for base station and sensor nodes. The base station node uses coherent UWB architecture\\u000a because of the high performance and good sensitivity requirements. However, to meet complexity, power and cost constraints,\\u000a the sensor module uses a novel

  19. Observations and Impact Assessments of Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2007-05-01

    "Space weather" refers to conditions on the Sun, in the solar wind, and in Earth`s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. Activity on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections can lead to high levels of radiation in space and can cause major magnetic storms at the Earth. Space radiation can come as energetic particles or as electromagnetic emissions. Adverse conditions in the near-Earth space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids. This can lead to a variety of socioeconomic losses. Astronauts and airline passengers exposed to high levels of radiation are also at risk. Society`s vulnerability to space weather effects is an issue of increasing concern. We are dependent on technological systems that are becoming more susceptible to space weather disturbances. We also have a permanent human presence in space with the International Space Station and the President and NASA have expressed a desire to expand our human space activities with missions to the moon and Mars. This will make space weather of even greater concern in the future. In this talk I will describe many space weather effects and will describe some of the societal and economic impacts that extreme events have had.

  20. The impact of additional weather inputs on gas load forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Bo

    Natural gas utilities need to estimate their customers' gas demand accurately. This thesis develops a number of daily forecasting models for test the possibility to extend the weather inputs in the current method for three different operating areas. Our goal is to improve the accuracy of our forecast by extending the number of inputs used by the existing GasDay model. We present a detailed explanation of the identification of the significance for each of the new weather input candidates. The significance of the new weather inputs was tested by statistical hypothesis testing, by forecasting performance testing, and by unusual day evaluation. We show that with some combinations of additional weather instruments, the accuracy of the forecast is improved. For most gas utilities, the primary use of natural gas is for space heating, so temperature is a critical factor when we build forecast models. In this thesis, we develop a method to split the Heating Degree Day (HDD) term into smaller pieces and generate the forecast based on these small factors. We name the method that developed as Multiple Weather Station (MWS) model in Chapter 4. We show that the MWS model yields better results compared to the existing method.

  1. A hybrid modulation for the dissemination of weather data to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akos, Dennis M.

    1991-01-01

    Ohio University is continuing to conduct research to improve its system for weather data dissemination to aircraft. The current experimental system transmit compressed weather radar reflectivity patterns from a ground based station to aircraft. Although an effective system, the limited frequency spectrum does not provide a channel for transmission. This introduces the idea of a hybrid modulation. The hybrid technique encodes weather data using phase modulation (PM) onto an existing aeronautical channel which employs amplitude modulation (AM) for voice signal transmission. Ideally, the two modulations are independent of one another. The planned implementation and basis of the system are the reviewed.

  2. Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of stranded oils after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Won, Jong Ho; Han, Gi Myung; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-12-15

    After the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil were stranded along 375 km of coastline in Western Korea. Stranded oils were monitored for their identity and weathering status in 19 stations in three provinces. The results obtained using a weathering model indicated that evaporation would be a dominant weathering process immediately after the spill and the sequential changes of chemical composition in the field verified this prediction positively. In the early stages of weathering, the half-life of spilled oil was calculated to be 2.6 months. Tiered fingerprinting approaches identified background contamination and confirmed the identity of the stranded oils with the spill source. Double ratios using alkylated phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes in samples after the spill clearly reveal the impact of weathering on oil. However, to derive defensible fingerprinting for source identification and allocation, recalcitrant biomarkers are extremely useful. Weathering status of the stranded oils was evaluated using composition profiles of saturated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various weathering indices. Most samples collected 8 months after the spill were categorized in either the advanced or extreme weathering states. Gradual increase in toxic components in the residual oil through weathering emphasizes the need for adaptive ecotoxicological approaches. PMID:21996619

  3. Distribution System Reliability Assessment Incorporating Weather Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Billinton; J. Acharya

    2006-01-01

    Electrical distribution systems usually exist in outdoor environments. The weather creates varying degrees of physical stress on system components exposed to fluctuating weather conditions. The failure rate of an element is greatly enhanced in bad weather situations and the likelihood of multiple line failures is much higher in bad weather than in normal weather. The phenomenon of coincident failures of

  4. National Severe Storms Laboratory's Weather Room

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational website from NOAA has: facts on tornadoes, hurricanes, lightning and thunderstorms; lessons on weather symbols, maps and systems; an extensive list of weather and climate resources for teachers; information on careers in weather; and a list of weather links including weather data. Additionally, the site includes all the latest meteorological research including tornado genesis and lightning.

  5. Constructing design weather data for future climates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SE Belcher; JN Hacker; DS Powell

    2005-01-01

    We develop a method, here called ‘morphing’, to produce design weather data for building thermal simulations that accounts for future changes to climate. Morphing combines present-day observed weather data with results from climate models. The procedure yields weather time series that encapsulate the average weather conditions of future climate scenarios, whilst preserving realistic weather sequences. In this sense the method

  6. Basalt Weathering Rates Across Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to basalt weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess basalt weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of basalt (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from basalt watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on basaltic parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on basalt clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). Basalt weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a basalt soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that basalt weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, basalt weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of basalt weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, ?, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter to compare weathering advance rates at varying scales. Given that, w=10^{-3.7}D^{0.23} we can use the fractal dimension of basalt weathering to define the roughness factor for basalt weathering as, ?=wD1/wD2=(D1/D2)^{0.23}.

  7. Nowcasting extreme weather events over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, Petros; Nomikou, Vera; Mavromatidis, Elias; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Kotroni, Vassiliki

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and consistent very short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories providing a direct impact on the risk management. To this end, an advanced mesoscale meteorological data assimilation tool, the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS), has been implemented in order to serve as an early warning system. LAPS incorporates surface and upper air observations (METAR, SYNOP, satellite, soundings, radar, aircraft etc) into large-scale gridded data (as background fields) and produces high spatial and temporal resolution analysis fields and early forecasts. This study presents the performance of the LAPS system in describing two unusual events of hazardous weather conditions over Greece. The first case study is characterized by the passage of a cyclonic system accompanied with cold fronts over Southern Greece. Heavy downpour, lightning and flooding were the main characteristics of the storm that affected Athens metropolitan area on February 22nd 2013. In the second case study the passage of a cold front over SE Aegean Sea led in a destructive and deadly flash flooding that affected the Northern areas of Rhodes Island on November 22nd 2013. This second flash flood event was triggered by the extreme precipitation (almost 100 mm in 4 hours) and killed 4 people making it the deadliest ever for the area. For both case studies, the conventional numerical weather prediction models operating at various research institutes and universities provided a rather insufficient spatiotemporal estimation of the extreme precipitation. For these cases, the LAPS-based nowcasting procedure has been applied with and without the ingestion of high resolution remote sensed precipitation estimates. The LAPS outputs have been evaluated against independent observations obtained from a dense network of surface meteorological stations. Results indicate that LAPS outputs were better than those obtained from the conventional operational forecasts. Also, the use of the satellite information improved the LAPS-based hourly Quantitative Precipitation Estimates in terms of amount, timing and localization.

  8. A Hole in the Weather Warning System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Vincent T.; Weisman, Robert A.

    2003-02-01

    lack of text information. These problems had forced deaf and hard of hearing people to rely on looking at the sky or having hearing people alert them as their primary methods of receiving emergency information. These problems are documented through the use of a survey of 277 deaf and hard of hearing people in Minnesota and Oklahoma as well as specific examples.During the last two years, some progress has been made to "close this hole" in the weather warning system. The Federal Communications Commission has approved new rules, requiring that all audio emergency information provided by television stations, satellite, and cable operators must also be provided visually. In addition, the use of new technology such as pager systems, weather radios adapted for use by those with special needs, the Internet, and satellite warning systems have allowed deaf and hard of hearing people to have more access to emergency information.In this article, these improvements are documented but continuing problems and possible solutions are also listed.

  9. Time-slotted voting mechanism for fusion data assurance in wireless sensor networks under stealthy attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Ta Pai; Jing Deng; Yunghsiang S. Han

    2010-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, data fusion is often performed in order to reduce the overall message transmission from the sensors toward the base station. We investigate the problem of data fusion assurance in multi-level data fusion or transmission in this paper. Different to a recent approach of direct voting where the base station polls other nodes directly regarding to the

  10. 1 Information Technology | Titan Lab Wireless Printing Setup for Windows 7

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    1 Information Technology | Titan Lab Wireless Printing Setup for Windows 7 1. Authenticate Carthy Commons (Black and White) \\\\TL2BW1\\MHTL1 Mc Carthy Commons (Color) \\\\TL2COLOR\\MHTLCOLOR Print Only Station (1st Floor) \\\\printonly11\\printview Print Only Station (2nd Floor) \\\\printonly22\\printview Print

  11. A new framework for call admission control in wireless cellular network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megha Kamble; Roopam Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Managing the limited amount of the radio spectrum is an important issue with increasing demand of the same. In recent work, we have introduced MAS (Multi-agent System) for channel assignment problem in wireless cellular networks. Iinstead of using a base station directly for negotiation, a multi- agent system comprising of software agents was designed to work at base station. The

  12. Optimization of wireless local area network in IC factory using a jumping-gene paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Chan; K. F. Mani; K. S. Tang; S. Kwong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a jumping gene paradigm is proposed to optimize the base station placement for the wireless local area network (WLAN) of an IC factory. In order to offer adequate radio coverage quality for the terminals, the locations of base stations should be correctly determined. Since there is a tradeoff between the signal quality of terminals and the number

  13. Capacity Of a Wireless Ad Hoc Network With Infrastructure Benyuan Liu

    E-print Network

    Liu, Benyuan

    with infrastructure support of an overlay of wired base stations. Such a network architecture is often referred of wireless ad hoc net- works. We further consider a one-dimensional network model and a two-dimensional strip of base stations b = ( n) before we see such a capacity increase. For a 2-dimensional strip network

  14. A methodology for root cause analysis of poor performance in fixed-wireless data networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dogu Arifler

    2007-01-01

    In fixed-wireless data networks, poor performance experienced by users, such as excessive delays during file transfers, might be due to a heavily utilized base station or due to the location of the users relative to the base station. A principal component analysis based methodology that may be used by content providers for analyzing the root cause of performance problems is

  15. Joint mobility and routing for lifetime elongation in wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Luo; Jean-pierre Hubaux

    2005-01-01

    Although many energy efficient\\/conserving routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks, the concentration of data traffic towards a small number of base stations remains a major threat to the network lifetime. The main reason is that the sensor nodes located near a base station have to relay data for a large part of the network and thus deplete

  16. THE WEATHER AND CLIMATE TOOLKIT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Ansari; Chad Hutchins; Stephen Del Greco; Mark Phillips

    The Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including NEXRAD Radar, GOES Satellite, NOMADS Model and surface in-situ data. By leveraging the NetCDF for Java library and Common Data Model, the WCT is extremely scalable and

  17. Dressing according to the weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Holland

    2011-04-06

    What should I wear so that I am comfortable outside? Get this Organizer 1. Go here Song for Telling the weather 2. Then here The weather today is? 3. Next play this Dressing Teddy Bear Game 4. Then play this game Dressing for the seasons! 5. Last play this game Dressing Caillou ...

  18. Internet Geography: Weather and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on the topics of weather and climate, covering world climate zones, factors affecting climate, precipitation, pressure systems and weather hazards (tropical storms and tornadoes).

  19. Doing Something About the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Charles J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an exercise that familiarizes students with the language of German weather reports, so that they will know what kinds of information to listen for. The exercise also helps students expand their vocabulary. The article includes transcriptions of actual German weather reports. (SED)

  20. Classification algorithms for weather radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Yanovsky; Vitaly Marchuk; Yaroslav Ostrovsky; Yulia Averyanova

    2008-01-01

    Theory, measurements, and signal processing applying to the radar remote sensing of weather objects are considered. Algorithms for hydrometeor type and turbulence intensity recognition are developed and analyzed. Particularly, fuzzy logic and neural network approaches are applied for weather radar signal processing.

  1. Principles of Numerical Weather Prediction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-01-01

    This undergraduate meteorology tutorial uses a narrative format to discuss the strengths and limitations of computer weather forecasting models and aids students in recognizing when they will have problems. Students are expected to grasp the importance of initial conditions and of model resolution in a numerical weather forecast.

  2. Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

  3. Federal plan for weather services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1974-01-01

    Plans for an improved severe weather warning system and the use of new technology for more efficient operations highlight a newly released Federal Plan for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research-Fiscal Year 1975, Expanded weather services to aviation are also projected.The plan, published yearly for presentation to the Congress, includes proposed activities of all Federal agencies conducting meteorological programsthe Departments of

  4. Weather service upgrade too costly?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Bush

    1991-01-01

    America needs timely and accurate weather forecasting, said Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C.), chairman of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on National Ocean Policy. Calling the existing warning and forecast system dangerously obsolete, Hollings said that new technology ``should dramatically improve the accuracy and timeliness of weather predictions,'' as we face the new challenge of bringing the National

  5. Intelligent Weather Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for automatically displaying, visually and/or audibly and/or by an audible alarm signal, relevant weather data for an identified aircraft pilot, when each of a selected subset of measured or estimated aviation situation parameters, corresponding to a given aviation situation, has a value lying in a selected range. Each range for a particular pilot may be a default range, may be entered by the pilot and/or may be automatically determined from experience and may be subsequently edited by the pilot to change a range and to add or delete parameters describing a situation for which a display should be provided. The pilot can also verbally activate an audible display or visual display of selected information by verbal entry of a first command or a second command, respectively, that specifies the information required.

  6. Supporting Weather Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Since its founding in 1992, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (GST), of Greenbelt, Maryland, has been developing technologies and providing services in support of NASA scientific research. GST specialties include scientific analysis, science data and information systems, data visualization, communications, networking and Web technologies, computer science, and software system engineering. As a longtime contractor to Goddard Space Flight Center s Earth Science Directorate, GST scientific, engineering, and information technology staff have extensive qualifications with the synthesis of satellite, in situ, and Earth science data for weather- and climate-related projects. GST s experience in this arena is end-to-end, from building satellite ground receiving systems and science data systems, to product generation and research and analysis.

  7. Cool Stars and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jardine, M.; Cameron, A. C.; Morin, J.; Villadsen, J.; Saar, S. H.; Alvarado, J.; Cohen, Ofer; Holzwarth, V.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Reville, V.

    2015-01-01

    Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the ``space weather''. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session ``Cool stars and Space Weather'', that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

  8. Analysis of weather patterns for attribution of changes in floods to anthropogenic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, Aline; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Detection of changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of floods has been extensively carried out for many river basins worldwide. However, little effort has been made so far to attribute these changes to certain drivers such as climate change, changes in land use, catchment properties, or river training. The knowledge of reasons behind observed changes is essential in order to better quantify related risks and to be able to adapt to changing flood risks or to take action to reduce them. As climate change is assumed to be a significant driver of changes in the past decades and near future, the contribution of climate change to changes in floods is of great interest. To quantify the flood risk attributable to climate change, a hydrological model can be run with different climate input - weather time series representing the observed climate or a climate without the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (non-GHG). These two different states of the climate system are assumed to be represented in the occurrence of weather patterns. Each weather pattern can be linked to an individual distribution of values of weather variables (e.g. precipitation, temperature, etc.). This link can be established by first applying a weather pattern classification scheme to large-scale gridded observations, and secondly deriving the distribution of values of weather variables that were observed locally during the same weather pattern occurrence. After applying the weather pattern classification scheme to the GCM output as well, values for weather variables can be drawn from the derived distributions, resulting in new weather time series for local stations. The derivation of weather patterns and establishment of a link to local weather variables is presented in this contribution.

  9. Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance Veronica J. Berrocal, Adrian E are needed. Currently, anti-icing decisions are usually based on deterministic weather forecasts. However. Starting with deterministic numerical weather predictions, they produce a joint predictive probability dis

  10. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  11. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  12. Power requirements for connectivity in clustered wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Booth; J. Bruck; M. Franceschetti; R. Meester

    2002-01-01

    We consider wireless networks in which a subset of the nodes provide coverage to clusters of clients and route data packets from source to destination. We generalize previous work of Gilbert (1961), deriving conditions on the communication range of the nodes and on the placement of the covering stations to provide, with probability one, some long distance multi-hop communication. One

  13. Networked Wireless Sensor Data Collection: Issues, Challenges, and Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Wang; Jiangchuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been applied to many applications since emerging. Among them, one of the most important applications is Sensor Data Collections ,w here sensed data are collected at all or some of the sensor nodes and forwarded to a central base station for further processing. In this paper, we present a survey on recent advances in this

  14. Efficient Rendezvous Algorithms for Mobility-Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoliang Xing; Minming Li; Tian Wang; Weijia Jia; Jun Huang

    2012-01-01

    Recent research shows that significant energy saving can be achieved in mobility-enabled wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that visit sensor nodes and collect data from them via short-range communications. However, a major performance bottleneck of such WSNs is the significantly increased latency in data collection due to the low movement speed of mobile base stations. To address this issue, we propose

  15. Traffic improvements in wireless communication networks using antenna arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javad Razavilar; Farrokh Rashid-Farrokhi; K. J. Ray Liu

    2000-01-01

    A wireless network with beamforming capabilities at the receiver is considered that allows two or more transmitters to share the same channel to communicate with the base station. A novel approach is introduced, which combines the effects of the digital signal processing (adaptive beamforming) at the physical layer with the traffic policies at the network layer on the overall queuing

  16. Fiber-wireless networks incorporating wavelength division multiplexing

    E-print Network

    Bakaul, Masuduzzaman

    increase in the throughout of each base station in these systems necessitates the use of an optical fiber-wireless network can be greatly enhanced and efficient optical fiber architectures can be realized. In this paper incorporating WDM, with a particular focus on the optical interfaces in such networks. 1. INTRODUCTION Fixed

  17. An adaptive algorithm for call admission control in wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Zhang; Derong Liu

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we develop an adaptive algorithm for call admission control in wireless networks. The algorithm is built upon the concept of guard channels and it uses an adaptation algorithm to search automatically the optimal number of guard channels to be reserved at each base station. The quality of service parameters used in our study are the new

  18. Smart Wireless Video Sensor Network for Fire Alarm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiulin Li; Qun Hao; Kai Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Smart Wireless Video Sensor Network (SWVSN) provides a new approach for fire detection and alarm. Compare with traditional approach, the system based on SWVSN proposed in this paper has features of smart event-oriented data processing, convenient arrangement, flexible network organizing. The system consists of three layers including camera node layer, base station layer and control layer. Due to using lower

  19. A CDMA wireless packet network for voice-data transmissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romano Fantacci; Luca Zoppi

    1997-01-01

    This letter investigates the possibility of integrating voice and data communications in a CDMA wireless packet network to provide access to a base station over a common short-range radio uplink channel for many spatially dispersed voice and data user terminals. Speech activity detection is assumed for voice communications to temporarily devote codes unused by voice user terminals during silence periods

  20. Secure localization and location verification in wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingpei Zengt; Jiannong Caol; Jue Hong; Li Xie

    2009-01-01

    Sensors' locations are important to many wireless sensor networks (WSNs). When WSNs are deployed in hostile environments, two issues about sensors' locations need to be considered. First, the attackers may attack the localization process to make the estimated locations incorrect. Second, since sensor nodes may be compromised, the base station may not trust the locations reported by sensor nodes. Researchers