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1

Equating minimalist snowmelt and runoff generation models via validation with a wireless weather station network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wireless network of 12 weather stations in the Val Ferret watershed (approximately 21 km2) in the Swiss Alps was used to validate snowmelt models with distributed temperature and radiation data. Using this extensive dataset, an improved yet simplistic degree-day method was compared with a radiation-based method proposed by Hock et al., 1999. The original degree-day approach is a widely used snowmelt model, relating snowmelt directly to air temperature. Numerous hydrological models use this minimalist approach due to its equivalent simplicity. Modifications of this simple method have been proposed in the past which typically incorporate local radiation conditions. However, these modifications generally require more data and/or a finer hydrological grid resolution. Results herein as well as theoretical considerations illustrate that the Hock point or grid-scale method is not always a robust method when combined with spatially explicit rainfall-runoff transformation models. This generalized hydrological application suggests that a simple diurnal cycle of the degree-day melt parameter has the potential to outperform the Hock local radiation-based approach for sub-daily melt simulations. We therefore suggest that the improved degree-day method enables a flexible melt modeling approach, which can be easily adapted into spatially-explicit hydrological models of varying complexity. Furthermore, as this new degree-day method is based upon solely daily temperature extremes, this approach is capable of being adapted for climate change predictions.

Tobin, C. C.; Schaefli, B.; Nicotina, L.; Simoni, S.; Barrenetxea, G.; Parlange, M. B.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

2

Future Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students build dioramas of futuristic weather stations to demonstrate their knowledge of weather forecasting. They will work in groups to research modern forecasting equipment and techniques, and then build a weather station that will do something we cannot do at present (such as stopping tornadoes). They will present their dioramas and then discuss the pros and cons of controlling the weather.

3

Backyard Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to build your own backyard weather station with complete directions provided by FamilyEducation.com's Web site, Backyard Weather Stations. The site shows exactly what you'll need and how to build the necessary components (e.g., rain gauge and barometer), as well as how to keep records of the data collected. Parents and teachers will enjoy watching the kids "learn the basics of scientific observation and record-keeping while satisfying their natural curiosity about weather."

Randall, Dennis.

4

The Home Weather Station.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

Steinke, Steven D.

1991-01-01

5

The Home Weather Station.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)|

Steinke, Steven D.

1991-01-01

6

Designing a Weather Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

7

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three-part activity shows learners how to build three meteorology tools: a wind vane, a rain gauge, and a barometer. Then, they can use their tools to build their own weather station to record data about the weather, study the data to detect patterns, and use the patterns to predict the weather. This lesson also includes information about the difference between weather and climate.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

8

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. Older students can independently follow instructions on how to build five different instruments (barometer, hygrometer, rain gauge, weather vane, and compass). Younger students will need adult supervision with hammer and nails.

9

Secure Wireless Network with Movable Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Security, flexibility, and scalability are critical to the success of wireless communications. Wireless networks with movable base stations combine the advantages of mobile ad hoc networks and wireless LANto achieve these goals. Hierarchi- cal mobile wireless network (HMWN) is proposed for supporting movable base stations. In such a system, mobile hosts are or- ganized into hierarchical groups. The group

Yi LU; Bharat BHARGAVA; W eichao WANG; Yuhui ZHONG; Xiaoxin WU

2003-01-01

10

Covert Micro Weather Station for Littoral Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Micro Weather Station is intended to be a highly miniaturized unattended, air-deployable and expendable package tor the clandestine collection of meteorological and other environmental data in littoral land areas. (It is anticipated that the basic MWS...

1997-01-01

11

Research on the Web: Antarctic Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web research activity helps students see the link between wind speeds and geographical features. All directions are included in a printable handout. Students begin by gathering wind-speed measurements for 10 weather stations in Antarctica, converting the data, as needed, to allow comparisons. Next, they record wind data for five consecutive days and calculate the average wind speed for each station. They then examine elevation data for the 10 weather stations. They end by developing a hypothesis for the different patterns they've observed.

12

Wireless base station technology evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional base station architectures are evolving due to market pressures and the need to provide a better quality of service, especially for current and future data services such as those offered by 3G and beyond. The need for flexibility, modularity and low operational cost is driving designers to consider novel architectures, circuit techniques and device technologies. Increasingly, the digital and

B. Vassilakis; A. Cova; W. Veitschegger

2004-01-01

13

78 FR 6344 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof...entitled Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof...importation of certain wireless communications base stations and components...

2013-01-30

14

Wireless LAN communication base stations using quasi-optical amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents, for the first time in the microwave literature, a method of using a quasi-optical amplifier in the base station of a millimetre-wave wireless LAN. Layouts for wireless LAN base stations using transmission and reflection mode quasi-optical amplifiers are presented. The reflection mode amplifier array is especially suitable for use as a no-wiring relay station. Results for prototype

Ashley Robinson; Marek Bialkowski

1995-01-01

15

Distributed wireless channel allocation in networks with mobile base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional cellular networks with fixed base stations, the channel reuse pattern is static and deterministic. When the cell layout is dynamic, due to the mobility of base stations, the cluster of cells within cochannel interference range changes with time. Consequently, the channel reuse pattern is highly dynamic. Moreover, base stations also need wireless channels to communicate amongst themselves. A

Sanket Nesargi; Ravi Prakash

2002-01-01

16

Distributed Wireless Channel Allocation in Networks with Mobile Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional cellular systems with fixed base stations the channel reuse pattern is static and deterministic. When the cell layout is dynamic, due to the mobility of base stations, the cluster of cells within co-channel in- terference range changes with time. Consequently, the channel reuse pat- tern is highly dynamic. Moreover, base stations also need wireless channels to communicate amongst

Sanket Nesargi; Ravi Prakash

1999-01-01

17

Virtual base station election for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a classical wireless sensor network, a base station is often present to ensure efficient data collection. Endowed with typical hardware feature, especially with high energy level and good stockpiling capabilities, the base station completes the architecture as a required component for a wide range of applications. However, there are some projects where base station deployment should be avoided without

Cherif Diallo; Ashish Gupta; Michel Marot; Monique Becker

2008-01-01

18

Polar Automatic Weather Station Project of the University of Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The polar automatic weather station (AWS) of the University of Wisconsin is a battery-powered, solar panel-charged, computer-controlled unit that measures wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, air pressure, vertical temperature difference, and rela...

C. R. Stearns G. A. Weidner

1992-01-01

19

Observations from remote weather stations in San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weather data collected at three remote weather stations in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system between November 1979 and September 1981 are compiled in this report. Measurements include average and maximum wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and irradiance. Data are presented in time-series plots with each graph covering one calendar month. Daily averages of all measurements are tabulated.

Gartner, J. W.; Cheng, R. T.

1983-01-01

20

A Computerized Weather Station for the Apple IIe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Predicting weather conditions is a topic of interest for students who want to make plans for outside activities. This paper discusses the development of an inexpensive computer-interfaced classroom weather station using an Apple IIe computer that provides the viewer with up to the minute digital readings of inside and outside temperature,…

Lorson, Mark V.

21

Active Base Stations and Nodes for Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile and wireless network systems are characterized by a highly time varying and heterogeneous operational environment. For example, the wireless link bandwidth and bit error rate can change due to fading, mobile nodes may have different capabilities, and in the course of its movements a mobile node may visit base stations that provide different sets of services, protocols, and interfaces.

Athanassios Boulis; Paul Lettieri; Mani Srivastava

2003-01-01

22

Propagation characteristics of International Space Station wireless local area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the application of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) for Space Station 2.4 GHz wireless local area networks (WLAN) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in

Shian U. Hwu; Yin-Chung Loh

2004-01-01

23

Potential Architecture for Future Generation `Green' Wireless Base Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current radio frequency power amplifiers (PAs) in 3G base stations have very high power consumption leading to a hefty cost and negative environmental impact. In this paper, we propose a potential architecture design for future wireless base station. Issues associated with components of the architecture are investigated. A comparison of PA with pulse width modulation drive and PA with envelope

V. Bassoo; K. Tom; A. K. Mustafal; E. Cijvat; H. Sjoland; M. Faulkner

2009-01-01

24

Development and Evaluation of a City-Wide Wireless Weather Sensor Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project analyzed the effectiveness of a city-wide wireless weather sensor network, the Taipei Weather Science Learning Network (TWIN), in facilitating elementary and junior high students' study of weather science. The network, composed of sixty school-based weather sensor nodes and a centralized weather data archive server, provides students…

Chang, Ben; Wang, Hsue-Yie; Peng, Tian-Yin; Hsu, Ying-Shao

2010-01-01

25

WEATHER DATA PROCESSOR USING COMMERCIAL WEATHER STATION SYSTEM TO GENERATE CATTLE LIVESTOCK SAFETY INDEX  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Livestock production facilities exist in environments that may differ significantly from the conditions at the closest weather station. Additionally, the Livestock Safety Index is no longer available over commercial radio/television stations for many livestock production areas. A need exists to inte...

26

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meteorologists study the weather by recording and analyzing data. You can become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. After a while, you\\'ll notice the weather patterns that allow meteorologists to forecast the weather. Tasks: 1. As a group you will build a weather station outside. 2. Your group will build instruments to measure the weather. 3. Each person will record the data in personal weather journals. Process: 1.Since weather happens outside, you\\'ll need to make ...

Tuttle, Rachelle

2005-10-25

27

Safe base-station repositioning in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), large populations of tiny sensor nodes probe the environment and report the collected data to a base-station(s) for processing. Due to the resource constraints, WSNs pose numerous and non-conventional design challenges compared to contemporary communication networks. One of the performance optimization techniques that have been recently proposed is to dynamically relocate the base-station closer to

Mohamed F. Younis; Aseem Lalani; Mohamed Eltoweissy

2006-01-01

28

Operational Fault Detection in cellular wireless base-stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work is to improve availability of operational base-stations in a wireless mobile network through non-intrusive fault detection methods. Since revenue is generated only when actual customer calls are processed, we develop a scheme to minimize revenue loss by monitoring real-time mobile user call processing activity. The mobile user call load profile experienced by a base-station displays

Sudarshan Rao

2006-01-01

29

Filter technologies for wireless base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenomenal growth in the telecommunication industry in recent years has brought significant advances in filter technology as new communication systems emerged, demanding more stringent filter characteristics. In particular, the growth of the wireless communication industry has spurred tremendous activity in the area of microwave filter miniaturization and has been responsible for many advances made in this field. The filters that

R. R. Mansour

2004-01-01

30

Effectiveness of Explicit Stations Grouping in Crowded Wireless LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, we evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-stage contention scheme for wireless local area networks (WLANs) medium access control (MAC). Multi-stage contention schemes basically divide the stations into smaller groups to resolve the contention more efficiently. Previous researchers have proposed virtual grouping schemes for WLANs MAC. Here we quantitatively analyze what can be achieved with a simple grouping

Juki Wirawan Tantra; Teck Meng Lim; Bu-Sung Lee; Chai Kiat Yeo

2007-01-01

31

A Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the proposed key management protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in the literature assume that a single base station is used and that the base station is trustworthy. However, there are applications in which multiple base stations are used and the security of the base stations must be considered. This paper investigates a key management protocol in wireless

Yong Wang; Byrav Ramamurthy; Yuyan Xue

2008-01-01

32

Subcarrier assignment for OFDM based wireless networks using multiple base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we advocate the use of multiple base stations for providing wireless link to an OFDM-based terminal and thus obtain macro diversity, in particular site diversity. The wireless link to a terminal is defined through a subset of sub-carriers that is optimized in a greedy manner over the union of base stations. The wireless terminal is unaware of

Frank H. P. Fitzek; Petar Popovski; Jeroen Theeuwes; Carl Wijting; Ramjee Prasad; Marcos Katz

2005-01-01

33

Fault-tolerant base station planning of Wireless Mesh Networks in dynamic industrial environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Mesh Networks are infrastructure networks with a wireless multi-hop backbone. In this paper we present an innovative algorithm for fault-tolerant base station planning in wireless mesh networks. The algorithm determines a close-to-minimal number and the positions of base stations to be installed such that the radio coverage is correct in the presence of faults (base station crash or link

Svilen Ivanov; Edgar Nett; Ralf Schumann

2010-01-01

34

A Moving Base Station Strategy Using Fuzzy Logic for Lifetime Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetime enhancement has always been of crucial importance for wireless sensor network due to resource limitations of sensor nodes. In the recent past some researchers have suggested moving base station method to enhance the lifetime of wireless sensor network. However the movement of base station in sensor field is a complex problem and practically may not be feasible. In this

Abhijeet Alkesh; Ashutosh Kumar Singh; N. Purohit

2011-01-01

35

Enhanced Location Privacy Protection of Base Station in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location privacy in wireless sensor networks has gained a wide concern. Particularly, the location privacy of base station requires ultimate protection due to its crucial position in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient scheme, consisting of anonymous topology discovery and intelligent fake packet injection (IFPI), to protect the location privacy of base station. Anonymous topology discovery

Xinfeng Li; Xiaoyuan Wang; Nan Zheng; Zhiguo Wan; Ming Gu

2009-01-01

36

Wireless sporadic communication protocol for supporting cluster-to-base station communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a routing protocol for supporting communication in a wireless LAN with base stations. Though a base station is critical for transmission of a message through a wired network, high cost and overhead for construction and maintenance of base stations are required to achieve a network in which a mobile computer always communicates with a base station directly. We

Masakazu Ono; Chikashi Kato; Sayaka Harada; Hiroaki Higaki

2004-01-01

37

Space Station Wireless Local Area Network Signal Characteristics Modeling and Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the signal characteristic analysis of the International Space Station 2.4 GHz wireless local area networks (WLANs). The test data indicate the Space Station RF environment is quite different from typical indoor environment. The empty Space Station modules may be regarded as oversized waveguides with very little propagation loss. The furnished Space Station modules are imperfect waveguides with

Shian U. Hwu; Yin-Chung Loh; Catherine C. Sham

2006-01-01

38

Disaggregating convective and stratiform precipitation from station weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an alternative algorithm for disaggregating precipitation amounts into predominantly convective and stratiform based on station weather data. The algorithm is tested at 11 stations in the Czech Republic over 1982-2010, and climatological characteristics and trends of convective and stratiform precipitation are analysed. The results show that, while convective precipitation has a sharp annual cycle, stratiform precipitation is relatively constant throughout the year and does not contribute to the annual cycle of total precipitation. Dependence of precipitation amounts on altitude is stronger for stratiform than convective precipitation consistently across all seasons. The proportion of convective precipitation sharply increases with rising daily temperature in summer, but an analogous relationship is much weaker at the seasonal time scale. Trends in convective precipitation were rising over 1982-2010 in all three seasons in which convective precipitation is important (spring, summer and autumn) and they are stronger than are trends in stratiform precipitation in each season. This shows that the observed increases in total precipitation are mainly due to increases in convective precipitation, and this effect may also be related to an observed warming of surface air temperatures that may enhance instability and support conditions for stronger convection. The resulting time series of convective and stratiform precipitation may have several further applications, including for analysing probability distributions of extremes and evaluating climate models that simulate convective and stratiform precipitation through different parameterizations.

Rulfová, Zuzana; Kyselý, Jan

2013-12-01

39

What Happens When a Storm Comes - Weather Station Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes instruments used to measure various weather elements and provides instructions that teachers and students may follow to make homemade versions of tools to monitor weather elements. Click on each weather element for details!

Science, Miami M.

2010-04-12

40

Performance Evaluation of an Autonomous Adaptive Base Station that Supports Multiple Wireless Network Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various wireless systems are being developed to meet users' needs, and the rapid increase in frequency demand that accompanies the increasing popularity of wireless services means that more effective use of frequency resources is urgently needed. However, existing base stations are making no effort to use frequency resources effectively, and cooperation among wireless system base stations is needed to use frequency resources more effectively. Base stations can cooperate more efficiently if they are able to use multiple channels of many wireless systems simultaneously. We propose an autonomous adaptive base station (AABS) that can switch among various wireless systems the way software defined radio (SDR) base stations do. AABS can autonomously select and use the most suitable wireless system on the basis of user traffic and its hardware resources. Moreover, frequency resources are used effectively because AABS prevents unnecessary radio wave transmission when the number of users in the wireless systems decreases. AABS is also suitable for “multi-link communication” because it can use multiple channels of multiple wireless systems simultaneously. We developed AABS prototype and evaluated its performance. Our experimental and computer simulation results show the performance of AABS and its efficiency.

Akabane, Kazunori; Shiba, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Munehiro; Uehara, Kazuhiro

41

Power consumption analysis for mobile stations in hybrid relay-assisted wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Internet access using mobile or wireless technologies has become ubiquitous these days, the energy consumption aspect of such connections has not been studied in-depth yet. In this paper, a hybrid wireless network, which consists of a cellular component and a relay-assisted ad hoc component, is studied focusing on energy consumption by mobile stations with respect to the amount of

Ziaul Haq Abbas; Frank Y. Li

2010-01-01

42

Multiple-Objective Metric for Placing Multiple Base Stations in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placement of base stations in wireless sensor networks affects the coverage of sensor nodes, the tolerance against faults or attacks, the energy consumption and the congestion from communication. However, previous studies mostly focus on the placement of base stations to improve a partial property, not considering all of them. In this paper we propose multiple-objective metric (MOM), which reflects

Soo Kim; Jeong-Gil Ko; Jongwon Yoon; Heejo Lee

2007-01-01

43

Mobile base stations placement and energy aware routing in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing network lifetime is important in wireless sensor\\/ad-hoc networks. In this paper, we are concerned with algorithms to increase network lifetime and amount of data delivered during the lifetime by deploying multiple mobile base stations in the sensor network field. Specifically, we allow multiple mobile base stations to be deployed along the periphery of the sensor network field and develop

A. P. Azad; A. Chockalingam

2006-01-01

44

Health aspects of wireless communication: health and safety associated with exposure to wireless radiation from personal telecommunication base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

When they do, more wireless systems are likely to come on line, each with its own network of base stations. This would extend the trends for the future that look much the same as before the stall in the current product cycle, except that economic, public relations, and regulatory interests would likely lead to co-location of towers and antennas (i.e.,

James C. Lin

2002-01-01

45

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will help you understand the weather and investigate weather interactively. What are the components of weather? How do you measure weather? Investigate the WeatherScholastic: Weather WatchWeatherWeather Center for Our 4th Grade ...

Lai, Ms.

2007-02-08

46

Adjusting the Power Consumption of a SolarEnergy powered Wireless Network Node in Accordance with Weather Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present how weather forecasts estimating the solar radiation for the following days at a given location can be used to\\u000a adjust the power consumption of a wireless network node. The node is powered by a solar panel which recharges a battery. We\\u000a discuss two methods to adjust the configuration of the wireless node according to weather forecasts. We are

Thomas Mundt

47

Compact multi-probe antenna test station for rapid testing of antennas and wireless terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid characterization and pre-qualification measurements are becoming more and more important for the ever-growing number of small antennas, mobile telephones and other wireless terminals. There is a need driven by the wireless industries for a smart test set-up with reduced dimensions and capable of measuring radiating devices. Satimo has developed a compact, mobile and cost-effective test station called StarLab which

Luc Duchesne; Philippe Garreau; Nicolas Robic; Arnaud Gandois; Per Olaf Iversen; Gianni Barone

2004-01-01

48

Compact multiprobe antenna test station for rapid testing of antennas and wireless terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid characterization and prequalification measurements are becoming more and more important for the evergrowing number of small antennas, mobile phones and other wireless terminals. There is a need driven by the wireless industries for a smart test set-up with reduced dimensions and capable of measuring radiating devices. Satimo has developed a compact, mobile and cost-effective test station called StarLab which

L. Duchesne; Ph. Garreau; N. Robic; A. Gandois; P. O. Iversen; G. Barone

2004-01-01

49

Evaluation of pan evaporation modeling with two different neural networks and weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates neural networks models for estimating daily pan evaporation for inland and coastal stations in Republic of Korea. A multilayer perceptron neural networks model (MLP-NNM) and a cascade correlation neural networks model (CCNNM) are developed for local implementation. Five-input models (MLP 5 and CCNNM 5) are generally found to be the best for local implementation. The optimal neural networks models, including MLP 4, MLP 5, CCNNM 4, and CCNNM 5, perform well for homogeneous (cross-stations 1 and 2) and nonhomogeneous (cross-stations 3 and 4) weather stations. Statistical results of CCNNM are better than those of MLP-NNM during the test period for homogeneous and nonhomogeneous weather stations except for MLP 4 being better in BUS-DAE and POH-DAE, and MLP 5 being better in POH-DAE. Applying the conventional models for the test period, it is found that neural networks models perform better than the conventional models for local, homogeneous, and nonhomogeneous weather stations.

Kim, Sungwon; Singh, Vijay P.; Seo, Youngmin

2013-08-01

50

Using deceptive packets to increase base-station anonymity in wireless sensor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless sensor networks, nodes probe ambient conditions in their surrounding and report back to the base-station via multi-hop routing. In a hostile environment the network may be subject to adversary attacks. Given the role that the base-station plays, it can be targeted in order to inflict the most damage to the network. Although stealth design and other physical precautionary

Yousef Ebrahimi; Mohamed Younis

2011-01-01

51

Spatial interpolation of atmospheric pressure observations from automatic weather stations in complex alpine terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARPA Lombardia is the environmental protection agency for the administrative region Lombardia and manages a high resolution meteorological network composed by hundreds of automatic weather stations. Among these, about one hundred are equipped with barometers. The historical barometric dataset is however affected by many large systematic errors. Thus, an effort is done to recover information from such observations. A bias

C. Lussana; F. Uboldi; M. R. Salvati; M. Ranci

2010-01-01

52

Surface radiation balance in Antarctica as measured with automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present 4 years of near-surface radiation balance observations of four Antarctic automatic weather stations (AWS). The AWS are situated along a traverse line in Dronning Maud Land, connecting the coastal ice shelf and the inland plateau via the katabatic wind zone, covering the three major climate regimes of East Antarctica. Important differences in the radiation balance of the three

Michiel van den Broeke; Carleen Reijmer; Roderik van de Wal

2004-01-01

53

Building and Operating Weather Satellite Ground Stations for High School Science. Teachers Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) images are real-time weather pictures transmitted from satellites on a radio frequency in a video format. Amateur radio enthusiasts and electronic experimenters have for a number of years designed, built, and operated direct readout stations capable of receiving APT photographs. The equipment to receive…

Summers, R. Joe; Gotwald, Timothy

54

Placement of multiple mobile base stations in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to energy constraints in individual sensor nodes, extending the lifetime is an essential objective in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Several proposals have aimed at that objective by designing energy efficient protocols at the physical, medium access, and network layers. While the proposed protocols achieve significant energy savings for individual sensor nodes, they fail to solve topology-related problems; an example

Waleed Alsalih; Selim Akl; Hossam Hassanein

2007-01-01

55

Implementation of FPGA based fast DOA estimator using unitary MUSIC algorithm [cellular wireless base station applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the practical implementation of a DOA estimation system, using an FPGA (field programmable gate array), that is a key technique in the realization of the DOA-based adaptive array antenna for cellular wireless base-stations. It incorporates the spectral unitary MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, which is one of the representative super resolution DOA estimation techniques. This paper describes

Minseok Kim; Koichi Ichige; Hiroyuki Arai

2003-01-01

56

Mobile base station management using fuzzy logic in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to resource limitations in wireless sensor networks, prolonging the network lifetime has been of a great interest. The energy of sensor nodes is mostly utilized for data transmission to the base station. In hierarchical routing based on clustering, it is the cluster heads responsibility to do that. Thus, it makes them to deplete their energy much faster. In this

Nasrin Abazari Torghabeh; M. R. A. Totonchi; M. H. Y. Moghaddam

2010-01-01

57

Estimation of Exclusion Zones for Base Station Antennas in Wireless Communications Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the estimation of exclusion zones around base station antennas in wireless communication systems, taking the actual surrounding environment into account, is presented. Numerical methods are applied to a GSM900 antenna installed in five common scenarios. Results show that the exclusion zone calculated in free space conditions must be redefined, due to the presence of surrounding objects, as

Carla Oliveira; Carlos C. Fernandes; Luis M. Correia

2007-01-01

58

A Hybrid Model of Defense Techniques against Base Station Jamming Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are highly susceptible to jamming attacks due to their resource limitations. In WSN architecture, the Base Station (BS) is a single point of failure, because it collects sensor readings and performs command and control tasks. So BSs are main targets of the jamming attack. For mitigating the effects of BS jamming attacks, we propose a hybrid

Sushil Kumar Jain; Kumkum Garg

2009-01-01

59

Development of Data Video Base Station in Water Environment Monitoring Oriented Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, date video base station and remote monitoring center. For the sake of realizing to monitor large range waters such as reservoir, wetland, lake, river and ocean etc, the monitoring system has the function of perception, acquisition, processing and transmission for video-information in key

Kong Yifan; Jiang Peng

2008-01-01

60

A relational database for automatic weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archiving measuring data requires accessibility, security and simplicity. When many users are working with the same data sets, these requirements may be violated due to separation of data and meta data, redundancy (same or different versions of data in several locations) and/or different file formats of raw data files. Such a suboptimal data archiving system might not be comprehensible by a new and even an old user. When deploying a relational database, many of the above problems can be addressed: (1) Data, meta data and documentation of data format are stored in a central place, (2) all users are working with the same data set, which is the one with the highest quality level, (3) data format, units and date conventions, and thus program code for importing is identical for all data, (4) linkage of all types of information makes it easy for old and new users to manipulate and interpret data. By using a common SQL database the development effort can be kept at a low level. For maximum usability a simple database design with three tables was created: (a) station site details and meta data, (b) measuring data and quality flags, (c) attached files (site photos, logger programs, etc.). Web tools are provided for maintaining and looking up meta data. For inserting, selecting and updating data values example Matlab code is provided, which can be extended by users or ported to other languages.

Großhauser, Martin

2010-05-01

61

I, base station: Cognisant robots and future wireless access networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of a completely independent, self-healing, self-deploying, and self-optimising communication network is an appealing one. This paper outlines why financial pressures will drive wireless communication networks towards the adoption of autonomic systems with the above characteristics, that will eventually become cognisant, exhibiting some degree of self- awareness. As a step in this direction, we explore the concept of robotic

H. Claussen; L. T. W. Ho; H. R. Karimi; F. J. Mullany; L. G. Samuel

2006-01-01

62

Noncooperative Cellular Wireless with Unlimited Numbers of Base Station Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cellular base station serves a multiplicity of single-antenna terminals over the same time-frequency interval. Time-division duplex operation combined with reverse-link pilots enables the base station to estimate the reciprocal forward- and reverse-link channels. The conjugate-transpose of the channel estimates are used as a linear precoder and combiner respectively on the forward and reverse links. Propagation, unknown to both terminals

Thomas L. Marzetta

2010-01-01

63

Reduced Congestion Queuing: QoS Support for Optimizing Base Station Layout in Multihop Wireless Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A QoS support technique for easily minimizing delay in multihop wireless networks is proposed. Using a priority queue operation that reduces delays overall, the proposed technique, Reduced Congestion Queuing (RCQ), solves problems peculiar to multihops. By adding RCQ to a multihop system, base station or access point density and cost can be more effectively curtailed than by simply applying multihops to a cellular network or wireless LAN because RCQ expands the multihop service area. Due to its simplicity, the proposed technique can be used in a wide range of applications, including VoIP.

Tanaka, Akira; Yoshida, Susumu

64

Meteorological data for water years 1988-94 from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report describes meteorological data collected from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from as early as April 1987 through September 1994. The measurements include solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind vector magnitude, wind direction, wind vector direction, barometric pressure, and precipitation. Measurements were made very 10 seconds and averaged every 15 minutes. The data were collected as part of the geologic and hydrologic site-characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. Precipitation at the site ranged from a low of 12 millimeters total for water year 1989 to a high of 312 millimeters total for water year 1993. Air temperature ranged from a low of 15.1 degrees Celsius in December 1990 (water year 1991) to a high of 41.9 degrees Celsius in July 1989 (water year 1989). The weather station network also provides information on the spatial variability of precipitation and temperature.

Flint, A.L.; Davies, W.J.

1997-11-01

65

Elevational species shifts in a warmer climate are overestimated when based on weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong topographic variation interacting with low stature alpine vegetation creates a multitude of micro-habitats poorly represented by common 2 m above the ground meteorological measurements (weather station data). However, the extent to which the actual habitat temperatures in alpine landscapes deviate from meteorological data at different spatial scales has rarely been quantified. In this study, we assessed thermal surface and soil conditions across topographically rich alpine landscapes by thermal imagery and miniature data loggers from regional (2-km2) to plot (1-m2) scale. The data were used to quantify the effects of spatial sampling resolution on current micro-habitat distributions and habitat loss due to climate warming scenarios. Soil temperatures showed substantial variation among slopes (2-3 K) dependent on slope exposure, within slopes (3-4 K) due to micro-topography and within 1-m2 plots (1 K) as a result of plant cover effects. A reduction of spatial sampling resolution from 1 × 1 m to 100 × 100 m leads to an underestimation of current habitat diversity by 25% and predicts a six-times higher habitat loss in a 2-K warming scenario. Our results demonstrate that weather station data are unable to reflect the complex thermal patterns of aerodynamically decoupled alpine vegetation at the investigated scales. Thus, the use of interpolated weather station data to describe alpine life conditions without considering the micro-topographically induced thermal mosaic might lead to misinterpretation and inaccurate prediction.

Scherrer, Daniel; Schmid, Samuel; Körner, Christian

2011-07-01

66

Weather stations and the data reports from Romania as part of the East-BTNet project.  

PubMed

The authors present data collected by six weather stations placed in Romania, as part of the East-BTNet regional project. The weather stations were equipped with smart sensors to collect information on air and soil temperature, atmospheric relative humidity, soil moisture and wind speed, factors that may influence the development and activity of Culicoides insects, vectors of bluetongue virus. Concomitantly with the monitoring of the environmental parameters, insects were captured, examined and identified according to the standard methods. The six weather stations were placed in locations with different geo-climatic conditions (seaside, mountains, plateaux and plains) to establish whether there is a correlation between environmental parameters and insect populations, especially for the Pulicaris, Obsoletus and Nubeculosus Complexes. A correlation between environmental conditions and the activity of vector populations was observed. The characteristics of the climate influenced the size of vector populations (sub-Mediterranean climate in the south-west and temperate continental climate in the centre of the country). PMID:20422530

Dasc?lu, Lenuta; Ionescu, Aurelia; Rizac, Vladimir

67

Estimation of Remote Microclimates from Weather Station Data with Applications to Landscape Architecture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several components of a system for quantitative application of climatic statistics to landscape planning and design (CLIMACS) have been developed. One component model (MICROSIM) estimated the microclimate at the top of a remote crop using physically-based models and inputs of weather station data. Temperatures at the top of unstressed, uniform crops on flat terrain within 1600 m of a recording weather station were estimated within 1.0 C 96% of the time for a corn crop and 92% of the time for a soybean crop. Crop top winds were estimated within 0.4 m/s 92% of the time for corn and 100% of the time for soybean. This is of sufficient accuracy for application in landscape planning and design models. A physically-based model (COMFA) was developed for the determination of outdoor human thermal comfort from microclimate inputs. Estimated versus measured comfort levels in a wide range of environments agreed with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. Using these components, the CLIMACS concept has been applied to a typical planning example. Microclimate data were generated from weather station information using MICROSIM, then input to COMFA and to a house energy consumption model called HOTCAN to derive quantitative climatic justification for design decisions.

Brown, Robert Douglas

68

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn all about the aspects of weather that effect us every day. Click here to see a weather forecast for anywhere in the world World Wide Weather Watch See what happens to weather when you change conditions at your house Weather Maker Weather Games ...

Hyde, Mrs.

2007-02-08

69

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is written for fourth grade students. Students will explore weather and the effects it has on their lives. What is weather? video of what is weather Let's take a walk through the weather. Put on your hats and coats! Clouds Cloud Types Clouds - Dan's Wild Weather Page What to Wear? What to Wear? What to Drink? Weather Patterns and Climatic Regions ...

Bullough, Ms.

2010-06-24

70

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

Stearns, Ms.

2008-10-25

71

Unlocking wireless performance with co-operation in co-located base station pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-cell base station co-operation techniques, ranging from load-balancing, joint resource-allocation to macro-diversity schemes, have been known to improve wireless system performance significantly by exploiting the higher degrees of freedom to make more optimized decisions. However, the realization of these techniques has remained limited largely due to constraints on inter-BS communication and the latencies involved in information exchange for distributed base

Parul Gupta; Arun Vishwanath; Shivkumar Kalyanaraman; Yong Hua Lin

2010-01-01

72

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

Williams, Ms.

2005-10-25

73

Two-year record of the climate on the Greenland crest from an automatic weather station  

SciTech Connect

An automatic weather station (AWS) was installed on the Greenland Summit (72.30 N, 38.00 W, 3210 m) in May 1987. The AWS unit operated for two years until May 1989 when it was moved to Fresh Air Site (72.82 N, 38.82 W, 3185 m), an air sampling site, where it is still operating. The AWS data were transmitted to the ARGOS data collection system on the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. The AWS unit measures wind speed and direction, air temperature, and the relative humidity at a nominal height of 3 m, air pressure at the height of the electronics enclosure, and the vertical air temperature difference between 3.0 and 0.5 m. The latent and sensible heat from the snow surface to the air were estimated using the wind speed, vertical air temperature difference, and the relative humidity. The data are compared with those from two earlier stations, Eismitte (70.90 N, 40.70 W, 3000 m) from September 1930 through August 1931 (Wegener's expedition) and Station Centrale (70.92 N, 40.64 W, 2993 m) from September 1949 through August 1951 (Victor's expedition). The winds observed at Cathy Site were quite similar to those observed at the two previous stations. Also, the large fluctuations in temperature observed during the winter months at the two historic stations were observed at Cathy Site. The transition from positive to negative values for the sensible and latent heat flux occurred in October.

Weidner, G.A.; Stearns, C.R.

1992-03-01

74

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

75

STATISTICAL CORRELATIONS OF SURFACE WIND DATA: A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE STATION AND A NEARBY AEROMETRIC MONITORING NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a statistical analysis of wind data collected at a network of stations in the Southeast Ohio River Valley. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which wind measurements made by the National Weather Service (NWS) station at the Tri-State Airp...

76

Distributed Clustering and Closest-Match Motion Planning Algorithms for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks with Movable Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper algorithms for modelling dy- namic reconfiguration of ad-hoc wireless networks with movable base stations in presence of obstacles are pro- posed. This problem is considerably harder than the one treated in (1) where base stations were organized in a starred network and no obstacles were present. In these models nodes communicate through a clusterehead gateway switching routing

Giuseppe Pigola; Alfredo Pulvirenti; Viale A. Dori

77

Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on weather in Iowa and weather lore. The bulletin contains historical articles, fiction, activities, and maps. The table of contents lists: (1) "Wild Rosie's Map"; (2) "History Mystery"; (3) "Iowa's Weather History"; (4) "Weather Wonders"; (6) "Seasonal Jobs"; (7) "Fiction: Winter Courage"; (8) "Stayin'…

Ruth, Amy, Ed.

1996-01-01

78

Reduction of carrier-to-interference ratio in fixed broadband wireless access networks employing beam-switched base station antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the reduction of carrier-to-interference ratio (C\\/I) in broadband fixed wireless access networks using beam-switched base station antennas is proposed and studied. The C\\/I has been evaluated by means of simulation taking into account the cellular reuse pattern proposed by on-going standardization proposals. The influence of both base-station and subscriber station antenna parameters on the obtained C\\/I values

P. Sanchis; J. M. Martinez; J. Herrera; V. Polo; J. L. Corral; J. Marti

2002-01-01

79

Nonstandard Thermometer Exposures at U.S. Cooperative Weather Stations during the Late Nineteenth Century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonstandard thermometer exposure practices at 118 United States cooperative weather stations in 1883 and at 394 stations in 1903 are documented from one unpublished source and one published source. Changes in the exposure practices that resulted from the introduction of the Cotton Region Shelter (CRS) in the 1880s are described. As of 1883, there were five types of thermometer exposure in use at cooperative stations: (i) screened thermometers in freestanding screens (9.9% of all exposures); (ii) screened thermometers attached to north-facing walls and windows (23.3% of all exposures); (iii) unscreened thermometers attached to walls and window casements (50.0% of all exposures); unscreened thermometers attached to porch columns and separated from the main body of the building (13.9% of all exposures), and (iv) `Glaisher-type' stands and exposures (2.7% of all exposures). By 1903, 77.7% of all stations used free-standing screens, and 14.5% used north wall screens; the remaining stations (7.8%) did not use a screen. Free-standing screens were almost certainly not in use at cooperative stations prior to 1881.In addition, the following features of nonstandard exposures are documented: thermometer bulb heights above ground, the wall azimuth of thermometers, the construction material of the buildings on which the thermometers were exposed, the placement of thermometers with respect to the type of building material and to windows and walls, as well as the susceptibility to artificial heat bias. Based on the details of thermometer exposure practices in the nineteenth century, the published literature, and early results from new field studies in England, which attempt to reproduce historic nonstandard exposures, a positive average annual temperature bias of 0.2°0.3°C is estimated for the years preceding the late 1890s; the bias probably falls to near 0°C by 1903.

Chenoweth, Michael

1993-09-01

80

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides these two Websites on weather. The first site serves as a major hub for information related to weather, with links to primary data sources, forecasts, maps, images (such as the latest satellite imagery for North America), and a wealth of other data, including space weather. Researchers will also find links to national weather research centers and other related agencies.

81

Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks-radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

Valberg, Peter A; van Deventer, T Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H

2006-11-06

82

Comparison between weather station data in south-eastern Italy and CRU precipitation datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly precipitation data in south-eastern Italy from 1920 to 2005 have been extensively analyzed. Data were collected in almost 200 weather stations located 10-20km apart from each other and almost uniformly distributed in Puglia and Basilicata regions. Apart from few years around world war II, time series are mostly complete and allow a reliable reconstruction of climate variability in the considered region. Statistically significant trends have been studied by applying the Mann-Kendall test to annual, seasonal and monthly values. A comparison has been made between observations and precipitation data given by the Climate Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia, with both low (30') and high (10') space resolution grid. In particular, rainfall records, time series behaviors and annual cycles at each station have been compared to the corresponding CRU data. CRU time series show a large negative trend for winter since 1970. Trend is not significant if the whole 20th century is considered (both for the whole year and for winter only). This might be considered as an evidence of recent acceleration towards increasingly dry conditions. However correlation between CRU data and observations is not very high and large percent errors are present mainly in the mountains regions, where observations show a large annual cycle, with intense precipitation in winter, which is not present in CRU data. To identify trends, therefore observed data are needed, even at monthly scale. In particular observations confirm the overall trend, but also indicate large spatial variability, with locations where precipitation has even increased since 1970. Daily precipitation data coming from a subset of weather stations have also been studied for the same time period. The distributions of maximum annual rainfalls, wet spells and dry spells were analyzed for each station, together with their time series. The tools of statistical analysis of extremes have been used in order to evaluate return values and their space distribution over the considered region. A procedure for data quality control and homogeneity test on monthly rainfall records is also being applied, while kriging techniques are being developed in order to fully understand rainfall climatology in south-eastern Italy.

Miglietta, D.

2009-04-01

83

Snow on the Ross Ice Shelf: comparison of reanalyses and observations from automatic weather stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow accumulation measurements from automatic weather stations (AWS) around the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), Antarctica, are used to provide a new set of ground-based observations which are compared to precipitation from the ECMWF ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-2 datasets. The high temporal resolution of the AWS snow accumulation measurements allow for an event-based comparison of reanalyses precipitation to the in situ observations. Snow accumulation records from nine AWS provide multiple years of accumulation data between 2008 and 2012 over a relatively large, homogeneous region of Antarctica, and also provide the basis for a statistical evaluation of accumulation and precipitation events. The complex effects of wind on snow accumulation (which can both limit and enhance accumulation) complicate the use of the accumulation measurements, but this analysis shows that they can provide a valuable source of ground-based observations for comparisons to modelled precipitation on synoptic timescales. The analysis shows that ERA-Interim reproduces more precipitation events than NCEP-2, and these events correspond to an average 8.2% more precipitation. Significant correlations between reanalyses and AWS event sizes are seen at several stations and show that ERA-Interim consistently produces larger precipitation events than NCEP-2.

Cohen, L.; Dean, S.

2013-09-01

84

The Fennec Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Network: monitoring the Saharan Climate System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fennec Automatic Weather Station (AWS) network consists of eight stations installed across the Sahara desert, with four in remote locations in the central desert, where no previous meteorological observations have existed. The AWS measure temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction, short-wave and long-wave radiation (upwelling and downwelling), ground heat flux and ground temperature. Data are recorded every 3 minutes 20 seconds i.e. at three times the temporal resolution of the World Meteorological Organisation's standard ten-minute reporting for winds and wind gusts. Variations in wind speeds on shorter time scales are recorded through the use of second and third order moments of 1-Hz data. Using the Iridium RUDICS service, data are transmitted in near real time (1 hour lag) to the UK, where calibrations are applied and data are uploaded to the GTS, for assimilation into forecast models. In this presentation we describe this unique dataset, sources of error, and possible application for understanding key features of the region. We will discuss the use of the second moment of the wind-speed distribution in improving estimates of the dust-generating potential of observed winds.

Hobby, Matt

2013-04-01

85

18 years of Energy Balance Observations on Antarctica using Automatic Weather Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1995, the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research, Utrecht (IMAU) operates Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) on Antarctica. A total of 17 stations of which three located on the Larsen ice shelf, one on Berkner Island, and 13 in Dronning Maud Land (DML), are or have been operational. The obtained records are fairly complete and between 4 and 14 years long. The observed quantities include air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, air pressure and incoming and outgoing short- and longwave radiation. These data are used to calculate the surface turbulent heat fluxes and study the temporal and spatial variability of meteorological quantities and the surface energy budget. The turbulent heat fluxes are calculated using the aerodynamic 'bulk' method between a single AWS sensor level and the surface, where the surface temperature is calculated using a surface energy balance closure assumption for a surface skin layer. At all sites the annual mean net radiation is negative and the near-surface air is on average stably stratified. The negative net radiative flux is largely balanced by a positive sensible heat flux. The latent heat flux is on average small and negative indicating a small net mass loss through sublimation. The spatial variations reflect differences in elevation, cloud cover and wind speed. The temporal variability on annual time scales is fairly similar from site to site. The three sites with the longest records (>8 years) show an increase in annual average temperature. The largest temperature change occurs in DML on the Plateau. For this station the annual mean fluxes also show a trend towards less negative net radiation, smaller sensible heat flux and larger latent heat flux. However, these trends are not significant.

Reijmer, Carleen; Van den Broeke, Michiel; Smeets, Paul; Boot, Wim

2013-04-01

86

Smart Functionalities for TDD\\/TDMA Broadband Wireless Access Networks Employing Optically Beamformed Base-Station Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of smart capabilities in broadband fixed and mobile wireless access networks employing optically beamformed base station antennas is proposed and evaluated through simulation. Novel strategies and algorithms to address dynamically changes in the network conditions, in order to optimise the network performance, are presented. The impact on the network performance is analysed demonstrating very promising results. This work

P. Sanchis; J. M. Martinez; J. Herrera; V. Polo; J. L. Corral; J. Marti; G. Nuñez; ALCATEL ESPAÑA

87

Forecasting GPS Scintillations For Low Latitude Stations, in Brazil, using Real-Time Space Weather Data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a useful constellation of satellites for navigation. In low latitudes, however, the signals from these satellites are plagued with ionospheric scintillations, due to the presence of plasma irregularities in the ionosphere, between sunset and sunrise. This phenomenon occurs during approximately six months of the year, although many nights may present less scintillations or no scintillations at all. To help in finding out, in advance, which nights will be `calm', in terms of scintillations, we propose a method for predicting how frequent strong scintillations will be for a given night. To do this, firstly, we need to have at hand real time indices of space weather, which can be found at NOAA/SEC, in Boulder, Colorado or, more specifically, in their summary `Space Weather Alerts and Warnings Timeline.' Secondly, we need a measurement of the amount of scintillations, for each night, that we take to be the average scintillation index for all scintillations on all observed satellites, for that night. The scintillation index is similar to the statistical dispersion, applied to the time-series that represents the satellites signal. From all the data supplied in the NOOA/SEC timeline, we choose to use only the alerts and warnings concerning geomagnetic data, and mostly the ones related to the Kp index. The reason for choosing geomagnetic data is that the earth's magnetic field shows the effects of solar charged particles on earth, which can be measured by geo-synchronous satellites (e.g., GOES.) With these two ingredients (previous scintillation data and space-weather indices,) we show that during magnetic storms the ionosphere is quieter, with regards to scintillation on GPS signals. Then, it is possible to do the opposite: by looking at the space weather warnings, we can predict the amount of scintillation at a given night. The scintillation data used to support this method ranges from 2003 through 2005. In this work, emphasis is given to the period October-November, 2003, which contains three days used by other authors, to support an argument that is opposite to ours. Our data has been collected at a station at Natal, Brazil, located at 5.84° S and 35.20° W. The magnetic declination is 21° W and the magnetic dip is 20°.

Bonelli, E.

2005-05-01

88

Boreal Atmospheric circulation patterns on the basis of the world network weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the recent developments of various methods of data representation in meteorology, the image of the globe-scale atmospheric circulation system has appeared. Basically, the circulation assessment is based on the indirect teleconnection method and rotated principal component analysis of the sea level pressure or geopotential height fields. These methods have several constraints because of the integration of intermittent and frontal atmospheric synoptic variability.As follows from the work of prof. B.L. Dzerdzeevskii, due to the existing of Arctic blocking processes, simplified geostrophic wind concept on the basis of the low-frequency baric patterns of the permanent centers of action, should be reconsidered in more details. For this purpose, weather station direct in-situ data with the use of progressive vector diagrams for wind speed and direction time series visualization are appropriate. Wind diagrams incorporate various fluctuations with time scales from synoptic to climatic, which can be considered without any filtration applied. The subject of work is to study the long-term wind regimes in the Northern Hemisphere, with the aim to obtain atmospheric circulation patterns in the regions of interest, in particular induced by the NAO(North Atlantic oscillation), EAWR(East Atlantic-West Russia) and SH(Siberian High) centers of action at different time and space scales. The analysis is based on the standard meteorological data (including wind direction and speed) of WMO network weather stations in the period since 1998 up to the present. For intercalibration and validation, NCEP-NCAR and QuickSCAT sea winds databases were considered, as well. Basic features of the wind variability are governed by the relevant types of the large-scale synoptic atmospheric processes, which depend upon the state of the global atmospheric circulation, their large-scale gyres and separate smaller vorticity cells. All the individual wind diagrams appear as having rather simple low-frequency structure. Long-term wind variations were splitted to winter and summer seasons. Schematic view of the troposhere circulation in NCP(North-Caspian Pattern) or EAWR baric permanent structure was not confirmed by the data in hand. According to the weather stations around the Black Sea, the climatic winds have cyclonic vorticity, the center of rotation being located approximately over Turkey. The evolution of fields from small to large time scales is carried out by the "universal" set of wind vector variations, which due to their crucial role deserves a special name "Elementary cycle" (EC). Typical EC variations are described by a cyclic wind change from one persistent direction to another. The similarity of EC variations at different time scales is considered as wind fractality. It is shown, that the fractality is due to recurrence of basic regional baric synoptic fields. Fractal dimensions on the basis of wavelet decomposition and statistical significance using Monte Carlo technique were estimated.

Melnikov, V. A.; Moskalenko, L. V.; Golenko, N. N.; Golenko, M. N.

2012-04-01

89

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

90

Wireless communication development and government role: the method of radio spectrum and base station management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The first part of the presentation mainly describes the predominant wireless applications in Shanghai, including 3G, local wireless access, RFid, etc. The second part focuses on the bottleneck incurred in the different fields of wireless application. The last part concludes the government role on how to remove the barriers delaying the development of wireless communication.

D. Shan

2004-01-01

91

Assimilating spaceborne radar and ground-based weather station data for operational snow-covered area estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enhanced method for snow-covered area (SCA) estimation for boreal forest zone is presented. The method combines TKK developed spaceborne radar-based SCA estimation with ground-based weather station observations. The purpose is to improve the reliability of SCA estimates near and after the end of snow-melt season. The SCA estimates acquired with the enhanced method are compared with optical satellite data-based

K. Luojus; J. Pulliainen; S. Metsamaki; S. Anttila; M. Hallikainen

2007-01-01

92

The International Space Station as a Launch Platform for CubeSats to Study Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere (ITM) region (80 to 250 km) is the boundary between the sensible atmosphere of the Earth and space. This region receives energy and momentum contributions from the sun in the form of solar ultra-violet light and electromagnetic energy coupled via the earth's magnetosphere. The ITM region also receives energy and momentum from the lower atmosphere via waves that break and terminate turbulently in this beach-like region. The various processes, acting both as system drivers and feedback elements in the ITM region, are still poorly understood and the weather of the ITM region cannot be predicted. It is also the area where satellite drag ensures a quick end to satellite lifetimes and it has thus become known as the "inaccessible region." As the terrestrial populations wrestle with the question of "change" (global, climate, etc), our need to continue making long-term measurements is crucial, but is hampered by cost and launch opportunities for even smaller dedicated satellites. The ITM region itself has been identified as a region where almost un-measurable atmospheric changes have very measurable consequences. The International Space Station (ISS), orbiting just above this "inaccessible region", is an ideal platform from which CubeSats can be launched to study the region below. It could become a permanent launch platform for regular or responsive deployment of the small satellite fleet. For example, a group of satellites could be launched in response to a storm or an important lower atmospheric event that has been identified as occurring. Such satellites would last approximately one year before re-entering the upper atmosphere. It is an ideal location from which to routinely launch probes into the inaccessible region below to maintain a long term climate observational capability. The advantage of the ISS is that deployments of these small satellites is not contingent on finding a suitable ground based launch opportunity, whose scheduling could never be triggered by a storm type scenario. The relatively high the ISS orbit inclination also provides complete mid-latitude and equatorial coverage; during storms, the regions of interest are exactly these. We propose that 100 to 200 CubeSats could be stationed on the ISS as an Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module. Many of these spacecraft would be identical copies for space weather purposes but several different types of CubeSats could be accommodated. Small constellations would be deployed from the ISS over time by ground command. The CubeSat dispenser would eject spacecraft in the down and aft direction consistent with the ISS jettison policy to insure safety for the ISS. The dispenser would also provide the ability to communicate and recharge the hosted CubeSats through the ISS systems to maintain the CubeSats over an extended stay at the ISS. This ability would require modifications to the existing CubeSat standard. Within this paper we describe the conceptual design of such a CubeSat deplorer system for the ISS and the systems level study conducted at Utah State University - Space Dynamics Laboratory for the National Science Foundation on these concepts.

Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.; Sojka, J. J.

2011-12-01

93

Snow temperature profiles and heat fluxes measured on the Greenland crest by an automatic weather station  

SciTech Connect

In June 1989 three automatic weather station (AWS) units were installed on the Greenland crest at the GISP2 (78.58 N, 38.46 W, 3265 m) and GRIP (78.57 N, 37.62 W, 3230 m) ice coring sites and at Kenton (72.28 N, 38.80 W, 3185 m), the air sampling site. The purpose of the AWS units is to measure the local meteorological variables, including snow temperatures at various depths, in support of ice coring studies. The AWS units measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, and relative humidity at a nominal height of 3.6 meters, air pressure at the electronics enclosure, and air temperature difference between 3.6 m and 0.5 m. The AWS units at GISP2 and GRIP also measure solar radiation, and seven snow temperatures from the surface to a depth of approximately 4 m in the snow. The data are updated at 10-minute intervals and transmitted to the ARGOS data collection system on board the NOAA series of polar-orbiting satellites. The air temperature and snow temperatures are presented as a function of time for the period from June 8, 1989 to August 31, 1990 and as tautochrones at 30-day intervals. The heat flux into the snow is determined from the daily mean snow temperature between the day after and the day before using the volumetric heat capacity of the snow assuming a snow density of 300 kg m-3. The daily mean heat flux into the snow between the highest and the lowest levels of snow temperature is presented as a function of time.

Stearns, C.R.; Weidner, G A.

1992-03-01

94

Wireless  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless Networking Mini-Tutorial (WKMN) [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.wkmn.com/newsite/wireless.html#whatWi-Fi Alliancehttp://www.wi-fi.org/OpenSection/index.asp3Com: 802.11b Wireless LANs [pdf]http://www.3com.com/other/pdfs/infra/corpinfo/en_US/50307201.pdfInformation on BlueToothhttp://www.palowireless.com/bluetooth/e-week: WiFi Securityhttp://www.eweek.com/category2/0,1738,1591939,00.aspO'Reilly Network: Wireless Surveyinghttp://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/wireless/2004/05/27/wirelessonPocketPC.htmlBitpipe: Wireless LAN White Papers [pdf]http://www.bitpipe.com/data/rlist?t=sys_10_34_4_2_np&sort_by=status&src=googleThe first website from WKMN (1) identifies the major types of wireless used today as Local Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs) and Mobile Wireless, and Personal Area Networks. The WiFi Alliance, which certifies interoperability of IEEE 802.11 products in order "to promote them as the global, wireless LAN standard across all market segments" also gives an overview of WiFi, or Wireless Fidelity, on this second website (2). The IEEE 802.11 is the common standard used for LANs and is described more in this white paper from 3Com (3). The Bluetooth infrastructure, more common in Personal Area Networks, is described on this website (4 ). The current hot issue in the Wi-Fi world is security, which is discussed in this article from e-Week (5). Legal issues are also being raised, especially since the boundaries for wireless are unclear, which means people can survey for wireless networks without paying for access. This process is described in an article from the O'Reilly Network website (6). Finally, this last website (7) offers a number of white papers on wireless LAN.

95

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

Caitlin, Ms.

2009-10-21

96

Determination of Precipitable Water Vapors by Combining Ground-based GPS Measurements and Automatic Weather Station Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has initiated a research project to obtain near-real-time estimates of precipitable water vapor (PWV) based on ground-based GPS measurements. About 80 GPS permanent stations are being utilized to calculate GPS PWV. Currently, however, only 10 GPS permanent stations have their own weather sensors connected to the GPS receiver. To overcome this limitation, interpolation of pressures and temperatures from nearby Automatic Weather Station (AWS) is needed for the GPS station without a meteorological sensor. There are approximately 500 operational AWSs in Korea. In this study, we tried the geostatistical interpolation method called Kriging and Reverse Sea Level Correction (RSLC) as interpolation strategies. As a result, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the Kriging interpolation were 1.3 hPa and 1.8 °C. On the other hand, the RMSE of the RSLC were 0.2 hPa and 1.2 °C. Therefore, the RSLC was chosen as our interpolation method. For the geoid model for RSLC interpolation, EGM2008 geoid model used. The RMS accuracy of GPS PWV from interpolated meteorological data was about 0.5 mm. We also found that differences of GPS PWVs and pressures have an inverse correlation of -0.88.

Kim, D.; Won, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, K.; Park, K.

2010-12-01

97

Ecosystem behavior at Bermuda Station [open quotes]S[close quotes] and ocean weather station [open quotes]India[close quotes]: A general circulation model and observational analysis  

SciTech Connect

One important theme of modern biological oceanography has been the attempt to develop models of how the marine ecosystem responds to variations in the physical forcing functions such as solar radiation and the wind field. The authors have addressed the problem by embedding simple ecosystem models into a seasonally forced three-dimensional general circulation model of the North Atlantic ocean. In this paper first, some of the underlying biological assumptions of the ecosystem model are presented, followed by an analysis of how well the model predicts the seasonal cycle of the biological variables at Bermuda Station s' and Ocean Weather Station India. The model gives a good overall fit to the observations but does not faithfully model the whole seasonal ecosystem model. 57 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

Fasham, M.J.R. (Natural Environment Research Council, Southampton (United Kingdom)); Sarmiento, J.L.; Slater, R.D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Ducklow, H.W. (Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental and Estuarine Sciences, Cambridge, MD (United States)); Williams, R. (Plymouth Marine Lab. (United Kingdom))

1993-06-01

98

IP-based base stations and soft handoff in all-IP wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet protocol (IP) can potentially become the universal network-layer protocol over all wireless systems as it already is for wireline packet networks. Such an all-IP wireless and wireline network can bring the proven advantages of IP networking to mobile users. However, realizing an all-IP wireless network introduces many challenges, among which is soft handoff. Two major problems need to

TAO ZHANG; PRATHIMA AGRAWAL; JYIH-CHENG CHEN

2001-01-01

99

A wireless ECG system for continuous event recording and communication to a clinical alarm station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of new wearable biomedical sensors within a wireless infrastructure opens up possibilities for new telemedical applications leading to significant improvements in continuous monitoring, and thereby to better quality of patient care. In this paper we describe a new concept for a wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) system intended for continuous monitoring of ECG activity especially designed for arrhythmia diagnostic purposes. The

R. Fensli; E. Gunnarson; O. Hejlesen

2004-01-01

100

The Positioning of Base Station in Wireless Communication with Genetic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the displacement of a base station with optimization approach. A genetic algorithm is used as optimization\\u000a approach. A new representation that describes base station placement, transmitted power with real numbers and new genetic\\u000a operators is proposed and introduced. In addition, this new representation can describe the number of base stations. For the\\u000a positioning of the base station,

Yong Seouk Choi; Kyung Soo Kim; Nam Kim

2007-01-01

101

Composite Temperature Record from the Greenland Summit, 1987-1994: Synthesis of Multiple Automatic Weather Station Records and SSM\\/I Brightness Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air temperature (TA) records from automatic weather stations (AWS) in central Greenland and associated Special Sensor Microwave\\/Imager (SSM\\/I) brightness temperature (TB) data (37 GHz, vertical polarization) have been used to create a composite, daily, monthly, and annual average temperature record of the Greenland summit for the period 1987-1994. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperatures from a single station;

C. A. Shuman; M. A. Fahnestock; R. A. Bindschadler; R. B. Alley; C. R. Stearns

1996-01-01

102

A sub-regional climate cluster analysis over Italy from regional climate model simulation and weather station observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are a key tools in producing downscaled and calibrated outputs for impact studies where local scale climate information are needed. Recent studies suggest that in the processing chain that goes from the global scale climate projection to the local scale information, the use of an intermediate scale RCM increases the quality of the climate information produced at the local scale. We propose a direct assessment of the type of improvements achieved by using RCMs for producing the intermediate scale climate information required for example in impact studies. We use relatively long (50 years) daily climate records of 64 weather stations in Italy the evaluate how the ENEA-PROTHEUS system reconstruct the sub-regional climate clusters emerging from observation at a spatial scale finer than the one of the global driver. Specifically, on one side we tested the capability of ENEA-PROTHEUS regional coupled model, run in a 'perfect boundaries' mode using ERA-40, to capture the pattern of sub-regional climate spatial clusters relative to maximum/minimum temperature and rainfall. On the other hand, we considered the spatial averages of these parameters on the sub-regional climate spatial clusters. We compare the model output and the weather station data in terms of their representation of the mean seasonal cycle, the corresponding interannual variability and large deviations. We find a close agreement between model and observations. In particular, although biases in the modelled seasonal cycle are present, the model is able to reproduce the frequency and the seasonality of intense events for all seasons, including hot and cold spells and intense rainfalls, especially for alpine regions.

Calmanti, Sandro; Maimone, Filippo; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro; Ciciulla, Fabrizio

2013-04-01

103

A novel simultaneous tracking and direction of arrival estimation algorithm for beam-switched base station antennas in millimeter-wave wireless broadband access networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel simultaneous tracking and direction of arrival estimation algorithm for TDD\\/TDMA broadband wireless access networks employing beam-switched base station antennas is presented. Direction of arrival estimation could be useful, for example, to generate occasional user dedicated beams to overcome temporary channel impairments or to develop advanced network management strategies such as system handover based on direction

P. Sanchis; J. M. Martinez; J. Herrera; V. Polo; J. L. Corral; J. Marti

2002-01-01

104

Smart antennas in wireless communications: base-station diversity and handset beamforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review diversity and smart antenna research applied to both base-stations and terminals. To illustrate the performance gains possible, the paper describes research being conducted by the Smart Antenna Group at Virginia Tech, in both smart base-stations and smart handheld terminals.

W. L. Stutzman; Byung-Ki Kim; K. Dietze

2000-01-01

105

Instruments and Methods Monitoring ice-capped active Volc´ an Villarrica, southern Chile, using terrestrial photography combined with automatic weather stations and global positioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcan Villarrica (39 ? 25? 12?? S, 71 ? 56? 27?? W; 2847 m a.s.l.) is an active ice-capped volcano located in the Chilean lake district. The surface energy balance and glacier frontal variations have been monitored for several years, using automatic weather stations and satellite imagery. In recent field campaigns, surface topography was measured using Javad GPS receivers. Daily

Javier G. CORRIPIO; Ben BROCK; Jorge CLAVERO; Jens WENDT

106

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn how meteorologists measure the weather by examining some online, real-time data resources and collaborating to create an in-class weather station that tracks local weather patterns for one week. Students compare this information to weather patterns in two other locations. After completing this lesson, students should be able to explain ways that meteorologists measure and predict weather and use the Internet to research information about weather conditions in various locations in the United States, including their hometown. Students will also collaborate on creating some weather-measurement instruments and keep a weather journal for one week. This site provides an overview of the lesson, detailed procedures for the teacher, including a list of research sites, and an organizational path for students.

107

Station Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will allow users to become acquainted with station models that are found on weather maps. Students will study the various atmospheric variables that are depicted on a station model and then practice on an interactive station model program. Part 1 - Being able to read and interpret weather maps is a very important skill in meteorology. One of the most basic skills of predicting the weather is being able to interpret a station model of a given location. A station model is a bundle of information that ...

Ertl, Mr.

2007-11-03

108

Weather Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

109

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during February 1999. Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method. Soil samples were collected at 0.6-m (2-ft) intervals from the surface to 1.8 m (6 ft) below ground surface. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE, 1999b). Soil sample results indicated that two locations in the bermed area contain total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel at concentrations of 124 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 377 mg/kg. This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). The TPH-impacted soil will be removed and disposed as part of the corrective action.

D. S. Tobiason

2000-06-01

110

Near field in the vicinity of wireless base-station antennas: an exposure compliance approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great social concern has risen about the potential health hazard of living near a cellular telephony base-station antenna, and certain technical questions have been posed on the appropriate way to measure exposure in its vicinity. In this paper, a standard spherical near-near field transformation is proposed to obtain the electromagnetic field close to the antenna in free space conditions. The

Sebastián Blanch; Jordi Romeu; Angel Cardama

2002-01-01

111

RF LDMOS Power Amplifier Integrated Circuits for Cellular Wireless Base Station Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three broadband RF LDMOS power amplifier integrated circuits (PA ICs) for cellular base station applications have been developed in Si LDMOS IC technologies. They can be used for all typical modulation formats from 800 MHz to 2300 MHz, and power levels from 30 W to 50 W depending on application. GSM\\/EDGE PA IC achieved 35 dB gain and 30 W

C. D. Shih; J. Sjostrom; R. Bagger; P. Andersson; Yinglei Yu; G. Ma; Q. Chen; T. Aberg

2006-01-01

112

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.

Forde, Evan B.

2004-04-01

113

A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations\\u000a (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP,\\u000a IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a

T. H. Szymanski

2008-01-01

114

EM radiation and evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in human body exposed to wireless-base station fields at IIUM campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the simulated specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body using the measured incident electric field strength from wireless-base stations operating at the frequencies in the microwave range from 2 to 4 GHz. The software XFDTD 6.4 from Remcom Inc is used to determine the amount of energy (SAR) absorbed in the human body. XFDTD 6.4 is

R. Islam; A. H. M. Z. Alam; H. Shabani

2008-01-01

115

Martian Weather Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the Earth's population continues to grow and resources continue to dwindle, humankind has looked to other planets for possible colonization. With current technology, colonization of Mars is the most viable option. Although general facts about Mars are known, such as its low temperatures, low pressure, and atmospheric density, more specific information is needed. To this end, team ARES from the Colorado School of Mines has designed a module to measure atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the data will be transmitted twice daily to an orbiting satellite. In order to provide overlap in case of interference during transmission time, because of occurrences such as dust storms, the data will be stored for 24 hours. Our design is an expanding modular structure, similar to a Hoberman Micro Sphere by Hoberman Designs, Inc, in which the instruments are protected from the harsh atmospheric conditions yet are still able to take measurements. The interior will consist of eight octants. A rod attached to opposite sides of the frame expands upon landing, opening the frame. A swivel mechanism at the middle of the rod allows the octets to orient themselves. The bottom four octets will house the instruments, computer, and batteries while the top four will be solar panels and have the antennae. This design is adaptable to various shell designs; also, it is both strong enough to survive and able to orient itself after deployment.

Burnett, William; Bush, J. David; Harwell, Kendall; Jones, Alan; Kaneta, Joyce

2002-01-01

116

Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following James Van Allen's discovery of Earth's radiation belts (1958), it was immediately recognized that the space environment would be hostile to the communications satellites that had been envision by Arthur Clark (1945) and John Pierce (1955). Van Allen's discovery set off a burst of "space weather" research and engineering that continues to today, paralleling "space weather" research that had, prior to 1958, been directed toward understanding environment effects on cable and early wireless communications, electric power distribution, and pipelines. Van Allen's discovery also meant that the flight of humans above the sensible atmosphere would be fraught with more peril than mere weightlessness. This Van Allen lecture will discuss the space weather considerations that arose from Van Allen's discovery as well as space weather effects that occur from numerous other physical processes in the complex sun-heliosphere-magnetosphere environmental system.

Lanzerotti, L. J.

2005-05-01

117

Analysis of Preflight Weather Briefings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather is often cited as a factor in general aviation (GA) accidents and mishaps. The type of weather information requested from, or provided by, automated flight service station (AFSS) specialists is dependent on weather conditions at the time the prefl...

A. M. Hendrix O. V. Prinzo R. Hendrix

2007-01-01

118

Weather Maps in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

Burrows, Charles

119

Optimizing Base Station Deployment in Wireless Sensor Networks Under One-hop and Multi-hop Communication Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor network lifetime is largely affected by the energy consumption for data transmission from sensor nodes to a base station. We generalize and solve the problems of deploying multiple base stations in sensor networks using one-hop and multi-hop communication models to maximize network lifetime. Under the one-hop communication model, the sensors far away from base stations always deplete their energy

Yunyue Lin; Qishi Wu; Xiaoshan Cai; Nageswara S. V. Rao

2009-01-01

120

MSTBBN: M-way Search Tree Based Base Station to Node Communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inexpensive sensors capable of significant computation and wireless communication with limited energy resources are available. Once deployed, the small sensor nodes are usually inaccessible to the user, and thus replacement of the energy source is not feasible. Hence, energy efficiency is a key design issue that needs to be enhanced in order to improve the life span of network. Several

Pankaj Gupta; Tarun Bansal; Manoj Misra

2009-01-01

121

Miniaturization of base station antennas by using adaptive antenna technique for indoor high-speed wireless communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppressing multiple reflected waves in an indoor propagation environment is now in great demand because multiple reflected waves significantly degrade the transmission quality of wide-band wireless communication systems. This paper clarifies that adaptive arrays with M+1 elements can completely suppress the multipath waves whose delay times are up to M times greater than the inverse of the signal transmission speed

Yasushi TAKATORI; Kazuhiro UEHARA; Kenichi KAGOSHIMA

1998-01-01

122

A solution to dynamically decrease power consumption of wireless base stations and power them with Alternative energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless network operators are facing the challenge of reducing their operating costs and carbon footprint, while extending operations to areas beyond electricity grids. In mature countries, reducing energy bill becomes a priority to support data growth despite flat revenues, and help finance strategic goals of innovation and differentiation. In emerging countries, alternative energy solutions are required to connect the next

Christophe Grangeat; Gabriel Grandamy; Frederic Wauquiez

2010-01-01

123

Diurnal variation of the global fair weather current from measurements at a Negev desert station in Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global electrical circuit (GEC) postulates a constant downward flowing current (Jz) equal to ~2 pA m-2 (Williams, 2009). We have been measuring the vertical fair-weather atmospheric electrical current from May 2011 continuously at the Wise astronomical observatory in the Negev desert, Israel. The instrument used is a modified version of the GDACCS design described by Bennet and Harrison (2008) which is capable of measuring the fair-weather current density with an accuracy of 0.4 pA m-2. The sensors are placed on a flat 1.5m x 1.5m concrete surface 150m away from the observatory. The signal is passed in a differential mode to the computer at the observatory, sampled at 250Hz by the data acquisition program (LabView) and saved to 1 minute files with a GPS time stamp every 1 second. The results show a clear daily pattern in the fluctuation of the fair weather vertical current Jz measured at the surface. The presence of airborne dust should reduce the conductivity (due to the attachment of small ions to aerosol particles). When analyzing the data with larger temporal resolution we note a strong correlation between the wind speed at the surface, the relative humidity and the Jz, suggesting the movement of space charge and rapid changes in the atmospheric conductivity. Additionally, we report initial indications for a response in Jz to the external forcing of geomagnetic conditions such as storms induced by solar flares, as evident from the correlation we find between Jz and Kp in solar quiescent and storm conditions. Bennett, A.J., Harrison, R.G. (2009), Evidence for global circuit current flow through water droplet layers. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr Phys. 71 (12), 1219-1221, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2009.04.011. Williams, E. R. (2009), The global electrical circuit, Atmos. Res., 91, 2-4, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.05.018

Elhalel, G.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.; Halatzi, S.; Reuveni, Y.; Shtibelman, D.

2012-04-01

124

Estimation of urban sensible heat flux using a dense wireless network of observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the sensible heat flux over urban terrain is challenging due to irregular surface geometry and surface\\u000a types. To address this, in 2006–07, a major field campaign (LUCE) took place at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne\\u000a campus, a moderately occupied urban site. A distributed network of 92 wireless weather stations was combined with routine\\u000a atmospheric profiling, offering

Daniel F. Nadeau; W. Brutsaert; M. B. Parlange; E. Bou-Zeid; G. Barrenetxea; O. Couach; M.-O. Boldi; J. S. Selker; M. Vetterli

2009-01-01

125

Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, November 2000)  

SciTech Connect

This addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to determine the extent of contamination existing at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321. This addendum was required when the extent of contamination exceeded the estimate in the original Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Located in Area 22 on the Nevada Test Site, Corrective Action Unit 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, consists of Corrective Action Site 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area, was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility. This facility was operational from 1951 to 1958 and dismantled after 1958. Based on site history and earlier investigation activities at CAU 321, the contaminant of potential concern (COPC) was previously identified as total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics). The scope of this corrective action investigation for the Fuel Storage Area will include the selection of biased sample locations to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, collection of soil samples using rotary sonic drilling techniques, and the utilization of field-screening methods to accurately determine the extent of COPC contamination. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives and be included in the revised CADD.

DOE /NV

2000-11-03

126

Wireless Instrumentation System and Power Management Scheme Therefore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wireless instrumentation system enables a plurality of low power wireless transceivers to transmit measurement data from a plurality of remote station sensors to a central data station accurately and reliably. The system employs a relay based communicat...

A. Eckhoff A. Lucena C. T. Mata J. Perotti N. N. Blalock P. J. Medelius

2007-01-01

127

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center offers the latest observations and forecasts for the United States and Southern Canada. By simply selecting a state, individuals can find data on the temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud cover, and other weather information for stations throughout the selected region. The website provides a state forecast as well. The map on the homepage allows users to observe the overall weather patterns throughout the continental United States and Southern Canada.

128

A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP, IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a fixed transmission rate. A protocol such as IntServ is used to provision resources along an end-to-end path of BSs for GR sessions. The Guaranteed Rates between the BSs are then specified in a doubly stochastic traffic rate matrix, which is recursively decomposed to yield a low-jitter GR frame transmission schedule. In the resulting schedule, the end-to-end delay and jitter are small and bounded, and the cell loss rate due to primary scheduling conflicts is zero. For dual-channel WMNs, the MAC protocol can achieve 100% utilization, as well as near-minimal queueing delays and near minimal delay jitter. The scheduling time complexity is O(NFlogNF), where N is the number of BSs. Extensive simulation results are presented.

Szymanski, T. H.

129

75 FR 9113 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Auxiliary Stations, Including Wireless Microphones, and the Digital...CONTACT: Bill Stafford, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau...Office of Engineering and Technology, (202) 418- 7506, e-mail...Power Auxiliary Stations (Wireless Microphones)....

2010-03-01

130

76 FR 3064 - Travelers Information Stations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and to transmit ``road conditions, travel restrictions, and weather forecasts to motorists...stations to areas near roads, highways and public...including NOAA Weather Radio retransmissions...including NOAA Weather Radio retransmissions...pertaining to traffic and road conditions,...

2011-01-19

131

Yellowstone Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yellowstone National Park's high altitude and mountainous terrain makes weather prediction very difficult. This website provides seasonal weather information, average temperature and precipitation data, links to weather forecasts, and other weather links.

Park, Yellowstone N.

132

A numerical study of the dependence of long-range transport of CO to a mountain station in Taiwan on synoptic weather patterns during the Southeast Asia biomass-burning season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is conducted to identify the synoptic weather patterns that are prone to cause high carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations observed at a mountain site, Lulin atmospheric background station (LABS), in Taiwan due to the biomass-burning activity in Southeast (SE) Asia. LABS is recognized as a clean background station. The study period targets the biomass-burning season (February to May) from 2007 to 2010. The synoptic weather patterns were classified using a two-stage clustering method with inputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological model simulation result in a 27-km spatial grid. A 9-km resolution WRF modeling was performed additionally for 13 to 26 March 2007, when a high CO concentration reaching 500 ppb was observed at LABS. The simulation result indicates that not only the existence of the thermal forcing induced low pressure system formed in Indochina, but also the presence of the high terrain located in the northern part of SE Asia that further forced the uplift of the biomass-burning emissions. On the other hand, when the northeasterly monsoonal flow is strong enough and intruding into Indochina, this would hinder the development of the thermal low and weaken the upward movements, in turn preventing the transport of biomass-burning emissions from Indochina to the area of Taiwan. The simulation results also demonstrate that the location of the SE Asia high pressure system has a moderate effect on the particle dispersion path in the upper level.

Cheng, Fang-Yi; Yang, Zhih-Min; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Ngan, Fong

2013-10-01

133

Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

134

Countermeasures Against Traffic Analysis Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks are highly vulnerable to the failure of base stations. An adversary can render a wireless sensor network useless by launching remote, softwarebased attacks or physical attacks on the base stations. This paper addresses the problem of defending a base station against physical attacks by concealing the geographic location of a base station. Typical packet traffic in a

Jing Deng; Richard Han; Shivakant Mishra

2005-01-01

135

47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification. A WMTS station is not required to...

2012-10-01

136

47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification. A WMTS station is not required to...

2011-10-01

137

Wireless sensors for wildfire monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design of a system for wildfire monitoring incorporating wireless sensors, and report results from field testing during prescribed test burns near San Francisco, California. The system is composed of environmental sensors collecting temperature, relative humidity and barometric pressure with an on-board GPS unit attached to a wireless, networked mote. The motes communicate with a base station, which

David M. Doolin; Nicholas Sitar

2005-01-01

138

Sky Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While satellites are the current backbone of telecommunications and wireless infrastructure, the company that maintains this Web site envisions a completely new technology. The Stratospheric Telecommunications Service (STS) relies on "lighter-than-air platforms which are held in a geo-stationary position in the stratosphere (approximately 21Km) over a major metropolitan area." The Sky Station company documents much of the STS theory online, as well as maintaining news and information articles about the progress of the system's development. US and international organizations have already reserved some of the radio frequency spectrum for stratospheric platforms, and it seems to have considerable support from important agencies.

1997-01-01

139

A prefetching protocol for continuous media streaming in wireless environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streaming of continuous media over wireless links is a notoriously difficult problem. This is due to the stringent Quality of Service requirements of continuous media and the unreliability of wireless links. We develop a streaming protocol for the real-time delivery of prerecorded continuous media from (to) a central base station to (from) multiple wireless clients within a wireless cell. Our

Frank H. P. Fitzek; Martin Reisslein

2001-01-01

140

Method for Performing Handoff in Wireless Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for minimizing handoff latencies when a handoff is performed in a wireless network. An access point (AP) or base station associated to a current wireless station (STA) allows information required for a reassociation to the STA to be propagated to...

I. S. Lee K. H. Jang M. H. Shin W. A. Arbaugh A. Mishra

2004-01-01

141

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

142

Reviews Book: Marie Curie and Her Daughters Resource: Cumulus Equipment: Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Equipment: 3D Magnetic Tube Equipment: National Grid Transmission Model Book: Einstein's Physics Equipment: Barton's Pendulums Equipment: Weather Station Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND Marie Curie and Her Daughters An insightful study of a resilient and ingenious family and their achievements Cumulus Simple to install and operate and with obvious teaching applications, this weather station 'donationware' is as easy to recommend as it is to use Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Good design and construction make for good results National Grid Transmission Model Despite its expense, this resource offers excellent value Einstein's Physics A vivid, accurate, compelling and rigorous treatment, but requiring an investment of time and thought WORTH A LOOK 3D Magnetic Tube Magnetic fields in three dimensions at a low cost Barton's Pendulums A neat, well-made and handy variant, but not a replacement for the more traditional version Weather Station Though not as robust or substantial as hoped for, this can be put to good use with the right software WEB WATCH An online experiment and worksheet are useful for teaching motor efficiency, a glance at CERN, and NASA's interesting information on the alpha-magnetic spectrometer and climate change

2013-09-01

143

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

144

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting â from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment â and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

145

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

146

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

147

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

148

UM Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

1994-01-01

149

Weather Predictions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use the internet to learn about weather and play games enhancing their knowledge and interest. Using the knowledge they learned students will write out their prediction of their next 5 days of weather. Intro Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide Intro Look at the current weather forecast-Click here Current Weather-CNN Task Search for information about what causes different kinds of weather and what instruments people use to predict weather. What is a person called who predicts weather? Resources Resource 1 Resource 2 Resource 3 Resource 4 Resource 5 Resource 6 Evaluation Rubric Conclusion After researching, create your ...

Burr, Miss

2009-03-27

150

``Atmospherics'' in Wireless Telegraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE greatest difficulty in wireless telegraphy is due to atmospherics. I believe that every attempt to prevent these sudden shocks from entering the receiving apparatus in important stations has failed. Now Mr. S. G. Brown has wires stretched horizontally from his house to his stables in Kensington at about 40 ft. from the ground; he receives all the ordinary messages

John Perry; H. MORRIS-AIREY

1914-01-01

151

Shoring pumping station excavation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m³\\/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m³\\/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping

J. B. Glover; D. J. Reardon

1991-01-01

152

Development of a Wireless Remote Monitoring System Utilizing Multiple Wireless Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel remote monitoring system for all day outdoor observation using multiple wireless sensors and wireless communication (Handy phone and PHS) is proposed. The whole system consists of three parts: (i) a host station that is PC (Personal Computer), (ii) remote station that contains a camera controlled by CPU and power supply (battery attached by solar cell), and (iii) multiple

Shinichi Masuda; Tetsuo Hattori

2007-01-01

153

Technical Report No. 2007-540 School of Computing Queen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Placement of multiple mobile base stations in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to energy constraints in individual sensor nodes, extending the lifetime is an essential objective in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN's). Several proposals have aimed at that objective by designing energy efficient protocols at the physical, medium access, and network layers. While the proposed protocols achieve significant energy savings for individual sensor nodes, they fail to solve topology-related problems; an example

Waleed Alsalih; Selim Akl; Hossam Hassanein

154

Weather & Weather Maps. Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to provide an opportunity for students to work with weather symbols used for reporting weather. Also included are exercises in location of United States cities by latitude and longitude, measurement of distances in miles and kilometers, and prediction of weather associated with various types of weather fronts. (RE)

Metro, Peter M.; Green, Rachel E.

155

Wireless Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the problems that arise when standard Internet protocols such as TCP are used over wireless links. We review wireless link characteristics with case studies drawn from commercial Wireless LANs and Cellular Telephony systems. We discuss problems with Internet protocols when em- ployed over these systems, such as degraded TCP performance when wireless errors are interpreted as congestion

George Xylomenos; George C. Polyzos

156

Weathering Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.

2002-01-01

157

Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed to give students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Students discover that mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedrock into smaller fragments by physical as opposed to chemical means and that rock weathering, although it seems to occur slowly in human terms, is an extremely significant part of the rock cycle. They will learn that weathered rock materials are called sediments and are the structural basis for soils and can also be compacted into sedimentary rock. Students will realize that rock weathering rates vary widely depending on mineral content, texture, rock type, and climate and that differential weathering (varying weathering rates for two or more rock types in physical contact with each other) has given rise to some of the world's most breathtaking scenery.

158

Weather Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Talk is a primer on weather and naval meteorology. It provides a brief overview of major weather elements and is presented in a non-mathematical way, so that the reader will have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of weather and use it to their advantage and safety in planning and carrying out their own activities. The site explains temperature, wind, pressure, atmospheric moisture, air masses and fronts, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and climatology.

159

Antarctic Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

160

Approach of the Secure Communication Mechanism in Aero-wireless Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aero-wireless network is a wireless environment between aircraft stations and ground stations, or between aircraft stations. Secure communications in aero-wireless network are inherently unreliable and discontinuous resulting infrequent encrypted data losses\\/insertions. If an encrypted data is lost or inserted, a new secure connection can be setup without complex cryptographic computations. This work focuses on one important attention of aero-wireless network,

Kihong Kim; Jinkeun Hong; Jongin Lim

2007-01-01

161

77 FR 64446 - Wireless Microphones Proceeding  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations on an unlicensed...should revise the part 74 low power auxiliary station (LPAS) rules...of the unused channels in the UHF TV band near Channel 37 so that...microphones (and related low power auxiliary station...

2012-10-22

162

Distributed fault-tolerant channel assignment in mobile networks with mobile base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each cell has a fixed base station in traditional mobile networks. But, in a virtual cellular network (VCN), the fixed base stations are replaced by mobile base station. Thus, the mobile host-mobile base station communication link is wireless and the mobile base station-mobile base station communication link is also wireless. Due to the mobility of base stations, the co-channel interference

Jaegil Kim; Chong-Sun Hwang

1999-01-01

163

UMTS Network Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed over the 30 radiometric stations. As a the result, currently it exist a stable, flexible, safe and economic infrastructure of radiometric stations and telecommunications that allows, on the one hand, to have data in real time from all 30 remote weather stations, and on the other hand allows to communicate with them in order to reprogram them and to carry out maintenance works.

Hernandez, C.

2010-09-01

164

Wireless sensor network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current and future requirements of aerospace sensors and transducers demand the design and development of a new family of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors and transducers will possess a certain degree of intelligence in order to provide the end user with critical data in a more efficient manner. Communication between networks of traditional or next-generation sensors can be accomplished by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) developed by NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC Aerospace Corporation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), consisting of at least one central station and several remote stations and their associated software. The central station is application-dependent and can be implemented on different computer hardware, including industrial, handheld, or PC-104 single-board computers, on a variety of operating systems: embedded Windows, Linux, VxWorks, etc. The central stations and remote stations share a similar radio frequency (RF) core module hardware that is modular in design. The main components of the remote stations are an RF core module, a sensor interface module, batteries, and a power management module. These modules are stackable, and a common bus provides the flexibility to stack other modules for additional memory, increased processing, etc. WSN can automatically reconfigure to an alternate frequency if interference is encountered during operation. In addition, the base station will autonomously search for a remote station that was perceived to be lost, using relay stations and alternate frequencies. Several wireless remote-station types were developed and tested in the laboratory to support different sensing technologies, such as resistive temperature devices, silicon diodes, strain gauges, pressure transducers, and hydrogen leak detectors.

Perotti, Jose M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.; Mata, Carlos T.

2006-06-01

165

46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.320 Cargo control stations. (a) Cargo control stations must be above the weather deck. (b) If a cargo control station is in accommodation, service, or control spaces or has...

2011-10-01

166

46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.320 Cargo control stations. (a) Cargo control stations must be above the weather deck. (b) If a cargo control station is in accommodation, service, or control spaces or has...

2012-10-01

167

The State of Wireless London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides the results from a survey, sponsored by the International Chamber of Commerce, which reports on the growth of wireless usage in the greater London area and compares networks built by "freenetwork" groups to those built by commercial providers. The results show that London has more than 5,000 wireless networks that are being used in offices, government buildings, prisons, police stations and government offices. The data is displayed clearly with impressive maps and detailed documentation. The reference list offers numerous links for more information about wireless networks.

168

Wireless Tool Kit For Hand Held Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wireless networks can be broadly classified into two types infrastructure based networks and ad hoc networks. The former uses fixed base stations (infrastructure) which are responsible for coordinating communication between the mobile hosts (nodes). These...

V. S. Baalaji

2004-01-01

169

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

170

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

171

Weather Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The listed websites are recommended safe kid friendly sites that may be used when gathering data for the at home data project. Use the websites listed to learn more about daily weather patterns in different cities around the world. After you have collected and organized your data, create a graph representing the different weather patterns in that city. Use this site to record the daily high temperature for your assigned city. The Weather Channel Use this ...

Harris, Ms.

2011-01-24

172

Mutual authentication architecture in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor network (WSN, Wireless Sensor Network) is a kind of autonomous network with sensor nodes. It is different from traditional RFID system that the WSN is through the distribution of sensor nodes in different locations to monitor environmental conditions. The collected data from sensor nodes were sent back to the base station for further analysis and processing to compensate

Chi-Huan Jiang; Hung-Lin Li; Yu-Jung Huang; Wei-Cheng Lin

2010-01-01

173

Programming Wireless Sensor Networks with Logical Neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor network (WSN) architectures often feature a (single) base station in charge of coordinating the application functionality. Although this assumption simplified the path to adoption of WSN technology, researchers are now being attracted by more decentralized architectures with multiple sinks and heterogeneous nodes. These scenarios are brought to an extreme in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs), where sensing

Luca Mottola; Gian Pietro Picco

2006-01-01

174

AN URBAN WEATHER GENERATOR COUPLING BUILDING SIMULATIONS WITH A PHYSICALLY BASED URBAN MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building simulation programs predict the thermal performance of buildings under certain weather conditions. Weather information is usually taken from an available weather data file obtained from the closest meteorological station. However, the differences between the local urban climate and the conditions at the closest meteorological station can lead to inaccurate building simulation results. This paper presents an Urban Weather Generator

Bruno Bueno Unzeta; Leslie K. Norford; Rex Britter

175

Superconducting microwave filter systems for cellular telephone base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second decade following the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), wireless communications has emerged as the earliest large commercial market. The enormous growth of the wireless industry coupled with its increasing technology demands has created a significant opportunity for HTS technology in wireless base stations. These systems combine high-performance HTS RF filters with cryocooled semiconductor preamplifiers to offer enhanced

RANDY W. SIMON; ROBERT B. HAMMOND; STUART J. BERKOWITZ; BALAM A. WILLEMSEN

2004-01-01

176

Antennæ for Wireless Telegraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

I WAS interested to see Mr. Campbell Swinton's letter on wireless receiving with his bedstead as an aërial. Many of the more powerful stations are, however, much easier to receive than is generally supposed; for instance, I have been able to read the Eiffel Tower nine o'clock news message with only 12 ft. of No. 18 S.W.G. copper wire stretched

Arnold G. Hansard

1913-01-01

177

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

178

47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection. All WMTS transmitters must be available for...

2011-10-01

179

47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection. All WMTS transmitters must be available for...

2012-10-01

180

Station Model Plot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet provides a test of decoding station model plots. From the plot, the user must determine the temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, pressure and pressure change, and current weather. Values can be checked and attempted again.

Ackerman, Steve; Whittaker, Tom

181

Weather and Climate on the Planets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automatic interplanetary station observations and theoretical investigations of weather conditions and climate on Venus, Mars and Jupiter are discussed, which are opening up good prospects for the development of the comparative meteorology of the planets....

K. Y. Kondratyev

1975-01-01

182

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-09-01

183

A wireless multi-sensor subglacial probe: design and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new way to investigate in situ processes, the wireless multi-sensor probe, as part of an environmental sensor network. Instruments are housed within a 'probe' which can move freely and so behave like a clast. These were deployed in the ice and till at Briksdalsbreen, Norway. The sensors measure temperature, resistivity, case stress, tilt angle and water pressure and send their data to a base station on the glacier surface via radio links. These data are then forwarded by radio to a reference station with mains power 2.5 km away, from where they are sent to a web server in the UK. The system deployed during 2004/05 was very successful and a total of 859 probe days worth of data from the ice and till were collected, along with GPS, weather and diagnostic data about the system.

Hart, Jane K.; Martinez, Kirk; Ong, Royan; Riddoch, Alistair; Rose, Kathryn C.; Padhy, Paritosh

184

Activities of NICT space weather project  

Microsoft Academic Search

NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place

Ken T. Murata; Tsutomu Nagatsuma; Shinichi Watari; Hiroyuki Shinagawa; Mamoru Ishii

2010-01-01

185

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

Friend, Duane

186

Gravestone Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

Wiberg, Leanne; History, National M.

2000-01-01

187

Smart antennas for wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we discuss current and future antenna technology for wireless systems and the improvement that smart and adaptive antenna arrays can provide. We describe standard cellular antennas, smart antennas using fixed beams, and adaptive antennas for base stations, as well as antenna technologies for handsets. We show the potential improvement that these antennas can provide, including range extension,

JACK H. WINTERS

1998-01-01

188

1980 Weather summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weather in the United States during 1980 was bad. A 3-month heat wave in the southwest caused about $20 billion in ruined crops, an increase in power consumption, and damage to roads and highways. Nationwide, the heat killed 1320 people. Floods caused more than $1 billion in losses. Hurricane Allen caused about $500 million in property losses and took two lives.The highest temperature reading during 1980, 51°C (124°F), was reached five times. Locations were at Bull Head, Arizona; Death Valley, California; and three times at Baker, California. Preliminary figures also show that the lowest temperature for the year was recorded at Tok weather station, 150 miles southeast of Fairbanks, Alaska. There the mercury plummeted to -56°C (-68°F). In the lower 48 states the minimum thermometer reading was -44°C at Wisdom, Montana.

Bell, Peter M.

189

National Weather Service: Weather Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Weather Service's Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services has a strong outreach component. This "Education" page offers a range of materials for educators and young people which includes lesson plans, brochures, satellite image collections and career information for the fields of meteorology and climatology. The site doesn't have a search engine, but visitors can scroll through eight topical sections, including "Classroom Materials", "Careers in Weather", and "Graphics, Photos, Images". Science teachers won't want to miss the "Classroom Materials", as they can find materials on the "One Sky, Many Voices" project designed to bring together meteorology projects from around the United States together in a collaborative learning environment. Moving on, the "Graphics, Photos, Images" area contains a range of lightning photos and satellite images organized into categories like "Ocean Events", "Severe Weather", and "Tropical Cyclones".

190

Design of a Digital Simulation of the Polar Planimeter for Calculating Areas of Echoes from Radar Weather Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effort discussed in the report was to fulfill a requirement for expediently analyzing data on radar weather prediction techniques. Data is recorded at various radar stations, which make hourly weather observations on the local weather activity within ...

R. G. Kelley

1968-01-01

191

Subsurface Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional thinking holds that underground- and underwater radio communication is not possible, except at very low frequencies employing very long antennas and high transmit power. However, researchers at The University of Iowa have demonstrated that using inexpensive, low-power radios, it is in fact possible to achieve reliable underground radio communication over distances of several meters. This allows for creating underground wireless sensor networks. A proof-of-concept network was established at The University of Iowa, where nodes that measure soil moisture content are buried over a 20×20 m area (up to 1 m deep). The nodes organize themselves into a wireless sensor network, reconfigure routes as radio link quality waxes and wanes, cooperate in routing data packets to a surface base station, and so on. In an agricultural research setting, an advantage of such buried wireless sensor networks is that, if nodes were buried deep enough, they may be left in place during agricultural field work. Power consumption is an important issue in wireless sensor networks. This is especially true in a buried network where battery replacement is a major undertaking. The focus of continuing research is developing methods of inductively recharging buried sensor batteries.

Niemeier, J. J.; Davies, J. L.; Kruger, A.

2008-12-01

192

Forecasting Dew Duration at Pendleton, Oregon, Using Simple Weather Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of dew to agriculture, together with the absence of dew measurements at standard weather station sites, resulted in the development of predictive models for dew formation in the Umatilla River Basin, Oregon. Meteorological data were obtained at the Pendleton Experiment Station in close proximity to dew-measurement devices, and from the Pendleton National Weather Service Office. Dew measurements, made

Michael J. Crowe; Stella Melugin Coakley; Robert G. Emge

1978-01-01

193

Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume provides a comprehensive overview of our current observational knowledge, theoretical understanding, and numerical capability with regard to the phenomena known as space weather. Space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems, and can endanger human life or health. The rapid advance in these technologies has provided us with unprecedented capability and convenience, and we have come to rely on them more and more. Technology has reduced society's risk to many kinds of natural disasters, but through its own vulnerability, it has actually increased society's risk to space weather. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socioeconomic losses.

Song, Paul; Singer, Howard J.; Siscoe, George L.

194

Wireless Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless

Tech Directions, 2011

2011-01-01

195

Unisys Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Unisys weather website offers a host of weather analyses and forecasts. In the Analyses link, visitors can find satellite images as well as surface, upper air, and radar images. Visitors can learn the intricacies of Unisys's many forecast models such as the Nested Grid Model (NGM), Aviation Model, and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) Model. Users can find archived hurricane data for the Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific, and the Western Pacific. The site also furnishes archived surface maps, infrared satellite images, upper air charts, and sea surface temperature (SST) plots.

196

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

2010-01-01

197

Wireless Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless is just another name for radio. And of course, wireless is certainly not new. It was discovered in the late 1800s and quickly developed in the early 1900s by Marconi and others. Radio has many uses which include radio broadcasting (AM, FM, digital and satellite), 2-way radio (public service, aircraft, marine, etc.), personal and hobby (CB, FRS, ham radio, RC, etc.), and telemetry. Cell phones are two way radios as are wireless local area networks. TV, radar, satellites, and navigation systems like GPS are radio. Today radio is mostly taken for granted. However over the past decades, radio has changed our lives. The developments with the greatest impact are cell phones, wireless local area networks (WLANs) for computers, and short range radios for a variety of applications. These applications are today referred to as wireless. This module introduces you to basic radio concepts.

2011-01-03

198

The Weather Doctor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

Heidorn, Keith.

2002-01-01

199

Today's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

200

Weather control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to

Leepson

1980-01-01

201

Development of a Wireless Remote Monitoring System Utilizing Multiple Wireless Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel remote monitoring system for all day outdoor observation using multiple wireless sensors and wireless communication (Handy phone and PHS) is proposed. The whole system consists of three parts: (i) a host station that is PC (Personal Computer), (ii) remote station that contains a camera controlled by CPU and power supply (battery attached by solar cell), and (iii) multiple wireless sensors having each ID signal. The remote station usually works by an event-driven method based on the wireless sensor signals. Because of this event-driven method, various multi-vision systems are easily configurable. This paper describes the details of the system and evaluates the possibility of the application of the system. Since some of the systems are now really running in many places, we can consider that the effectiveness of the system is shown by the fact in a practical sense.

Masuda, Shinichi; Hattori, Tetsuo

202

Defending Traffic Analysis with Communication Cycles in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes collect and forward environmental data back to the base station via multi-hop communications and nodes closer to the base station take relatively heavier communication loads. Therefore, an attacker may identify the location of the base station and cause security breaches by analyzing the network traffic. In this paper, we create traffic decoys that also

Hou-Jie Wang; Tien-Ruey Hsiang

2009-01-01

203

Wireless Downtowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coming soon to an urban center near you: wireless connectivity for your laptop or PDA, brought to you by City Hall. At least that's the hot trend among U.S. municipalities, 48 of which now offer wireless access, according to a recent report. Most municipal systems are the result of public-private partnerships, and many offer some level of free access. The first website (1) is an overview of the wireless downtown phenomenon which notes the importance of such systems for local economic development. The second link (2) is to a fact sheet about Wireless Philadelphia, which, as one of the first and largest downtown wi-fi projects, helped spark the national trend. The third website is a node map of NYCwireless (3) and the 147 access points where that municipal network currently can be accessed. The fourth link leads to a case study of chaska.net (4) , which provides wireless access to the 7,500 homes and 18,000 residents of that Minneapolis suburb. The fifth website is a pdf (5) of a slick brochure produced by the city of Gainesville, Fla., to promote its Digital Downtown project. The sixth link is to a Sacramento Bee editorial (6) making the case for downtown wireless. The seventh website is a free database listing 10,840 wireless access points in 767 locations worldwide (7) , organized by geographic region.

204

Wireless vibration sensor using frequency modulation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, wireless strain sensors have received attention as an efficient method to measure response of a structure in a remote location. Wireless sensors developed for remote measurement include RF wireless sensor modules and microstrip antenna-based sensors. In this paper, a simple wireless vibration sensor based on a piezoelectric sensor and the Frequency Modulation (FM) technique is developed for remote measurement of vibrating structures. The piezoelectric sensor can generate a voltage signal proportional to dynamic strain of the host structure. The voltage signal is then frequency modulated and transmitted wirelessly to a remote station by a simple FM transmitter circuit. Finally, the received signal is demodulated by a conventional FM radio circuit, and the vibration measurement data can be recovered. Since this type of wireless sensor employs a simple FM circuit, they do not require any wireless data transmission protocols allowing a low-cost wireless sensor in compact format. The proposed concept of the wireless vibration measurement is experimentally verified by measuring vibration of an aluminum cantilever beam. The proposed sensor could potentially be an efficient and cost effective method for measuring vibration of remote structures for dynamic testing or structural health monitoring.

Kim, Minhyuck; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Kim, Sehun; Kim, Joo-Hyung

2012-03-01

205

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

206

Weather Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This completely updated edition explores in detail the unresolved debate on the existence of weather cycles. It provides a different perspective on one of the most difficult questions in the current global warming debate: how much of the recent temperature rise can be attributed to natural causes? The book examines the complex analysis required to assess the evidence for cycles with a minimum of mathematics. First Edition Hb (1992): 0-521-38178-9 First Edition Pb (1995): 0-521-47869-3

Burroughs, William James

2003-12-01

207

Novel implement for the mobile communication base transceiver station mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel mobile communication base transceiver station architecture is considered. Moreover, we propose this new approach for constructing a dynamic mobile communication base station subsystem for all the wireless communication systems to reduce the cost of both fabrication and maintenance compared to existing approaches. This novel mobile communication base transceiver station system is employed to broadcast and receive radio signal

Ye Yan; Kwangsoo Kim; Jucheng Yang

2005-01-01

208

Wireless Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quicktime animation examines the basics in wireless communication. Wireless communication has become pervasive in everyday life, providing convenience, piece of mind as well as emergency preparedness for its users through instant accessibility. The cell phone antenna is the link to the outside world. Designed to transmit as well as receive the RF signals, it efficiently couples the electromagnetic waves to the transmitter and receiver.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart J.

2012-08-08

209

Aviation weather radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration has established three ground-based weather radar programs. The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) and weather system processor (WSP) provide wind shear detection capability for air traffic controllers in the terminal area. These systems also reduce weather related delays. The next generation weather radar (NEXRAD) is used by the FAA to improve safety and reduce weather related

D. H. Turnbull

1995-01-01

210

Weather Science Hotlist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Franklin Institute Online offers the metadata Web site Weather Science Hotlist. The page contains dozens of links organized into ten topics that include Online Exhibits, Weather Right Now, Background Information, Severe Weather, El Nino/ La Nina, Historical Weather, Career Connections, Activities, Atmosphere, and Weather Forecasting. A great source for anyone looking for online weather information.

1969-12-31

211

47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...also be identified by the location of its control point. (c) Survival craft station...exempted from the use of a call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter, air traffic control transponder, distance measuring...

2012-10-01

212

47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...also be identified by the location of its control point. (c) Survival craft station...exempted from the use of a call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter, air traffic control transponder, distance measuring...

2011-10-01

213

Parameterisation of a global daily weather generator for terrestrial ecosystem modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many global ecological models require globally-gridded daily weather data, but such data are not directly available from the current global network of weather stations. A method is described whereby a stochastic daily weather generator is parameterised to operate at the half-degree scale for the earth's terrestrial surface. The weather generator simulates 24 h shortwave irradiance, precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures,

A. D Friend

1998-01-01

214

Kerberos based authentication for inter-domain roaming in wireless heterogeneous network  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased demand in ubiquitous high speed wireless access has led integration of different wireless technologies provided by different administrative domains creating truly a heterogeneous network. Security is one of the major hurdles in such network environment. As a mobile station moves in and out of the coverage area of one wireless network to another, it needs to be authenticated.

Anish Prasad Shrestha; Dong-You Choi; Goo-Rak Kwon; Seung-Jo Han

2010-01-01

215

A New Adaptive Channel Reservation Scheme for Handoff Calls in Wireless Cellular Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless cellular networks, in order to ensure that ongoing calls are not dropped while the owner mobile stations roam among cells, handoff calls may be admitted with a higher priority as compared with new calls. Since the wireless bandwidth is scarce and therefore precious, efficient schemes which allow a high utilization of the wireless channel, while at the same

Zhong Xu; Zhenqiang Ye; Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy; Satish K. Tripathi; Mart Molle

2002-01-01

216

Wireless Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless communications is an industry that is growing at an incredible rate. Cellular phones are the most obvious example of this trend; it is hard to go anywhere without seeing someone using one. Rapidly advancing technologies and lower prices are making this all possible. At the current pace, there seems to be no limit to what is possible in the wireless industry.To learn about the events that led up to present day wireless communications, this site offers a very informative history of telecommunications (1) that goes all the way back to the time of carrier pigeons. A good introduction to wireless networking can be found in this mini-tutorial (2). The best parts of this tutorial are the discussions of many recent wireless developments and technologies. There are a few interactive games and activities that are supposed to be instructive and entertaining, but some of them can be annoying. For the more technically savvy user, the third site (3) starts by describing many of the principles that drive current wireless systems. The second part examines the technologies that will be used in future generations of services. To build on this material, the third generation mobile communications systems (3G) is the central topic at 3G Newsroom (4), providing breaking news about the development of 3G technology. Additionally, the site has an excellent introduction to 3G, including its applications and specifications. One of the advancements that is paving the way toward 3G is Bluetooth, which is explained in great detail here (5). This technology is capable of very high data transfer rates, but there are some limitations, which are all discussed in the articles on the site. Although Bluetooth is raising plenty of interest, this recent news story (6) is creating more than its share of debate. It outlines a very controversial move by the FCC to allow the use of ultrawideband technology in commercial wireless applications. The author explains in simple terms why there are so many concerns about something that could revolutionize wireless systems. The evolution of the global system for mobile communications (GSM) is traced at GSM World (7). Here users can learn about the roots of the wireless industry as well as what is in store for the future. A special section addresses health concerns associated with mobile phone use. Radio was one of the earliest form of wireless communication, and the Invention of Radio (8) documents the people and events that made it what it is today. The stories of such famous scientists and inventors as Marconi, DeForest, and Armstrong are told in brief accounts, and there is even a link to the well known War of the Worlds radio broadcast.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

217

An Adaptive Fairness Control Model in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmitting data to base station is the important task in wireless sensor network. Fairness control aims at sharing the equal bandwidth of all of data source node. Different event has the different priority in the wireless sensor network. The expectation reliability of event represents the priority of the event in this paper. An adaptive fairness definition is proposed based on

Kuang Zhufang; Yang Guogui

2009-01-01

218

An Implicit Prioritized Access Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in wireless technology have brought us closer to the vision of pervasive computing where sensors\\/actuators can be connected through a wireless network. Due to cost constraints and the dynamic nature of sensor networks, it is undesirable to assume the existence of base stations connected by a wired backbone. In this paper, we present a network architecture suitable for

Marco Caccamo; Lynn Y. Zhang; Lui Sha; Giorgio C. Buttazzo

2002-01-01

219

Wavelet entropy based damage identification using wireless smart sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a wavelet entropy based damage identification method is experimentally validated using wireless smart sensor units (Imote2) with TinyOS-based firmware. Recently, the wireless smart sensor network has drawn significant attention for applications in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Wavelet entropy is considered to be a damagesensitive signature that can be obtained both at different spatial locations and time stations

Gun-Jin Yun; Soon-Gie Lee; Joan Carletta; Tomonori Nagayama

2009-01-01

220

Wireless Phone Threat Assessment for Aircraft Communication And Navigation Radios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station s...

T. X. Nguyen S. V. Koppen L. J. Smith R. A. Williams M. T. Salud

2005-01-01

221

Radio-over-fiber systems for next generation wireless access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade a tendency towards increasing demand for broadband wireless services is one of the driving factors for research and development. In order to connect the installed fiber optic backbone with remote wireless base stations at those frequencies full optical access networks are expected to play a key role for future system architectures. This Radio-over-Fiber-Systems combining optical and

R. Herschel; C. G. Schaffer

2011-01-01

222

Destructive Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

Alizabethirwin

2010-11-03

223

Weather Tamers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem-based learning experiences that extend at least two weeks provide an opportunity for students to investigate a real-world problem while learning science content and skills in an exciting way. Meteorology provides a wealth of problems students can investigate while learning specific science concepts and skills found frequently in middle level national and state curricula standards. The hands-on activity described in this article helps students learn about the science behind weather events by planning, constructing, and testing models of cities exposed to a series of simulated hurricanes and tornado conditions.

Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

2007-03-01

224

A Routing Protocol Based on Power-Controlled Sleep Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Sensor Networks is dispersed by a group composed of sensors and Base Stations. It can be used in various applications of remote monitoring system. Sensor nodes route the collected data to the Base Station via multi-hop wireless links. These sensors typically use batteries to operate, the battery cannot be replaced when the depletion of energy resources. Therefore, how to

Ying-Hong Wang; Yu-Chu Lin; Cheng-Hung Tsai

2011-01-01

225

Wireless Voltage Regulation for Passive Transponders Using an IF to Communicate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel architecture for wireless communication systems made up of a base station and a remotely powered transponder. The architecture enables the base station to perform wireless voltage regulation (WVR) of the rectifier's output voltage in the transponder. This new regulation technique can be embedded in any system, provided that the passive transponder uses an IF to

Nicolas Pillin; Norbert Joehl; Catherine Dehollain; Michel J. Declercq

2010-01-01

226

NOAA/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a prototype debris flow early warning system for Southern California. The system uses USGS-defined rainfall rate thresholds for debris flows and burn area hazard maps to protect interests in and near burn areas of damaging and potentially deadly debris flows. Although common throughout Southern California, as witnessed by the December 25, 2003 storm in which sixteen people were swept to their deaths by debris flows generated from a recent burn area near Devore, debris flows are commonly misunderstood by the public. They are often perceived as rare events, are difficult to warn for with sufficient lead time, and present unique challenges when communicating proper calls to action to best save lives and property. Many improvements to the system have been realized since the project’s inception in 2005, including using more refined rainfall rate thresholds, use of burn area hazard maps, and the establishment of a tiered system to categorize the potential severity of flash floods and debris flows. These efforts have collectively resulted in a reduction of warning false alarms. However, the massive 400,000 hectare 2009 Station burn area in the Angeles National Forest of Los Angeles County has created numerous challenges to the early warning system. The geology of the area burned is highly susceptible to debris flows, due in part to the burn severity, soil types and steep slopes. Most importantly, the burn area is adjacent to and uphill of the highly populated lower foothills of the San Fernando Valley. NOAA/NWS and the USGS have thus worked closely with local response and preparedness agencies to analyze and communicate the threat and assist in developing a unified command response plan in preparation for flash flood and debris flows from this burn area. The early warning system was put to the ultimate test on February 6, 2010 when intense rainfall over the burn area produced very damaging but fortunately nonfatal flash flooding and debris flows. Unfortunately public and local agency response to NWS forecasts, watches, and warnings issued for this event was minimal. Possible causes of, and actions needed to improve upon, this minimal response are examined, including 1) complacency due to previous watch and warning false alarms, 2) underestimating the hazard threat due to local residents having not personally experienced a severe debris flow event in recent history if ever, 3) misinterpretation of NWS point precipitation forecasts and current limits of predictability related to forecasting specific locations and amounts of intense rainfall beyond 12-24 hours, 4) the challenges of ensuring NWS information is consistently received and interpreted among the multiple agencies and jurisdictions of the unified command, and 5) the likelihood that most people did not hear NWS warnings due to the event taking place late at night. Also examined are proper calls to action to protect life and property at a time when evacuations may put people in harm's way.

Jackson, M.; Laber, J. L.; Boldt, E.

2010-12-01

227

The Weather Dude  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

Walker, Nick.

2002-01-01

228

Commercializing Space Weather using GAIM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the en-ergy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the ionosphere is the key region that affects com-munication and navigation systems. The Utah State University (USU) Space Weather Center (SWC) was organized in 2009 to develop commercial space weather applications. It uses the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) system as the basis for providing improvements to communication and navigation systems. For example, in August 2009 SWC released, in conjunction with Space Environment Technologies, the world's first real-time space weather via an iPhone app, Space WX. It displays the real-time, current global ionosphere to-tal electron content along with its space weather drivers, is available through the Apple iTunes store, and is used around the world. The GAIM system is run operationally at SWC for global and regional (continental U.S.) conditions. Each run stream continuously ingests up to 10,000 slant TEC measurements every 15-minutes from approximately 500 stations in a Kalman filter to adjust the background output from the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM). Additionally, 80 real-time digisonde data streams from around the world provide ionosphere characterization up to the F-region peak. The combination of these data dramatically improves the current epoch ionosphere specification beyond the physics-based solution. The altitudinal range is 90-1500 km for output TEC, electron densities, and other data products with a few degrees resolution in latitude and longitude at 15-minute time granularity. We describe the existing SWC products that are used as commercial space weather information. SWC funding is provided by the State of Utah's Utah Science Technology and Research (USTAR) initiative. The SWC is physically located on the USU campus in Logan, Utah.

Tobiska, W. Kent; Schunk, Robert; Sojka, Jan J.

229

NOAA\\/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a prototype debris flow early warning system for Southern California. The system uses USGS-defined rainfall rate thresholds for debris flows and burn area hazard maps to protect interests in and near burn areas of damaging and potentially deadly debris flows.

M. Jackson; J. L. Laber; E. Boldt

2010-01-01

230

Wireless Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

computing leaders at a number of such campuses 1 shows that wireless on campus leads to some obvious results. Students, faculty and staff move to own more laptops and take them from place to place on campus more than the ever did with wired connections. Dining rooms, libraries, lawns, athletics facilities, offices, hallways and classrooms become places for email, surfing

Frank Steen

2001-01-01

231

Wireless Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses wireless access-control equipment in the school and university setting, particularly the integrated reader lock at the door with a panel interface module at the control panel. Describes its benefits, how it works, and its reliability and security. (EV)|

Conforti, Fred

2003-01-01

232

Forecasting the Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)|

Bollinger, Richard

1984-01-01

233

Weather Prediction Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

Bacmeister, Julio T.

234

Cockpit Weather Information Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weat...

C. H. Scanlon

1992-01-01

235

National Weather Service  

MedlinePLUS

... CURRENT CONDITIONS Radar Climate Monitoring River Levels Observed Precipitation Surface Weather Upper Air Marine and Buoy Reports ... Weather Current Outlook Maps Drought Fire Weather Fronts/Precipitation Maps Current Graphical Forecast Maps Rivers Marine Offshore ...

236

What's the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. Students also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-07-21

237

External Resource: Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A student activity with teacher's sheet, to give the students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedroc

1900-01-01

238

Wireless data transmission from inside electromagnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes analytical and experimental work developed to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic fields produced by high-voltage lines (400 kV) on wireless data transmission at the 900 MHz band. In this work the source of the data transmission is located inside the electromagnetic field and the reception station is located at different distances from the power lines. Different

José Ignacio Huertas; Roberto Barraza; J. M. Echeverry

2009-01-01

239

Wireless communication and environmental health safety standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the University of Mosul Campus is considered as an outdoor wireless propagation case study for environmental fields. For this case study, the fields emitted from Asia Cell mobile base station identifier ID 4194 are measured, simulated and compared with the available electromagnetic safety standards such as ICNIRP, FCC, EUROPEAN, and Salzburg standards. The measurements are carried out

Kaydar M. Quboa; Bariq. M. Abaoy

2011-01-01

240

Shoring pumping station excavation  

SciTech Connect

The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. (HDR Engineering in El Dorado Hills, CA (United States))

1991-11-01

241

GPS water vapour tomography for different weather situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GPS water vapour tomography is a new remote sensing technique which provides temporally and spatially resolved humidity information for all weather conditions. Such data are not only required by high resolution numerical weather models but also by many meteorological applications such as nowcasting, hazard mitigation or water management. The GeoForschungsZentrum analyses operationally more than 200 German GPS stations delivering

M. Bender; S. Heise; G. Dick; J. Wickert; A. Raabe

2009-01-01

242

Spatial Variability and Interpolation of Stochastic Weather Simulation Model Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of 58 precipitation and temperature parameters from the `generation of weather elements for multiple applications' (GEM) weather generator has been investigated over a region of significant complexity in topography and climate. GEM parameters were derived for 80 climate stations in southern Idaho and southeastern Oregon. A technique was developed and used to determine the GEM parameters from

Gregory L. Johnson; Christopher Daly; George H. Taylor; Clayton L. Hanson

2000-01-01

243

WEATHER OBSERVATIONS - SUMMARY OF THE DAY - FIRST ORDER  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Climatic Data Center makes available daily weather data for approximately 300 currently active National Weather Service stations, with a lag time (after end of data month) of about 8-10 weeks. Coverage includes the contiguous United States, Caribbean Islands, Pacific...

244

Distributed decision for medical alerts using wireless sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study how to detect anomalies in a distributed manner by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We focus on a medical context, where existing works generally provide large environments to monitor patients using sensors as simple transducers. Those devices forward sensed health parameters to a main base station. This station collects received data and may perform some

N. Dessart; Hacène Fouchal; Philippe Hunel; Harry Gros-Desormeaux; Nicolas Vidot

2009-01-01

245

Commercial Space Tourism and Space Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space tourism, a concept which even a few years ago was perveived as science fantasy, is now a credible industry. Five individuals have paid up to $25 M to spend more than a week on the International Space Station. Several enterprises are working toward viable suborbital and orbital private space operations. while operational space weather support to human space flight

Ronald Turner

2007-01-01

246

Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance. Executive summary for Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented are the data accumulated during April 1982 at the photovoltaic project site at the Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas. Generated power and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

1982-07-01

247

A HIERARCHIAL STOCHASTIC MODEL OF LARGE SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND MULTIPLE STATION DAILY PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A stochastic model of weather states and concurrent daily precipitation at multiple precipitation stations is described. our algorithms are invested for classification of daily weather states; k means, fuzzy clustering, principal components, and principal components coupled with ...

248

Operational Numerical Weather Prediction at the Met Office and potential ways forward for operational space weather prediction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place

David Jackson

2010-01-01

249

Incorporating the Campus Radio Station into Your Emergency Communications Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Radio stations have been a mainstay of American life since the 1920s. Broadcasting primarily over AM and FM frequencies, American radio stations have been used to provide entertainment, news, weather, and advertising to the public. Beginning in 1963 and continuing until 1997, local radio stations were part of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)…

Johnson, Thomas C.

2008-01-01

250

Weather in Your Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

251

Controlling The Global Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

the weather controller is extremely complex, the existence of the required technology is plausible in the time range of several decades.While the concept of controlling the weather has often appeared in science fiction literature, this statement of the problem provides a scientific basis and a system architecture to actually implement global weather control. Large-scale weather control raises important legal and

Ross N. Hoffman

2002-01-01

252

Weather Derivative Valuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.

Jewson, Stephen; Brix, Anders

2005-04-01

253

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

254

Base-Station Antenna Arrays in Mobile Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the utilization of antenna arrays at the basestations of mobile communication systems. Multiple antennas can providea processing gain to increase the base station range and improvecoverage. Also, by exploiting the angular selectivity of an antenna arrayat the base stations of a wireless system, users may be spatiallymultiplexed to increase system capacity. We address several aspectsof the reception

Björn Ottersten; Per Zetterberg

1995-01-01

255

Access network technology for all-wireless WDM communications system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report design and implementation scenarios for a gigabit-capacity and high-data-rate fixed wireless access technology research demonstrator. The all weather survivable system is based on broadband wireless access concept and implementation techniques utilizing RF/microwave/millimeter-wave as well as free-space optical wireless high speed links. The demonstration platform provides broadband last mile access and networking solutions to Internet users in densely populated areas with homes and businesses (e.g., downtown building-centric and inner city- environment) in need of high bandwidth not served with fiber infrastructure. The focus of this investigation is radio link design, access network architecture, and system integration. Hybrid fiber radio and WDM optical wireless solutions are implemented to interface and complement the existing ATM fiber and satellite core networks in support of all wireless infrastructure for Next Generation Internet (NGI).

Izadpanah, Hossein; Kukshya, Vikas; Dolezal, Franklin A.

2001-11-01

256

The Impact of Weather on Air Traffic Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the National Airspace System (NAS) and how weather affects it. It describes the various components of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), how that organization manages air traffic, and how CWSU and WFO forecasts help the FAA's decision-making process. The module also provides tips on establishing a good professional relationship with this important partner (FAA), understanding their language, and preparing weather briefings that will give them the information they need. This module is part of a larger exercise to develop a station Weather Impacts Playbook, a supplement to the Station Duty Manual.

Spangler, Tim

2005-05-31

257

The Impact of Weather on Air Traffic Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the National Airspace System (NAS) and how weather affects it. It describes the various components of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), how that organization manages air traffic, and how CWSU and WFO forecasts help the FAA's decision-making process. The module also provides tips on establishing a good professional relationship with this important partner (FAA), understanding their language, and preparing weather briefings that will give them the information they need. This module is part of a larger exercise to develop a station Weather Impacts Playbook, a supplement to the Station Duty Manual.

2008-07-31

258

Contemporary Wireless Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless means radio in its broadest sense. However, in the early 21st century, wireless refers primarily to the two dominant forms of wireless: cell phones and wireless local area networks (WLANs). This module describes the idea behind the cellular telephone system, how it works, and the primary technologies used in the US and throughout the world. This module also introduces the wireless local area network or WLAN. WLANs are radio-linked computers that are part of a larger network. The wireless links make portability and mobility of computers possible. This module also briefly introduces four common forms of short- range wireless: Bluetooth, ZigBee, ultra wideband (UWB) and RFID.

2012-08-21

259

NEXRAD and the Broadcast Weather Industry: Preparing to Share the Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes results from a survey designed to establish the current level of radar and computer technology of the television weather industry, and to assess the awareness and attitudes of television weather forecasters toward the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) program and its potential impact on the field of broadcast meteorology. The survey was distributed to one affiliate station

Michele M. Robertson; Kelvin K. Droegemeier

1990-01-01

260

EFFECT OF WEATHER FACTORS ON SPORE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF RICE BLAST FUNGUS IN GUILAN PROVINCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of weather factors on fluctuations of spore population of Pyricularia grisea and the occurrence of the disease was con- sidered. During growing seasons of 2006-2007, paddy fields were chosen in distance of five kilometers from weather stations of Rasht, Lahijan and Anzali in Guilan province and spore population (Ps) were measured daily using sporetraps. Weather data including pre- cipitation

Sedigheh Mousanejad; Azizollah Alizadeh; Naser Safaie

261

Investigation of Historical Temperature and Precipitation Data at Climate Benchmark Stations in Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve weather stations in Illinois with long records (1901-1995) of temperature and precipitation were assessed as possible benchmark stations with quality data for use in studies of past fluctuations of climate and for monitoring future changes in clima...

S. A. Changnon D. Winstanley K. E. Kunkel

1997-01-01

262

Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a significant enhancement to the agronomic decision-support process. Direct benefits to growers can take the form of increased yield and grade potential, as well as savings in money and time. Pest management strategies become more efficient due to timely and localized disease and pest modelling, and increased efficacy of pest and weed control. Examples from the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) WeatherFarm weather network will be utilized to illustrate the processes, decision tools and benefits to producers and farmers.

Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

2010-09-01

263

An intelligent environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, information technology is becoming more and more important to improve the productivity of agriculture, especially for real time environment monitoring. However, the traditional method of environmental data collection is unable to provide real-time and highly accurate data of the monitored region to meet the requirements of precision agriculture. As wireless sensor networks(WSNs) has profound impacts on many fields due to its promising capability, in this paper, a WSN-based environment monitoring system is proposed. A prototype of the system that utilizes GAINSJ nodes based on Zigbee communication protocol has been implemented, and its packet error rate in different conditions was evaluated. Based on the proposed system architecture and technologies, the real time data can be measured, transmitted and stored in high accuracy. Moreover, the system was applied in upland grassland in Yushu, Qinghai province, and compared the results with the data acquired by local weather station. The system evaluation and experimental results show the effectiveness and reliability of the system in measuring the variations of temperature and humidity data within monitored region.

Cao, Minghua; Wang, Huiqin; Peng, Duo; Jia, Kejun

2009-07-01

264

Edheads: Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.

2010-01-01

265

Space Weather FX  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Weather FX is a vodcast (video podcast) series that explores the science of space weather and how it can impact our every day lives. Episodes include Space Weather and its Effects, Connecting the Sun and Earth, When Space Weather Attacks, Stratospheric Sudden Warming, A Tour of Haystack's Radars, GPS and Space Weather, It Came from the Sun, and The Big Picture. The site also contain links to space weather information and educational materials. The episodes will run on one of four free video players.

266

The Weather Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

Grasser, Mrs. E.

2012-09-27

267

Internet Weather Links: Weather and Weather Related Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Weather Links is a collection of lesson plans provided by the Utah Education Network's Weather Report Web site. The activities are organized by grade level from kindergarten to fourth grade and include such topics as Sunny Colors, Weather in a Box, Changes Due to Freezing, and Geological Features. Each lesson is well organized with explanations of its objectives, intended learning outcomes, and instructional procedures. Downloadable documents, related links, extensions to the lesson, and even rating systems for teachers are also provided, making it a great resource especially for use with younger students.

1996-01-01

268

Air Weather Service Weather-Modification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Weather Service has recently inaugurated a program to field test those weather-modification techniques within the scientific state-of-the-art and of potential value to the Air Force in order to bring them to a state of operational readiness. The f...

H. S. Appleman

1968-01-01

269

Stations Outdoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

Madison, John P.; And Others

1976-01-01

270

Project Weather and Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

2000-01-01

271

Hot Weather Tips  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Newsletters > Connections newsletter - Archives > Spring 2003 > HOT Weather Tips E-mail to a Friend Printable Version ©Family Caregiver Alliance We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled ...

272

On Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

Crane, Peter

2004-05-01

273

Association of Uplink Power Control and Base Station Assignment in Cellular CDMA Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a wireless CDMA network a mobile is classically connected to the base station with the best received power level (R×L). The association (or the integration) of base station assignment with power control allows a given network to have better achievable performance. We investigate the association of base station assignment and power control in order to study the best achievable

Loutfi Nuaymi; Philippe Godlewski

2000-01-01

274

Introduction to Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

2010-01-01

275

Quality of Service Evaluation Scheme for Heterogeneous Wireless Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a comprehensive evaluation scheme for quality of service (QoS) of wireless network based on grey clustering (GC) and rough set (RS) theories in heterogeneous environment. The proposed scheme delivers a clear statement (e.g. good\\/normal\\/bad) as an evaluation result about the QoS of wireless network. This scheme contains three parts such as base-station interface module, grey clustering evaluator

Siyu Lin; Zhangdui Zhong; Bo Ai

2009-01-01

276

Medicina Station Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Medicina 32-m dish is an alt-az antenna run by the Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. The radiotelescope is located about 30 km east of Bologna, Italy. It is part of the European VLBI Network. Details on the telescope characteristics and equipments can be found at the EVN Home Page (http://www.nfra.nl/evn/). In the last couple of years, the main goal at the Medicina Station was to get the telescope agile in changing the observing frequency. Achieving this goal will greatly increase the observational efficiency of the telescope. Moreover it will make the operation of changing the receivers more safe and it makes this task independent of weather conditions. The first part of the project has been completed and the new subreflector is fully in operation. The increased flexibility in changing frequency, together with the facility of recording both thick and thin tapes implemented at all the European VLBI Network (EVN) stations has immediately produced an increase in the number of geodetic VLBI observations to which the Medicina Station will take part in 1999.

Orfei, Allesandro

1999-08-01

277

Extreme Weather on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students utilize a set of photographs and a 30 minute video on weather to investigate extreme weather events. They are posed with a series of questions that ask them to identify conditions predictive of these events, and record them on a worksheet. Climate and weather concepts defined.

Mika, Anna; Education, National G.

278

Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

1998

279

Doppler weather radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Doppler weather radar and its signals are examined from elementary considerations to show the origin and development of useful weather echo properties such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), range correlation, signal statistics, etc. We present a form of the weather radar equation which explicitly shows the echo power loss due to finite receiver bandwidth and how it is related to

RICHARD J. DOVIAK; DUSAN S. ZRNIC; DALE S. SIRMANS

1979-01-01

280

Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

1998

281

Severe Weather Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The severe weather primer from the National Severe Storms Laboratory of the NOAA provides text and graphic explanations of how severe weather phenomena form. Basics on thunderstorms, tornadoes, floods, hail, lightning, winter weather, and winds are provided in a question-oriented format including answers to frequently asked questions.

Laboratory, National S.

2010-04-24

282

Weather Girl Goes Rogue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This humorous video suggests what might happen if a weather forecaster reported the weather in the context of climate change. There is a sharp contrast between the anchor focusing on short-term local concerns and the weather forecaster describing what is happening on a long-term global basis.

Ram, Deep R.; Technologies, Institute F.

283

Weather and Climate Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This primer from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) defines weather and climate, and explains related concepts such as the atmosphere, natural hazards, rising sea level, and modeling. Users explore how dynamic forces within the atmosphere change our weather and climate. They learn what causes weather events and climate change and how NCAR scientists are exploring our atmosphere through scientific research.

2008-01-01

284

American Weather Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

Hughes, Patrick

285

Space weather risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of space weather to society is in a continuous increase since we are more and more dependent on reliable spaceborne and ground-based technological systems. Physical processes involved in space weather constitute a complicated chain from the Sun to the Earth's surface, so the management of space weather risks requires expertise in many disciplines of science and technology. In

Risto Pirjola; Kirsti Kauristie; Hanna Lappalainen; Ari Viljanen; Antti Pulkkinen

2005-01-01

286

International Polar Research and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY), currently celebrated in the 2007-2009 International Polar Year (IPY), highlights space weather's heritage from polar research. The polar regions were still very much "terra incognito" 50 years ago. At the same time, communications technologies had significantly advanced since the time of the second IPY, in 1932-1933. Yet even before the second IPY, several directors of international meteorological services stated in a 1928 resolution that "increased knowledge [of the polar regions] will be of practical application to problems connected with terrestrial magnetism, marine and aerial navigation, wireless telegraphy and weather forecasting" (see http://scaa.usask.ca/gallery/northern/currie/en_polaryear.shtml).

Lanzerotti, Louis J.

2009-02-01

287

A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.  

PubMed

Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

2012-11-22

288

A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power  

PubMed Central

Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

2012-01-01

289

Cumulative-TIM Method for the Sleep Mode in IEEE 802.16e Wireless MAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The IEEE 802.16e WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks), which has been designed for fixed or mobile broadband wireless\\u000a access, is getting into the spotlight as the base technology for the mobile Internet. As most mobile stations are battery-powered\\u000a in wireless environment, energy efficient protocols are essential for their practical use. Although many systems, including\\u000a the IEEE 802.16e, adopt the sleep

Byungjoo Lee; Hyukjoon Lee; Seung Hyong Rhee; Jae Kyun Kwon; Jae Young Ahn

2006-01-01

290

Optimization of Bandwidth and Energy Consumption in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years the proliferation of portable computers, handheld digital devices, and PDAs has led to a rapid growth\\u000a in the use of wireless technologies for the Local Area Network (LAN) environment. Beyond supporting wireless connectivity\\u000a for fixed, portable and moving stations within a local area, the wireless LAN (WLAN) technologies can provide a mobile and\\u000a ubiquitous connection to

Marco Conti; Enrico Gregori

2002-01-01

291

[Temperature and humidity monitoring system of imaging equipment room based on wireless network].  

PubMed

This paper presents a wireless temperature and humidity control system for hospital's video room. The system realizes one to multiple communication using wireless communication module CC1020 and SHT11 as sensors, and then sets up the communication between system and the central station with serial communication controller MSCOMM. The system uses VISUAL C++ programming to realize the video room temperature and humidity alarm control. It is wireless, efficacious and manpower-efficient. PMID:21954588

Zhou, Xuejun; Yu, Kaijun

2011-05-01

292

Cell Phone Facts: Consumer Information on Wireless Phones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint operation between the Federal Communications Commission and the Food and Drug Administration, Cell Phone Facts is a thorough overview of wireless telephone technology and the associated health effects related to its use. There is a long list of common questions and answers sorted into various topics, such as safety standards, research results of radiofrequency energy, and interference with medical equipment. A glossary of wireless phone terminology clarifies some technical phrases and concepts. Several short reviews of recent research studies are also presented. In addition to the many facts about wireless phones, there is also some information about base stations and the elevated radiofrequency levels near them.

2006-01-03

293

47 CFR 80.109 - Transmission to a plurality of mobile stations by a public coast station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Group calls to vessels under the common control of a single entity and information for the general benefit of mariners including storm warnings, ordinary weather, hydrographic information and press materials may be transmitted by a public coast station...

2012-10-01

294

47 CFR 80.109 - Transmission to a plurality of mobile stations by a public coast station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Group calls to vessels under the common control of a single entity and information for the general benefit of mariners including storm warnings, ordinary weather, hydrographic information and press materials may be transmitted by a public coast station...

2011-10-01

295

Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 16: For Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas for October 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data accumulated during October 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas are presented. Energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

1983-01-01

296

Fabulous Weather Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. After studying weather for three months, we celebrate what we have learned and stretch our thinking further into the weather world around us! Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in their understanding of how the weather works and how it can affect their lives. Our unit focused on guiding students to formulate explanations about animals based on scientific evidence.

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. M.

2007-01-01

297

A comparison of remote radio head optical transmission technologies for next generation wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A performance and cost comparison is made between analogue and digital optical transmission technologies for linking remote radio heads to digital base stations for future wireless systems with wide channel bandwidth and multiple MIMO channels.

D. Wake; S. Pato; J. Pedro; E. Lopez; N. Gomes; P. Monteiro

2009-01-01

298

Avalanche Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.

Linder, Dave

2011-01-01

299

Evaporation over a Heterogeneous Mixed Savanna-Agricultural Catchment using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale rain fed agriculture is the primary livelihood for a large part of the population of Burkina Faso. Regional climate change means that this population is becoming increasingly vulnerable. Additionally, as natural savanna is converted for agriculture, hydrological systems are observed to become less stable as infiltration is decreased and rapid runoff is increased to the detriment of crop productivity, downstream populations and local water sources. The majority of the Singou River Basin, located in South East Burkina Faso is managed by hunting reserves, geared to maintaining high populations of wild game; however, residents surrounding the protected areas have been forced to intensify agriculture that has resulted in soil degradation as well as increases in the frequency and severity of flooding and droughts. Agroforestry, or planting trees in cultivated fields, has been proposed as a solution to help buffer these negative consequences, however the specific hydrologic behavior of the watershed land cover is unknown. We have installed a distributed sensor network of 17 Sensorscope wireless meteorological stations. These stations are dispersed across cultivated rice and millet fields, natural savanna, fallow fields, and around agroforestry fields. Sensorscope routes data through the network of stations to be delivered by a GPRS connection to a main server. This multi hop network allows data to be gathered over a large area and quickly adapts to changes in station performance. Data are available in real time via a website that can be accessed by a mobile phone. The stations are powered autonomously by small photovoltaic panels. This deployment is the first time that these meteorological stations have been used on the African continent. Initial calibration with measures from 2 eddy covariance stations allows us to calculate the energy balance at each of the Sensorscope stations. Thus, we can observe variation in evaporation over the various land cover in the watershed. This research will both contribute to scientific understanding of West African vegetation and inform local reforestation and agricultural management. Concurrent to this scientific research, the community is improving natural resource management efforts including reforestation, a botanical garden and environmental education. Our hope is that the results of our evaporation modeling will inform local farmers and thus help improve their adaption to changing weather patterns and land cover.

Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Barrenetxea, G.; Vetterli, M.; Yacouba, H.; Repetti, A.; Parlange, M. B.

2010-12-01

300

On Scheduling for Multiple-Antenna Wireless Networks Using Contention-Based Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiuser diversity gain is an effective technique for improving the performance of wireless networks. This gain can be exploited by scheduling the users with the best current channel conditions. However, this kind of scheduling requires that the base station (or access point) knows some kind of channel quality indicator (CQI) information for every user in the system. When the wireless

Seung Young Park; David J. Love

2007-01-01

301

Vital Sign Monitoring System with Life Emergency Event Detection using Wireless Sensor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed healthcare monitoring system prototype for clinical and trauma patients, is to be developed, using wireless sensor network node. The proposed system aims to measure various vital physiological health parameters like ECG and body temperature, of patients and elderly persons and transfer his\\/her health status wirelessly in Ad-hoc network, to remote base station which is connected to a hospital's

Dae-Seok Lee; Young-Dong Lee; Wan-Young Chung; R. Myllyla

2006-01-01

302

ESW4: enhanced scheme for WWW computing in wireless communication environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile computing is considered of major importance to the computing industry for the forthcoming years due to the progress in the wireless communications domain. In this paper, we present a proxy-based architecture, called ESW4, which manages to accelerate Web browsing in wireless CPNs. Proxy caches, maintained in base stations, are constantly relocated to accompany the roaming user. We discuss a

Stathes Hadjiefthymiades; Lazaros F. Merakos

1999-01-01

303

RAP-a novel medium access control protocol for wireless data networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel medium access control scheme, randomly addressed polling (RAP), is proposed and studied. RAP used in wireless networks allows that the base stations poll successfully only knowing the active mobile nodes via decentralized control without knowing the exact mobile nodes under coverage. Therefore, RAP can provide seemingless services for wireless (data) networks with good utilization of channel(s), transparent to

Kwang-Cheng Cheti; Cheng-Hua Leet

1993-01-01

304

The wireless revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current demand for and recent developments in wireless communication are described. Funding for wireless worldwide is examined. Tools and techniques used to characterize radio propagation are discussed, and some research results are presented

T. S. Rappaport

1991-01-01

305

Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

Huffman, Amy Bruno

1996-01-01

306

Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)|

Huffman, Amy Bruno

1996-01-01

307

National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

308

Wireless sap flow measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study exhibits a measurement system for wireless sensor networks to measure sap flow in multiple locations simultaneously. Transpiration is a major component of the land-surface system because it is indicative of the water movement between the soil and the air. Sap flow can be used to approximate transpiration. In forests, transpiration cannot be represented by the sap flow from a single tree. Multi-location sap flow measurements are required to show the heterogeneity caused by different trees or soil conditions. Traditional multi-location measurements require manpower and capital for data collection and instrument maintenance. Fortunately, multi-location measurements can be achieved by using the new technology of wireless sensor networks. With multi-hop communication protocol, data can be forwarded to the base station via multiple sensor nodes. This communication protocol can provide reliable data collection with the least power consumption. This study encountered two major problems. The first problem was signal amplification. The Crossbow IRIS mote was selected as the sensor node that receives the temperature data of the sap flow probe (thermocouple) through a MDA300 data acquisition board. However, the wireless sensor node could not directly receive any data from the thermocouples since the least significant bit value of the MDA300, 0.6 mV, is much higher than the voltage signal generated. Thus, the signal from the thermocouple must be amplified to exceed this threshold. The second problem is power management. A specific heat differential is required for the thermal dissipation method of measuring sap flow. Thus, an adjustable DC power supply is necessary for calibrating the heater's temperature settings. A circuit was designed to combine the signal amplifier and power regulator. The regulator has been designed to also provide power to the IRIS mote to extend battery life. This design enables wireless sap flow measurements in the forest. With the convenience of wireless sensor networks and the use of this circuit design, the wireless sap flow system is a useful tool for multi-location transpiration measurements in the forest.

Kuo, C.; Davis, T. W.; Tseng, C.; Cheng, C.; Liang, X.; Yu, P.

2010-12-01

309

Highly spectrum efficient OFDM\\/PDM wireless networks by using optical SSB modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless access network using optical single-sideband modulation is proposed, which allows to deliver different wireless signals from a central station to each base station over an optical fiber network. The optical single-sideband (SSB) OFDM can achieve the highest spectrum efficiency of 0.25 b\\/s\\/Hz. A 0.25 b\\/s\\/Hz has been experimentally verified by the error-free transport of

Ken-Ichi Kitayama

1998-01-01

310

Wireless [From the Editor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless technology is pervasive in our world today. Everywhere we look, we encounter some sort of wireless device—be it the mobile telephone in our pocket or the garage door opener in our car. We see wireless devices in our home in the form of remote controls for our televisions, video games, local networks for our computers, or remote controls for

Michael Neuman

2011-01-01

311

Wireless Network Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless networking is inherently insecure. From jamming to eavesdropping, from man-in- the middle to spoofing, there are a variety of attack methods that can be used against the users of wireless networks. Modern wireless data networks use a variety of cryptographic techniques such as encryption and authentication to provide barriers to such infiltrations. However, much of the commonly used security

Partha Dasgupta; Tom Boyd

312

Challenges: Wireless Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the challenges of adapting existing web-service architecture to the wireless environment. It presents a new, wireless, web-service architecture based on the smart client model that can address some of the fundamental differences between the wireless and wireline environments. The fundamental differences between these environments can be called the mobile challenges, including (1) the unpredictable nature of the

Hao-hua Chu; Chuang-wen You; Chao-ming Teng

2004-01-01

313

Challenges: wireless Web services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the challenges of adapting existing Web-service architecture to the wireless environment. It presents a new, wireless, Web-service architecture based on the smart client model that can address some of the fundamental differences between the wireless and wireline environments. The fundamental differences between these environments can be called the mobile challenges, including (1) the unpredictable nature of the

Hao-hua Chu; Chuang-wen You; Chao-ming Teng

2004-01-01

314

Weather and Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

315

Optimal Association of Stations and APs in an IEEE 802.11 WLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstractó We propose a maximum utility based formulation for the problem of optimal association of wireless stations (STAs) with access points (APs) in an IEEE 802.11 wireless local area net- work. Each STA can associate with one or more APs at differ- ent physical bit rates. Each such association yields certain STA throughputs, depending on the MAC scheduling used. We

Anurag Kumar; Vinod Kumar

316

The space-weather enterprise: past, present, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-weather impacts society in diverse ways. Societies' responses have been correspondingly diverse. Taken together these responses constitute a space weather ``enterprise'', which has developed over time and continues to develop. Technological systems that space-weather affects have grown from isolated telegraph systems in the 1840s to ocean and continent-spanning cable communications systems, from a generator electrifying a few city blocks in the 1880s to continent-spanning networks of high-tension lines, from wireless telegraphy in the 1890s to globe-spanning communication by radio and satellites. To have a name for the global totality of technological systems that are vulnerable to space weather, I suggest calling it the cyberelectrosphere. When the cyberelectrosphere was young, scientists who study space weather, engineers who design systems that space weather affects, and operators of such systems - the personnel behind the space-weather enterprise - were relatively isolated. The space-weather enterprise was correspondingly incoherent. Now that the cyberelectrosphere has become pervasive and indispensable to most segments of society, the space weather enterprise has become systematic and coherent. At present it has achieved considerable momentum, but it has barely begun to realize the level of effectiveness to which it can aspire, as evidenced by achievements of a corresponding but more mature enterprise in meteorology, a field which provides useful lessons. The space-weather enterprise will enter a new phase after it matures roughly to where the tropospheric weather enterprise is now. Then it will become indispensable for humankind's further global networking through technology and for humankind's further utilization of and expansion into space.

Siscoe, G.

2000-09-01

317

Wireless steganography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern mobile devices are some of the most technologically advanced devices that people use on a daily basis and the current trends in mobile phone technology indicate that tasks achievable by mobile devices will soon exceed our imagination. This paper undertakes a case study of the development and implementation of one of the first known steganography (data hiding) applications on a mobile device. Steganography is traditionally accomplished using the high processing speeds of desktop or notebook computers. With the introduction of mobile platform operating systems, there arises an opportunity for the users to develop and embed their own applications. We take advantage of this opportunity with the introduction of wireless steganographic algorithms. Thus we demonstrates that custom applications, popular with security establishments, can be developed also on mobile systems independent of both the mobile device manufacturer and mobile service provider. For example, this might be a very important feature if the communication is to be controlled exclusively by authorized personnel. The paper begins by reviewing the technological capabilities of modern mobile devices. Then we address a suitable development platform which is based on SymbianTM/Series60TM architecture. Finally, two data hiding applications developed for SymbianTM/Series60TM mobile phones are presented.

Agaian, Sos S.; Akopian, David; D'Souza, Sunil

2006-02-01

318

Wireless adiabatic power transfer  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

Rangelov, A.A., E-mail: rangelov@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y. [Department of Physics of Complex System, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Vitanov, N.V. [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2011-03-15

319

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

320

Compact size dual-polarized WLL base-station antenna using aperture coupled microstrip patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercialization of the WLL (wireless local loop) system has been accelerated in many countries with the expansion of wireless technology. In most cases, a dipole array antenna or corporate feed microstrip array antenna is used for WLL base-stations. They are quite large, bulky, and heavy. In this paper, a compact size dual-polarized WLL base-station array antenna using aperture coupled

Myungwan Lyou; Bomson Lee

2000-01-01

321

Watching the World's Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a time of growing concern about the impact of pollution on the global climate, weather satellites will play an increasingly crucial role in monitoring how changes such as the ozone hole and global warming will affect the world's climate. The complexities of the global weather machine on every scale are attractively revealed through spectacular images of satellite photography. Anyone interested in how the weather satellite works now and in the future should buy this book.

Burroughs, William James

1991-04-01

322

Space Weather Media Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is version 3 of the space Weather Media Viewer, created to work with the space Weather Action Center to see near-real time data and to provide additional images and resources available for educational use. It features easy downloads that can also be added to news reports and space weather reports. It was designed for ease in adding any media (videos, images) data.

2011-01-01

323

National Weather Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.

324

Space Weather: Welcome, SEC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video presentation welcomes the Space Environment Center (SEC) to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SEC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.

Spangler, Tim

2005-01-11

325

Weather and Climate Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.

326

Broadcast meteorology and the supply of weather forecasts: an exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertising imperfectly translates viewer preferences into demand for programming, and evaluating the quality of news products\\u000a is difficult for consumers. Consequently the ability of market forces to supply high quality news is a subject of continuing\\u000a debate. This paper offers new evidence on the supply of news by examining the investments by television stations in weather\\u000a coverage. Weather forecasts meet

Daniel Sutter

327

75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices and Battery Packs; Notice...wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by...wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or battery packs...

2010-02-24

328

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

329

Evaluation of the RadEst and ClimGen Stochastic Weather Generators for Low-Medium Rainfall Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to generate the daily weather values for maximum and minimum air temperatures and solar radiation. Two well known weather generators are evaluated here. Data from the five Iranian synoptic stations having long-term weather records and dry climates have been used to compare the actual data sets with generated one. The accuracy of the different

Isaac Moradi; Kazem Nosrati; Saeid Eslamian

2007-01-01

330

Value of global weather sensors  

SciTech Connect

Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.

Canavan, G.H.

1998-12-23

331

Secure Communications via Cooperating Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for ensuring confidential communications over infrastructure-based wireless networks is proposed and analyzed from an information-theoretic standpoint. The technique leverages the high-capacity backbone connecting the base stations and prescribes appropriate scheduling of uplink\\/downlink transmissions in order to create intentional interference without loss of power or spectral efficiency. Analysis is carried out for Gaussian channels and numerical results are

Osvaldo Simeone; Petar Popovski

2008-01-01

332

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

333

Forecasting weather radar propagation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of weather radar quantitative precipitation estimates, particularly in automatic applications such as operational hydrometeorological modelling or assimilation in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, has promoted the development of quality control procedures on radar data. Anomalous propagation (AP) of the radar beam due to deviation from the standard refractivity vertical profile, is one of the factors that may affect seriously the quality of radar observations because of the increase in quantity and intensity of non-precipitating clutter echoes and consequent contamination of the estimated rainfall field. Another undesired effect of AP is the change in the expected radar echo height, which may be relevant when correcting for beam blockage in radar rainfall estimation in complex terrain. The aim of this paper is to study the use of NWP mesoscale forecasts to predict and monitor AP events. A nested 15-km grid resolution version of the MASS model has been used to retrieve refractivity profiles in the coastal area of Barcelona, near a weather radar and a radiosonde station. Using the refractivity profiles two different magnitudes were computed: the vertical refractivity profile of the lowest 1000 m layer and a ducting index which describes the existence and intensity of the most super-refractive layer contained in the lowest 3-km layer. A comparison between model forecasts and radiosonde diagnostics during a six-month period showed that the model tended to underestimate the degree of super-refraction, with a bias of 4 km-1 and RMSE of 11 km-1 in the 1-km vertical refractivity gradient. Further analysis of the data showed that a combination of previous observations and forecasts allowed to produce modified forecasts improving the original direct model output, decreasing substantially the bias, reducing the RMSE by 20% and improving the skill by 40%, beating also radiosonde observations persistence.

Bech, J.; Codina, B.; Lorente, J.

2007-06-01

334

Power losses in electrical networks depending on weather conditions  

SciTech Connect

Specific power losses to corona and to leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for 110 - 750-kV transmission lines with different phase design and pole types for different weather conditions. Consumption of electric energy for ice melting on conductors of various cross sections is evaluated. Meteorological data of 1372 weather stations in Russia are processed for a period of 10 years. The territory of the country is divided into 7 regions with approximately homogeneous weather conditions. Specific power losses to corona and leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for every region.

Zhelezko, Yu. S.; Kostyushko, V. A.; Krylov, S. V.; Nikiforov, E. P.; Savchenko, O. V.; Timashova, L. V.; Solomonik, E. A. [Electric Power Research Institute (VNIIE) (Russian Federation)

2005-01-15

335

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

336

Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

1998

337

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

338

Weathering Database Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

Snyder, Robert

2005-01-01

339

Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible…

1998

340

Advanced Aviation Weather Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

n The U.S. air transportation system faces a continuously growing gap between the demand for air transportation and the capacity to meet that demand. Two key obstacles to bridging this gap are traffic delays due to en route severe- weather conditions and airport weather conditions. Lincoln Laboratory has been addressing these traffic delays and related safety problems under the Federal

Marilyn M. Wolfson; David A. Clark

2006-01-01

341

Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the…

Konvicka, Tom

342

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

343

What Is Space Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.

344

Northwest Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

Palewicz, Sue; Scurlock, Marianne; Edmon, Harry

345

People and Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)|

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

346

Weather and Individual Happiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the influence of weather on happiness. While previous studies have examined climatic influence by comparing the well-being of people living in different regions, this paper focuses on how daily changes in weather affect individuals living in a single location. Our data set consists of 516 days of data on 75 students from Osaka University. Daily information on

Yoshiro Tsutsui

2011-01-01

347

Waste glass weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared

J. K. Bates; E. C. Buck

1993-01-01

348

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

349

Fair weather atmospheric electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

Harrison, R. G.

2011-06-01

350

Scholastic: Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

351

76 FR 4988 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Potomac Yard Metrorail Station in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Airport Station and the Braddock Road Station. The purpose of this notice is...public schools are closed due to inclement weather on February 10, 2011, the public and...National Airport Station and the Braddock Road Station is the longest for the...

2011-01-27

352

Networked Wireless Sensor Data Collection: Issues, Challenges, and Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been applied to many applications since emerging. Among them, one of the most important applications is Sensor Data Collections ,w here sensed data are collected at all or some of the sensor nodes and forwarded to a central base station for further processing. In this paper, we present a survey on recent advances in this

Feng Wang; Jiangchuan Liu

2011-01-01

353

Comparative study of congestion control techniques for wireless sensor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have recently emerged as a new vital area in networking research. WSNs are deployed with large number of small sensor devices which are highly distributed and are able to organize flexibly into a network. Sensor nodes are able to sense physical data and transmit the gathered information to one or more base stations. When large number

Haresh M. Rathod; B. V. Buddhadev

2011-01-01

354

A hybrid wireless network enhanced with multihopping for emergency communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hybrid wireless network scheme enhanced with ad hoc networking for disaster damage assessment and emergency communications. The network aims to maintain the connection between a base station (BS) and nodes by way of multihopping. In the event that a direct link between BS and a node is disconnected, the node switches modes from cellular to ad

Takahiro Fujiwara; Noboru Iida; Takashi Watanabe

2004-01-01

355

Wireless, remotely powered telemetry in 0.25 ?m CMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This new architecture for wireless power and data telemetry recovers power and system clock from a weak incident RF signal. An efficient RF-DC converter rectifies and multiplies the received signal, generating a practical DC voltage, far higher than the incident RF signal amplitude, increasing the range between the base station and the transponder. An injection locked LC oscillator recovers the

Fatih Kocer; Paul M. Walsh; Michael P. Flynn

2004-01-01

356

A Hierarchical Key Establishment Scheme forWireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents hierarchical key establishment scheme (HIKES) for wireless sensor networks. In this scheme, the base station, acting as the central trust authority, empowers randomly selected sensors to act as local trust authorities authenticating on its behalf the cluster members and issuing all secret keys. HIKES uses a partial key escrow scheme that enables any sensor node selected as

Jamil Ibriq; Imad Mahgoub

2007-01-01

357

Research challenges in wireless networks of biomedical sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implanted biomedical devices have the potential to revolutionize medicine. Smart sensors, which are created by combining sensing materials with integrated circuitry, are being considered for several biomedical applications such as a glucose level monitor or a retina prosthesis. These devices require the capability to communicate with an external computer system (base station) via a wireless interface. The limited power and

Loren Schwiebert; Sandeep K. S. Gupta; Jennifer Weinmann

2001-01-01

358

A low-power wireless mobile communications system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a wireless mobile communication system which employs a high gain electronically steered array antenna connected to a radio receiver at a base station. By using a steerable, narrow beamwidth, high gain antenna pattern, the receiver can detect much weaker signals than receivers connected to conventional fixed pattern antennas. Since this system can detect weaker signals, either the

Steven A. Harbin; B. Keith Rainer

1994-01-01

359

A performance study of wireless broadband access (WiMAX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) is one of the wireless broadband access technologies which supplies broadband services to clients, but it surpasses other technologies by its coverage area, where one base station can cover a small city. In this paper, WiMAX technology is studied by exploring its basic concepts, applications, and advantages \\/ disadvantages. Also a MATLAB simulator is

Maan A. S. Al-Adwany

2010-01-01

360

Efficient Rendezvous Algorithms for Mobility-Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research shows that significant energy saving can be achieved in mobility-enabled wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that visit sensor nodes and collect data from them via short-range communications. However, a major performance bottleneck of such WSNs is the significantly increased latency in data collection due to the low movement speed of mobile base stations. To address this issue, we propose

Guoliang Xing; Minming Li; Tian Wang; Weijia Jia; Jun Huang

2012-01-01

361

Connected Area Coverage Sets in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks consist of small sensor nodes with limited battery and processing capability. During any time, a number of sensor nodes must be kept active to sense the covered area and maintain the connectivity to the base station. This paper addresses the minimum connected area coverage set problem with equal sensing and communicating radii. With location information of its

David Q. Liu

2007-01-01

362

Chapter Effects of Solar Radio Bursts on Wireless Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the state of current understanding of the potential for interference and interruption of service of wireless communications systems due to solar radio bursts. There have been several reported instances of an enhanced rate of dropped cell-phone calls during solar bursts, and the design of current base station systems make them vulnerable to problems near sunrise and sunset for

Dale E. Gary; Louis J. Lanzerotti; Gelu M. Nita; David J. Thomson

363

Wireless temperature logging technology for the fishing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for autonomous temperature logging of fish catches is described. The system is completely wireless and is comprised of a number of loggers, in individual fish boxes, and a base station, assigned to a particular trawler. The temperature of the fish is monitored by the loggers, which contain a thermistor and RF transmitter circuitry. The data is sent at

Karl Crowley; June Frisby; Steve Edwards; Séamus Murphy; Mark Roantree; D. Diamond

2004-01-01

364

Sharing the Cost of Multicast Transmissions in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the problem of sharing the cost of a multi- cast transmission in a wireless network where each node (radio station) of the network corresponds to (a set of) user(s) potentially interested in receiving the transmission. As in the model considered by Feigenbaum et al (2001), users may act selfishly and report a false \\

Paolo Penna; Carmine Ventre

2004-01-01

365

Wide area wireless network (WAWN) for supporting precision agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high speed wireless network was established using a 100 meter tall microwave tower as the base station located on Prairie Point Road, 16 km from Macon, MS, in Noxubee County. Three sectorial antennas were used to provide complete 360 degree coverage. The system used state-of-the-art unlicensed dig...

366

In-pavement wireless sensor network for vehicle classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle classication data, especially for trucks, is of considerable use to agencies involved in almost all aspects of transportation and pavement engineering. Current technologies for classication involve expensive installation and calibration procedures. A wireless sensor network (WSN) for vehicle classication based on axle count and spacing was designed, calibrated, tested, and deployed near a weigh station in Sunol, California. The

Ravneet Bajwa; Ram Rajagopal; Pravin Varaiya; Robert Kavaler

2011-01-01

367

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)|

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

368

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

369

Plateau Weather: A Synoptic Study of IAGO and ANARE Observations in East Antarctica.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automatic weather stations (AWS) have been operated for a number of years by U.S. and French scientists cooperating in Project Interactions Atmosphere, Glace, Ocean (IAGO) and by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE). Six of these...

U. Radok G. Wendler

1992-01-01

370

Wireless security in mobile health.  

PubMed

Mobile health (m-health) is an extremely broad term that embraces mobile communication in the health sector and data packaging. The four broad categories of wireless networks are wireless personal area network, wireless metropolitan area network, wireless wide area network, and wireless local area network. Wireless local area network is the most notable of the wireless networking tools obtainable in the health sector. Transfer of delicate and critical information on radio frequencies should be secure, and the right to use must be meticulous. This article covers the business opportunities in m-health, threats faced by wireless networks in hospitals, and methods of mitigating these threats. PMID:23234427

Osunmuyiwa, Olufolabi; Ulusoy, Ali Hakan

2012-12-01

371

The Space Weather Reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project is to generate a complete 11 year space weather representation using physically consistent data-driven space weather models. The project will create a consistent, integrated historical record of the near Earth space environment by coupling observational data from space environmental monitoring systems archived at NGDC with data-driven, physically based numerical models. The resulting product will be an enhanced look at the space environment on consistent grids, time resolution, coordinate systems and containing key fields allowing an interested user to quickly and easily incorporate the impact of the near-Earth space climate in environmentally sensitive models. Currently there are no easily accessible long term climate archives available for the space-weather environment. Just as with terrestrial weather it is crucial to understand both daily weather forecasts as well as long term climate changes, so this project will demonstrate the ability to generate a meaningful and physically derived space weather climatology. The results of this project strongly support the DOD's Environmental Scenario Generator (ESG) project. The ESG project provides tools for intellegent data mining, classification and event detection which could be applied to a historical space-weather database. The two projects together provide a suite of tools for the user interested in modeling the effect of the near-earth space environment. We will present results and methodologies developed during the first two years of effort in the project.

Kihn, E. A.; Ridley, A. J.; Zhizhin, M.

2002-12-01

372

Deployment Control of Wireless Multi-Hop-Relay Mobile Robots Based on Voronoi Partition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new method for the deployment of wireless relay nodes. When using rescue robots in a building or underground city, the wireless radio signal is attenuated significantly, and therefore, multi-hop extension involving wireless communication relays is required. The goal of this research is to deploy wireless relay nodes to maintain connectivity between the base station and the leader robot that explores around the front line. To move the relay robot autonomously, a distributed algorithm is required. The proposed method is suitable when it is applied for wireless relay purposes. In the method, a virtual force drives a node to the centroid of Voronoi neighbors, and it maintains the connectivity of wireless communication. The proposed method is evaluated by conducting numerical simulations and experiments. In the simulation, one or two leader robots are assumed. In the experiment, a mobile robot equipped with omni-wheels is used.

Imaizumi, Takaaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Uchimura, Yutaka

373

Intrusion Tolerance and Anti-Traffic Analysis Strategies For Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks face acute security concerns in applications such as battleeld monitoring. A central point of failure in a sensor network is the base station, which acts as a collection point of sensor data. In this paper, we in- vestigate two attacks that can lead to isolation or failure of the base station. In one set of attacks, the

Jing Deng; Richard Han; Shivakant Mishra

2004-01-01

374

CDR-MAC: A Protocol for Full Exploitation of Directional Antennas in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for full exploitation of directional antennas in wireless networks. The protocol introduces a circular directional transmission of the Request To Send (RTS) control packet, spreading around a station information about the intended communication. The stations that receive the directional RTS, using a simple scheme of tracking the neighbors'

Thanasis Korakis; Gentian Jakllari; Leandros Tassiulas

2008-01-01

375

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

376

World Weather Information Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.

377

Extreme Weather Sourcebook 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally reviewed in the February 26, 1999 Scout Report, the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Extreme Weather Sourcebook offers easy access to updated data on the economic damage from hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes in the United States and its territories. Time spans for each type of extreme weather vary, with hurricane data covering 1900-99, tornadoes 1950-99, floods 1955-1999, and lightning 1959-1994; however, all damage data are reported in constant 1999 dollars to simplify comparisons. The data are offered by weather event and state by rank or alphabetically.

2001-01-01

378

WeatherTracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WeatherTracker is the ideal desktop application for anyone who always wants to know what the weather outside is like. The temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, winds, and current conditions can be displayed in three different formats, updated hourly for North American Cities. The local forecasts, climate data and near shore marine forecasts can be displayed in other windows and are available for select North American cities. Other cities are limited to temperature and current conditions. WeatherTracker is shareware with a fee of $20.00.

379

Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils  

PubMed Central

This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated.

Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirollo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

2008-01-01

380

Relay Placement for Reliable Base Station Connectivity in Polymorphous Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With emerging demand for online surveillance and management, persistent and reliable connectivity to base stations (BSs) is indispensable so that network operators, which have access to all BSs, can collect measurements from all wireless terminals in the field, monitor their status and respond to critical incidents in real-time. However, disconnected networks make reliable BS connectivity problematic. Many papers have studied

Ying Huang; Yan Gao; Klara Nahrstedt

2010-01-01

381

Minimizing Energy Consumption via Sleep Mode in Green Base Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop new energy-efficient, radio resource management schemes for green wireless networks. Our goal is to optimize energy consumption at the network scale while preserving the Quality of Service (QoS) perceived by users. We specifically propose two new sleep mechanisms for base station where a number of resources in system can be shut down for some traffic

Louai Saker; Salah-Eddine Elayoubi; Tijani Chahed

2010-01-01

382

Secure Localization with Hidden and Mobile Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, the problem of localization in wireless networks has been mainly studied in a non-adversarial setting. Only recently, a number of solutions have been proposed that aim to detect and prevent attacks on localization systems. In this work, we propose a new approach to secure localization based on hidden and mobile base stations. Our approach enables secure localization with

Srdjan Capkun; Mario Cagalj; Mani B. Srivastava

2006-01-01

383

Electronic beam tilting of base station antenna: Rotman lens fed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electronically controlled down-tilt mechanism for wireless communication base station antenna is presented. Its main feature consists of a microwave switch, a symmetrical bootlace lens which is a beam forming device like Rotman (1963) lens, and linearly arrayed antennas. Each beam port of the symmetrical bootlace lens is designed to give a linear phase front across the radiating elements,

S. G. Kim; S. M. Park; C. W. Ro; J. M. Lee

1998-01-01

384

One of the new Features of the Space Power Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited density of an energy flow (DFE) in the Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) systems of the Space Power Stations (SPS) creates a set of difficulties including the huge antenna sizes especially of the receiving antenna. It is not only to reach the Fresnel area. It is in order to transmit the enormous power needed for Earth feeding. These circumstances

S. S. Shaposhnikov

2002-01-01

385

A Data Assimilation System For Operational Weather Forecast In Galicia Region (nw Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional weather forecast models, such as the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), over complex environments with varying local influences require an accurate meteorological analysis that should include all local meteorological measurements available. In this work, the ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) (Xue et al. 2001) is applied as a three-dimensional weather analysis tool to include surface station and rawinsonde data

C. F. Balseiro; M. J. Souto; V. Pérez-Muñuzuri; K. Brewster; M. Xue

2002-01-01

386

High Himalayan meteorology: Weather at the South Col of Mount Everest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mount Everest is often referred to as the earth's ‘third’ pole. As such it is relatively inaccessible and little is known about its meteorology. In 1998, a portable weather station was operated at the mountain's South Col, elevation 7,986 m. We believe that this represents the highest elevation at which continuous weather data has ever been collected and thus represents

G. W. K. Moore; John L. Semple

2004-01-01

387

Climatology and trends in some adverse and fair weather conditions in Canada, 1953–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes the climatology and trends of some adverse and fair weather occurrence in Canada, on the basis of reliable long-term records of hourly weather and bright sunshine observations at about 90 Canadian stations for the period 1953–2004. The results show that fair or no-weather (i.e., no precipitation or visibility obscuration) trends are generally consistent with the sunshine trends,

Xiaolan L. Wang

2006-01-01

388

How does weather change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students gather temperature and weather data in the a.m and p.m. and develop a new, experimental question to predict temperature over the course of the year.

Susan Anderson, Taylors Falls Elementary, Taylors Falls, MN based on an activity from Houghton Mifflin Science Grade 2 Weather Patterns, p. D6.

389

The Weather Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of conversion tools helps convert units and values for weather data, including temperature, moisture, atmospheric pressure, wind, and other parameters. Formulas are also provided for the conversions.

390

Tombstone Weathering Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups in a cemetery to collect a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the extent of weathering of tombstones and their ages. The data are shared between all students, graphed as scatter plots, and the rate of weathering is estimated. Students write about and then discuss the results, the difference between the quantitative and qualitative measures, and speculate on factors in addition to time that may be important for weathering rate. The exercise ends with each students writing a hypothesis about a factor that influences weathering rate and describing a research project that could test that hypothesis. This activity is aimed at developing an understanding of the scatter in "real data", allowing for practice of team work, and hypothesis generation and testing. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Anders, Alison

391

Weather and Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human lo...

1975-01-01

392

Winter Weather FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... lower your body temperature. What is the best clothing for cold weather? Adults and children should wear: ... coat and shoes several layers of loose-fitting clothing Be sure the outer layer of your clothing ...

393

Weatherization Materials Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook provides information on purchasing weatherization products, and is intended for use by Community Action Agencies and other community-based organizations in their energy conservation programs. Product information is given for insulation, stor...

1979-01-01

394

Experimentation with Weather Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Brief historical sketch (woes of citizens as a source of inspiration for, and a cause of difficulties in, weather control experimentation); Three consecutive hail-prevention experiments in Switzerland. Reports of the U.S. National Academy of Sci...

J. Neyman

1967-01-01

395

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

396

Mapping Weather Severity Zones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this project were to develop a methodology to map winter severity from a winter maintenance perspective, and to create electronic maps and associated geospatial data depicting winter weather severity across the country. Work performed under t...

J. J. Mewes

2011-01-01

397

North American weather-type frequency and teleconnection indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of teleconnections upon the surface climate has largely been examined via a response in monthly mean temperature or total precipitation. In this paper, a different approach is undertaken, by examining the response of synoptic weather-type frequencies to different teleconnection phases. For over 330 stations in the USA and Canada, the Spatial Synoptic Classification scheme has classified each day

Scott C. Sheridan

2003-01-01

398

Rates of Chemical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

Passow, Michael

399

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Large-scale weather patterns which occur in various locations around the Earth play a significant part in controlling the weather on a seasonal time scale. A National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded collaborative research effort between Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has led to a new understanding of the relationship between fall snow cover and winter climate variability. This research has led to the development of a new seasonal forecast model.

400

Extreme Weather Sourcebook: Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Extreme Weather Sourcebook is a database maintained by the Societal Impacts Program (SIP) at NCAR of statistics on extreme weather events. The Sourcebook is intended as a resource for researchers, policy makers, the media, and the general public, among other users. This page from the Sourcebook showcases data on tornado damages as total losses for the years 1950-2009 in the United States.

University Consortium for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

401

An Ocean of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate the close relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere to determine the extent the ocean affects the Earth's weather in the South Atlantic Bight region. As they study this relationship, students will learn that the ocean and atmosphere work together as a system. They will experiment to find out that heat transfer from the ocean is a cause of much of Earth's weather and will make and explain an ocean water cycle.

402

A wide-area bird monitoring system using geographically distributed base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the proposed bird monitoring system, a bird-tag, equipped with GPS, is attached on the bird body. Base stations are geographically distributed in a wide interest area to receive the GPS data sets from bird-tags using low power wireless transmission system. A data center collects the GPS data from the base stations to track the position of each bird. Simple

Kenichi Mase; Takehiro Kajita; Yunzhe Zhang

2011-01-01

403

The Impact of Interference in a Distributed Base Station Scheme Managed by an Agent System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional cellular communication schemes are based on one to one wireless links. In a distributed base station (DBS) scheme, more then one station can relay the same mobile. This paper studies the impact of channel interference on the behavior of an agent system which manages the multiple connections at the DBS. It is shown that DBS can provide an important

Philippe Leroux; Sébastien Roy; Jean-yves Chouinard

2007-01-01

404

Location estimation and trajectory prediction for cellular networks with mobile base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides mobility estimation and prediction for a variant of the GSM network that resembles an ad hoc wireless mobile network in which base stations and users are both mobile. We propose using a Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF) to derive an estimate of the mobile user's next mobile base station from the user's location, heading, and altitude, to

Pubudu N. Pathirana; Andrey V. Savkin; Sanjay Jha

2004-01-01

405

Computational complexity of optimal determination of cell sites and base station locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider how to optimally determine the locations for the placement of base stations for a wireless system in an urban setting, and the computational requirements associated with it. We also propose a scheme to determine the optimal cell geometries and the minimum number of cells required to cover a given area of interest. The optimality of the base station

Ranjan Bose

1999-01-01

406

Energy efficient sensor, relay and base station placements for coverage, connectivity and routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a wireless sensor network made of sensor nodes capable of sensing and communication, relay nodes capable of communication, and base stations responsible for collecting data generated by sensor nodes, to be deployed in sensor field. We address the problem of placing the sensor nodes, relay nodes and base stations in the sensor field such that (i) each point

Maulin Patel; R. Chandrasekarant; S. Venkatesan

2005-01-01

407

Adaptive antennas at the mobile and base stations in an OFDM\\/TDMA system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several smart antenna systems have been proposed and demonstrated at the base station (BS) of wireless communications systems, and these have shown that significant system performance improvement is possible. We consider the use of adaptive antennas at the BS and mobile stations (MS), operating jointly, in combination with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. The advantages of the proposed system includes reductions in

Kai-Kit Wong; Roger S.-K. Cheng; Khaled Ben Letaief; Ross D. Murch

2001-01-01

408

International Collaboration in Space Weather Situational Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather is a global phenomena so interntional collaboration is necessary to maintain awareness of potentially dangerous conditions. The Regional Warning Centres (RWCs) of the International Space Environment Service were set up during the International Geophysical Year to alert the scientific community to conditions requiring special measurements. The information sharing continues to this day with URSIGRAM messages exchanged between RWCs to help them produce space weather forecasts. Venturing into space, especially with manned missions, created a need to know about the space environment and particularly radiation dangers to man in space. Responding to this need led to the creation of a network of stations around the world to provide continuous monitoring of solar activity. Solar wind monitoring is now provided by the ACE satellite, operated by one country, but involving international collaborators to bring the information down in real time. Disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field are monitored by many magnetic observatories that are collaborating through INTERMAGNET to provide reliable data. Space weather produces effects on the ionosphere that can interfere with a variety of systems: the International GNSS Service provides information about effects on positioning systems, and the International Space Environment Service is providing information about iono-spheric absorption, particularly for trans-polar airline operations. The increasing availability of internet access, even at remote locations, is making it easier to obtain the raw information. The challenge now is how to integrate that information to provide effective international situational awareness of space weather.

Boteler, David; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Danskin, Donald

409

Wireless temperature data logger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of temperature course during a certain time is needed in scientific, medical and industrial applications. In some applications, however, the recorded temperature course should be read wirelessly. This paper describes main principles applied in a set of mobile temperature data logger and portable reader\\/writer with wireless transfer of digitized temperature values. A mobile temperature data logger with RFID features

R. Kuchta; P. Stefan; Z. Barton; R. Vrba; M. Sveda

2005-01-01

410

Debate: Wired versus Wireless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

2000-01-01

411

Wireless home emergency system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless control technology, power line carrier technology, GPRS and other embedded technology are used to designs a home emergency system which receives start signal from users by wireless and uses GPRS to send help messages to specific persons, moreover starts the alarm and controls the lights to twinkle by PLC technology, so if the users are in trouble they

Wu Dengfeng; Zhao Hongwei; Wang Peng; Chen Peng

2010-01-01

412

Wireless intraoffice networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the existing and growing demands for wireless office information networks is provided, and the existing research activities are assessed in some detail. The radio frequency (RF) and infrared (IR) communication technologies are examined as candidates for wireless intraoffice communications. The available bandwidths, according to federal regulations and characteristics of the channel for RF communications, are given. Digital

K. Pahlavan

1988-01-01

413

Wireless online games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of mobile phone users is increasing rapidly and this will provide opportunities for developing additional business in the mobile device market. Wireless online games is one of the rising stars in the market. Nevertheless, the insecurity of data transmission through wireless networks and the low performance of the central processing unit (CPU) of mobile devices create a barrier

Wai Sum Sam Mok

2002-01-01

414

MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS  

SciTech Connect

A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

2004-11-01

415

Collaborative Learning through Wireless Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe wireless grids, an emerging technology that enables ad hoc sharing of resources (such as screen, services and microphone) on edge devices (such as mobile Internet devices, laptops and mobile phones). As wireless devices have become common, and “smart,” wireless grids have become practical. To highlight the capabilities of wireless grids to support collaborative learning, projects

Angela Usha Ramnarine-Rieks; Lee W. McKnight; Ruth V. Small

2011-01-01

416

Using wireless technologies in healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an increasingly mobile society and the worldwide deployment of mobile and wireless networks, wireless infrastructure can support many current and emerging healthcare applications. However, before wireless infrastructure can be used in a wide scale, there are several challenges that must be overcome. These include how to best utilise the capabilities of diverse wireless technologies and how to effectively manage

Upkar Varshney

2006-01-01

417

Remote Data Stations: Data and Oceanographic Buoys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) maintains a series of remote data stations on the Great Barrier Reef (Queensland) and Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia). This Website provides interested viewers with access to the remote data stations, including graphic displays of buoy locations and recent data, displayed as text and graphics (data include wind speed and direction, solar radiation, air pressure, and temperature). In addition to displaying data graphically, some data types (e.g., stick plots) are accompanied by concise descriptions of how to read/ interpret those data. In addition, remote data are summarized into station averages and the "last three readings" per station; a glossary of terms and links to weather events/ sites round out the site.

418

Wireless communication with chaos.  

PubMed

The modern world fully relies on wireless communication. Because of intrinsic physical constraints of the wireless physical media (multipath, damping, and filtering), signals carrying information are strongly modified, preventing information from being transmitted with a high bit rate. We show that, though a chaotic signal is strongly modified by the wireless physical media, its Lyapunov exponents remain unaltered, suggesting that the information transmitted is not modified by the channel. For some particular chaotic signals, we have indeed proved that the dynamic description of both the transmitted and the received signals is identical and shown that the capacity of the chaos-based wireless channel is unaffected by the multipath propagation of the physical media. These physical properties of chaotic signals warrant an effective chaos-based wireless communication system. PMID:23683198

Ren, Hai-Peng; Baptista, Murilo S; Grebogi, Celso

2013-04-29

419

Weather Science, Weather Research: History of Their Problems and Findings from Documents during Three Thousand Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The prescientific era. Perception of weather; Establishment of the science of weather. Recording the weather in numbers; Extension of the science of weather. Representation of weather: climatic charts and weather charts; Meteorology up to the be...

K. Schneider-Carius

1975-01-01

420

Weather and The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be able to do activities dealing with weather and water cycles. Learn what makes weather wet and wild, forcast and predict weather. Webweather For Kids Learn about tornadoes and hurricanes. Kidstorm Learn about the water cycles. water Cycles Now click on the following link: Interactive weather maker 1. How much change in temperature is needed to make it snow? On the right side of the page click on Weather Detective Web Quest. Follow the ...

Merritt, Mrs.

2005-10-15

421

Wireless advertising's challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly developing wireless net-working technology and the growing mobile-device user base have fueled interest in activities that deliver advertisements to mobile devices over a wireless network. Studies by wireless media research companies indicate that delivering permission-based alerts to wireless phones captures consumers' attention, drives response actions, and builds brand awareness. Wireless devices are accessible, personal, and location aware. These characteristics

H. Mohamed Yunos; Jerry Zeyu Gao; S. Shim

2003-01-01

422

Basalt weathering across scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering of silicate minerals impacts many geological and ecological processes. For example, the weathering of basalt contributes significantly to consumption of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) and must be included in global calculations of such consumption over geological timeframes. Here we compare weathering advance rates for basalt ( wD?), where D and ? indicate the scale at which the rate is determined and surface area measured, respectively, from the laboratory to the watershed scales. Data collected at the laboratory, weathering rind, soil profile and watershed scales show that weathering advance rate of basalt is a fractal property that can be described by a fractal dimension ( dr ? 2.3). By combining the fractal description of rates with an Arrhenius relationship for basalt weathering, we derive the following equation to predict weathering advance rates at any spatial scale from weathering advance rates measured at the BET scale: wD?=k(e. Here, k0 is the pre-exponential factor (1.29 × 10 7 mm 3 mm - 2 yr - 1 ), Ea is the activation energy (70 kj mol - 1 ), and a is a spatial constant related to the scale of measurement of BET surface area (10 - 7 mm). The term, (, is the roughness. The roughness fractal dimension can be conceptualized as a factor related to both the thickness of the reaction front and the specific surface area within the reaction front. However, the above equation can also be written in terms of a surface fractal dimension and the hypothetical average grain radius. These fractal dimensions provide insight into reaction front geometry and should vary with lithology. Once the surface area discrepancy has been accounted for using this method, we find a one to two order of magnitude range in weathering advance rates measured at any scale or temperature that can be attributed to factors such as changes in erosional regime, parent lithology, mechanism, climate, composition of reacting fluid, and biological activity. Our scaled equation, when used to predict global basalt CO 2 consumption based upon global lithologic maps, yields an uptake flux (1.75 × 1013 mol CO 2 yr - 1 ) within the predicted error of fluxes estimated based upon riverine measurements.

Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Brantley, Susan

2007-09-01

423

Space Station Live: Station Communications Upgrade  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters recently spoke with Penny Roberts, one of the leads for the International Space Station Avionics and Software group, about the upgrade of the Ku-band communications gear aboard the station.

Gerald T Wright

2013-04-12

424

The effects of weather on daily mood: a multilevel approach.  

PubMed

The present study examines the effects of six weather parameters (temperature, wind power, sunlight, precipitation, air pressure, and photoperiod) on mood (positive affect, negative affect, and tiredness). Data were gathered from an online diary study (N = 1,233), linked to weather station data, and analyzed by means of multilevel analysis. Multivariate and univariate analyses enabled distinction between unique and shared effects. The results revealed main effects of temperature, wind power, and sunlight on negative affect. Sunlight had a main effect on tiredness and mediated the effects of precipitation and air pressure on tiredness. In terms of explained variance, however, the average effect of weather on mood was only small, though significant random variation was found across individuals, especially regarding the effect of photoperiod. However, these individual differences in weather sensitivity could not be explained by the Five Factor Model personality traits, gender, or age. PMID:18837616

Denissen, Jaap J A; Butalid, Ligaya; Penke, Lars; van Aken, Marcel A G

2008-10-01

425

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-01-01

426

[Weather, climate and health].  

PubMed

The notion of complex influence of atmospheric conditions on modem human population, especially the relationship between weather, climate and human healths, has actuated the World Meteorological Organisation to commemorate the coming into force, on March 23, 1950, of the Convention of WMO and this year to celebrate this day by focusing on theme of current interest--"Weather, climate and health". In the light of this, the authors of this paper reveal the results of recent studies dealing with influence of sudden and short-term changes in weather and climate on human health, and future expected climate changes due to "greenhouse" effect, increase in global temperature and tropospheric ozone depletion, as well. Special attention is given to climate shifts due to ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) phenomenon because of its great impact on human society and epidemics of certain infectious diseases. The results of biometeorological studies dealing with complex influence of daily weather changes on incidence of certain diseases in Croatia have also been presented. In addition, the authors have stated their own view and opinion in regard to future biometeorlogical studies in Croatia in order to achieve better understanding of influence of climate and weather changes on human health, and help prevention of mortality and morbidity related to chronic noninfectious diseases. PMID:19658377

Bani?, M; Plesko, N; Plesko, S

427

A new weather generator based on spectral properties of surface air temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new weather generator, which simulates daily precipitation occurrence and daily maximum and minimum air temperature. Precipitation occurrence is simulated with a two-state, second-order Markov process, while maximum and minimum daily temperatures are simulated using spectral methods. Data generated at nine stations in the Southeastern USA are then compared to: (1) observed station data, and (2) data generated

J. T. Schoof; A. Arguez; J. Brolley; J. J. O’Brien

2005-01-01

428

Reaction of sorghum hybrids to anthracnose, grain mold and grain weathering in Burleson County, Texas, 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirty commercial hybrids were evaluated for resistance against anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum and grain mold or grain weathering caused by a number of fungal species at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Experiment Station in College Station (Burleson County). Six hybrids wer...

429

Weather pattern climatology of the Great Plains and the related wind regime  

SciTech Connect

The meteorology of the Great Plains can be described as a constant progression of air masses, fronts and cyclonic storm systems. Each of these meteorological conditions can be characterized by identifiable isobaric and related weather parameter patterns. Nine such patterns have been defined to type the weather patterns in the Great Plains. Time series of weather pattern types were produced for 62 stations on the Great Plains. Statistical analyses of these time series produced annual and seasonal frequencies of occurrence of the weather pattern types. Maps of the annual and seasonal frequency of occurrence of weather pattern type are presented for the Great Plains. Persistence and alternation frequencies match what is expected for traveling temperate latitude cyclones, anticyclones and fronts. The wind regime for stations at which the anemometer height and location was constant (and known) for a minimum of three consecutive years was stratified by weather pattern type. Statistical analyses were made to show the response of the wind to the large-scale distribution of air pressure associated with a weather pattern type. The response of the wind to the weather pattern is a site-specific result of the interaction of the large-scale meteorology with local terrain, surface roughness and atmospheric stability. Mean wind speed discriminates between pairs of weather pattern types with better than 75% confidence for more than two-thirds of the possible pairs of weather pattern types.

Barchet, W.R.

1982-11-01

430

An investigation of subglacial processes with a wireless multi-sensor probe from Briksdalsbreen, Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results from eight subglacial wireless probes inserted into the till and ice beneath Briksdalsbreen during summer 2004. This is a new technique in glaciology, to understand glacier processes, and the relationship between glacier dynamics and climate change. These probes were installed in the ice where it was approximately 70m deep and they record temperature, pressure, stress, outside resistivity and tilt. The sensors are held within a small probe which mimics a natural clast. They send their data back by radio communications to a Base Station on the surface of the glacier, which is then sent to the Internet as part of an Environmental Sensor Network. Data was also collected from the surface of the glacier (weather, ice movement, images). Once the probes were installed they began to transmit their data immediately. This is combined with other data (GPR, video camera images and sediment sampling) to investigate the processes occurring beneath a temperate glacier resting on a thin deforming bed.

Hart, J. K.; Martinez, K.; Royan, O.

2004-12-01

431

Fast acquisition method for DS-CDMA systems employing asynchronous base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been significant interest in cellular systems employing direct sequence CDMA, with no synchronization requirement between base-stations (BS), especially in the context of the so-called third generation wireless systems. In this case, since neighboring BS use different spreading sequences, the mobile must first determine the spreading sequence being used by the base station(s) from which the mobile receives sufficiently

Sundararajan Sriram; Srinath Hosur

1999-01-01

432

Delicious Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

Gorte, Mary

433

Extreme Weather Sourcebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents a summary of damage caused by hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, lightning, hail, thunderstorms, and windstorms in the United States and its territories. Information was collected from as far back as 1900 (for hurricanes) and as recently as 1999 (for most categories). For each weather category, there is statistical information on monetary damages (in millions of dollars), sorted by rank and by alphabetic listing. There is also a summary table for composite damage from tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods; tables and graphs for damage and casualties caused by lightning; and summary information for other types of extreme weather (hail, thunderstorms, winter storms). Links are provided to information on data sources and methodology and on the societal impacts of weather.

434

Using XBee transducers for wireless data collection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes how to use XBee transducers to create small and lightweight wireless sensors, which send data to a base station for collection and analysis. Data collection is limited to 10-bit accuracy by the XBee hardware. Depending on the type of XBee used, up to six data channels can be transmitted over a range of up to 15 miles. We describe the technical details of the process using the low-power version of the XBee transducer and a three-axis accelerometer chip.

Ayars, Eric; Lai, Estella

2010-07-01

435

Wisconsin Weather Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Wisconsin meteorologists and folklorists along with Wisconsin teachers created this website to offer classroom materials "that integrate earth science, social studies, language arts, and math." Students can learn about severe weather and the importance of forecasting by listening to and reading people's accounts. Each lesson contains benchmarks and standards for grades four, eight, and twelve; as well as many fun activities. The website features a concise glossary and many links where teachers can discover more resources. Visitors who remember the weather discussed, such as the Ice Bowl of 1967, can find out how to submit their accounts to the website.

436

Indigenous Weather Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

437

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

2003-01-01

438

Space weather in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, Communications Research Laboratory engages in operational space environment information service as National Forecasting Center and Regional Warning Center of ISES. Data of local observation and data collected via internet from domestic and foreign institute are used for daily operational forecast. Fundamental research on space weather issue has been carried out at several institutes and university, including STE Laboratory and NASDA. In this presentation, overview of current space weather forecast operation and system for information outreach in Japan will be presented. Current and future observation program from ground-base and space will be also briefly reviewed.

Akioka, M.

439

Space weather in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, Communications Research Laboratory engages in operational space environment information services as National Forecasting Center and Regional Warning Center of ISES. Data from local observations and data collected via internet from domestic and foreign institutes are used for the daily operational forecast. Fundamental research on space weather issues has been carried out at several institutes and universities, including STE Laboratory and NASDA. In this presentation, an overview of current space weather forecast operations and a system for information outreach in Japan will be presented. Current and future observation programs from ground-base and space will be also briefly reviewed.

Akioka, M.; Ishibashi, H.; Kikuchi, T.; Sagawa, E.; Nagatsuma, T.

440

Space Weather Action Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interdisciplinary activity, learners create a Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) to monitor solar storms and develop real SWAC news reports. Learners work in teams to first investigate sunspot regions, storm signals, a magnetosphere, and auroras and share their research with their peers. Then, learners assemble an instructional flip chart, data collection clipboards/notebook, and display board for their SWAC. Learners conclude the activity by writing their own weather reports, which can be filmed or broadcast if equipment is available. Once learners create a SWAC, solar storm research and reporting can become an ongoing activity.

Nasa

2013-07-30

441

Olympian weather forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique public-private partnership will provide detailed weather information at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Utah, 8-24 February About 50 meteorologists with the National Weather Service (NWS) and several private groups will work in the background to provide accurate forecasts.This is the first time that U.S. government and private meteorologists will share forecasting responsibilities for the Olympics, according to the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. The partnership includes meteorologists with the University of Utah and KSL-TV in Salt Lake City.

Showstack, Randy

442

Weather and The Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will allow students to see the different weather conditions that are apart of the different seasons. It will also help students to identify the characterisitics that go along with each of the different seasons, For example, what weather conditions are present in each season and how we dress for each season. With a partner watch the video: Observing Clouds On piece of paper write your answers to the following questions: 1). What types of changes in the clouds did you observe? 2). What do you think caused the changes in the clouds? (Ex: teperature, morning to night, etc) Next, with your partner, please watch the second video: Observing Precipitation On ...

Maxwell, Ms.

2012-02-07

443

Survey and Analysis of Weather Data for Building Energy Simulations  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, calibrated energy modeling of residential and commercial buildings has gained importance in a retrofit-dominated market. Accurate weather data plays an important role in this calibration process and projected energy savings. It would be ideal to measure weather data at the building location to capture relevant microclimate variation but this is generally considered cost-prohibitive. There are data sources publicly available with high temporal sampling rates but at relatively poor geospatial sampling locations. To overcome this limitation, there are a growing number of service providers that claim to provide real time and historical weather data for 20-35 km2 grid across the globe. Unfortunately, there is limited documentation from 3rd-party sources attesting to the accuracy of this data. This paper compares provided weather characteristics with data collected from a weather station inaccessible to the service providers. Monthly average dry bulb temperature; relative humidity; direct, diffuse and horizontal solar radiation; and wind speed are statistically compared. Moreover, we ascertain the relative contributions of each weather variable and its impact on building loads. Annual simulations are calculated for three different building types, including a closely monitored and automated energy efficient research building. The comparison shows that the difference for an individual variable can be as high as 90%. In addition, annual building energy consumption can vary by 7% while monthly building loads can vary by 40% as a function of the provided location s weather data.

Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

2012-01-01

444

Towards a European Solar Radio Weather Prediction Centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radio weather (SRWx) is a key aspect of space weather for communication and navigation, as intense solar radio emissions are a potential threat to wireless communications and GPS operations. The mitigation of SRWx effects requires reliable nowcasting and forecasting of solar radio emission intensity and polarisation at different frequencies. This can be achieved via real-time multi-frequency diachronic monitoring to allow near-real-time radio data processing and near-real-time ingestion for post-event analysis and quality control. In this work we describe the architecture of a Solar Radio Weather Prediction Centre (SRWxPC) presently under development at the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste that has been designed to be compliant with the above requirements as a technological evolution of the Trieste Solar Radio System (TSRS). In particular, we stress the peculiarities that can make it the seed and testbed for a geographically distributed European centre specialised in monitoring and predicting interferences originated by solar radio emission. The design and development of SRWxPC has been benefiting from the participation in ESA/SWENET (Space Weather European Network) as solar radio data indices provider, in the COST Action ES0803 "Developing Space Weather Products and Services in Europe", and in the Italian Space Agency Project "Exploration of the Solar System".

Messerotti, Mauro; Alberti, Valentina; Marassi, Alessandro; Comari, Maurizio; Coretti, Igor; Zlobec, Paolo; Pucillo, Mauro

445

Weather Depot 1.21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a quote commonly misattributed to Mark Twain goes, "Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does a thing about it." This little program from the folks at Weather Depot won't allow users to modify weather conditions, but it will let users customize their own weather planner (with hourly and daily updates), view regional radar, and view a map of current temperatures around the United States. Additionally, users may look up current road conditions, and view weather Web cams. Weather Depot 1.21 is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and higher.

446

Adapting Future Wireless Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Science Board Panel focused on: (1) Identifying and assessing wireless technologies that may enhance and support the features required to ensure tactical information dominance; (2) Addressing the role of information management in sizing system ca...

2002-01-01

447

Shipboard Wireless Network Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, the need to leverage technologies for better utilizing valuable personnel resources has become more important Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have been shown to be an enabling technology that allows companies in commercial industry to becom...

T. T. Ly

2001-01-01

448

Inverse Square Law Based Solution for Data Aggregation Routing Using Survival Analysis in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wireless Sensor Network is a group of specialized transducers with a communications infrastructure intended to monitor and\\u000a record conditions at diverse locations. Wireless Sensor networks have major power constraints. In order to prolong the lifetime\\u000a of the sensor nodes, the sensor data should efficiently reach the base station and there should be a reduction in message\\u000a transmission, which consumes the majority

A. Khaja Muhaiyadeen; R. Hari Narayanan; C. Shelton Paul Infant; G. Rajesh

449

A fourth-generation MIMO-OFDM broadband wireless system: design, performance, and field trial results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demand for high-performance 4G broadband wireless is enabled by the use of multiple antennas at both base station and subscriber ends. Multiple antenna technologies enable high capacities suited for Internet and multimedia services, and also dramatically increase range and reliability. In this article we describe a multiple-input multiple-output OFDM wireless communication system, lab test results, and field test results

Hemanth Sampath; Shilpa Talwar; Jose Tellado; Vinko Erceg; Arogyaswami Paulraj

2002-01-01

450

Mobility-management and media-access issues in the BAHAMA wireless ATM LAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously proposed an ad-hoc wireless ATM LAN\\/PBX, in which portable base stations (PBSs) can be deployed in an arbitrary topology to support mobile users with multimedia laptop computers. In this network, which we call BAHAMA, mobile users can communicate with one another directly as peer-to-peer if they are close by, or using the PBS backbone LAN. The user wireless

M. J. Karol; M. Veeraraghavan; K. Y. Eng

1995-01-01

451

Energy Management Analysis and Enhancement in IEEE 802.16e WirelessMAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strategy for energy management is an indispensable component in the emerging IEEE 802.16e wireless metropolitan area networks (WirelessMAN) supporting mobility. An efficient energy saving mechanism is the basis for the guarantee of a long operating lifetime for a mobile subscriber station (MSS), because MSSs are normally powered by rechargeable batteries. In this paper, we will characterize and model the

Yan Zhang; Yang Xiao; Victor C. M. Leung

2009-01-01

452

Digitized Radio-Over-Fiber Technologies for Converged Optical Wireless Access Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid deployment of optical access networks and the growing availability of mature and cost-effective opto-electronic system technologies, a unified optical feeder network could provide seamless integration of both broadband optical and wireless access networks. Radio-over-fiber transmission has been studied extensively as a way of achieving such high levels of network integration as well as simplifying wireless base-stations. Digitized

Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas; Prasanna A. Gamage; Christina Lim; Dalma Novak; Rodney Waterhouse

2010-01-01

453

Wireless Networks: New Meaning to Ubiquitous Computing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of wireless technology in academic libraries. Topics include wireless networks; standards (IEEE 802.11); wired versus wireless; why libraries implement wireless technology; wireless local area networks (WLANs); WLAN security; examples of wireless use at Indiana State University and Morrisville College (New York); and useful…

Drew, Wilfred, Jr.

2003-01-01

454

Brazilian Space Weather Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the

Antonio Padilha; Hisao Takahashi; Eurico de Paula; Hanumant Sawant; Haroldo de Campos Velho; Icaro Vitorello; Joaquim Costa; Jonas Souza; José Cecatto; Odim Mendes; Walter Demétrio Gonzalez Alarcon

2008-01-01

455

What Makes the Weather?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides (1) background information showing how the sun, earth, air, and water work together to create weather; (2) six activities on this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy coloring page on the water cycle. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

456

Dress for the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…

Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

2010-01-01

457

Weather, Climate, and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

458

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

459

Weather Specialist (AFSC 25120).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course is designed for self-study to help military personnel to attain the rating of weather specialist. The course is organized in three volumes. The first volume, containing seven chapters, covers background knowledge, meteorology, and climatology. In the second volume, which also contains seven chapters, surface…

Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

460

Palaeoclimate: Weathering away warmth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the Eocene epoch, permanent ice cover developed over Antarctica as the Earth began to cool from greenhouse warmth. Sediment records off the Antarctic coast show spikes in weathering rate at the onset of ice growth that may indicate synchronous consumption of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Haley, Brian A.

2013-02-01

461

Dress for the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson,

Smetana, Lara K.; Glen, Nicole J.

2010-04-01

462

Winds, Weather, and Deserts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 17 questions on the topic of wind and weathering, which covers the Coriolis Effect and wind characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit an answer and are provided immediate verification.

Heaton, Timothy

463

Weather and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF), this course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, ultraviolet radiation, and other phenomena.

2008-01-01

464

Blogging About the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

Evans, Kyle; Frazier, Wendy

2010-04-01

465

Weather and Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will research, discuss, and write reports on the relationship between climate and agriculture. They will pretend that they have just purchased farms in specific parts of the United States and will investigate the weather and climate of that region in order to maximize the chances that their farms will succeed.

466

Tactical Weather Expert System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tactical weather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert system developed to predict severe thunderstorms in the Great Plains Regions of the United States, as a po...

H. B. Teates P. D. Lampru M. D. Condon

1987-01-01

467

Cold-Weather Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Cool in the Cold and Snow Bad-Weather Driving Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a friend Reprint guidelines Share this page using: What are these? Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control.

468

CDMA for Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional layered approach to wireless networks (net- work, data link, and physical layer) utilizes suboptimally the limited available capacity. We propose a Quality of Service wireless frame- work based on the joint design of a packet fair queuing scheduler, demand-assignment Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, and Mul- tirate Multipath-Transparent CDMA-based physical layer. The unique code assignment procedure allows a

Anastasios Stamoulis; Georgios B. Giannakis

469

Implantable Wireless Microsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to use wireless techniques for measurement and control of various physiological parameters inside human body has\\u000a been a long-term goal of physicians and biologists going back to the early days of wireless communication. From early on,\\u000a it was recognized that this capability could provide effective diagnostic, therapeutic, and prosthetic tools in physiological\\u000a research and pathological intervention. However, this

Babak Ziaie

470

Wireless Energy Consumption Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this work, a wireless energy consumption monitor made up of a current transformer with its analog interface and an 8-bit\\u000a microcontroller that acquire sensor’s data is presented. The whole system is wireless connected to a PC through a Bluetooth\\u000a module for the sending of the data that are managed and collected by the host software developed in LabVIEW, a

Massimo Merenda; Demetrio Artuso; Francesco G. Della Corte

471

Short Distance Wireless Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the publication of the first biomedical swallowable telemetry device in 1957, an immense evolution has taken place in\\u000a biomedical monitoring, stimulation and instrumentation, that would have been impossible without the use of wireless information\\u000a transmission. The first section gives an overview of wireless methods for transmitting information to and from biomedical\\u000a implants, followed by a practical introduction on analog

Robert Puers; Jef Thoné

472

Wireless technologies for telemedicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless telemedicine is a new and evolving area in telemedical and telecare systems. Healthcare personnel require realtime\\u000a access to accurate patient data, including clinical histories, treatments, medication, tests, laboratory results and insurance\\u000a information. With large-scale wireless networks and mobile computing solutions, such as cellular 3G, Wi-Fi mesh and WiMAX,\\u000a healthcare personnal can tap into vital information anywhere and at any

H. S. Ng; M. L. Sim; C. M. Tan; C. C. Wong

2006-01-01

473

EAP-Kerberos: A Low Latency EAP Authentication Method for Faster Handoffs in Wireless Access Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wireless medium is a key technology for enabling ubiquitous and continuous network connectivity. It is becoming more and more important in our daily life especially with the increasing adoption of networking technologies in many fields such as medical care and transportation systems. Although most wireless technologies nowadays provide satisfying bandwidth and higher speeds, several of these technologies still lack improvements with regard to handoff performance. In this paper, we focus on wireless network technologies that rely on the Extensible Authentication Protocol for mutual authentication between the station and the access network. Such technologies include local area wireless networks (IEEE 802.11) as well as broadband wireless networks (IEEE 802.16). We present a new EAP authentication method based on a three party authentication scheme, namely Kerberos, that considerably shortens handoff delays. Compared to other methods, the proposed method has the advantage of not requiring any changes on the access points, making it readily deployable at reasonable costs.

Zrelli, Saber; Okabe, Nobuo; Shinoda, Yoichi

474

Towards Weather Ethics: From Chance to Choice with Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of weather and climate ethics is a novel branch of applied ethics, based on environmental sciences and philosophy. Due to recent scientific findings concerning climate change, intentional weather and climate modification schemes have become even more relevant to finding feasible ways to moderate climate change and therefore are in need of careful analysis. When, if ever, can weather

Sanna Joronen; Markku Oksanen; Timo Vuorisalo

2011-01-01

475

Weather automation studies at the Otis Weather Test Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the Otis Weather Test Facility (WTF) is presented, taking into account the distribution of surface-based and tower-mounted instrumentation at the WTF, the automation of the rotating beam ceilometer, the present weather decision tree, and slant visual range techniques. A demonstration model of a Modular Automated Weather System (MAWS) is also considered. The versatility of MAWS results from

D. A. Chisholm

1978-01-01

476

Adaptive Control of Duty Cycling in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly many wireless sensor network deployments are using harvested environmental energy to extend system lifetime. Because the temporal profiles of such energy sources exhibit great variability due to dynamic weather patterns, an important problem is de- signing an adaptive duty-cycling mechanism that allows sensor nodes to maintain their power supply at sufficient levels (energy neutral operation) by adapting to changing

Christopher M. Vigorito; Deepak Ganesan; Andrew G. Barto

2007-01-01

477

Optimizing and Modeling Topology Design in High-Speed Optical Wireless Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an affordable alternative solution for the broadband first\\/last mile access, optical wireless communication (OWC) has recently attracted attention from the literature. Among the primary advantages of OWC system are the high data rate, unlicensed spectrum of operation, quick and inexpensive setup. However, the link and bandwidth availability due to interferences from weather or others remain as challenge for designing

Xiaojun Cao

2008-01-01

478

Tiny and autonomous IEEE1451 Sonic Anemometer to deploy in environmental Wireless Sensor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind speed and direction are important parameters in the study of applied meteorology, for example, in weather prediction, air pollution, transport safety and structural safety. In this paper, we propose the design and deployment of an interoperable Smart Ultrasonic Anemometer that uses the IEEE 1451 standard and operates in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). This standard permits interoperability and introduces

Jorge Higuera; Jose Polo

2010-01-01

479

Unusual Weather and Environmental Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Japanese translation contains an attempt to report world weather trends, environmental pollution, and meteorological forecasting. It is a well-documented study ranging from analysis of man's earliest organized recording of the weather to fossil fuel p...

T. Asakura

1974-01-01

480

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Dec 11,2012 The fall and winter seasons will bring cooler temperatures, and ... and snow. It’s important to know how cold weather can affect your heart, especially if you have ...

481

Stay Safe in Cold Weather!  

MedlinePLUS

... Health and Aging » Publications Stay Safe in Cold Weather! What is hypothermia? Keep warm inside Bundle up ... to find more information Stay Safe in Cold Weather! Learn Why You Need to Stay Warm When ...

482

All-Weather Home Building.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine the experiences of contractors in building in a variety of weather conditions, the following tasks are reported and discussed: (1) a summary of literature review and annotated bibliography for all - weather home building, (2) a questionnaire ...

1975-01-01

483

Space Weather: A Research Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Research Council (NRC) sponsors the Space Weather: A Research Perspective Website. Space weather occurs due to the behavior of the sun, the "nature of Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere, and our location in the solar system." Space weather research will be useful for space weather forecasting, satellite troubleshooting, and gaining a greater understanding of Earth's place in space. To further understand space weather, the user can browse through sections such as What is Space Weather, The Elements of Near-Earth Space, Practical Consequences of Space Weather, and Earth-Space Meteorology, among others. Each section provides images, diagrams, and descriptions. Weather links and resources, as well as a glossary, round out the site.

484

External Resource: Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Teachers' Domain photo essay with images that depict surface features on Earth that result from weathering and erosion, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects. Topics: weathering, erosion, sediments, dunes, deltas, glaci

1900-01-01

485

Recovery of lost data for wireless sensor network used in structural health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a wireless sensor network, data loss often occurs during the data transmission between wireless sensor nodes and the base station, which decreases the communication reliability in wireless sensor network applications. Errors caused by data loss inevitably affect the data analysis of the structure and subsequent decision making. This paper proposed an approach to recover lost data in a wireless sensor network based on the compressive sampling (CS) technique. The main idea in this approach is to project the transmitted data from x onto y, where y is the linear projection of x on a random matrix. The data vector y is permitted to lose part of the original data x in wireless transmissions between the sensor nodes and the base station. After the base station receives the imperfect data, the original data vector x can be reconstructed based on the data y using the CS method. The acceleration data collected from the vibration test of Shandong Harbin Sifangtai Bridge by wireless sensors is used to analyze the data loss recovery ability of the proposed method.

Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui; Sun, Xiaodan; Ou, Jinping

2012-03-01

486

Bidirectional WDM-RoF transmission for wired and wireless signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The architectures of wired/wireless signal transmission based on RoF access network are proposed and their experimental results are shown. Both a wired and a wireless signals with a same data and heterogeneous data in different schemes are simultaneously generated using an injection locking technique and optical carrier suppression modulation based on a Fabry-Perot laser as a cost-effective WDM optical source. A reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is employed for the purpose of a colorless and simple base station. 20-km optical transmissions of 1.25-Gb/s wired and wireless data are experimentally demonstrated to verify the proposed RoF systems.

Kim, Hyun-Seung; Pham, Thang T.; Won, Yong-Yuk; Han, Sang-Kook

2009-11-01

487

A synchronization method for wireless acquisition systems, application to brain computer interfaces.  

PubMed

A synchronization method for wireless acquisition systems has been developed and implemented on a wireless ECoG recording implant and on a wireless EEG recording helmet. The presented algorithm and hardware implementation allow the precise synchronization of several data streams from several sensor nodes for applications where timing is critical like in event-related potential (ERP) studies. The proposed method has been successfully applied to obtain visual evoked potentials and compared with a reference biosignal amplifier. The control over the exact sampling frequency allows reducing synchronization errors that will otherwise accumulate during a recording. The method is scalable to several sensor nodes communicating with a shared base station. PMID:24109816

Foerster, M; Bonnet, S; van Langhenhove, A; Porcherot, J; Charvet, G

2013-07-01

488

Weather Variation and Crop Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the efiects of rising mean temperatures on agricultural output have been studied extensively, there is limited discussion of the impact of inter-annual weather variation on crop yields. This paper estimates the link between weather and crop yields separating the in?uence of (i) mean weather outcomes (i.e., climate) to which a farmer can adapt from (ii) unpredictable year-to-year weather ?uctuations

Wolfram Schlenker

489

How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why are some weather elements easier to verify than others? 5) What factors may contribute to the quality of the weather forecast?

Gawor, J.

2012-04-01

490

Science Sampler: Clever with weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In eighth-grade Earth science at Louisville Middle School in Louisville, Colorado, students learn how large-scale weather patterns such as the jet stream and weather fronts interact to generate local weather conditions. The authors have developed a modeli

Crowder, David; Hoenigman, Rhonda

2011-02-01

491

Weather Fundamentals: Climate & Seasons. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The videos in this educational series for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes), describes weather patterns and cycles around the globe. The various types of climates around…

1998

492

Weather Specialist/Aerographer's Mate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…

Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

493

Weather Fundamentals: Climate & Seasons. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes), describes weather patterns and cycles around the globe. The various types of climates around…

1998

494

Influence of weather on osteoarthritics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examined the effects of selected weather variables on pain and pain-related stress in osteoarthritic subjects. Urban and rural dwelling arthritics who perceived that weather made their symptoms worse and those who did not were surveyed. Some persons with osteoarthritis in urban Chicago were more weather sensitive than their rural counterparts in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Multiple regression

Joyce M. Laborde; William A. Dando; Marjorie J. Powers

1986-01-01

495

Differences Between Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students collect weather data over several days or weeks, graph temperature data, and compare the temperature data collected with long-term climate averages from where they live. Understanding the difference between weather and climate and interpreting local weather data are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes.

Research, National C.

496

A Wireless World: Charles County Public Schools Makes Wireless Universal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wireless connectivity in schools is all the rage, and many school systems have at least gotten their feet wet with a wireless lab or a few portable laptop carts. But Bijaya Devkota, the chief information officer of Charles County Public Schools, has done what many school systems only dream of--implemented universal wireless access throughout his…

Hoffman, Richard

2007-01-01

497

Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the Nat...

K. L. Young

2006-01-01

498

Lithology and Geochemistry of the Weathering Crust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Development of the weathering crust theory; Factors influencing weathering crust formation; Weathering. geochemical types and stages; Geochemical thermodynamics of the weathering and migration of elements; Effect of the mineral composition of ro...

K. I. Lukashev

1970-01-01

499

Artificial neural network for location estimation in wireless communication systems.  

PubMed

In a wireless communication system, wireless location is the technique used to estimate the location of a mobile station (MS). To enhance the accuracy of MS location prediction, we propose a novel algorithm that utilizes time of arrival (TOA) measurements and the angle of arrival (AOA) information to locate MS when three base stations (BSs) are available. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are widely used techniques in various areas to overcome the problem of exclusive and nonlinear relationships. When the MS is heard by only three BSs, the proposed algorithm utilizes the intersections of three TOA circles (and the AOA line), based on various neural networks, to estimate the MS location in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm for different NLOS error distributions. The numerical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can obtain more precise location estimation under different NLOS environments. PMID:22736978

Chen, Chien-Sheng

2012-03-01

500

Whether weather affects music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

2012-09-01