Science.gov

Sample records for wireless weather stations

  1. Equating minimalist snowmelt and runoff generation models via validation with a wireless weather station network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, C. C.; Schaefli, B.; Nicotina, L.; Simoni, S.; Barrenetxea, G.; Parlange, M. B.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    A wireless network of 12 weather stations in the Val Ferret watershed (approximately 21 km2) in the Swiss Alps was used to validate snowmelt models with distributed temperature and radiation data. Using this extensive dataset, an improved yet simplistic degree-day method was compared with a radiation-based method proposed by Hock et al., 1999. The original degree-day approach is a widely used snowmelt model, relating snowmelt directly to air temperature. Numerous hydrological models use this minimalist approach due to its equivalent simplicity. Modifications of this simple method have been proposed in the past which typically incorporate local radiation conditions. However, these modifications generally require more data and/or a finer hydrological grid resolution. Results herein as well as theoretical considerations illustrate that the Hock point or grid-scale method is not always a robust method when combined with spatially explicit rainfall-runoff transformation models. This generalized hydrological application suggests that a simple diurnal cycle of the degree-day melt parameter has the potential to outperform the Hock local radiation-based approach for sub-daily melt simulations. We therefore suggest that the improved degree-day method enables a flexible melt modeling approach, which can be easily adapted into spatially-explicit hydrological models of varying complexity. Furthermore, as this new degree-day method is based upon solely daily temperature extremes, this approach is capable of being adapted for climate change predictions.

  2. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  3. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  4. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  5. Micro Weather Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Improved in situ meteorological measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are needed for studies of weather and climate, both as a primary data source and as validation for remote sensing instruments. Following the initial development and successful flight validation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) hygrometer, the micro weather station program was directed toward the development of an integrated instrument, capable of accurate, in situ profiling of the troposphere, and small enough to fly on a radiosonde balloon for direct comparison with standard radiosondes. On April 23, 1998, working with Frank Schmidlin and Bob Olson of Wallops Island Flight Facility, we flew our instrument in a dual payload experiment, for validation and direct comparison with a Vaisala radiosonde. During that flight, the SAW dewpoint hygrometer measured frostpoint down to -76T at 44,000 feet. Using a laptop computer in radio contact with the balloon, we monitored data in real time, issued the cutdown command, and recovered the payload less than an hour after landing in White Sands Missile Range, 50 miles from the launch site in Hatch, New Mexico. Future flights will extend the intercomparison, and attempt to obtain in situ meteorological profiles from the surface through the tropopause. The SAW hygrometer was successfully deployed on the NASA DC8 as part of NASA's Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) during August and September, 1998. This field campaign was devoted to the study of hurricane tracking and intensification using NASA-funded aircraft. In situ humidity data from the SAW hygrometer are currently being analyzed and compared with data from other instruments on the DC8 and ER2 aircraft. Additional information is contained in the original.

  6. Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park.  It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

  7. Garden Wall Weather Station, MT

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Garden Wall Weather Station is situated below the Garden Wall and adjacent to the Haystack Creek avalanche path in Glacier National Park. It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiat...

  8. Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park.  It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

  9. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  10. Micro Weather Stations for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Kaiser, William J.; VanZandt, Thomas R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Tillman, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A global network of weather stations will be needed to characterize the near-surface environment on Mars. Here, we review the scientific and measurement objectives of this network. We also show how these objectives can be met within the cost-constrained Mars Surveyor Program by augmenting the Mars Pathfinder-derived landers with large numbers of very small (less than 5 liter), low-mass (less than 5 kg), low-power, low-cost Mini-meteorological stations. Each station would include instruments for measuring atmospheric. pressures, temperatures, wind velocities, humidity, and airborne dust abundance. They would also include a data handling, telemetry, power, atmospheric entry, and deployment systems in a rugged package capable of direct entry and a high-impact landing. In this paper, we describe these systems and summarize the data-taking strategies and data volumes needed to achieve the surface meteorology objectives for Mars.

  11. Wireless sensor network for monitoring soil moisture and weather conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) was developed and deployed in three fields to monitor soil water status and collect weather data for irrigation scheduling. The WSN consists of soil-water sensors, weather sensors, wireless data loggers, and a wireless modem. Soil-water sensors were installed at three...

  12. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.; Schmidt, J.

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  13. The Lizard Wireless Station of Guglielmo Marconi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montstein, Christian

    2014-08-01

    During the vacation with my wife in Cornwall, we by chance were walking by the Lizard wireless station, originally installed by Guglielmo Marconi and recently refurbished by The National Trust/UK. Fortunately the shed was open for public visitors and a student was present telling stories about the station and its history. The historic equipment was demonstrated by sending some Morse codes. The high voltage sparks and its sound were quite impressive while in the background the Morse code receiver punched dots and dashes onto the strip chart.

  14. Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

  15. Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

  16. Development and Evaluation of a City-Wide Wireless Weather Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ben; Wang, Hsue-Yie; Peng, Tian-Yin; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2010-01-01

    This project analyzed the effectiveness of a city-wide wireless weather sensor network, the Taipei Weather Science Learning Network (TWIN), in facilitating elementary and junior high students' study of weather science. The network, composed of sixty school-based weather sensor nodes and a centralized weather data archive server, provides students…

  17. Development and Evaluation of a City-Wide Wireless Weather Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ben; Wang, Hsue-Yie; Peng, Tian-Yin; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2010-01-01

    This project analyzed the effectiveness of a city-wide wireless weather sensor network, the Taipei Weather Science Learning Network (TWIN), in facilitating elementary and junior high students' study of weather science. The network, composed of sixty school-based weather sensor nodes and a centralized weather data archive server, provides students…

  18. Types of weather at selected meteorological stations in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowolska, Ksenia

    2014-09-01

    The paper aims to present the structure of weather types at two meteorological stations Galle and Nuwara Eliya (Sri Lanka). The weather type is determined as a generalized characteristic of the weather by features and gradation of selected meteorological elements. All available data on daily average, maximum and minimum air temperature, the average daily total cloud amount and the daily precipitation amount come from OGIMET database and have been used to designate weather types. The analysis was performed for the period April 2002 - March 2012. The weather types were designated based on the modified A. Wo? (2010) classification of weather types. The frequency of groups, subgroups, classes, and types of weather were determined. Additionally, determined frequency of sequences of days with the same weather type. The analysis allows to conclude, that the structure of weather types at both stations was poorly differentiated. There were very stable weather conditions. In Galle, the most frequent was very warm, partly cloudy weather, without precipitation (920) and in Nuwara Eliya warm, partly cloudy weather without precipitation (820).

  19. A Computerized Weather Station for the Apple IIe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorson, Mark V.

    Predicting weather conditions is a topic of interest for students who want to make plans for outside activities. This paper discusses the development of an inexpensive computer-interfaced classroom weather station using an Apple IIe computer that provides the viewer with up to the minute digital readings of inside and outside temperature,…

  20. Opportunistic Resource Scheduling for a Wireless Network with Relay Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jeong-Ahn; Lee, Jang-Won

    In this paper, we study an opportunistic scheduling scheme for the TDMA wireless network with relay stations. We model the time-varying channel condition of a wireless link as a stochastic process. Based on this model, we formulate an optimization problem for the opportunistic scheduling scheme that maximizes the expected system throughput while satisfying the QoS constraint of each user. In the opportunistic scheduling scheme for the system without relay stations, each user has only one communication path between the base station and itself, and thus only user selection is considered. However, in our opportunistic scheduling scheme for the system with relay stations, since there may exist multiple paths between the base station and a user, not only user selection but also path selection for the scheduled user is considered. In addition, we also propose an opportunistic time-sharing method for time-slot sharing between base station and relay stations. With the opportunistic time-sharing method, our opportunistic scheduling provides opportunistic resource sharing in three places in the system: user selection in a time-slot, path selection for the selected user, and time-slot sharing between base station and relay stations. Simulation results show that as the number of places that opportunistic resource sharing is applied to increases, the performance improvement also increases.

  1. WEATHER DATA PROCESSOR USING COMMERCIAL WEATHER STATION SYSTEM TO GENERATE CATTLE LIVESTOCK SAFETY INDEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production facilities exist in environments that may differ significantly from the conditions at the closest weather station. Additionally, the Livestock Safety Index is no longer available over commercial radio/television stations for many livestock production areas. A need exists to inte...

  2. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  3. Implementation of weather stations at Ghanaian high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieron, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an initiative that aims to develop a dense weather observation network in Sub-Sahara Africa. The ambition is to have 20.000 low-cost innovative weather stations in place in 2015. An increased amount of weather data is locally required to provide stakeholders that are dependent on the weather, such as farmers and fishermen, with accurate forecasts. As a first proof of concept, showing that sensors can be built at costs lower than commercially available, a disdrometer was developed. In parallel with the design of the measurement instruments, a high school curriculum is developed that covers environmental sciences. In order to find out which requirements the TAHMO weather station and accompanying educational materials should meet for optimal use at Junior High Schools research was done at Ghanaian schools. Useful insights regarding the future African context of the weather station and requirements for an implementation strategy were obtained during workshops with teachers and students, visits to WMO observatories and case studies regarding use of educational materials. The poster presents the conclusions of this research, which is part of the bigger TAHMO framework.

  4. Modeling a Wireless Network for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Yaprak, Ece; Lamouri, Saad

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of wireless local area network (LAN) simulation modeling methods to the hybrid LAN architecture designed for supporting crew-computing tools aboard the International Space Station (ISS). These crew-computing tools, such as wearable computers and portable advisory systems, will provide crew members with real-time vehicle and payload status information and access to digital technical and scientific libraries, significantly enhancing human capabilities in space. A wireless network, therefore, will provide wearable computer and remote instruments with the high performance computational power needed by next-generation 'intelligent' software applications. Wireless network performance in such simulated environments is characterized by the sustainable throughput of data under different traffic conditions. This data will be used to help plan the addition of more access points supporting new modules and more nodes for increased network capacity as the ISS grows.

  5. Weather Stations as Educational and Hazard-Forecasting Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.; Gochis, E. E.; Dominguez, R.; Mayer, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive (<$1000 USD) weather stations can be valuable tools for enhancing inquiry-based educational opportunities at all grade levels, while also facilitating compilation of climate data for longer term research. Weather stations and networks of stations have been installed both locally and abroad in mostly rural and resource-limited settings. The data are being used either in the classroom to engage students in place-based, scientific investigations and/or research to improve hydrometeorological hazard forecasting, including water scarcity. The San Vicente (El Salvador) Network of six stations monitors rainfall to aid warning and evacuations for landslide and flooding hazards. Other parameters are used in modeling the watershed hydrology. A station installed in Hermosillo, Mexico is used in both Geography and Ecology Classes. Trends in temperature and rainfall are graphed and compared to historic data gathered over the last 30 years by CONAGUA. These observations are linked to local water-related problems, including well salinization, diminished agriculture, depleted aquifers, and social conflict regarding access to water. Two weather stations were installed at the Hannahville Indian Community School (Nah Tah Wahsh) in Michigan for educational purposes of data collection, analysis, and presentation. Through inquiry-based explorations of local hydrological processes, students are introduced to how meteorological data are used in understanding watershed hydrology and the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Several Michigan Technological University Peace Corps Masters International students have deployed weather stations in and around the communities where they serve, and the data are used in research to help in understanding water resource availability and irrigation needs.

  6. Design and realization of an automatic weather station at island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Li, Si-ren

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an automatic weather station monitoring is described. The proposed system consists of a set of sensors for measuring meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed & direction, rain fall, visibility, etc.). To increase the reliability of the system, wind speed & direction are measured redundantly with duplicate sensors. The sensor signals are collected by the data logger CR1000 at several analog and digital inputs. The CR1000 and the sensors form a completely autonomous system which works with the other systems installed in the container. Communication with the master PC is accomplished over the method of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) with the Compact Caimore6550P CDMA DTU. The data are finally stored in tables on the CPU as well as on the CF-Card. The weather station was built as an efficient autonomous system which operates with the other systems to provide the required data for a fully automatic measurement system.

  7. Improved Recharge Estimation from Portable, Low-Cost Weather Stations.

    PubMed

    Holländer, Hartmut M; Wang, Zijian; Assefa, Kibreab A; Woodbury, Allan D

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater recharge estimation is a critical quantity for sustainable groundwater management. The feasibility and robustness of recharge estimation was evaluated using physical-based modeling procedures, and data from a low-cost weather station with remote sensor techniques in Southern Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada. Recharge was determined using the Richards-based vadose zone hydrological model, HYDRUS-1D. The required meteorological data were recorded with a HOBO(TM) weather station for a short observation period (about 1 year) and an existing weather station (Abbotsford A) for long-term study purpose (27 years). Undisturbed soil cores were taken at two locations in the vicinity of the HOBO(TM) weather station. The derived soil hydraulic parameters were used to characterize the soil in the numerical model. Model performance was evaluated using observed soil moisture and soil temperature data obtained from subsurface remote sensors. A rigorous sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. Recharge during the short observation period was estimated at 863 and 816 mm. The mean annual recharge was estimated at 848 and 859 mm/year based on a time series of 27 years. The relative ratio of annual recharge-precipitation varied from 43% to 69%. From a monthly recharge perspective, the majority (80%) of recharge due to precipitation occurred during the hydrologic winter period. The comparison of the recharge estimates with other studies indicates a good agreement. Furthermore, this method is able to predict transient recharge estimates, and can provide a reasonable tool for estimates on nutrient leaching that is often controlled by strong precipitation events and rapid infiltration of water and nitrate into the soil. PMID:26011672

  8. Weather satellite picture receiving stations, APT digital scan converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C. H.; Kamowski, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The automatic picture transmission digital scan converter is used at ground stations to convert signals received from scanning radiometers to data compatible with ground equipment designed to receive signals from vidicons aboard operational meteorological satellites. Information necessary to understand the circuit theory, functional operation, general construction and calibration of the converter is provided. Brief and detailed descriptions of each of the individual circuits are included, accompanied by a schematic diagram contained at the end of each circuit description. Listings of integral parts and testing equipment required as well as an overall wiring diagram are included. This unit will enable the user to readily accept and process weather photographs from the operational meteorological satellites.

  9. REACH: a high-performance wireless base station front end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettleton, Ray W.

    1996-01-01

    The link budget determines the relationships between range, capacity and transmitted power for any wireless technology. In every case it is a key determinant of the system's performance from both an engineering and an economic point of view. Unfortunately, the new 1.9 GHz PCS systems will begin life with an inherent 7 dB disadvantage over the 800 MHz cellular due to propagation differences. Additionally, system wiring and electronics often degrade performance by a further 5 to 10 dB due to long coaxial runs and noisy front end amplification, both of which are harder issues to deal with at 1.9 GHz than at 800 MHz. SCT's REACHTM products address these shortcomings by packaging critical components--front end amplification, filtering, etc.--in a compact cryoelectronic package intended for mounting near the antennas of the base station. In a recent trial with Qualcomm in San Diego, this package improved the CDMA uplink budget by 6 dB--enough to halve the number of base stations that are needed in most areas. This paper examines the technical and economic ramifications of the REACHTM product.

  10. Polar automatic weather station project of the University of Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, C.R.; Weidner, G.A.

    1992-03-01

    The polar automatic weather station (AWS) of the University of Wisconsin is a battery-powered, solar panel-charged, computer-controlled unit that measures wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, air pressure, vertical temperature difference, and relative humidity. The nominal height of the measurements is three to five meters at the time of installation. The data are transmitted to polar-orbiting satellites equipped with the ARGOS data collection system. The sensors are measured at ten-minute intervals and three to five values of each sensor are transmitted at 200-second intervals. More than 100 values at ten-minute intervals are recorded in 24 hours. Thirty-four AWS units are installed in Antarctica and four AWS units are installed on the Greenland Crest. Up to 28 of the 38 AWS units are received by the Global Telecommunications System at six-hour intervals.

  11. Design and Operation of Infrasound Stations for Hazardous Weather Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepyne, D.

    2012-04-01

    Each year tornadoes cause property damage and death, some of which could be avoided with increased warning lead time. The year 2011 was particularly severe, with more than 1600 tornadoes causing in excess of 500 deaths in the U.S. It is known that tornadoes and their precursors generate infrasound in the 0.5Hz to 10Hz frequency band, with precursors occurring some 30-60 minutes prior to tornado touch down, which is some 15-45 minutes earlier than the average tornado warning lead time in the U.S. Given the potential of infrasound to improve tornado early warning and emergency response, the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in conjunction with its research on small, boundary-layer observing X-band weather radars, has begun a research project whose goal is to combine the passive detection of tornado infrasound with active tracking of the parent storms that carry the tornadoes with its weather radars. In the spring of 2011 CASA conducted an infrasound field-test in Oklahoma, in the heart of the so-called "tornado-alley" where statistically the majority of springtime tornadoes in the U.S. occur. This being CASA's first infrasound experiment, the goal of the field-test was to gain an understanding of the issues involved in the design and operation of infrasound stations for severe weather monitoring and early warning. In this application, it is not so much the ability of infrasound to travel long distances that is of importance, but rather the fact that there can be precursor signals that unlike radar do not require line-of-sight to detect. In fact, for early warning, detection distance would generally need to be less than 100 km, since a propagation delay of much more than 5 minutes would be too late. Challenges encountered included persistent infrasound "clutter" from a nearby large windfarm, accurate bearing detection over a wide bandwidth with a fixed four sensor aperture, and the need to operate in the the high winds that surround the supercell storms that spawn tornadoes. This paper details our solutions to these signal processing and wind noise reduction challenges and how they will be applied to a redesign of the CASA infrasound monitoring stations for a 2012 re-deployment.

  12. Capturing the WUnder: Using weather stations and WeatherUnderground to increase middle school students' understanding and interest in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, K. M.; Dunne, P.

    2014-12-01

    New models of elementary- and middle-school level science education are emerging in response to the need for science literacy and the development of the Next Generation Science Standards. One of these models is fostered through the NSF's Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) program, which pairs a graduate fellow with a science teacher at a local school for an entire school year. In our project, a PhD Earth Sciences student was paired with a local middle school science teacher with the goal of installing a weather station, and incorporating the station data into the 8th grade science curriculum. Here we discuss how we were able to use a school weather station to introduce weather and climate material, engage and involve students in the creative process of science, and motivate students through inquiry-based lessons. In using a weather station as the starting point for material, we were able to make science tangible for students and provide an opportunity for each student to experience the entire process of scientific inquiry. This hands-on approach resulted in a more thorough understanding the system beyond a knowledge of the components, and was particularly effective in challenging prior weather and climate misconceptions. We were also able to expand the reach of the lessons by connecting with other weather stations in our region and even globally, enabling the students to become members of a larger system.

  13. A web-based tool that combines satellite and weather station observations to support irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines NASA's Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery, and reference evapotranspiration from surface weather station networks to map daily crop irrigation demand in California in ...

  14. Severe Weather Tool using 1500 UTC Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2013-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  15. Optimal Base Station Placement for Wireless Sensor Networks with Successive Interference Cancellation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Shi, Yi; Ding, Xu; Wei, Zhenchun

    2015-01-01

    We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC. PMID:25594600

  16. 47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... low power auxiliary stations via direct mail, catalog, or electronic means, they shall prominently... microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands. 15.216 Section... wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands....

  17. The NASA-Lewis terrestrial photovoltaics program. [solar cell power system for weather station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    Research and technology efforts on solar cells and arrays having relevance to terrestrial uses are outline. These include raising cell efficiency, developing the FEP-covered module concept, and exploring low cost cell concepts. Solar cell-battery power systems for remote weather stations have been built to demonstrate the capabilities of solar cells for terrestrial applications.

  18. Building and Operating Weather Satellite Ground Stations for High School Science. Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, R. Joe; Gotwald, Timothy

    Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) images are real-time weather pictures transmitted from satellites on a radio frequency in a video format. Amateur radio enthusiasts and electronic experimenters have for a number of years designed, built, and operated direct readout stations capable of receiving APT photographs. The equipment to receive weather…

  19. A relational database for automatic weather station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Großhauser, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Archiving measuring data requires accessibility, security and simplicity. When many users are working with the same data sets, these requirements may be violated due to separation of data and meta data, redundancy (same or different versions of data in several locations) and/or different file formats of raw data files. Such a suboptimal data archiving system might not be comprehensible by a new and even an old user. When deploying a relational database, many of the above problems can be addressed: (1) Data, meta data and documentation of data format are stored in a central place, (2) all users are working with the same data set, which is the one with the highest quality level, (3) data format, units and date conventions, and thus program code for importing is identical for all data, (4) linkage of all types of information makes it easy for old and new users to manipulate and interpret data. By using a common SQL database the development effort can be kept at a low level. For maximum usability a simple database design with three tables was created: (a) station site details and meta data, (b) measuring data and quality flags, (c) attached files (site photos, logger programs, etc.). Web tools are provided for maintaining and looking up meta data. For inserting, selecting and updating data values example Matlab code is provided, which can be extended by users or ported to other languages.

  20. Extracting fair-weather data from atmospheric electric-field observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamoto, Yasuhiro; Kadokura, Akira

    2011-09-01

    At Syowa Station (69.0°S, 39.6°E), located on East Ongul Island near the continent of Antarctica, atmospheric electric-field observations started in 1968 and had been carried out intermittently. An improved electric-field mill at Syowa Station had and obtained better-quality atmospheric electric-field data from February 2005 to January 2006. After a 1-year interruption, the observations resumed in January 2007. The atmospheric electric-field data from Syowa Station are often contaminated due to local disturbances caused by near-ground meteorological phenomena. We examined correlations between the atmospheric electric field and near-ground weather from February 2005 to January 2006 and from February 2007 to January 2008, and proposed a criterion to extract “fair-weather” electric-field data based on wind speed and cloud coverage data. The diurnal variation of fair-weather data in January followed the shape of the so-called Carnegie curve. Fair-weather data obtained during a substorm showed some correspondence between the atmospheric electric field and variations in the geomagnetic field. This newly developed extraction method may enable the use of atmospheric electric-field data for studying the solar terrestrial environment.

  1. 47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands. 15.216 Section... wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands. (a... capable of operating in the core TV bands (channels 2-51, excluding channel 37) is subject to...

  2. 47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands. 15.216 Section... wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands. (a... capable of operating in the core TV bands (channels 2-51, excluding channel 37) is subject to...

  3. 47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands. 15.216 Section... wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands. (a... capable of operating in the core TV bands (channels 2-51, excluding channel 37) is subject to...

  4. 47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands. 15.216 Section... wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable of operating in the core TV bands. (a... capable of operating in the core TV bands (channels 2-51, excluding channel 37) is subject to...

  5. Meteorological data for water years 1988-94 from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Davies, W.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes meteorological data collected from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from as early as April 1987 through September 1994. The measurements include solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind vector magnitude, wind direction, wind vector direction, barometric pressure, and precipitation. Measurements were made very 10 seconds and averaged every 15 minutes. The data were collected as part of the geologic and hydrologic site-characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. Precipitation at the site ranged from a low of 12 millimeters total for water year 1989 to a high of 312 millimeters total for water year 1993. Air temperature ranged from a low of 15.1 degrees Celsius in December 1990 (water year 1991) to a high of 41.9 degrees Celsius in July 1989 (water year 1989). The weather station network also provides information on the spatial variability of precipitation and temperature.

  6. The GOES-L weather satellite arrives at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The GOES-L weather satellite, to be launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) aboard an Atlas II rocket in March or April, is covered and waiting on a semi-trailer truck (in background) that will transport it to Astrotech in Titusville for final testing. It arrived aboard the C-5 air cargo plane (seen in foreground) at CCAS. GOES-L, the fourth of a new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is a three-axis inertially stabilized spacecraft that will provide pictures and perform atmospheric sounding at the same time. Once launched, the satellite will undergo checkout and then provide backup capabilities for the existing, aging GOES East weather satellite.

  7. Using Temperature and Precipitation at an Alpine Weather Station (Denali, AK) To Represent Regional Climate Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, H.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Campbell, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    In anticipation of the development of a 1000-year ice core climate proxy from Denali National Park, Alaska Range, here we evaluate the relationships between weather recorded at a high-elevation (2375 m) automated weather station in Denali National Park (DNP) and National Weather Service station data from throughout Alaska. Our findings indicate that monthly average temperature anomalies from DNP are strongly correlated with temperature anomalies across mainland Alaska (r ? 0.5, p < 0.0007), with decreasing correlations in the southeast panhandle (0.25 ? r ? 0.5, p < 0.065) and especially for stations in the Bering Sea. We used an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to represent average Alaska monthly temperature anomaly since 1950. Initial results indicate that EOF 1, which is highly correlated with station data from central Alaska (r ? 0.6, p < 0.0001), has a significant positive correlation with the Pacific North America pattern (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001) and a weak negative correlation with the Southern Oscillation Index (r = -0.21, p < 0.0001). Additional analyses will further investigate the role of regional climate patterns in central Alaskan weather and climate. Analyses of precipitation relationships are still preliminary, but initial results indicate that, on a monthly scale, local precipitation changes can be interpreted on a regional basis. Analyses of temperature and precipitation seasonality have yet to be completed, but we will investigate the relationships between summertime DNP precipitation (the dominant precipitation season) and wintertime climate patterns. These results will be integrated with remote sensing data to quantify the response of the nearby Ruth and Kahiltna Glaciers to Alaskan climate variability.

  8. Elevational species shifts in a warmer climate are overestimated when based on weather station data.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Daniel; Schmid, Samuel; Körner, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Strong topographic variation interacting with low stature alpine vegetation creates a multitude of micro-habitats poorly represented by common 2 m above the ground meteorological measurements (weather station data). However, the extent to which the actual habitat temperatures in alpine landscapes deviate from meteorological data at different spatial scales has rarely been quantified. In this study, we assessed thermal surface and soil conditions across topographically rich alpine landscapes by thermal imagery and miniature data loggers from regional (2-km(2)) to plot (1-m(2)) scale. The data were used to quantify the effects of spatial sampling resolution on current micro-habitat distributions and habitat loss due to climate warming scenarios. Soil temperatures showed substantial variation among slopes (2-3 K) dependent on slope exposure, within slopes (3-4 K) due to micro-topography and within 1-m(2) plots (1 K) as a result of plant cover effects. A reduction of spatial sampling resolution from 1?×?1 m to 100?×?100 m leads to an underestimation of current habitat diversity by 25% and predicts a six-times higher habitat loss in a 2-K warming scenario. Our results demonstrate that weather station data are unable to reflect the complex thermal patterns of aerodynamically decoupled alpine vegetation at the investigated scales. Thus, the use of interpolated weather station data to describe alpine life conditions without considering the micro-topographically induced thermal mosaic might lead to misinterpretation and inaccurate prediction. PMID:20924613

  9. The optimization based dynamic and cyclic working strategies for rechargeable wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating "bottleneck" sensor nodes is also developed in this paper. PMID:25785305

  10. The Optimization Based Dynamic and Cyclic Working Strategies for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Base Stations and Wireless Energy Transfer Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating “bottleneck” sensor nodes is also developed in this paper. PMID:25785305

  11. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  12. Wireless Video System for Extra Vehicular Activity in the International Space Station and Space Shuttle Orbiter Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Yin C.; Boster, John; Hwu, Shian; Watson, John C.; deSilva, Kanishka; Piatek, Irene (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Wireless Video System (WVS) provides real-time video coverage of astronaut extra vehicular activities during International Space Station (ISS) assembly. The ISS wireless environment is unique due to the nature of the ISS structure and multiple RF interference sources. This paper describes how the system was developed to combat multipath, blockage, and interference using an automatic antenna switching system. Critical to system performance is the selection of receiver antenna installation locations determined using Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) techniques.

  13. Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on weather in Iowa and weather lore. The bulletin contains historical articles, fiction, activities, and maps. The table of contents lists: (1) "Wild Rosie's Map"; (2) "History Mystery"; (3) "Iowa's Weather History"; (4) "Weather Wonders"; (6) "Seasonal Jobs"; (7) "Fiction: Winter Courage"; (8) "Stayin'…

  14. Trends and uncertainties in U.S. cloud cover from weather stations and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Free, M. P.; Sun, B.; Yoo, H. L.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud cover data from ground-based weather observers can be an important source of climate information, but the record of such observations in the U.S. is disrupted by the introduction of automated observing systems and other artificial shifts that interfere with our ability to assess changes in cloudiness at climate time scales. A new dataset using 54 National Weather Service (NWS) and 101 military stations that continued to make human-augmented cloud observations after the 1990s has been adjusted using statistical changepoint detection and visual scrutiny. The adjustments substantially reduce the trends in U.S. mean total cloud cover while increasing the agreement between the cloud cover time series and those of physically related climate variables such as diurnal temperature range and number of precipitation days. For 1949-2009, the adjusted time series give a trend in U.S. mean total cloud of 0.11 ± 0.22 %/decade for the military data, 0.55 ± 0.24 %/decade for the NWS data, and 0.31 ± 0.22 %/decade for the combined dataset. These trends are less than half those in the original data. For 1976-2004, the original data give a significant increase but the adjusted data show an insignificant trend of -0.17 (military stations) to 0.66 %/decade (NWS stations). The differences between the two sets of station data illustrate the uncertainties in the U.S. cloud cover record. We compare the adjusted station data to cloud cover time series extracted from several satellite datasets: ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project), PATMOS-x (AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended) and CLARA-a1 (CM SAF cLoud Albedo and RAdiation), and the recently developed PATMOS-x diurnally corrected dataset. Like the station data, satellite cloud cover time series may contain inhomogeneities due to changes in the observing systems and problems with retrieval algorithms. Overall we find good agreement between interannual variability in most of the satellite data and that in our station data, with the diurnally corrected PATMOS-x product generally showing the best match. For the satellite period 1984-2007, trends in the U.S. mean cloud cover from satellite data vary widely among the datasets, and all are more negative than those in the station data, with PATMOS-x having the trends closest to those in the station data.

  15. Workgroup Report: Base Stations and Wireless Networks—Radiofrequency (RF) Exposures and Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Valberg, Peter A.; van Deventer, T. Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves—wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephonic systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephony and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

  16. Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks-radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Valberg, Peter A; van Deventer, T Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H

    2007-03-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

  17. Micro weather stations for in situ measurements in the Martian planetary boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Kenny, T. W.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Tillman, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Viking Lander meteorology measurements show that the Martian planetary boundary layer (PBL) has large diurnal and seasonal variations in pressure, wind velocity, relative humidity, and airborne dust loading. An even larger range of conditions was inferred from remote sensing observations acquired by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters. Numerical models indicate that these changes may be accompanied by dramatic vertical and horizontal wind shears (100 m/s/km) and rapid changes in the static stability. In-situ measurements from a relatively small number surface stations could yield global constraints on the Martian climate and atmospheric general circulation by providing ground truth for remote sensing instruments on orbiters. A more complete understanding of the meteorology of the PBL is an essential precursor to manned missions to Mars because this will be their working environment. In-situ measurements are needed for these studies because the spatial and temporal scales that characterize the important meteorological processes near the surface cannot be resolved from orbit. The Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Program will provide the first opportunity to deploy a network of surface weather stations for a comprehensive investigation of the Martian PBL. The feasibility and utility of a network of micro-weather stations for making in-situ meteorological measurements in the Martian PBL are assessed.

  18. Two-year record of the climate on the Greenland crest from an automatic weather station

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, G.A.; Stearns, C.R.

    1992-03-01

    An automatic weather station (AWS) was installed on the Greenland Summit (72.30 N, 38.00 W, 3210 m) in May 1987. The AWS unit operated for two years until May 1989 when it was moved to Fresh Air Site (72.82 N, 38.82 W, 3185 m), an air sampling site, where it is still operating. The AWS data were transmitted to the ARGOS data collection system on the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. The AWS unit measures wind speed and direction, air temperature, and the relative humidity at a nominal height of 3 m, air pressure at the height of the electronics enclosure, and the vertical air temperature difference between 3.0 and 0.5 m. The latent and sensible heat from the snow surface to the air were estimated using the wind speed, vertical air temperature difference, and the relative humidity. The data are compared with those from two earlier stations, Eismitte (70.90 N, 40.70 W, 3000 m) from September 1930 through August 1931 (Wegener's expedition) and Station Centrale (70.92 N, 40.64 W, 2993 m) from September 1949 through August 1951 (Victor's expedition). The winds observed at Cathy Site were quite similar to those observed at the two previous stations. Also, the large fluctuations in temperature observed during the winter months at the two historic stations were observed at Cathy Site. The transition from positive to negative values for the sensible and latent heat flux occurred in October.

  19. Weather and Dispersion Modeling of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Thomas; Businger, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The surface deposition of radioactive material from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was investigated for 11 March to 17 March 2011. A coupled weather and dispersion modeling system was developed and simulations of the accident performed using two independent source terms that differed in emission rate and height and in the total amount of radioactive material released. Observations in Japan during the first week of the accident revealed a natural grouping between periods of dry (12-14 March) and wet (15-17 March) weather. The distinct weather regimes served as convenient validation periods for the model predictions. Results show significant differences in the distribution of cumulative surface deposition of 137Cs due to wet and dry removal processes. A comparison of 137Cs deposition predicted by the model with aircraft observations of surface-deposited gamma radiation showed reasonable agreement in surface contamination patterns during the dry phase of the accident for both source terms. It is suggested that this agreement is because of the weather model's ability to simulate the extent and timing of onshore flow associated with a sea breeze circulation that developed around the time of the first reactor explosion. During the wet phase of the accident the pattern is not as well predicted. It is suggested that this discrepancy is because of differences between model predicted and observed precipitation distributions.

  20. STATISTICAL CORRELATIONS OF SURFACE WIND DATA: A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE STATION AND A NEARBY AEROMETRIC MONITORING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a statistical analysis of wind data collected at a network of stations in the Southeast Ohio River Valley. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which wind measurements made by the National Weather Service (NWS) station at the Tri-State Airp...

  1. Weather-related Ground Motions Recorded by Taiwan Broadband Seismic Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. F.; Chi, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Broadband seismometers record ground motions, which can be induced by weather-related processes. Analyzing such signals might help to better understand those natural processes. Previously, abnormal seismic signals have been detected during rainfall and snowmelt events. The amplitudes of those seismic signals correlated with the variations of the discharge in a nearby river and scientists have proposed that such signals were generated by bed load transport. Here, we used the continuous seismic data from the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) to analyze the weather-related ground motions during rainfall events. The sampling rate for seismic data is 100 samples per second. We compared the seismic data with the precipitation data from the rain gauge stations in Taiwan in three select rainfall periods, Typhoon Kalmaegi in 2008, Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and the East Asian rainy season in 2012. During raining, the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of high frequency (> 1 Hz) seismic noises is apparently high, and the amplitude of the seismic noise also correlates with the local precipitation, especially at the stations in the drainage basins, and the PSD decreased gradually after peaks of precipitation. At some seismic stations, we observed vertical ground motions at several bands of frequencies: 0-1 Hz, 1-5 Hz, and 5-45 Hz. However, on horizontal components we found the 5-45 Hz energy splits into two bands: 5-25 Hz and 30-45 Hz. For stations near the ridge tops or on the coastal plain, the 30-45 Hz band energy is weaker or missing. Preliminary results show that the amplitudes of the seismic waves correlate with the stream flow discharge. Next, we plan to study the sources of the different bands of energy to examine if we can monitor and quantify natural processes, like precipitation and river discharge, using seismic signals.

  2. AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2006-01-01

    We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and AWS.it, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the AWS.it readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the AWS.it readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with AWS.it is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an AWS.it quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from AWS.it was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is, based on the latest evaluation, limited by the amount of attitude control gas on the EOS Aqua spacecraft, which is expected to last through 2015.

  3. Comparison between weather station data in south-eastern Italy and CRU precipitation datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglietta, D.

    2009-04-01

    Monthly precipitation data in south-eastern Italy from 1920 to 2005 have been extensively analyzed. Data were collected in almost 200 weather stations located 10-20km apart from each other and almost uniformly distributed in Puglia and Basilicata regions. Apart from few years around world war II, time series are mostly complete and allow a reliable reconstruction of climate variability in the considered region. Statistically significant trends have been studied by applying the Mann-Kendall test to annual, seasonal and monthly values. A comparison has been made between observations and precipitation data given by the Climate Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia, with both low (30') and high (10') space resolution grid. In particular, rainfall records, time series behaviors and annual cycles at each station have been compared to the corresponding CRU data. CRU time series show a large negative trend for winter since 1970. Trend is not significant if the whole 20th century is considered (both for the whole year and for winter only). This might be considered as an evidence of recent acceleration towards increasingly dry conditions. However correlation between CRU data and observations is not very high and large percent errors are present mainly in the mountains regions, where observations show a large annual cycle, with intense precipitation in winter, which is not present in CRU data. To identify trends, therefore observed data are needed, even at monthly scale. In particular observations confirm the overall trend, but also indicate large spatial variability, with locations where precipitation has even increased since 1970. Daily precipitation data coming from a subset of weather stations have also been studied for the same time period. The distributions of maximum annual rainfalls, wet spells and dry spells were analyzed for each station, together with their time series. The tools of statistical analysis of extremes have been used in order to evaluate return values and their space distribution over the considered region. A procedure for data quality control and homogeneity test on monthly rainfall records is also being applied, while kriging techniques are being developed in order to fully understand rainfall climatology in south-eastern Italy.

  4. Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This subject guide to weather resources includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources. Related disciplines are indicated, age levels are specified, and a student activity is included. (LRW)

  5. The Fennec Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Network: monitoring the Saharan Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobby, Matt

    2013-04-01

    The Fennec Automatic Weather Station (AWS) network consists of eight stations installed across the Sahara desert, with four in remote locations in the central desert, where no previous meteorological observations have existed. The AWS measure temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction, short-wave and long-wave radiation (upwelling and downwelling), ground heat flux and ground temperature. Data are recorded every 3 minutes 20 seconds i.e. at three times the temporal resolution of the World Meteorological Organisation's standard ten-minute reporting for winds and wind gusts. Variations in wind speeds on shorter time scales are recorded through the use of second and third order moments of 1-Hz data. Using the Iridium RUDICS service, data are transmitted in near real time (1 hour lag) to the UK, where calibrations are applied and data are uploaded to the GTS, for assimilation into forecast models. In this presentation we describe this unique dataset, sources of error, and possible application for understanding key features of the region. We will discuss the use of the second moment of the wind-speed distribution in improving estimates of the dust-generating potential of observed winds.

  6. High-resolution evapotranspiration estimates for California using satellite imagery and weather station measurements and the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, F.; Hart, Q. J.; Ustin, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Spatially distributed potential Evapotranspiration, ET0, has been calculated to produce daily and hourly ET0 maps for the State of California at 2 km2 resolution. Hourly NOAA GOES imager satellite visible data are used to predict daily radiation. These are combined with interpolated California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) weather station meteorological data for temperature, wind speed and humidity to satisfy the Penman-Monteith ET0 equation. In the next step, we investigate the use of the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to improve the spatial estimates of daily evapotranspiration for the state of California. CIMIS real-time weather station and real-time satellite data are integrated into a prognostic version of the WRF model using its data nudging scheme. This paper we compares spatially interpolated climate parameters and evapotranspiration to the output of WRF with and without data assimilation of CIMIS data. The research assists California's Department of Water Resources to better monitor water use and water management. In addition to the scientific advances in understanding short- term weather systems and their impacts on plant resources, there is considerable societal importance, given impacts of current droughts and predictions for significantly reduced winter snow packs in California under some climate change scenarios.

  7. ULF Waves Observed at MAGDAS Stations as Probes for Litho-Space Weather Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kiyohumi

    K.Yumoto, Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University started the MAGDAS Project effectively in May of 2005, with the installation of the first unit in Hualien, Taiwan (Yumoto et al., 2006, 2007). Since then, over 50 units have been deployed around the world. They are concentrated along three chains: (1) North and South of Japan (the so-called "210o Magnetic Meridian Chain"), (2) Dip Equator Chain, and (3) Africa Chain (the so-called "96o Magnetic Meridian Chain"). The main goals of MAGDAS project are: (1) study magnetospheric pro-cesses by distinguishing between temporal changes and spatial variations in the phenomena, (2) clarify global structures and propagation characteristics of magnetospheric variations from higher to equatorial latitudes, and (3) understand global generation mechanisms of the Solar-Terrestrial phenomena (see Yumoto, 2004). From MAGDAS observations, ULF waves are found to be used as good probes for litho-space weather study in developing and developed countries. In the present paper, we will introduce the following examples: Pc 5 magnetic amplitudes at lower-latitude MAGDAS station show a linear relation with the solar wind velocity, thus we can use the Pc 5 amplitudes as a monitoring probe of the solar wind velocity. Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations have skin depth comparable with the depth of epicentre of earthquakes in the lithosphere. Therefore, we can use Pc 3-4 as a probe for detecting ULF anomaly and precursors associated with great earthquakes. Pi 2 magnetic pulsations are observed globally at MAGDAS stations located at high, middle, low, and equatorial latitudes in night-and day-time. We can use the Pi 2s as a good indicator of onsets of magnetospheric substorms. Sudden commencements (sc), sudden impulse (si), and solar flare effects (sfe) create magnetic variations at MAGDAS stations. Therefore, MAGDAS data can be used as a probe of interplanetary shocks and interplanetary discontinuities in the solar wind, and solar flare on the solar surface, respectively.

  8. Using Satellite Imagery with ET Weather Station Networks to Map Crop Water Use for Irrigation Scheduling: TOPS-SIMS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration estimates for scheduling irrigation must be field specific and real time. Weather station networks provide daily reference ET values, but users need to select crop coefficients for their particular crop and field. A prototype system has been developed that combines satellite image...

  9. Long-range wireless mesh network for weather monitoring in unfriendly geographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Ayala, Manuel; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Soto-Zarazúa, Genaro M; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Bazán Trujillo, Rey D; Porrás-Trejo, Rafael E

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a long-range wireless mesh network system is presented. It consists of three main parts: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Base Terminal Units (BTUs) and a Central Server (CS). The RTUs share a wireless network transmitting in the industrial, scientific and medical applications ISM band, which reaches up to 64 Km in a single point-to-point communication. A BTU controls the traffic within the network and has as its main task interconnecting it to a Ku-band satellite link using an embedded microcontroller-based gateway. Collected data is stored in a CS and presented to the final user in a numerical and a graphical form in a web portal. PMID:22164008

  10. Long-Range Wireless Mesh Network for Weather Monitoring in Unfriendly Geographic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Toledano-Ayala, Manuel; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Soto-Zarazúa, Genaro M.; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Bazán Trujillo, Rey D.; Porrás-Trejo, Rafael E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a long-range wireless mesh network system is presented. It consists of three main parts: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Base Terminal Units (BTUs) and a Central Server (CS). The RTUs share a wireless network transmitting in the industrial, scientific and medical applications ISM band, which reaches up to 64 Km in a single point-to-point communication. A BTU controls the traffic within the network and has as its main task interconnecting it to a Ku-band satellite link using an embedded microcontroller-based gateway. Collected data is stored in a CS and presented to the final user in a numerical and a graphical form in a web portal. PMID:22164008

  11. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server can control the operations of the field stations for calibration and for recording of measurement data. A test engineer positions and activates the WAMS. The WAMS automatically establishes the wireless network. Next, the engineer performs pretest calibrations. Then the engineer executes the test and measurement procedures. After the test, the raw measurement files are copied and transferred, through the wireless network, to a hard disk in the control server. Subsequently, the data are processed into 1.3-octave spectrograms.

  12. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server can control the operations of the field stations for calibration and for recording of measurement data. A test engineer positions and activates the WAMS. The WAMS automatically establishes the wireless network. Next, the engineer performs pretest calibrations. Then the engineer executes the test and measurement procedures. After the test, the raw measurement files are copied and transferred, through the wireless network, to a hard disk in the control server. Subsequently, the data are processed into 1/3-octave spectrograms.

  13. Energy balance of a glacier surface: Analysis of automatic weather station data from the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerlemans, J.; Klok, E. J.

    2002-11-01

    We describe and analyze a complete 1-yr data set from an automatic weather station (AWS) located on the snout of the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. The AWS stands freely on the glacier surface and measures pressure, windspeed, wind direction, air temperature and humidity, incoming and reflected solar radiation, incoming and outgoing longwave radiation, snow temperature, and change in surface height (giving melt rates and snow accumulation). The wind is downglacier most of the time. As expected for a flow of katabatic origin, for air temperatures above the melting point we find a correlation between windspeed and temperature. We evaluate all significant components of the surface energy flux. For a (constant) turbulent exchange coefficient of 0.00153 (reference height 3.5 m) we obtain a perfect match between calculated and measured ice melt. The sensible heat flux is positive (towards the glacier surface) all the time with the largest values on fine summer days (daily mean values are typically 100 W m(-2) on the warmest days). The latent heat flux is small and negative in winter. In summer it is mainly positive (condensation), but negative values also occur. Altogether about 75% of the melt energy is supplied by radiation (shortwave and longwave) and 25% by the turbulent fluxes.

  14. Using stochastic activity networks to study the energy feasibility of automatic weather stations

    SciTech Connect

    Cassano, Luca; Cesarini, Daniel; Avvenuti, Marco

    2015-03-10

    Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) are systems equipped with a number of environmental sensors and communication interfaces used to monitor harsh environments, such as glaciers and deserts. Designing such systems is challenging, since designers have to maximize the amount of sampled and transmitted data while considering the energy needs of the system that, in most cases, is powered by rechargeable batteries and exploits energy harvesting, e.g., solar cells and wind turbines. To support designers of AWSs in the definition of the software tasks and of the hardware configuration of the AWS we designed and implemented an energy-aware simulator of such systems. The simulator relies on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism and has been developed using the Möbius tool. In this paper we first show how we used the SAN formalism to model the various components of an AWS, we then report results from an experiment carried out to validate the simulator against a real-world AWS and we finally show some examples of usage of the proposed simulator.

  15. National Scale Rainfall Map Based on Linearly Interpolated Data from Automated Weather Stations and Rain Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alconis, Jenalyn; Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Lester Saddi, Ivan; Mongaya, Candeze; Figueroa, Kathleen Gay

    2014-05-01

    In response to the slew of disasters that devastates the Philippines on a regular basis, the national government put in place a program to address this problem. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards, or Project NOAH, consolidates the diverse scientific research being done and pushes the knowledge gained to the forefront of disaster risk reduction and management. Current activities of the project include installing rain gauges and water level sensors, conducting LIDAR surveys of critical river basins, geo-hazard mapping, and running information education campaigns. Approximately 700 automated weather stations and rain gauges installed in strategic locations in the Philippines hold the groundwork for the rainfall visualization system in the Project NOAH web portal at http://noah.dost.gov.ph. The system uses near real-time data from these stations installed in critical river basins. The sensors record the amount of rainfall in a particular area as point data updated every 10 to 15 minutes. The sensor sends the data to a central server either via GSM network or satellite data transfer for redundancy. The web portal displays the sensors as a placemarks layer on a map. When a placemark is clicked, it displays a graph of the rainfall data for the past 24 hours. The rainfall data is harvested by batch determined by a one-hour time frame. The program uses linear interpolation as the methodology implemented to visually represent a near real-time rainfall map. The algorithm allows very fast processing which is essential in near real-time systems. As more sensors are installed, precision is improved. This visualized dataset enables users to quickly discern where heavy rainfall is concentrated. It has proven invaluable on numerous occasions, such as last August 2013 when intense to torrential rains brought about by the enhanced Southwest Monsoon caused massive flooding in Metro Manila. Coupled with observations from Doppler imagery and water level sensors along the Marikina River, the local officials used this information and determined that the river would overflow in a few hours. It gave them a critical lead time to evacuate residents along the floodplain and no casualties were reported after the event.

  16. Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

  17. Snow temperature profiles and heat fluxes measured on the Greenland crest by an automatic weather station

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, C.R.; Weidner, G A.

    1992-03-01

    In June 1989 three automatic weather station (AWS) units were installed on the Greenland crest at the GISP2 (78.58 N, 38.46 W, 3265 m) and GRIP (78.57 N, 37.62 W, 3230 m) ice coring sites and at Kenton (72.28 N, 38.80 W, 3185 m), the air sampling site. The purpose of the AWS units is to measure the local meteorological variables, including snow temperatures at various depths, in support of ice coring studies. The AWS units measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, and relative humidity at a nominal height of 3.6 meters, air pressure at the electronics enclosure, and air temperature difference between 3.6 m and 0.5 m. The AWS units at GISP2 and GRIP also measure solar radiation, and seven snow temperatures from the surface to a depth of approximately 4 m in the snow. The data are updated at 10-minute intervals and transmitted to the ARGOS data collection system on board the NOAA series of polar-orbiting satellites. The air temperature and snow temperatures are presented as a function of time for the period from June 8, 1989 to August 31, 1990 and as tautochrones at 30-day intervals. The heat flux into the snow is determined from the daily mean snow temperature between the day after and the day before using the volumetric heat capacity of the snow assuming a snow density of 300 kg m-3. The daily mean heat flux into the snow between the highest and the lowest levels of snow temperature is presented as a function of time.

  18. Modelling the seasonal cycle of dissolved oxygen in the upper ocean at ocean weather station P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, F.; Garcon, V.; Minster, J.-F.

    1990-03-01

    Three main processes regulate the variations of dissolved O 2 concentrations in the surface waters: gas exchange at the air-sea interface, vertical mixing and biological activity of marine organisms. A one-dimensional integral mixed layer model ( GASPAR, 1988) is used to study the temporal evolution of monthly averaged dissolved O 2 content of surface waters at Ocean Weather Station P, and to assess the relative importance of the various contributing mechanisms during 1969-1972. Production and consumption due to biological activity are taken into account as an input function of the model. A large part of the seasonal signal of dissolved O 2 in surface waters can be reproduced by the physical model without biological activity. However, kinetics of gas exchange, biological production and entrainment of sub-mixed layer water all contribute by the same order of magnitude to supersaturation during warming periods and undersaturation during cooling periods. Various shapes (over depth and time) of production-consumption function have been tested for the year 1970. Most of the evolution of monthly average dissolved O 2 in the surface waters can be obtained (1) with a total annual production rate of the order of 5 mol O 2 m -2 y -1, (2) with a constant production throughout the year and in the 0-50 m layer, and (3) with logarithmic decrease in consumption between 50 and 300 m. The relative influence of various parameters on the three processes supplying O 2 to the surface waters is investigated. Total annual production P seems to be the most influential. Vertical mixing and depth of photic zone, z 0, affect the gas exchange flux during the cooling season. Episodic events, like storms, modify the supersaturation of the mixed layer O 2 content by up to 4 mmol m -3, but gas exchange later draws back this content towards a smooth evolution curve. Finally, the sensitivity of the net annual gas exchange to various parameters is too large for the model to provide a reliable value.

  19. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  20. Comparison of parallel temperature measurements from conventional and automatic weather stations at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Enric; Gilabert, Alba; Prohom, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Fabra Observatory , located in a promontory at 411 meters above sea level in the outskirts of Barcelona, hosts a continuous climate record since 1913. Additionally, it has been recording since 1996 simultaneous temperature and precipitation data with conventional instruments and automated systems. The automatization of recording sites employed with climatological purposes is happening elsewhere in the country and across the globe. Unfortunately, in most cases long lasting parallel measurements, are not kept. Thereafter, this site offers an excellent opportunity to study the impact of the introduction of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The conventional station (CON) equips a liquid in glass thermometer, located inside a standard Stevenson screen. The automatic measurements (AWS) have been taken using MCV-STA sensors sheltered in a MCV small plate-like ventilated screen between 1996 and the end of July 2007. For our analysis, this MCV period is split in two (T1, T2) due to an obvious jump in the differences AWS-CON in October 2002, produced by unknown reasons. From August 2007 to the present (T3), a Vaisala HMP45AL sensor was placed inside a Stevenson Screen and used for automatic measurements. For daily maximum temperatures, the median differences reach 3.2°C in T1, 1.1°C in T2 and merely -0.1°C in T3. In this later period, 94% of the differences are comprised in a ±0.5°C range, compared to 23% in T2 and only 6% in T1. It is interesting to note how the overheating of the MCV screen dominates the difference series, as 85% of the AWS values taken in T1 and T2 are warmer than the conventional measurements, contrasting with only 27% of cases during T3, when the automated measurements were taken inside a Stevenson screen. These differences are highly temperature dependent: low (high) AWS temperatures are associated with small (large) differences with the CON series. This effect is also evident if temperatures are analyzed by seasons: summer differences are much higher than winter differences in T1 (median value of 3.6°C vs 2.6°C) and T2 (1.7°C vs. 1.0 °C). In T3, the effect of sheltering makes winter AWS temperatures slightly cooler (-0.2°C), meanwhile summer median difference is 0.0°C. This effect is also noticed when looking at other elements such as the sunshine hours. Days with very short sunshine periods (<=3 hours) are characterized by lower median differences in T1 and T2 (1.6°C/0.4°C) compared to those days with more than 10 hours of sunshine (3.8°C/1.6°C). For T3, in days with low sunshine duration, the AWS tends to be cooler by -0.2°C, meanwhile the median difference for days with more than 10 hours of sunshine is 0.0°C. Also, windy, rainless and high pressure days are linked to high temperature differences in T1 and T2. The AWS-CON differences for daily minimum temperatures are smaller and more uniform in all cases. In T1 and T2 (0.4°C for both periods) compared to those found in the daily maximum values. Also, the percentage of differences in a ±0.5° range approaches 50% in T1 and T2. In contrast, T3 median difference doubles to -0.2°C, compared to daily maximum temperature, although the percentage of differences inside the ±0.5 range remains at 94%. As can be seen, the sheltering differences become less important during nighttime. Not surprisingly, about 80% of the values in T1 and T2 and 93% in T3 are cooler in the AWS. Seasonally, in winter, the 3 periods show a median difference of -0.3°. During summer, nighttime values recorded at the MCV screen (T1, T2) differ by -0.5°C to the conventional thermometer readings, meanwhile the Vaisala sensor sheltered inside a Stevenson screen, has a median difference of -0.1°C with the conventional data. Also, although there is a relation with other climate elements such as sunshine duration, pressure, wind or precipitation, it is less remarkable than in the daytime values. In the framework of the Spanish project CGL2012-32193, "Determination and evaluation of the bias introduced by the automatation of meteorological stations in climate time series", the different segments of Fabra Observatory, as well as other series across the country with available parallel measurements, will be further evaluated and adjusted using state-of-the- art correction methods.

  1. One-Dimensional Coupled Ecosystem-Carbon Flux Model for the Simulation of Biogeochemical Parameters at Ocean Weather Station P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, S.; McClain, C.; Christian, J.; Wong, C. S.

    2000-01-01

    In this Technical Publication, we describe the model functionality and analyze its application to the seasonal and interannual variations of phytoplankton, nutrients, pCO2 and CO2 concentrations in the eastern subarctic Pacific at Ocean Weather Station P (OWSP, 50 deg. N 145 deg. W). We use a verified one-dimensional ecosystem model, coupled with newly incorporated carbon flux and carbon chemistry components, to simulate 22 years (1958-1980) of pCO2 and CO2 variability at Ocean Weather Station P (OWS P). This relatively long period of simulation verifies and extends the findings of previous studies using an explicit approach for the biological component and realistic coupling with the carbon flux dynamics. The slow currents and the horizontally homogeneous ocean in the subarctic Pacific make OWS P one of the best available candidates for modeling the chemistry of the upper ocean in one dimension. The chlorophyll and ocean currents composite for 1998 illustrates this premise. The chlorophyll concentration map was derived from SeaWiFS data and the currents are from an OGCM simulation (from R. Murtugudde).

  2. Evaluation of radar and automatic weather station data assimilation for a heavy rainfall event in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tuanjie; Kong, Fanyou; Chen, Xunlai; Lei, Hengchi; Hu, Zhaoxia

    2015-07-01

    To improve the accuracy of short-term (0-12 h) forecasts of severe weather in southern China, a real-time storm-scale forecasting system, the Hourly Assimilation and Prediction System (HAPS), has been implemented in Shenzhen, China. The forecasting system is characterized by combining the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) package. It is capable of assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity data from multiple Doppler radars as well as surface automatic weather station (AWS) data. Experiments are designed to evaluate the impacts of data assimilation on quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) by studying a heavy rainfall event in southern China. The forecasts from these experiments are verified against radar, surface, and precipitation observations. Comparison of echo structure and accumulated precipitation suggests that radar data assimilation is useful in improving the short-term forecast by capturing the location and orientation of the band of accumulated rainfall. The assimilation of radar data improves the short-term precipitation forecast skill by up to 9 hours by producing more convection. The slight but generally positive impact that surface AWS data has on the forecast of near-surface variables can last up to 6-9 hours. The assimilation of AWS observations alone has some benefit for improving the Fractions Skill Score (FSS) and bias scores; when radar data are assimilated, the additional AWS data may increase the degree of rainfall overprediction.

  3. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saremi Naeini, Mohammadali; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is one of the most important dynamic factors determining soil erodibility, because it affects the stability of soil aggregates and threshold velocities for particle detachment by wind. Soil moisture should, therefore, be included in wind erosion risk assessments. However, despite its importance, soil moisture content is often ignored in the analysis of wind data for wind erosion studies. The main reason most probably being the lack of soil moisture sensors in conventional climate stations. Soil moisture at a given point in time is determined by rain (e.g. rainfall amount, duration), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data, such as daily precipitation, hourly/sub hourly ambient air temperature and hourly/sub hourly relative humidity. This new method was used to identify periods of wet and dry soil moisture conditions of a time series from 20 weather stations in Denmark. The length of the time series varied between 8 to 37 years and depended on data availability at each station. To analyse if the proposed method is applicable for wind erosion studies, a Wilcoxon and t-test was used to analyse in total 360 different scenarios. Significant differences were found between the conventional and the proposed approach, which indicates that using wind data without the influence of soil moisture most likely lead to an overestimation of the wind erosion risk. It is, therefore, strongly recommended for wind erosion risk assessments to associate more importance to winds that occur during dry times of the year, by including soil moisture into the calculations.

  4. On Deployment of Multiple Base Stations for Energy-Efficient Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Yunyue; Wu, Qishi; Cai, Xiaoshan; Du, Xiaojiang; Kwon, Ki-Hyeon

    2010-01-01

    Data transmission from sensor nodes to a base station or a sink node often incurs significant energy consumption, which critically affects network lifetime. We generalize and solve the problem of deploying multiple base stations to maximize network lifetime in terms of two different metrics under one-hop and multihop communication models. In the one-hop communication model, the sensors far away from base stations always deplete their energy much faster than others. We propose an optimal solution and a heuristic approach based on the minimal enclosing circle algorithm to deploy a base station at the geometric center of each cluster. In themore » multihop communication model, both base station location and data routing mechanism need to be considered in maximizing network lifetime. We propose an iterative algorithm based on rigorous mathematical derivations and use linear programming to compute the optimal routing paths for data transmission. Simulation results show the distinguished performance of the proposed deployment algorithms in maximizing network lifetime.« less

  5. A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

    2014-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  6. Climatology of the East Antarctic ice sheet (100[degrees]E to 140[degrees]E) derived from automatic weather stations

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, I. ); Wendler, G. ); Radok, U. )

    1993-05-20

    The authors present a climate picture of a large share of eastern Antarctica, arrived at from records obtained from automatic weather stations. These stations have permitted sampling of such data over extended periods of time, which have not been possible before. Data from remote sensing units has been sampled by the ARGOS data collection system on the NOAA series satellites since the late 1970's. Data is presented on temperature, pressure, and wind speed and direction.

  7. Teachers guide for building and operating weather satellite ground stations for high school science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. J.; Gotwald, T.

    1981-01-01

    A number of colleges and universities are operating APT direct readout stations. However, high school science teachers have often failed to realize the potential of meteorological satellites and their products as unique instructional tools. The ability to receive daily pictures from these satellites offers exciting opportunities for secondary school teachers and students to assemble the electronic hardware and to view real time pictures of Earth from outer space. The station and pictures can be used in the classroom to develop an approach to science teaching that could span many scientific disciplines and offer many opportunities for student research and participation in scientific processes. This can be accomplished with relatively small expenditures of funds for equipment. In most schools some of the equipment may already be available. Others can be constructed by teachers and/or students. Yet another source might be the purchase of used equipment from industry or through the government surplus channels. The information necessary for individuals unfamiliar with these systems to construct a direct readout for receiving real time APT photographs on a daily basis in the classroom is presented.

  8. Concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Ocean Weather Station P from 1969 to 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, C.D.; Whorf, T.P.; Wong, C.S.; Bellagay, R.D.

    1985-10-20

    From May 1959 to June 1981 the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide was measured in 2419 samples of air collected on a weather ship situated at 50/sup 0/N and 145/sup 0/W in the North Pacific Ocean. Three principal characteristics of the variation in concentration of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ are revealed by these data: an annual variation that repeats with nearly the same pattern each year, an interannual variation that correlates with the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere, and a long-term increase that is nearly proportional to the global input of CO/sub 2/ from the combustion of fossil fuels. The peak-to-trough amplitude of the smoothed annual signal increased from 13.3 ppM in 1969 to 14.5 ppM in 1981. The phasing of the annual CO/sub 2/ cycle suggests a close relation to the activity of land plants in the broad region of the northern hemisphere where plants grow mainly during the summer. The increasing amplitude suggests a heightening plant activity. The interannual variation and its first derivative correlate with the Southern Oscillation. A lag of 6 months in the derivative suggests a distant oceanic or terrestrial source-sink in the tropics or southern hemisphere. The seasonally adjusted CO/sub 2/ concentration increased from 324.9 ppM in May 1969 to 340.8 ppM in June 1981. This increase is 60% of the increase that would have occurred if all the CO/sub 2/ from fossil fuel combustion had remained in the atmosphere and had been uniformly distributed there. The seasonally adjusted concentration, when averaged from 1975 to 1981, is 0.8 ppM lower than that found at Point Barrow, Alaska, at 71/sup 0/N and 0.9 ppM higher than that found at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, at 19/sup 0/N, suggesting a steadily decreasing concentration in CO/sub 2/ from north to south in the broad band from 70/sup 0/N to 20/sup 0/N.

  9. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  10. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  11. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  12. Analysis of daily rainfall of the Sahelian weather-station Lingučre (Senegal) - Trends and its impacts on the local population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strommer, Gabriel; Brandt, Martin; Diongue-Niang, Aida; Samimi, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    In the 20th century, the West African Sahel has been a hot-spot of climatic changes. After severe drought-events in the 1970s and 1980s which were followed by a significant drop in annual precipitation, rainfall seems to increase again during the past years. Most studies are based on monthly or yearly datasets. However, many processes and events which are important for the local population depending on rainfall are not related to monthly or annual precipitation but are related to intra-annual, often daily scales. During this study, interviews with farmers and herders were conducted in the Senegalese Sahel. The results show, that wet months with unsuitably distributed precipitation can cause more harm than bringing benefits - depending on the phenological stage of the plants. Agricultural crops for example need rainfall breaks. On the other hand, natural herbaceous vegetation tolerates longer wet periods. So, a wet season can still hide dry spells that alter crops and vegetation development. Based on the results of these interviews, this study developed two indexes, one for local farmers and one for herders separately, showing if the year was favorable for them or not. The indexes integrate the length of rainy seasons, intensity and frequency of rainfall events, breaks between events and also the previous year. This way, each year is assigned to one of 5 classes. Using daily rainfall data of the Lingučre weather-station (from the Senegal Meteorological Service, ANACIM), trends of the indexes from 1945 to 2002 are detected and compared to results of the interviews. Statistically relating the indexes to yearly and monthly data demonstrates, how much information can be gathered by those datasets. Furthermore, changes in intensity and frequency are related with yearly and monthly sums showing relations between daily data and annual sums. For example, a high correlation (r=0.73) between the amount of rain days (> 1 mm) and the annual rainfall is observed in Lingučre.

  13. An Intelligent Weather Station.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead. PMID:26690433

  14. An Intelligent Weather Station

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M.; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead. PMID:26690433

  15. Lessons Learned JSC Micro-Wireless Instrumentation Systems on Space Shuttle and International Space Station CANEUS 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on lessons learned from NASA Johnson Space Center's micro-wireless instrumentation is shown. The topics include: 1) Background, Rationale and Vision; 2) NASA JSC/Structural Engineering Approach & History; 3) Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System; 4) WLEIDS Confidence and Micro-WIS Lessons Learned; and 5) Current Projects and Recommendations.

  16. A proposal for a unified process to improve probabilistic ground snow loads in the United States using SNODAS modeled weather station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePaolo, Michael Robert

    Snow loads govern roof design in many parts of the United States. These loads are largely prescribed by the American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE 7 Standard for minimum design loads. Where ASCE 7 does not specify snow loads due to extreme local variability, such as in the West, many state jurisdictions have developed individual roof snow load documents and maps. However, among the western states border discrepancies and a general lack of uniformity in the methodology for developing such loads indicates a need for a unified approach. This paper proposes a methodology to develop ground snow loads for the western United States, the application of which is illustrated for the state of Colorado. An innovative approach is taken which utilizes a hydrological snowpack model, Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS), developed by NOAA. This model provides estimates of ground snow depth and snow water content, easily convertible into loads, at 588 SNODAS weather stations in Colorado. The methodology proposed here then incorporates statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate cluster analyses to regionalize the SNODAS stations by key shared properties. Several types of cluster analyses are evaluated including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), k-means, and a PCA-based method. Using various statistical and practical measures of quality, a step-wise hybrid method combining both AHC and k-means techniques is found to be the most statistically sound and robust clustering method. A relationship is then developed between ground snow depths and ground snow loads for each cluster of SNODAS weather stations. This paper proposes the following additional steps. A database of National Weather Service CO-OP stations with snow depth only measurements is gathered for the state of interest. The 50-year ground snow depths are extrapolated by testing the goodness-of-fit of several probability distributions. The ground snow depth-load relationships for each cluster produced by the hybrid method are then coupled with these 50-year ground snow depths to produce 50-year ground snow loads. Finally, these ground snow loads are mapped in GIS software using a Kriging geostatistical interpolation method to create continuous snow load isolines.

  17. Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

  18. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

    2010-12-01

    South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which MapServer is used to import spatial data by its database interface and to generate images of static geographic formats. However, a Java applet is additionally needed to display these images on the users local host. Furthermore, station data are visualized as time series by the scripting language PHP. Since February 2010, the visualization of gridded data products is a first step to a new data portal based on OpenLayers. In this GIS framework, all geographic information (e.g., OpenStreetMap) is displayed with MapServer. Furthermore, the visualization of all meteorological parameters are generated on the fly by a Python CGI script and transparently overlayed on the maps. Hence, station data and gridded data are visualized and further prepared for download in common data formats (csv, NetCDF). In conclusion, measured data and generated data products are provided with a data latency less than 1-2 hours in standard operation (near real time). Following an introduction of the processing system along the lines above, resulting data products are presented online at the WegenerNet data portal.

  19. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  20. A processing-modeling routine to use rough data from automatic weather stations in snowpack mass dynamics modeling at fine temporal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Jommi, Cristina; Pepe, Monica

    2015-04-01

    We discuss a proposal of coupled routine to process rough data from automatic weather stations at an hourly resolution and to model snowpack mass dynamics. Seasonal snow represents an important component of the water cycle in mountain environment, and the modeling of its mass dynamics is a living topic in modern hydrology, given the expected modifications of the climate in the near future. Nevertheless, model forcing, calibration and evaluation operations are often hampered by the noisiness of rough data from automatic weather stations. The noise issue include, among others, non-physical temperature-based fluctuations of the signal or gauge under-catch. Consequently, it can be difficult to quantify precipitation inputs, accumulation/ablation periods or melt-runoff timing and amounts. This problem is particularly relevant at fine temporal resolution (e.g., the hourly one). To tackle this issue, 40 SNOTEL sites from western US are here considered, and the proposed processing-modeling routine is applied on multi-year datasets to assess its performances to both process hourly data and model snowpack dynamics. A simple one-layer snowpack model is used for this purpose. Specific attention is paid to remove sub-daily erroneous oscillations of snow depth. Under these assumptions, we can separate events of different types and recover catch deficiency by means of a data-fusion procedure that relies on the mass conservation law, instead of site- or instrument-specific relations. Since the considered model needs the calibration of two parameters, and given that sub-daily physical oscillations in snow depth data are difficult to be separated from instrument noise, a coupled processing-modeling procedure has been designed. Results prove that noise can be successfully removed from data, and that sub-daily data-series can be exploited as useful sources to model snowpack dynamics.

  1. Challenges for Environmental Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Davis, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    There are many challenges posed to researchers looking to collect eco-hydrological information with monitoring systems exposed to the natural environment due, in part, to the unpredictable interactions between the environment and the wireless hardware and the scale of the deployment. While wireless sensor network technology has introduced autonomy and pervasiveness to studying the environment, it is not a panacea for outdoor monitoring systems. Despite the fact that each outdoor deployment will encounter its own unique set of challenges, it is often a benefit to researchers to know what problems were faced during other deployments and how these problems were mitigated or solved. This work examines a long-term (i.e., multi-year) environmental wireless sensor network which was deployed in a forested hill-sloped region of western Pennsylvania, USA and the main challenges that were encountered. These include: (1) the startup and maintenance costs of the wireless network; (2) the data collection system and remote access to the network; (3) the security of the network hardware and software; and (4) the reliability of wireless network connectivity. Based on our field study, it was found that while wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have less expensive startup costs compared to similarly sized wired systems (such as data logging), the WSN has relatively high maintenance costs as it requires frequent site visits (mean of 38 days per wireless node). One possible way to reduce the maintenance costs is by adjusting the sampling and/or collection frequency of the wireless nodes. In addition to the high maintenance costs, wireless communications, especially over complex networks, have low success rates of data capture from the field (approximately 50%). Environmental conditions, such as background noise, interference and weather conditions, may significantly influence the wireless communications. Technological advancements (such as smart sampling and data compression) are being developed to improve the data success rates within WSNs. Furthermore, a complex network of monitoring devices depends on the reliability of base station and gateway system for collecting, storing, and analyzing data from the field. Limitations and vulnerabilities in base station designs can lead to network outages and loss of data. In addition to addressing the above concerns, this project also examines both the reliability and security of a networked base station.

  2. Weather monitor station and 225 GHz radiometer system installed at Sierra Negra: the Large Millimeter Telescope site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca, D.; Contreras R., J.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50-m dish antenna designed to observe in the wavelength range of 0.85 to 4 mm at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra Puebla, Mexico. The telescope has a new atmospheric monitoring system that allows technical staff and astronomers to evaluate the conditions at the site and have enough information to operate the antenna in safe conditions, atmospheric data is also useful to schedule maintenance activities and conduct scientific observations, opacity data is used to calibrate the astronomical data and evaluate the quality of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. In this paper we describe the integration of a weather atmospheric monitoring system and a 225 GHz radiometer to the facilities around the telescope and also describe the hardware integration of these systems and the software methodology used to save and process the data and then make it available in real time to the astronomers and outside world through an internet connection. Finally we present a first set of atmospheric measurements and statistics taken with this new equipment during the wet and dry seasons of 2013/2014.

  3. A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, T. H.

    A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP, IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a fixed transmission rate. A protocol such as IntServ is used to provision resources along an end-to-end path of BSs for GR sessions. The Guaranteed Rates between the BSs are then specified in a doubly stochastic traffic rate matrix, which is recursively decomposed to yield a low-jitter GR frame transmission schedule. In the resulting schedule, the end-to-end delay and jitter are small and bounded, and the cell loss rate due to primary scheduling conflicts is zero. For dual-channel WMNs, the MAC protocol can achieve 100% utilization, as well as near-minimal queueing delays and near minimal delay jitter. The scheduling time complexity is O(NFlogNF), where N is the number of BSs. Extensive simulation results are presented.

  4. Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman

    2011-01-01

    A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

  5. A Retrospective, Iterative, Geometry-Based (RIGB) tilt correction method for radiation observed by Automatic Weather Stations on snow-covered surfaces: application to Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Zender, C. S.; van As, D.; Smeets, P. C. J. P.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    Surface melt and mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet may play crucial roles in global climate change due to their positive feedbacks and large fresh water storage. With few other regular meteorological observations available in this extreme environment, measurements from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) are the primary data source for studying surface energy budgets, and for validating satellite observations and model simulations. Station tilt, due to irregular surface melt and/or compaction, causes considerable biases in the AWS shortwave radiation measurements. In this study, we identify tilt-induced biases in the climatology of surface shortwave radiative flux and albedo, and retrospectively correct these by iterative application of solar geometric principles. We found, over all the AWS from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net), the Kangerlussuaq transect (K-transect) and the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) networks, insolation on fewer than 40 % of clear days peaks within ±0.5 h of solar noon time, with the largest shift exceeding 3 h due to tilt. Hourly absolute biases in the magnitude of surface insolation can reach up to 200 W m-2. We estimate the tilt angles and their directions based on the solar geometric relationship between the simulated insolation at a horizontal surface and the observed insolation by these tilted AWS under clear-sky conditions. Our adjustment reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) against references from both satellite observation and reanalysis by ~ 20W W m-2, and raises the correlation coefficients with them to above 0.95. Averaged over the whole Greenland Ice Sheet in the melt season, the adjustment in insolation to compensate station tilt is 18 ± 13 W m-2, enough to melt 0.40 ± 0.29 m of snow water equivalent. The adjusted diurnal cycles of albedo are smoother, with consistent semi-smiling patterns. The seasonal cycles and inter-annual variabilities of albedo agree better with previous studies. This tilt-corrected shortwave radiation dataset derived using the Retrospective, Iterative, Geometry-Based (RIGB) method provide more accurate observations and validations for surface energy budgets studies on the Greenland Ice Sheet, including albedo variations, surface melt simulations and cloud radiative forcing estimates.

  6. KSC Weather and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, Launa; Huddleston, Lisa; Smith, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This briefing outlines the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Weather organization, past research sponsored or performed, current organization, responsibilities, and activities, the evolution of weather support, future technologies, and an update on the status of the buoys located offshore of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and KSC.

  7. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind direction indicated the model error increased with the forecast period all four parameters. The hypothesis testing uses statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis is true. The goal of using the hypothesis test was to determine if the model bias of any of the parameters assessed throughout the model forecast period was statistically zero. For th is dataset, if this test produced a value >= -1 .96 or <= 1.96 for a data point, then the bias at that point was effectively zero and the model forecast for that point was considered to have no error. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed so the 45 WS would have an operational tool at their disposal that would be easy to navigate among the multiple stratifications of information to include tower locations, month, model initialization times, sensor heights and onshore/offshore flow. The AMU developed the GUI using HyperText Markup Language (HTML) so the tool could be used in most popular web browsers with computers running different operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and Linux.

  8. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  9. Weather Station's Lidar in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of the Canadian-built Phoenix lidar in operation (with the cover open) was acquired at the Phoenix landing site on Sol 3. The Surface Stereo Imager (right) acquired this image at 11:40:12 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation minus 47.2987 degrees and azimuth 225.325 degrees.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Campbell, James; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A ground based, autonomous, low power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We report on the design and anticipated performance of the proposed instrument and show data from two prototype lidar instruments previously deployed to Antarctica.

  11. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  12. Weather impacts on space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, J.; Boyd, B.; Bauman, W.; Wyse, N.; Adams, M.

    The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group for landing forecasts. Attention is given to prelaunch processing weather, launch support weather, Shuttle launch commit criteria, and range safety weather restrictions. Upper level wind requirements are examined. The frequency of hourly surface observations with thunderstorms at the Shuttle landing facility, and lightning downtime at the Titan launch complexes are illustrated.

  13. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

  14. Wireless Power Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-22

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consumption. Previously worrisome traffic delays now provide longer periods of charge while passing over in-motion chargers. Inclement weather such as rain and snow do not affect the charging capability. At ORNL, we are working to develop the robust nature of wireless power technology to provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions.

  15. Wireless Power Transfer

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-11-19

    Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consumption. Previously worrisome traffic delays now provide longer periods of charge while passing over in-motion chargers. Inclement weather such as rain and snow do not affect the charging capability. At ORNL, we are working to develop the robust nature of wireless power technology to provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions.

  16. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  17. Seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton, nutrients, TCO2, pCO2, and O2 in the eastern subarctic Pacific (ocean weather station Papa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; McClain, Charles R.; Christian, James R.; Wong, C. S.

    2001-12-01

    A coupled, one-dimensional ecosystem/carbon flux model is used to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton, nutrients, TCO2, O2, and pCO2 at ocean weather station Papa (OWS P at 50°N, 145°W). The 23-year interannual simulation (1958-1980) is validated with available data and analyzed to extend seasonal and interannual variations beyond the limited observational records. The seasonal cycles of pCO2 and sea-air CO2 flux are controlled by a combination of thermodynamics, winds, and biological uptake. There is ingassing of CO2 during the fall-winter months when SSTs are colder and wind forcing is vigorous, while there is a much smaller ingassing of CO2 during the summer when sea surface temperatures are warmer and wind speeds are reduced. Biological production plays a major role in maintaining the air-sea equilibrium. An abiotic simulation showed that OWS P would be a source of atmospheric CO2 (1.41 mol C m-2 yr-1) if the biological sink of CO2 were removed. The peak net community production in summer compensates for the increased temperature effect on pCO2, which prevents large outgassing in summer. Oxygen anomalies relative to the temperature-determined saturation value show that there is a seasonal cycle of air-sea flux, with ingassing in winter and outgassing in summer. The net surface oxygen flux is positive (0.8 mol m-2 yr-1), indicating that OWS P is a source of oxygen to the atmosphere. The average primary production is 167 g C m-2 yr-1. The 1960-1980 (1958 and 1959 spin-up years removed) mean carbon flux is -1.8 mol C m-2 yr-1, indicating that the ocean at OWS P is a sink of atmospheric carbon. The sea-air CO2 flux ranges from -1.2 to -2.3 mol C m-2 yr-1 during the 21-year simulation period. This finding emphasizes the need for long-term observations to accurately determine carbon flux budgets. A series of sensitivity experiments indicate that the seasonal variability and overall (21 years) mean of TCO2, pCO2, ?pCO2, and air-sea CO2 flux are strongly dependent on the gas transfer formulation adopted, the total alkalinity near the surface, and the bottom (350 m) value adopted for TCO2. The secular atmospheric pCO2 upward trend is manifested in the TCO2 concentration within the upper 100 m by an increase of 15 mmol m-3 in 20 years, consistent with observations at other locations [Winn et al., 1998; Bates, 2001].

  18. RBSP Space Weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

  19. Wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.; Mata, Carlos T.

    2006-05-01

    Current and future requirements of aerospace sensors and transducers demand the design and development of a new family of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors and transducers will possess a certain degree of intelligence in order to provide the end user with critical data in a more efficient manner. Communication between networks of traditional or next-generation sensors can be accomplished by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) developed by NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC Aerospace Corporation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), consisting of at least one central station and several remote stations and their associated software. The central station is application-dependent and can be implemented on different computer hardware, including industrial, handheld, or PC-104 single-board computers, on a variety of operating systems: embedded Windows, Linux, VxWorks, etc. The central stations and remote stations share a similar radio frequency (RF) core module hardware that is modular in design. The main components of the remote stations are an RF core module, a sensor interface module, batteries, and a power management module. These modules are stackable, and a common bus provides the flexibility to stack other modules for additional memory, increased processing, etc. WSN can automatically reconfigure to an alternate frequency if interference is encountered during operation. In addition, the base station will autonomously search for a remote station that was perceived to be lost, using relay stations and alternate frequencies. Several wireless remote-station types were developed and tested in the laboratory to support different sensing technologies, such as resistive temperature devices, silicon diodes, strain gauges, pressure transducers, and hydrogen leak detectors.

  20. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  1. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  2. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  3. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  4. 47 CFR 1.911 - Station files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station files. 1.911 Section 1.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services... technical, legal, and administrative data relating to each station in the Wireless Radio Services...

  5. High Altitude Weather Balloons to Support Rayleigh and Sodium Lidar Studies of the Troposphere, Stratosphere and Mesosphere at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papen, George

    1995-01-01

    This proposal funded 100 high altitude weather balloons costing $15,500 to support the deployment of a Rayleigh/Raman/Na lidar at the South Pole. One year of measurements have been completed and it is estimated that the balloons will provide another 1-2 years of data.

  6. Reviews Book: Marie Curie and Her Daughters Resource: Cumulus Equipment: Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Equipment: 3D Magnetic Tube Equipment: National Grid Transmission Model Book: Einstein's Physics Equipment: Barton's Pendulums Equipment: Weather Station Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Marie Curie and Her Daughters An insightful study of a resilient and ingenious family and their achievements Cumulus Simple to install and operate and with obvious teaching applications, this weather station 'donationware' is as easy to recommend as it is to use Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Good design and construction make for good results National Grid Transmission Model Despite its expense, this resource offers excellent value Einstein's Physics A vivid, accurate, compelling and rigorous treatment, but requiring an investment of time and thought WORTH A LOOK 3D Magnetic Tube Magnetic fields in three dimensions at a low cost Barton's Pendulums A neat, well-made and handy variant, but not a replacement for the more traditional version Weather Station Though not as robust or substantial as hoped for, this can be put to good use with the right software WEB WATCH An online experiment and worksheet are useful for teaching motor efficiency, a glance at CERN, and NASA's interesting information on the alpha-magnetic spectrometer and climate change

  7. 47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section... Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast auxiliary licensees and motion picture and television producers, as defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on...

  8. 47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section... Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast auxiliary licensees and motion picture and television producers, as defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on...

  9. 47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section... Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast auxiliary licensees and motion picture and television producers, as defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on...

  10. Weather & Weather Maps. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Peter M.; Green, Rachel E.

    This guide is intended to provide an opportunity for students to work with weather symbols used for reporting weather. Also included are exercises in location of United States cities by latitude and longitude, measurement of distances in miles and kilometers, and prediction of weather associated with various types of weather fronts. (RE)

  11. Eolian sand transport at three stations on a dune backed coastline in northern Indiana and their relationships to weather-related and site-specific controls

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, S.W.; Olyphant, G.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Continuous measurements of eolian sand transport (using Automated Sand Traps) and wind speed/direction at 1.5 m above the surface were achieved on a dune backed coastline near Gary, Indiana. Data were collected on an hourly basis for a 6 month period during which 55 major sand movement events were observed. The sandstorms lasted from 1 to 16 hours with an average length of 4 hours and produced total transport quantities of up to 227 kg/m. the largest sand movement totals occurred when the wind was northerly; indeed 75% of the total sand captured at the authors station in a small blowout occurred during periods when the wind was from north. Northerly winds also dominated overall sand movement at their station on the crest of a vegetated foredune, but the total amount of transported sand was only 6.5% of that in the blowout. Hourly sand transport efficiency, expressed as the ratio of measured transport to theoretical transport (based on Bagnold's equation), averaged 0.34 at the blowout station during the spring of 1992, whereas averages for the dune crest station and a station on the backshore were 0.04 and 0.15, respectively, during the same period. Efficiencies were highly variable, even during individual storms, and exhibited no obvious systematic trend. However, storm-wind direction, topography, and sand surface character (e.g. vegetation and surface moisture conditions) were all observed to have an influence on the efficiency of sand transport at the study site.

  12. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  13. Wireless autonomous device data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  14. Wireless Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless

  15. Subsurface Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeier, J. J.; Davies, J. L.; Kruger, A.

    2008-12-01

    Conventional thinking holds that underground- and underwater radio communication is not possible, except at very low frequencies employing very long antennas and high transmit power. However, researchers at The University of Iowa have demonstrated that using inexpensive, low-power radios, it is in fact possible to achieve reliable underground radio communication over distances of several meters. This allows for creating underground wireless sensor networks. A proof-of-concept network was established at The University of Iowa, where nodes that measure soil moisture content are buried over a 20×20 m area (up to 1 m deep). The nodes organize themselves into a wireless sensor network, reconfigure routes as radio link quality waxes and wanes, cooperate in routing data packets to a surface base station, and so on. In an agricultural research setting, an advantage of such buried wireless sensor networks is that, if nodes were buried deep enough, they may be left in place during agricultural field work. Power consumption is an important issue in wireless sensor networks. This is especially true in a buried network where battery replacement is a major undertaking. The focus of continuing research is developing methods of inductively recharging buried sensor batteries.

  16. Implementing wireless sensor networks for architectural heritage conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartĂ­nez-Garrido, M. I.; Aparicio, S.; Fort, R.; Izquierdo, M. A. G.; Anaya, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Preventive conservation in architectural heritage is one of the most important aims for the development and implementation of new techniques to assess decay, lending to reduce damage before it has occurred and reducing costs in the long term. For that purpose, it is necessary to know all aspects influencing in decay evolution depending on the material under study and its internal and external conditions. Wireless sensor networks are an emerging technology and a minimally invasive technique. The use of these networks facilitates data acquisition and monitoring of a large number of variables that could provoke material damages, such as presence of harmful compounds like salts, dampness, etc. The current project presents different wireless sensors networks (WSN) and sensors used to fulfill the requirements for a complete analysis of main decay agents in a Renaissance church of the 16th century in Madrid (Spain). Current typologies and wireless technologies are studied establishing the most suitable system and the convenience of each one. Firstly, it is very important to consider that microclimate is in close correlation with material deterioration. Therefore a temperature(T) and relative humidity (RH)/moisture network has been developed, using ZigBee wireless communications protocols, and monitoring different points along the church surface. These points are recording RH/T differences depending on the height and the sensor location (inside the material or on the surface). On the other hand, T/RH button sensors have been used, minimizing aesthetical interferences, and concluding which is the most advisable way for monitoring these specific parameters. Due to the fact that microclimate is a complex phenomenon, it is necessary to examine spatial distribution and time evolution at the same time. This work shows both studies since the development expects a long term monitoring. A different wireless network has been deployed to study the effects of pollution caused by other active systems such as a forced-air heating system, the parishioners presence or feasts and other ventilation conditions. Finally weather conditions are registered through a weather station. Outside and inside conditions are compared to incorporate data to the network for a later decay modeling.

  17. New weather radar coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

  18. NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

  19. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  20. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  1. National Weather Service

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Weather Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long Range Forecasts Climate Prediction PAST WEATHER Past Weather Heating/Cooling Days ... Radio NWS CAP Feeds PAST WEATHER Past Weather Climate Monitoring Heating/Cooling Days Monthly Temps Records Astronomical ...

  2. Forecast skill of a high-resolution real-time mesoscale model designed for weather support of operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.; Manobianco, John

    1994-01-01

    NASA funded Mesoscale Environmental Simulations and Operations (MESO), Inc. to develop a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). The model has been modified specifically for short-range forecasting in the vicinity of KSC/CCAS. To accomplish this, the model domain has been limited to increase the number of horizontal grid points (and therefore grid resolution) and the model' s treatment of precipitation, radiation, and surface hydrology physics has been enhanced to predict convection forced by local variations in surface heat, moisture fluxes, and cloud shading. The objective of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of MASS including the real-time initialization and configuration for running the data pre-processor and model, and (2) to summarize the preliminary evaluation of the model's forecasts of temperature, moisture, and wind at selected rawinsonde station locations during February 1994 and July 1994. MASS is a hydrostatic, three-dimensional modeling system which includes schemes to represent planetary boundary layer processes, surface energy and moisture budgets, free atmospheric long and short wave radiation, cloud microphysics, and sub-grid scale moist convection.

  3. Accuracy assessment of land surface temperature retrievals from Landsat 7 ETM + in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using iButton temperature loggers and weather station data.

    PubMed

    Brabyn, Lars; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Stichbury, Glen; Cary, Craig; Storey, Bryan; Laughlin, Daniel C; Katurji, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are the largest snow/ice-free regions on this vast continent, comprising 1% of the land mass. Due to harsh environmental conditions, the valleys are bereft of any vegetation. Land surface temperature is a key determinate of microclimate and a driver for sensible and latent heat fluxes of the surface. The Dry Valleys have been the focus of ecological studies as they arguably provide the simplest trophic structure suitable for modelling. In this paper, we employ a validation method for land surface temperatures obtained from Landsat 7 ETM + imagery and compared with in situ land surface temperature data collected from four transects totalling 45 iButtons. A single meteorological station was used to obtain a better understanding of daily and seasonal cycles in land surface temperatures. Results show a good agreement between the iButton and the Landsat 7 ETM + product for clear sky cases. We conclude that Landsat 7 ETM + derived land surface temperatures can be used at broad spatial scales for ecological and meteorological research. PMID:24366817

  4. UMTS Network Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed over the 30 radiometric stations. As a the result, currently it exist a stable, flexible, safe and economic infrastructure of radiometric stations and telecommunications that allows, on the one hand, to have data in real time from all 30 remote weather stations, and on the other hand allows to communicate with them in order to reprogram them and to carry out maintenance works.

  5. Impact of climate change on snow distribution in Japan estimated using data from the remote weather stations (AMeDAS) and Spot VGT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominami, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Tsuyama, I.; Tanaka, N.

    2010-12-01

    Change of the amount of snow by climate change is possibly remarkable in Japan, because air temperature is relatively high as snowy area in the world. And the change of the amount of snow cover highly depends on the supply form of precipitation (rain or snow) in winter corresponding to the change of the temperature in addition to the change of precipitation. And vegetation distribution of Japan is highly affected by snow conditions (snow duration and snow accumulation). To evaluate the change of snow condition in Japan climate change, daily change of SWE of 1km mesh was estimated using daily precipitation and air temperature of AMeDAS(Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System) data. And using this model, changes of SWE and snow cover period were estimated in condition of global warming. Daily air temperature and precipitation on 1km mesh were estimated over all of Japan by interpolation of the AMeDAS data. AMeDAS is a system that observes the temperature and precipitation, etc. per hour automatically in about 1,300 places (about 17km spacing) in Japan. And daily change of SWE of each point was calculated using degree-day method and threshold temperature for the distinction between snow and rain using these data. We used precipitation and air temperature data of AMeDAS for 23 years from 1980 to 2002. Snow melt coefficient and elevation dependency of winter precipitation of each grid were optimized by snow duration estimated using satellite data (S3 index of Spot VGT) from 1990 to 2000 To estimate the change in the snow accumulation for the years from 2031 to 2051 and from 2081 to 2100, we used the climate change scenario of a high-resolution Regional Climate Model with a 20-km mesh size (RCM20) developed at the Meteorological Research Institute based on the Special Report for Emission Scenario (SRES)-A2. Estimated snow duration was evaluated in 10 points of mountainous snow measurement stations. Averaged error was about 4 days from 1980 to 1999. And estimated SWE was evaluated at 14 points in Niigata and Gunma prefecture from 2000 to 2001. Averaged error of SWE was about 32% in this period. Estimated change of SWE and snow cover period according to air temperature rise was remarkable at plain field along Sea of Japan in main land. Estimated decrease of snow cover period in this area was more than 80% in condition from 2 to 3 degrees air temperature rise for the years from 2031 to 2051.

  6. Weatherizing America

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

    2009-01-01

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  7. Weatherizing America

    ScienceCinema

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

    2013-05-29

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  8. Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

  9. Wireless Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Discusses wireless access-control equipment in the school and university setting, particularly the integrated reader lock at the door with a panel interface module at the control panel. Describes its benefits, how it works, and its reliability and security. (EV)

  10. Wireless Tots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lee-Allison

    2003-01-01

    The first wireless technology program for preschoolers was implemented in January at the Primrose School at Bentwater in Atlanta, Georgia, a new corporate school operated by Primrose School Franchising Co. The new school serves as a testing and training facility for groundbreaking educational approaches, including emerging innovations in…

  11. Wireless Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless…

  12. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit developed a forecast tool that provides an assessment of the likelihood of local convective severe weather for the day in order to enhance protection of personnel and material assets of the 45th Space Wing Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  13. Wireless Instrumentation System and Power Management Scheme Therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Blalock, Norman N. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A wireless instrumentation system enables a plurality of low power wireless transceivers to transmit measurement data from a plurality of remote station sensors to a central data station accurately and reliably. The system employs a relay based communications scheme where remote stations that cannot communicate directly with the central station due to interference, poor signal strength, etc., are instructed to communicate with other of the remote stations that act as relays to the central station. A unique power management scheme is also employed to minimize power usage at each remote station and thereby maximize battery life. Each of the remote stations prefembly employs a modular design to facilitate easy reconfiguration of the stations as required.

  14. 47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast auxiliary licensees and motion picture and television producers, as defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a non-interference basis on VHF and UHF television channels to assist with production activities....

  15. 47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast auxiliary licensees and motion picture and television producers, as defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a non-interference basis on VHF and UHF television channels to assist with production activities....

  16. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK FOR AUTOMATED IRRIGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An in-field sensor-based irrigation system is of benefit to producers in efficient water management. A distributed wireless sensor network eliminates difficulties to wire sensor stations across the field and reduces maintenance cost. Implementing wireless sensor-based irrigation system is challengin...

  17. Health dynamic measurement of tall building using wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, J. P.; Li, H. W.; Xiao, Y. Q.; Li, Q. S.

    2005-05-01

    Health Monitoring is very important for large structures like suspension- and cable-stayed bridges, offshore platforms, tall buildings and so on. Due to recent developments in new sensor systems, wireless communication systems, Internet-based data sharing and monitoring, advanced technologies for structure health monitoring (SHM) have been caused much more attentions, in which the wireless sensor network is recently received special interests. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of large populations of wirelessly connected nodes, capable of computation, communication, and sensing. In this paper, a wireless sensor networks based health monitoring system for tall buildings has been explored integrated with wireless sensing communication, computation, data management and data remote access via Internet. Firstly, a laboratory prototype was designed and developed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed system. Wireless sensor nodes were deployed on a test structure, the data being sensed by the sensor nodes in the network is eventually transmitted to a base station, where the information can be accessed. Through a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, IEEE802.11b), the simulated data was transferred among personal computers and wireless sensor nodes peripherals without cables. And then, a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) includes eight sensor nodes and one base station was installed on Di Wang Tower to verify the performance of the present system in-depth. Finally, comparisons between WSN and cable-based monitoring analytical acceleration responses of field measurement have been performed. The proposed system is shown to be effective for structural health monitoring.

  18. Weather control

    SciTech Connect

    Leepson, M.

    1980-09-05

    Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to produce rain are the most successful weather modification techniques. Both are used extensively and with varying degrees of success in the United States and around the world. Cloud seeding, though, is not effective in easing the harshness of a drought, such as the one that hit the Southwest, Midwest and Great Plains this summer.

  19. 47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspection. 95.1129 Section 95.1129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection....

  20. 47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1127 Section 95.1127 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification....

  1. 47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station inspection. 95.1129 Section 95.1129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection....

  2. 47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station inspection. 95.1129 Section 95.1129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection....

  3. 47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station inspection. 95.1129 Section 95.1129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection....

  4. 47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1127 Section 95.1127 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification....

  5. 47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1127 Section 95.1127 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification....

  6. 47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station inspection. 95.1129 Section 95.1129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection....

  7. 47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1127 Section 95.1127 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification....

  8. 47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1127 Section 95.1127 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification....

  9. Predicting the magnetospheric plasma of weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The prediction of the plasma environment in time, the plasma weather, is discussed. It is important to be able to predict when large magnetic storms will produce auroras, which will affect the space station operating in low orbit, and what precautions to take both for personnel and sensitive control (computer) equipment onboard. It is also important to start to establish a set of plasma weather records and a record of the ability to predict this weather. A successful forecasting system requires a set of satellite weather stations to provide data from which predictions can be made and a set of plasma weather codes capable of accurately forecasting the status of the Earth's magnetosphere. A numerical magnetohydrodynamic fluid model which is used to model the flow in the magnetosphere, the currents flowing into and out of the auroral regions, the magnetopause, the bow shock location and the magnetotail of the Earth is discussed.

  10. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  11. Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks.

    PubMed

    Messer, Hagit; Zinevich, Artem; Alpert, Pinhas

    2006-05-01

    The global spread of wireless networks brings a great opportunity for their use in environmental studies. Weather, atmospheric conditions, and constituents cause propagation impairments on radio links. As such, while providing communication facilities, existing wireless communication systems can be used as a widely distributed, high-resolution atmospheric observation network, operating in real time with minimum supervision and without additional cost. Here we demonstrate how measurements of the received signal level, which are made in a cellular network, provide reliable measurements for surface rainfall. We compare the estimated rainfall intensity with radar and rain gauge measurements. PMID:16675693

  12. Earth Observation Services Weather Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Microprocessor-based systems for processing satellite data offer mariners real-time images of weather systems, day and night, of large areas or allow them to zoom in on a few square miles. Systems West markets these commercial image processing systems, which have significantly decreased the cost of satellite weather stations. The company was assisted by the EOCAP program, which provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  13. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  14. Weather and Climate Monitoring Protocol, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Kathryn; Power, Paula; Dye, Linda; Rudolph, Rocky

    2008-01-01

    Weather and climate are strong drivers of population dynamics, plant and animal spatial distributions, community interactions, and ecosystem states. Information on local weather and climate is crucial in interpreting trends and patterns in the natural environment for resource management, research, and visitor enjoyment. This document describes the weather and climate monitoring program at the Channel Islands National Park (fig. 1), initiated in the 1990s. Manual and automated stations, which continue to evolve as technology changes, are being used for this program. The document reviews the history of weather data collection on each of the five Channel Islands National Park islands, presents program administrative structure, and provides an overview of procedures for data collection, archival, retrieval, and reporting. This program overview is accompanied by the 'Channel Islands National Park Remote Automated Weather Station Field Handbook' and the 'Channel Islands National Park Ranger Weather Station Field Handbook'. These Handbooks are maintained separately at the Channel Island National Park as 'live documents' that are updated as needed to provide a current working manual of weather and climate monitoring procedures. They are available on request from the Weather Program Manager (Channel Islands National Park, 1901 Spinnaker Dr., Ventura, CA 93001; 805.658.5700). The two Field Handbooks describe in detail protocols for managing the four remote automated weather stations (RAWS) and the seven manual Ranger Weather Stations on the islands, including standard operating procedures for equipment maintenance and calibration; manufacturer operating manuals; data retrieval and archiving; metada collection and archival; and local, agency, and vendor contracts.

  15. On the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks with Opportunistic Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Tan; Liu, Yong

    This paper studies the capacity of hybrid wireless networks with opportunistic routing (OR). We first extend the opportunistic routing algorithm to exploit high speed data transmissions in infrastructure network through base stations. We then develop linear programming models to calculate the end-to-end throughput bounds from multiple source nodes to single, as well as, multiple destination nodes. The developed models are applied to study several hybrid wireless network examples. Through case studies, we investigate several factors that have significant impacts on the hybrid wireless network capacity under opportunistic routing, such as node transmission range, density and distribution pattern of base stations (BTs), number of wireless channels on wireless nodes and base stations, etc. Our numerical results demonstrate that opportunistic routing could achieve much higher throughput on both ad-hoc and hybrid networks than traditional unicast routing (UR). Moreover, opportunistic routing can efficiently utilize base stations and achieve significantly higher throughput gains in hybrid wireless networks than in pure ad-hoc networks especially with multiple-channel base stations.

  16. Creating an Atmosphere for STEM Literacy in the Rural South through Student-Collected Weather Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lynn; Majumdar, Saswati; Bhattacharjee, Joydeep; Hanks, Anne Case

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an examination of a teacher professional development program in northeast Louisiana, that provided 30 teachers and their students with the technology, skills, and content knowledge to collect data and explore weather trends. Data were collected from both continuous monitoring weather stations and simple school-based weather stations

  17. Pilot's Desk Flight Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft flight station designs have generally evolved through the incorporation of improved or modernized controls and displays. In connection with a continuing increase in the amount of information displayed, this process has produced a complex and cluttered conglomeration of knobs, switches, and electromechanical displays. The result was often high crew workload, missed signals, and misinterpreted information. Advances in electronic technology have now, however, led to new concepts in flight station design. An American aerospace company in cooperation with NASA has utilized these concepts to develop a candidate conceptual design for a 1995 flight station. The obtained Pilot's Desk Flight Station is a unique design which resembles more an operator's console than today's cockpit. Attention is given to configuration, primary flight controllers, front panel displays, flight/navigation display, approach charts and weather display, head-up display, and voice command and response systems.

  18. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  19. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

  20. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  1. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  2. NOAA/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M.; Laber, J. L.; Boldt, E.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a prototype debris flow early warning system for Southern California. The system uses USGS-defined rainfall rate thresholds for debris flows and burn area hazard maps to protect interests in and near burn areas of damaging and potentially deadly debris flows. Although common throughout Southern California, as witnessed by the December 25, 2003 storm in which sixteen people were swept to their deaths by debris flows generated from a recent burn area near Devore, debris flows are commonly misunderstood by the public. They are often perceived as rare events, are difficult to warn for with sufficient lead time, and present unique challenges when communicating proper calls to action to best save lives and property. Many improvements to the system have been realized since the project’s inception in 2005, including using more refined rainfall rate thresholds, use of burn area hazard maps, and the establishment of a tiered system to categorize the potential severity of flash floods and debris flows. These efforts have collectively resulted in a reduction of warning false alarms. However, the massive 400,000 hectare 2009 Station burn area in the Angeles National Forest of Los Angeles County has created numerous challenges to the early warning system. The geology of the area burned is highly susceptible to debris flows, due in part to the burn severity, soil types and steep slopes. Most importantly, the burn area is adjacent to and uphill of the highly populated lower foothills of the San Fernando Valley. NOAA/NWS and the USGS have thus worked closely with local response and preparedness agencies to analyze and communicate the threat and assist in developing a unified command response plan in preparation for flash flood and debris flows from this burn area. The early warning system was put to the ultimate test on February 6, 2010 when intense rainfall over the burn area produced very damaging but fortunately nonfatal flash flooding and debris flows. Unfortunately public and local agency response to NWS forecasts, watches, and warnings issued for this event was minimal. Possible causes of, and actions needed to improve upon, this minimal response are examined, including 1) complacency due to previous watch and warning false alarms, 2) underestimating the hazard threat due to local residents having not personally experienced a severe debris flow event in recent history if ever, 3) misinterpretation of NWS point precipitation forecasts and current limits of predictability related to forecasting specific locations and amounts of intense rainfall beyond 12-24 hours, 4) the challenges of ensuring NWS information is consistently received and interpreted among the multiple agencies and jurisdictions of the unified command, and 5) the likelihood that most people did not hear NWS warnings due to the event taking place late at night. Also examined are proper calls to action to protect life and property at a time when evacuations may put people in harm's way.

  3. THE USDA/AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE RESEARCH WEATHER NETWORK IN LAKE COUNTY, OHIO - 2002 UPDATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permanent meteorological stations have been installed in Northeast Ohio production nurseries to archive weather data during horticultural experiments. Insect and disease management research require detailed knowledge of weather conditions. Data such as soil moisture and temperature, air temperature...

  4. Development of Arduino based wireless control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhuoxiong; Dyke, Shirley J.; Pena, Francisco; Wilbee, Alana

    2015-03-01

    Over the past few decades, considerable attention has been given to structural control systems to mitigate structural vibration under natural hazards such as earthquakes and extreme weather conditions. Traditional wired structural control systems often employ a large amount of cables for communication among sensors, controllers and actuators. In such systems, implementation of wired sensors is usually quite complicated and expensive, especially on large scale structures such as bridges and buildings. To reduce the laborious installation and maintenance cost, wireless control systems (WCSs) are considered as a novel approach for structural vibration control. In this work, a WCS is developed based on the open source Arduino platform. Low cost, low power wireless sensing and communication components are built on the Arduino platform. Structural control algorithms are embedded within the wireless sensor board for feedback control. The developed WCS is first validated through a series of tests. Next, numerical simulations are performed simulating wireless control of a 3-story shear structure equipped with a semi-active control device (MR damper). Finally, experimental studies are carried out implementing the WCS on the 3-story shear structure in the Intelligent Infrastructure Systems Lab (IISL). A hydraulic shake table is used to generate seismic ground motions. The control performance is evaluated with the impact of modeling uncertainties, measurement noises as well as time delay and data loss induced by the wireless network. The developed WCS is shown to be effective in controlling structural vibrations under several historical earthquake ground motions.

  5. Development of a Global Fire Weather Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC = 1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRA's precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  6. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  7. Forecasting the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)

  8. Weather in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of TV weather forecasting introduces this article which features several hands-on science activities involving observing, researching, and experimenting with the weather. A reproducible worksheet on the reliability of weather forecasts is included. (IAH)

  9. Winter Weather Checklists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Checklists Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  10. Community Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Harold

    2005-01-01

    With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…

  11. Community Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Harold

    2005-01-01

    With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…

  12. Could You Build a Satellite Tracking Station?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the procedures and activities involved in establishing a weather satellite tracking station. Discusses how the students and community participated in the project. Highlights the activities resulting from student efforts in the project. (ML)

  13. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... designator of the aircraft operating organization followed by the flight identification number. (4) An... of stations are exempted from the use of a call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter,...

  14. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... designator of the aircraft operating organization followed by the flight identification number. (4) An... of stations are exempted from the use of a call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter,...

  15. Advancing Profiling Sensors with a Wireless Approach

    PubMed Central

    Galvis, Alex; Russomanno, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The notion of a profiling sensor was first realized by a Near-Infrared (N-IR) retro-reflective prototype consisting of a vertical column of wired sparse detectors. This paper extends that prior work and presents a wireless version of a profiling sensor as a collection of sensor nodes. The sensor incorporates wireless sensing elements, a distributed data collection and aggregation scheme, and an enhanced classification technique. In this novel approach, a base station pre-processes the data collected from the sensor nodes and performs data re-alignment. A back-propagation neural network was also developed for the wireless version of the N-IR profiling sensor that classifies objects into the broad categories of human, animal or vehicle with an accuracy of approximately 94%. These enhancements improve deployment options as compared with the first generation of wired profiling sensors, possibly increasing the application scenarios for such sensors, including intelligent fence applications. PMID:23443371

  16. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  17. Teaching Weather Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Glenn R.

    Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

  18. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  19. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  20. Weather Derivative Valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewson, Stephen; Brix, Anders

    2005-04-01

    Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.

  1. Ultrahigh-Bitrate Wireless Data Communications via THz-Links; Possibilities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The data rate in the communication networks increases by a two number digit every year. Even today's mobile, wireless devices offer a large number of high-bitrate data services reaching from entertainment over information to communication. However, for the so called last-mile problem, for the connection of the network with remote cellular base stations and for other wireless links ultrahigh-bitrate connections are required. Another important application of ultrahigh-bitrate wireless links is the very fast rebuilding of a network infrastructure after natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and blizzards. Contrary to optical links, carrier waves in the submillimeter-wave, or THz-region of the electromagnetic spectrum offer a high capacity and reliability even under worst weather conditions like a strong rain or dense fog. The THz-range has a large bandwidth so that even with simple modulation formats a quite high bitrate can be transmitted. However, ultrahigh bitrates require spectrally efficient modulation formats and these formats require THz-sources with a very high quality, i.e. low phase noise and narrow linewidth. Here an overview of the possibilities and challenges for ultrahigh bitrate transmission and the generation of high-quality THz-waves is given and a method for the generation of very stable and precise millimeter and THz waves is presented. In first proof of concept experiments a linewidth of < 1 Hz and a phase noise of < -130 dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz from the carrier was measured in the microwave range.

  2. Ultrahigh-Bitrate Wireless Data Communications via THz-Links; Possibilities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The data rate in the communication networks increases by a two number digit every year. Even today's mobile, wireless devices offer a large number of high-bitrate data services reaching from entertainment over information to communication. However, for the so called last-mile problem, for the connection of the network with remote cellular base stations and for other wireless links ultrahigh-bitrate connections are required. Another important application of ultrahigh-bitrate wireless links is the very fast rebuilding of a network infrastructure after natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and blizzards. Contrary to optical links, carrier waves in the submillimeter-wave, or THz-region of the electromagnetic spectrum offer a high capacity and reliability even under worst weather conditions like a strong rain or dense fog. The THz-range has a large bandwidth so that even with simple modulation formats a quite high bitrate can be transmitted. However, ultrahigh bitrates require spectrally efficient modulation formats and these formats require THz-sources with a very high quality, i.e. low phase noise and narrow linewidth. Here an overview of the possibilities and challenges for ultrahigh bitrate transmission and the generation of high-quality THz-waves is given and a method for the generation of very stable and precise millimeter and THz waves is presented. In first proof of concept experiments a linewidth of < 1 Hz and a phase noise of < -130 dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz from the carrier was measured in the microwave range.

  3. Wireless mesh networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinheng

    2008-01-01

    Wireless telemedicine using GSM and GPRS technologies can only provide low bandwidth connections, which makes it difficult to transmit images and video. Satellite or 3G wireless transmission provides greater bandwidth, but the running costs are high. Wireless networks (WLANs) appear promising, since they can supply high bandwidth at low cost. However, the WLAN technology has limitations, such as coverage. A new wireless networking technology named the wireless mesh network (WMN) overcomes some of the limitations of the WLAN. A WMN combines the characteristics of both a WLAN and ad hoc networks, thus forming an intelligent, large scale and broadband wireless network. These features are attractive for telemedicine and telecare because of the ability to provide data, voice and video communications over a large area. One successful wireless telemedicine project which uses wireless mesh technology is the Emergency Room Link (ER-LINK) in Tucson, Arizona, USA. There are three key characteristics of a WMN: self-organization, including self-management and self-healing; dynamic changes in network topology; and scalability. What we may now see is a shift from mobile communication and satellite systems for wireless telemedicine to the use of wireless networks based on mesh technology, since the latter are very attractive in terms of cost, reliability and speed. PMID:19047448

  4. Daily Weather from Monthly Averages -- Hocus Pocus, or Useful Tool?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Just how much can you legitimately extract from monthly statistics of daily weather parameters? In this paper we present the utility and limitations of a simple weather generator (CLIGEN) which has over 750 registered users, most of whom are international. CLIGEN's 4,000-plus station files of mont...

  5. Forecast and virtual weather driven plant disease risk modeling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a system in use and development that leverages public weather station data, several spatialized weather forecast types, leaf wetness estimation, generic plant disease models, and online statistical evaluation. Convergent technological developments in all these areas allow, with funding f...

  6. WEATHER OBSERVATIONS - SUMMARY OF THE DAY - FIRST ORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Climatic Data Center makes available daily weather data for approximately 300 currently active National Weather Service stations, with a lag time (after end of data month) of about 8-10 weeks. Coverage includes the contiguous United States, Caribbean Islands, Pacific...

  7. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months. PMID:26213941

  8. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months. PMID:26213941

  9. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 90.425, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which...-in-Charge to approve the use of special mobile unit identifiers in lieu of the assigned call sign... accordance with subpart T of this part. (9) It is a wireless microphone station operating in accordance...

  10. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  11. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  12. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  13. Winter Weather: Hypothermia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... be successfully resuscitated. More Information: Frostbite Disasters & Severe Weather ... Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  14. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

  15. Variation of radio field strength and radio horizon distance over three stations in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adediji, A. T.; Ismail, Mahamod; Mandeep, J. S.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we present seasonal results of radio field strength and radio horizon distance derived from the computation of surface refractivity through in-situ measurement of temperature, relative humidity and pressure across three stations (Akure, Minna and Enugu) in Nigeria. The measurements of the tropospheric parameters were made using a Davis Wireless Weather Station (Integrated Sensor Suite, ISS) installed on the ground surface at each of the stations. The study utilized data for two years of measurement (January 2008-December 2009). Results show that the values of surface refractivity were low during the dry season months and high during the wet season months. The lowest values of 323, 313 and 281 N-units were observed in February for Akure, Enugu and Minna respectively, while maximum values of 372, 375 and 365 N-units were observed in September, October and August for the respective locations. Also, the average value of field strength variability was found to be 6.67, 5.62 and 7.48 for Akure, Enugu and Minna respectively.

  16. Evaporation over a Heterogeneous Mixed Savanna-Agricultural Catchment using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Barrenetxea, G.; Vetterli, M.; Yacouba, H.; Repetti, A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Small scale rain fed agriculture is the primary livelihood for a large part of the population of Burkina Faso. Regional climate change means that this population is becoming increasingly vulnerable. Additionally, as natural savanna is converted for agriculture, hydrological systems are observed to become less stable as infiltration is decreased and rapid runoff is increased to the detriment of crop productivity, downstream populations and local water sources. The majority of the Singou River Basin, located in South East Burkina Faso is managed by hunting reserves, geared to maintaining high populations of wild game; however, residents surrounding the protected areas have been forced to intensify agriculture that has resulted in soil degradation as well as increases in the frequency and severity of flooding and droughts. Agroforestry, or planting trees in cultivated fields, has been proposed as a solution to help buffer these negative consequences, however the specific hydrologic behavior of the watershed land cover is unknown. We have installed a distributed sensor network of 17 Sensorscope wireless meteorological stations. These stations are dispersed across cultivated rice and millet fields, natural savanna, fallow fields, and around agroforestry fields. Sensorscope routes data through the network of stations to be delivered by a GPRS connection to a main server. This multi hop network allows data to be gathered over a large area and quickly adapts to changes in station performance. Data are available in real time via a website that can be accessed by a mobile phone. The stations are powered autonomously by small photovoltaic panels. This deployment is the first time that these meteorological stations have been used on the African continent. Initial calibration with measures from 2 eddy covariance stations allows us to calculate the energy balance at each of the Sensorscope stations. Thus, we can observe variation in evaporation over the various land cover in the watershed. This research will both contribute to scientific understanding of West African vegetation and inform local reforestation and agricultural management. Concurrent to this scientific research, the community is improving natural resource management efforts including reforestation, a botanical garden and environmental education. Our hope is that the results of our evaporation modeling will inform local farmers and thus help improve their adaption to changing weather patterns and land cover.

  17. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  18. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  19. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  20. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  1. American Weather Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Patrick

    Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

  2. Broadcast media and the dissemination of weather information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, J.

    1973-01-01

    Although television is the public's most preferred source of weather information, it fails to provide weather reports to those groups who seek the information early in the day and during the day. The result is that many people most often use radio as a source of information, yet preferring the medium of television. The public actively seeks weather information from both radio and TV stations, usually seeking information on current conditions and short range forecasts. forecasts. Nearly all broadcast stations surveyed were eager to air severe weather bulletins quickly and often. Interest in Nowcasting was high among radio and TV broadcasters, with a significant portion indicating a willingness to pay something for the service. However, interest among TV stations in increasing the number of daily reports was small.

  3. A HIERARCHIAL STOCHASTIC MODEL OF LARGE SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND MULTIPLE STATION DAILY PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stochastic model of weather states and concurrent daily precipitation at multiple precipitation stations is described. our algorithms are invested for classification of daily weather states; k means, fuzzy clustering, principal components, and principal components coupled with ...

  4. Creating an Atmosphere for STEM Literacy in the Rural South through Student-Collected Weather Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lynn; Majumdar, Saswati; Bhattacharjee, Joydeep; Hanks, Anne Case

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an examination of a teacher professional development program in northeast Louisiana, that provided 30 teachers and their students with the technology, skills, and content knowledge to collect data and explore weather trends. Data were collected from both continuous monitoring weather stations and simple school-based weather stations…

  5. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  6. Wireless communications for a multiple robot system. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bekas, A.J.

    1997-03-01

    A multi-disciplinary research project is being undertaken at NPS to develop a semi-autonomous robotic system to detect and clear land mines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO). The robotic system under development consists of a land vehicle, an aerial vehicle, and a ground-based control station. Reliable communication between these three stations is needed. A traditional wire-based network requires that the vehicles be tethered and severely limits the mobility of the vehicles. A wireless Local Area Network (LAN) is proposed to provide communications between the control station and the vehicles. The objective of this thesis is to develop the physical (hardware) and logical (software) architecture of a wireless LAN that accommodates the needs of the mine/UXO project. Through an analysis of wireless modulation techniques, a market survey of wireless devices, and a field testing of wireless devices, a wireless LAN is designed to meet the technological, performance, regulation, interference, and mobility requirements of the mine/UXO project. Finally, the wireless communication protocols and the development of an error-free application protocol (specified by a FSM model and implemented in ANSI C code using Windows socket network programming) completes the wireless LAN implementation.

  7. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  8. Warming Up to Wireless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    In districts big and small across the U.S., students, teachers, and administrators alike have come to appreciate the benefits of wireless technology. Because the technology delivers Internet signals on airborne radio frequencies, wireless networking allows users of all portable devices to move freely on a school's campus and stay connected to the…

  9. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a significant enhancement to the agronomic decision-support process. Direct benefits to growers can take the form of increased yield and grade potential, as well as savings in money and time. Pest management strategies become more efficient due to timely and localized disease and pest modelling, and increased efficacy of pest and weed control. Examples from the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) WeatherFarm weather network will be utilized to illustrate the processes, decision tools and benefits to producers and farmers.

  10. Modular Wireless Data-Acquisition and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Medelius, Pedro; Mata, Carlos; Eckhoff, Anthony; Blalock, Norman

    2004-01-01

    A modular wireless data-acquisition and control system, now in operation at Kennedy Space Center, offers high performance at relatively low cost. The system includes a central station and a finite number of remote stations that communicate with each other through low-power radio frequency (RF) links. Designed to satisfy stringent requirements for reliability, integrity of data, and low power consumption, this system could be reproduced and adapted to use in a broad range of settings.

  11. 46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo control stations. 154.320 Section 154.320 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.320 Cargo control stations. (a) Cargo control stations must be above the weather deck....

  12. Incorporating the Campus Radio Station into Your Emergency Communications Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Radio stations have been a mainstay of American life since the 1920s. Broadcasting primarily over AM and FM frequencies, American radio stations have been used to provide entertainment, news, weather, and advertising to the public. Beginning in 1963 and continuing until 1997, local radio stations were part of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)…

  13. Incorporating the Campus Radio Station into Your Emergency Communications Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Radio stations have been a mainstay of American life since the 1920s. Broadcasting primarily over AM and FM frequencies, American radio stations have been used to provide entertainment, news, weather, and advertising to the public. Beginning in 1963 and continuing until 1997, local radio stations were part of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)…

  14. Planetary surface weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The weathering of planetary surfaces is treated. Both physical and chemical weathering (reactions between minerals or mineraloids and planetary volatiles through oxidation, hydration, carbonation, or solution processes) are discussed. Venus, earth, and Mars all possess permanent atmospheres such that weathering should be expected to significantly affect their respective surfaces. In contrast, Mercury and the moon lack permanent atmospheres but conceivably could experience surface weathering in response to transient atmospheres generated by volcanic or impact cratering events. Weathering processes can be postulated for other rocky objects including Io, Titan, asteroids, and comets.

  15. Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Amy Bruno

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

  16. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  17. Wide area wireless network (WAWN) for supporting precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high speed wireless network was established using a 100 meter tall microwave tower as the base station located on Prairie Point Road, 16 km from Macon, MS, in Noxubee County. Three sectorial antennas were used to provide complete 360 degree coverage. The system used state-of-the-art unlicensed dig...

  18. [Suicide and weather].

    PubMed

    Breuer, H W; Fischbach-Breuer, B R; Breuer, J; Goeckenjan, G; Curtius, J M

    1984-11-01

    In 151 patients, admitted to an intensive care unit after attempted suicide, the possible influence of weather at the time of the attempt was analysed retrospectively. The "biosynoptic daily analysis" of the German Weather Service provided the weather data. There was a 5% and 1%, respectively, significant level for the positive correlation between the time of the attempted suicide and the weather parameters "stable upslide, labile upslide, fog and thunderstorm" and the summarized parameters "warm air, upslide and weather drier than on the two preceding days". Significantly fewer attempts than expected occurred when the weather description was "low pressure and trough situation, labile ground layer--upslide above" and the summarized parameters "subsidence or downslide motion". Besides the individual factors such as the reaction to conflicts and the spectrum of reactions, exogenous factors like weather must be considered as important for the time of suicidal attempt. PMID:6499669

  19. Space weather activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, D.

    Space Weather Plan Australia has a draft space weather plan to drive and focus appropriate research into services that meet future industry and social needs. The Plan has three main platforms, space weather monitoring and service delivery, support for priority research, and outreach to the community. The details of monitoring, service, research and outreach activities are summarised. A ground-based network of 14 monitoring stations from Antarctica to Papua New Guinea is operated by IPS, a government agency. These sites monitor ionospheric and geomagnetic characteristics, while two of them also monitor the sun at radio and optical wavelengths. Services provided through the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) include real-time information on the solar, space, ionospheric and geomagnetic environments. Data are gathered automatically from monitoring sites and integrated with data exchanged internationally to create snapshots of current space weather conditions and forecasts of conditions up to several days ahead. IPS also hosts the WDC for Solar-Terrestrial Science and specialises in ground-based solar, ionospheric, and geomagnetic data sets, although recent in-situ magnetospheric measurements are also included. Space weather activities A research consortium operates the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER), an HF southward pointing auroral radar operating from Hobart (Tasmania). A second cooperative radar (Unwin radar) is being constructed in the South Island of New Zealand. This will intersect with TIGER over the auroral zone and enhance the ability of the radar to image the surge of currents that herald space environment changes entering the Polar Regions. Launched in November 2002, the micro satellite FEDSAT, operated by the Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems, has led to successful space science programs and data streams. FEDSAT is making measurements of the magnetic field over Australia and higher latitudes. It also carries a GPS receiver measuring total electron content data for magnetospheric and ionospheric studies. Understanding cosmic ray phenomena requires observations from a range of locations. The Mawson observatory, comprising low and high energy surface and high energy underground instruments, is the largest and most sophisticated observatory of its type in the Southern Hemisphere, and the only one at polar latitudes. The Australian Antarctic Division operates similar detectors at other sites. Australia has proved to be a successful site for ground-based studies and satellite downlink facilities for international collaborative projects, such as ILWS, which are monitoring Sun-Earth activity and exploring techniques for space weather forecasting.

  20. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  1. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  2. A resampling procedure for generating conditioned daily weather sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, M.P.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Brandon, D.; Werner, K.; Hay, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Yates, D.

    2004-01-01

    [1] A method is introduced to generate conditioned daily precipitation and temperature time series at multiple stations. The method resamples data from the historical record "nens" times for the period of interest (nens = number of ensemble members) and reorders the ensemble members to reconstruct the observed spatial (intersite) and temporal correlation statistics. The weather generator model is applied to 2307 stations in the contiguous United States and is shown to reproduce the observed spatial correlation between neighboring stations, the observed correlation between variables (e.g., between precipitation and temperature), and the observed temporal correlation between subsequent days in the generated weather sequence. The weather generator model is extended to produce sequences of weather that are conditioned on climate indices (in this case the Nin??o 3.4 index). Example illustrations of conditioned weather sequences are provided for a station in Arizona (Petrified Forest, 34.8??N, 109.9??W), where El Nin??o and La Nin??a conditions have a strong effect on winter precipitation. The conditioned weather sequences generated using the methods described in this paper are appropriate for use as input to hydrologic models to produce multiseason forecasts of streamflow.

  3. Materials International Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut Patrick G. Forrester works with the the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) during extravehicular activity (EVA). MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  4. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  5. Small earth stations for environmental satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, I. G.; Walley, C. G.

    The CSIRO-sponsored development of small-station hardware to receive signals from the weather/environmental satellites NOAA (Advanced Tiros-N), GMS, and ERS-1 (to be launched in 1989) is reported. The satellite characteristics are reviewed; the signal parameters are listed in tables; and the RF system, low-noise preamplifier, and tracking mounts are briefly described. Consideration is also given to the commercial organization of station manufacturing of the stations and the potential Australian and world market for small earth stations.

  6. Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Ponoum, Ratcharit; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-05-31

    The article discusses wireless sensor technologies for building energy monitoring and control. This article, also, addresses wireless sensor networks as well as benefits and challenges of using wireless sensors. The energy savings and market potential of wireless sensors are reviewed.

  7. Weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

  8. Cockpit weather information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along the route can be accomplished prior to pilot acceptance of the clearance. An ongoing multiphase test series is planned for testing and modifying the graphical weather system. Preliminary data shows that the nine test subjects considered the graphical presentation to be much better than their current weather information source for situation awareness, flight safety, and reroute decision making.

  9. Weather assessment and forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

  10. Wireless Networks: New Meaning to Ubiquitous Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Wilfred, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of wireless technology in academic libraries. Topics include wireless networks; standards (IEEE 802.11); wired versus wireless; why libraries implement wireless technology; wireless local area networks (WLANs); WLAN security; examples of wireless use at Indiana State University and Morrisville College (New York); and useful…

  11. Wireless Networks: New Meaning to Ubiquitous Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Wilfred, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of wireless technology in academic libraries. Topics include wireless networks; standards (IEEE 802.11); wired versus wireless; why libraries implement wireless technology; wireless local area networks (WLANs); WLAN security; examples of wireless use at Indiana State University and Morrisville College (New York); and useful…

  12. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

  13. [Environmental characterization: weather and climate].

    PubMed

    Prucha, J

    1987-11-01

    In order to characterize the weather and the climate in the area of industrial Rhine-Main area (Wiesbaden and Frankfurt) and in the two control areas (Freiburg with the bordering higher region of the Black Forest and the Starnberg area), relevant measuring data was provided by the German Meteorological Service, Centre of the Medicometeorological Research Establishment, Freiburg. The monthly as well as yearly climatic values of the years 1982-1985 were employed for the following stations: Frankfurt Airport; Wiesbaden South; Freiburg Meteorological Office; Munich Airport Riem which are representative for our areas under examination. For the characterization of the climate in the study areas the following parameters were used: temperature degrees C; relative humidity of the air in %; amount of rainfall in mm; duration of sunshine; wind distribution. The climatic values were interpreted for the years 1982-1985 of the epidemiological group-diagnostic examination of children. PMID:3128928

  14. Value of global weather sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-23

    Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.

  15. World weather program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the Global Weather Experiment is presented. The world weather watch program plan is described and includes a global observing system, a global data processing system, a global telecommunication system, and a voluntary cooperation program. A summary of Federal Agency plans and programs to meet the challenges of international meteorology for the two year period, FY 1980-1981, is presented.

  16. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  17. Weather and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

    This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

  18. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  19. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  20. Mild and Wild Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

  1. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  2. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  3. Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

  4. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  5. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  6. Weather Cardboard Carpentry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerome E.

    1977-01-01

    Included are instructions and diagrams for building weather instruments (wind vane, Celsius temperature scale, and anemometer) from simple tools and Tri-Wall, a triple-thick corrugated cardboard. Ordering sources for Tri-Wall are listed. Additional weather instruments that can be constructed are suggested. (CS)

  7. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  8. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  9. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  10. Aviation Weather Program (AWP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, Brant

    1993-01-01

    The Aviation Weather Program (AWP) combines additional weather observations, improved forecast technology, and more efficient distribution of information to pilots, controllers, and automated systems to improve the weather information provided to the air traffic control system, pilots, and other users of aviation weather information. Specific objectives include the needs to: improve airport and en-route capacity by accurate, high resolution, timely forecasts of changing weather conditions affecting airport and en-route operations; improve analyses and forecasts of upper-level winds for efficient flight planning and traffic management; and increase flight safety through improved aviation weather hazard forecasting (e.g. icing, turbulence, severe storms, microbursts, or strong winds). The AWP would benefit from participation in a cooperative multiscale experiment by obtaining data for: evaluation of aviation weather forecast products, analysis of four dimensional data assimilation schemes, and experimental techniques for retrieving aerosol and other visibility parameters. A multiscale experiment would also be helpful to AWP by making it possible to evaluate the added benefit of enhanced data sets collected during the experiment on those forecast and analysis products. The goals of the Coperative Multiscale Experiment (CME) are an essential step in attaining the long-term AWP objective of providing two-to-four hour location-specific forecasts of significant weather. Although the possibility of a funding role for the AWP in the CME is presently unclear, modest involvement of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/AWP personnel could be expected.

  11. Weatherizing a Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with weatherizing a structure. Its objective is for the student to be able to analyze factors related to specific structures that indicate need for weatherizing activities and to determine steps to correct defects in structures that…

  12. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  13. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  14. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  15. Wireless Phone Threat Assessment for Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyens, T. X.; Koppen, S. V.; Smith, L. J.; Williams, R. A.; Salud, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station simulator is used to control the phones. The measurements are conducted using reverberation chambers, and the results are compared against FCC and aircraft installed equipment emission limits. The results are also compared against baseline emissions from laptop computers and personal digital assistant devices that are currently allowed to operate on aircraft.

  16. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, E.M. )

    1987-01-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the ricks permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of th causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between dissolution, crack-corrosion, and the expansion-contraction cycles triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  17. A Wireless World: Charles County Public Schools Makes Wireless Universal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Wireless connectivity in schools is all the rage, and many school systems have at least gotten their feet wet with a wireless lab or a few portable laptop carts. But Bijaya Devkota, the chief information officer of Charles County Public Schools, has done what many school systems only dream of--implemented universal wireless access throughout his…

  18. Systems Study of an Automated Fire Weather Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, K.

    1974-01-01

    A sensor system applicable to an automated weather station was developed. The sensor provides automated fire weather data which correlates with manual readings. The equipment and methods are applied as an aid to the surveillance and protection of wildlands from fire damage. The continuous readings provided by the sensor system make it possible to determine the periods of time that the wilderness areas should be closed to the public to minimize the possibilities of fire.

  19. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 13. For Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during June at the intermediate photovoltaic project at Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  20. GPS Estimates of Integrated Precipitable Water Aid Weather Forecasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Angelyn W.; Gutman, Seth I.; Holub, Kirk; Bock, Yehuda; Danielson, David; Laber, Jayme; Small, Ivory

    2013-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology provides enhanced density, low-latency (30-min resolution), integrated precipitable water (IPW) estimates to NOAA NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis tration Nat ional Weather Service) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to provide improved model and satellite data verification capability and more accurate forecasts of extreme weather such as flooding. An early activity of this project was to increase the number of stations contributing to the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) GPS meteorology observing network in Southern California by about 27 stations. Following this, the Los Angeles/Oxnard and San Diego WFOs began using the enhanced GPS-based IPW measurements provided by ESRL in the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons. Forecasters found GPS IPW to be an effective tool in evaluating model performance, and in monitoring monsoon development between weather model runs for improved flood forecasting. GPS stations are multi-purpose, and routine processing for position solutions also yields estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV (precipitable water vapor) using in situ pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology. NOAA ESRL has implemented this concept with a nationwide distribution of more than 300 "GPSMet" stations providing IPW estimates at sub-hourly resolution currently used in operational weather models in the U.S.

  1. Weather--An Integrated Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Vivian

    1976-01-01

    Outlined is a two week unit on weather offered as independent study for sixth- and seventh-year students in Vancouver, Canada, schools. Included is a section on weather lore and a chart of weather symbols. (SL)

  2. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  3. Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Weather Hazard Heath and Aging Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard What Are The Signs Of Hypothermia? Taking ... cold air. But, not everyone knows that cold weather can also lower the temperature inside your body. ...

  4. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  5. The Space Weather Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihn, E. A.; Ridley, A. J.; Zhizhin, M.

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a complete 11 year space weather representation using physically consistent data-driven space weather models. The project will create a consistent, integrated historical record of the near Earth space environment by coupling observational data from space environmental monitoring systems archived at NGDC with data-driven, physically based numerical models. The resulting product will be an enhanced look at the space environment on consistent grids, time resolution, coordinate systems and containing key fields allowing an interested user to quickly and easily incorporate the impact of the near-Earth space climate in environmentally sensitive models. Currently there are no easily accessible long term climate archives available for the space-weather environment. Just as with terrestrial weather it is crucial to understand both daily weather forecasts as well as long term climate changes, so this project will demonstrate the ability to generate a meaningful and physically derived space weather climatology. The results of this project strongly support the DOD's Environmental Scenario Generator (ESG) project. The ESG project provides tools for intellegent data mining, classification and event detection which could be applied to a historical space-weather database. The two projects together provide a suite of tools for the user interested in modeling the effect of the near-earth space environment. We will present results and methodologies developed during the first two years of effort in the project.

  6. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  7. Observation Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  8. The GOES-L weather satellite is transported to Titusville

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The GOES-L weather satellite, aboard the trailer, is moved into a building at Astrotech in Titusville for testing of the imaging system, instrumentation, communications and power systems. The satellite, to be launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) aboard an Atlas II rocket in March or April, is the fourth of a new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It is a three-axis inertially stabilized spacecraft that will provide pictures and perform atmospheric sounding at the same time. Once launched, the satellite will undergo checkout and provide backup capabilities for the existing, aging GOES East weather satellite.

  9. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values. PMID:26421312

  10. EAP-Kerberos: A Low Latency EAP Authentication Method for Faster Handoffs in Wireless Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrelli, Saber; Okabe, Nobuo; Shinoda, Yoichi

    The wireless medium is a key technology for enabling ubiquitous and continuous network connectivity. It is becoming more and more important in our daily life especially with the increasing adoption of networking technologies in many fields such as medical care and transportation systems. Although most wireless technologies nowadays provide satisfying bandwidth and higher speeds, several of these technologies still lack improvements with regard to handoff performance. In this paper, we focus on wireless network technologies that rely on the Extensible Authentication Protocol for mutual authentication between the station and the access network. Such technologies include local area wireless networks (IEEE 802.11) as well as broadband wireless networks (IEEE 802.16). We present a new EAP authentication method based on a three party authentication scheme, namely Kerberos, that considerably shortens handoff delays. Compared to other methods, the proposed method has the advantage of not requiring any changes on the access points, making it readily deployable at reasonable costs.

  11. Analysis of mobile fronthaul bandwidth and wireless transmission performance in split-PHY processing architecture.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kenji; Kuwano, Shigeru; Terada, Jun; Otaka, Akihiro

    2016-01-25

    We analyze the mobile fronthaul (MFH) bandwidth and the wireless transmission performance in the split-PHY processing (SPP) architecture, which redefines the functional split of centralized/cloud RAN (C-RAN) while preserving high wireless coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmission/reception performance. The SPP architecture splits the base stations (BS) functions between wireless channel coding/decoding and wireless modulation/demodulation, and employs its own CoMP joint transmission and reception schemes. Simulation results show that the SPP architecture reduces the MFH bandwidth by up to 97% from conventional C-RAN while matching the wireless bit error rate (BER) performance of conventional C-RAN in uplink joint reception with only 2-dB signal to noise ratio (SNR) penalty. PMID:26832508

  12. Solar structure and terrestrial weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility that solar activity has discernible effects on terrestrial weather is considered. Research involving correlation of weather conditions with solar and geomagnetic activity is discussed.

  13. What will be the weather like tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christelle, Guilloux

    2014-05-01

    Since June 2010, our school is part of the network '"météo à l'école'": it hosts an autonomous weather station, approved by Météo France , which measures continuously the temperature and precipitation. The data is transmitted by a GSM module to a computer server. After its validation by Météo France, it is send online every day on a public accessible website : http://www.edumeteo.org/ The MPS Education ( Scientific Methods and Practices) in junior high school classes (one hour and half per week throughout the school year ) makes full use of data from the networks '"météo à l'école'" data and Météo France. Three scientific disciplines :; Mathematics, Life and Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Chemistry are part of a schedule defined after consultation and educational coherence to enable students to: - Discovering and understanding the operation of the sensors station, weather satellites ... - Operating satellite images, studying of the atmosphere and weather phenomena (formation of a storm, for example) - Operating collected data (networks 'météo à l'école' and Météo France) to identify climatic differences between regions, seasons, and their effects on living beings (study of the greenhouse effect and climate warming among others). The ultimate goal is to discover used tools and data to produce a weather forecast. We work for these purposes with the Cité de l'Espace in Toulouse (weather Pole) and the head forecaster Meteo France Merignac.

  14. A Wireless Sensor Network Field Study: Network Development, Installation, and Measurement Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. W.; Kuo, C.; van Hemmen, H.; Aouni, A.; Ferriss, E.; Liang, Y.; Liang, X.

    2010-12-01

    The sustainable condition of our freshwater resources partially depends on our understanding of the natural system in which it is cycled. Exploring the status and trends of soil moisture and transpiration can help improve estimates (including flux and storage components) of water budgets on a regional-scale. As a part of this effort, a multi-node wireless network measuring sap flow, soil water content and soil water potential has been deployed in a forested and hill-sloped region in western Pennsylvania. The results of this study are presented in three components. The first is comprised of the issues faced with the development of the node mesh and its evolution to a stable network through the dense vegetation and variable topography. This component includes a comparison of mote battery life, especially over network bottlenecks, and signal transmission statistics, including parenting analysis and data packet loss. The second component examines the design and installation of the sensor nodes. Due to the frequent occurrences of precipitation, water intrusion was a major concern. This is exemplified in the water-proofing techniques used in the box design which enclosed sensors and other vulnerable electronics. The final component reviews the data collected from the network and the different techniques used for processing the measurements. A power saving scheme is tested for removing low mote battery power attenuation in the transmitted data. The results for the soil moisture and sap flow measurements are compared with data collected by a local weather station.

  15. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz frequency band. The technical challenges in design such a system and the techniques to overcome the challenges will be discussed in this presentation.

  16. Interpreting Weather Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a brief introduction of our atmosphere, a guide to reading and interpreting weather maps, and a set of activities to facilitate teachers in helping to enhance student understanding of the Earth's atmosphere. (ZWH)

  17. Weather Information Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  18. Weathering of Martian Evaporites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Velbel, M. A.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Longazo, T. G.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporites in martian meteorites contain weathering or alteration features that may provide clues about the martian near-surface environment over time. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Weathering in a Cup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadum, Carol J.

    1991-01-01

    Two easy student activities that demonstrate physical weathering by expansion are described. The first demonstrates ice wedging and the second root wedging. A list of the needed materials, procedure, and observations are included. (KR)

  20. Waste glass weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1993-12-31

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

  1. Wireless Sensor Networks Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on hardware and software configurations for a network architecture for sensors. The hardware configuration uses a central station and remote stations. The software configuration uses the 'lost station' software algorithm. The presentation profiles a couple current examples of this network architecture in use.

  2. Salt weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 9 photographs of Mars indicate that significant erosion has occurred on that planet. Although several possible erosion mechanisms have been proposed, most terrestrial weathering mechanisms cannot function in the present Martian environment. Salt weathering, believed to be active in the Antarctic dry valleys, is especially suited to Mars, given the presence of salts and small amounts of water. Volcanic salts are probably available, and the association of salts and water is likely from both thermodynamic and geologic considerations.

  3. WEB - A Wireless Experiment Box for the Dextre Pointing Package ELC Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleier, Leor Z.; Marrero-Fontanez, Victor J.; Sparacino, Pietro A.; Moreau, Michael C.; Mitchell, Jason William

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Experiment Box (WEB) was proposed to work with the International Space Station (ISS) External Wireless Communication (EWC) system to support high-definition video from the Dextre Pointing Package (DPP). DPP/WEB was a NASA GSFC proposed ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) payload designed to flight test an integrated suite of Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) technologies to enable a wide spectrum of future missions across NASA and other US Government agencies. The ISS EWC uses COTS Wireless Access Points (WAPs) to provide high-rate bi-directional communications to ISS. In this paper, we discuss WEB s packaging, operation, antenna development, and performance testing.

  4. Web: A Wireless Experiment Box for the Dextre Pointing Package ELC Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleier, Leor Z.; Marrero-Fontanez, Victor J.; Sparacino, Pietro A.; Moreau, Michael C.; Mitchell, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Experiment Box (WEB) was proposed to work with the International Space Station (ISS) External Wireless Communication (EWC) system to support high-definition video from the Dextre Pointing Package (DPP). DPP/WEB was a NASA GSFC proposed ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) payload designed to flight test an integrated suite of Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) technologies to enable a wide spectrum of future missions across NASA and other US Government agencies. The ISS EWC uses COTS Wireless Access Points (WAPs) to provide high-rate bi-directional communications to ISS. In this paper, we discuss WEB s packaging, operation, antenna development, and performance testing.

  5. Cockpit weather information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  6. NASA's Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agan, Martin; Voisinet, Leeann; Devereaux, Ann

    1998-01-01

    The objective of Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) effort is to develop and integrate advanced technologies for real-time personal display of information relevant to the health and safety of space station/shuttle personnel. The WARP effort will develop and demonstrate technologies that will ultimately be incorporated into operational Space Station systems and that have potential earth applications such as aircraft pilot alertness monitoring and in various medical and consumer environments where augmented reality is required. To this end a two phase effort will be undertaken to rapidly develop a prototype (Phase I) and an advanced prototype (Phase II) to demonstrate the following key technology features that could be applied to astronaut internal vehicle activity (IVA) and potentially external vehicle activity (EVA) as well: 1) mobile visualization, and 2) distributed information system access. Specifically, Phase I will integrate a low power, miniature wireless communication link and a commercial biosensor with a head mounted display. The Phase I design will emphasize the development of a relatively small, lightweight, and unobtrusive body worn prototype system. Phase II will put increased effort on miniaturization, power consumption reduction, increased throughput, higher resolution, and ``wire removal'' of the subsystems developed in Phase I.

  7. The Development of a Gridded Weather Typing Classification Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cameron C.

    Since their development in the 1990s, gridded reanalysis data sets have proven quite useful for a broad range of synoptic climatological analyses, especially those utilizing a map pattern classification approach. However, their use in broad-scale, surface weather typing classifications and applications have not yet been explored. This research details the development of such a gridded weather typing classification (GWTC) scheme using North American Regional Reanalysis data for 1979-2010 for the continental United States. Utilizing eight-times daily observations of temperature, dew point, pressure, cloud cover, u-wind and v-wind components, the GWTC categorizes the daily surface weather of 2,070 locations into one of 11 discrete weather types, nine core types and two transitional types, that remain consistent throughout the domain. Due to the use of an automated deseasonalized z-score initial typing procedure, the character of each type is both geographically and seasonally relative, allowing each core weather type to occur at every location, at any time of the year. Diagnostic statistics reveal a high degree of spatial cohesion among the weather types classified at neighboring locations, along with an effective partitioning of the climate variability of individual locations (via a Variability Skill Score metric) into these 11 weather types. Daily maps of the spatial distribution of GWTC weather types across the United States correspond well to traditional surface weather maps, and comparisons of the GWTC with the Spatial Synoptic Classification are also favorable. While the potential future utility of the classification is expected to be primarily for the resultant calendars of daily weather types at specific locations, the automation of the methodology allows the classification to be easily repeatable, and therefore, easily transportable to other locations, atmospheric levels, and data sets (including output from gridded general circulation models). Further, the enhanced spatial resolution of the GWTC may also allow for new applications of surface weather typing classifications in mountainous and rural areas not well represented by airport weather stations.

  8. Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

    2010-09-01

    The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications. Agriculture remains the number one industry in North Dakota and its success will always be dependent on the weather.

  9. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils

    PubMed Central

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirôllo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated. PMID:24031193

  10. Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields.

    PubMed

    van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2013-12-01

    Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26-72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12-19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

  11. Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields

    PubMed Central

    van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2013-01-01

    Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26–72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12–19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

  12. The Wireless Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the increasing numbers of colleges and universities which are establishing wireless networks to allow student and faculty with laptop computers to connect to the college network and the Internet from anywhere on campus. Discusses the design of these networks, effects of "nomadic" learning environments, design problems, and the declining…

  13. Building the Wireless Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerraughty, James F.; Shanafelt, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    This prototype is a continuation of a series of wireless prototypes which began in August 2001 and was reported on again in August 2002. This is the final year of this prototype. This continuation allowed Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas (CERMUSA) to refine the existing WLAN for the Saint…

  14. Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

  15. Insecurity of Wireless Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Weber, John Mark; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Pan, W. David

    2012-01-01

    Wireless is a powerful core technology enabling our global digital infrastructure. Wi-Fi networks are susceptible to attacks on Wired Equivalency Privacy, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and WPA2. These attack signatures can be profiled into a system that defends against such attacks on the basis of their inherent characteristics. Wi-Fi is the standard protocol for wireless networks used extensively in US critical infrastructures. Since the Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) security protocol was broken, the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) protocol has been considered the secure alternative compatible with hardware developed for WEP. However, in November 2008, researchers developed an attack on WPA, allowing forgery of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets. Subsequent enhancements have enabled ARP poisoning, cryptosystem denial of service, and man-in-the-middle attacks. Open source systems and methods (OSSM) have long been used to secure networks against such attacks. This article reviews OSSMs and the results of experimental attacks on WPA. These experiments re-created current attacks in a laboratory setting, recording both wired and wireless traffic. The article discusses methods of intrusion detection and prevention in the context of cyber physical protection of critical Internet infrastructure. The basis for this research is a specialized (and undoubtedly incomplete) taxonomy of Wi-Fi attacks and their adaptations to existing countermeasures and protocol revisions. Ultimately, this article aims to provide a clearer picture of how and why wireless protection protocols and encryption must achieve a more scientific basis for detecting and preventing such attacks.

  16. Artificial Neural Network for Location Estimation in Wireless Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    In a wireless communication system, wireless location is the technique used to estimate the location of a mobile station (MS). To enhance the accuracy of MS location prediction, we propose a novel algorithm that utilizes time of arrival (TOA) measurements and the angle of arrival (AOA) information to locate MS when three base stations (BSs) are available. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are widely used techniques in various areas to overcome the problem of exclusive and nonlinear relationships. When the MS is heard by only three BSs, the proposed algorithm utilizes the intersections of three TOA circles (and the AOA line), based on various neural networks, to estimate the MS location in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm for different NLOS error distributions. The numerical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can obtain more precise location estimation under different NLOS environments. PMID:22736978

  17. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  18. [Weather, climate and health].

    PubMed

    Banić, M; Plesko, N; Plesko, S

    1999-01-01

    The notion of complex influence of atmospheric conditions on modem human population, especially the relationship between weather, climate and human healths, has actuated the World Meteorological Organisation to commemorate the coming into force, on March 23, 1950, of the Convention of WMO and this year to celebrate this day by focusing on theme of current interest--"Weather, climate and health". In the light of this, the authors of this paper reveal the results of recent studies dealing with influence of sudden and short-term changes in weather and climate on human health, and future expected climate changes due to "greenhouse" effect, increase in global temperature and tropospheric ozone depletion, as well. Special attention is given to climate shifts due to ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) phenomenon because of its great impact on human society and epidemics of certain infectious diseases. The results of biometeorological studies dealing with complex influence of daily weather changes on incidence of certain diseases in Croatia have also been presented. In addition, the authors have stated their own view and opinion in regard to future biometeorlogical studies in Croatia in order to achieve better understanding of influence of climate and weather changes on human health, and help prevention of mortality and morbidity related to chronic noninfectious diseases. PMID:19658377

  19. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  20. 47 CFR 27.63 - Disturbance of AM broadcast station antenna patterns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disturbance of AM broadcast station antenna patterns. 27.63 Section 27.63 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.63 Disturbance of AM broadcast station antenna patterns....

  1. Real-Time Wireless Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, Emilio J.; Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Mata, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Current and future aerospace requirements demand the creation of a new breed of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors must possess a high degree of intelligence to provide critical data efficiently and in real-time. Intelligence will include self-calibration, self-health assessment, and pre-processing of raw data at the sensor level. Most of these features are already incorporated in the Wireless Sensors Network (SensorNet(TradeMark)), developed by the Instrumentation Group at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A system based on the SensorNet(TradeMark) architecture consists of data collection point(s) called Central Stations (CS) and intelligent sensors called Remote Stations (RS) where one or more CSs can be accommodated depending on the specific application. The CS's major function is to establish communications with the Remote Stations and to poll each RS for data and health information. The CS also collects, stores and distributes these data to the appropriate systems requiring the information. The system has the ability to perform point-to-point, multi-point and relay mode communications with an autonomous self-diagnosis of each communications link. Upon detection of a communication failure, the system automatically reconfigures to establish new communication paths. These communication paths are automatically and autonomously selected as the best paths by the system based on the existing operating environment. The data acquisition system currently under development at KSC consists of the SensorNet(TradeMark) wireless sensors as the remote stations and the central station called the Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN). The RFF1N is the central station which remotely communicates with the SensorNet(TradeMark) sensors to control them and to receive data. The system's salient feature is the ability to provide deterministic sensor data with accurate time stamps for both time critical and non-time critical applications. Current wireless standards such as Zigbee(TradeMark) and Bluetooth(Registered TradeMark) do not have these capabilities and can not meet the needs that are provided by the SensorNet technology. Additionally, the system has the ability to automatically reconfigure the wireless communication link to a secondary frequency if interference is encountered and can autonomously search for a sensor that was perceived to be lost using the relay capabilities of the sensors and the secondary frequency. The RFHN and the SensorNet designs are based on modular architectures that allow for future increases in capability and the ability to expand or upgrade with relative ease. The RFHN and SensorNet sensors .can also perform data processing which forms a distributed processing architecture allowing the system to pass along information rather than just sending "raw data points" to the next higher level system. With a relatively small size, weight and power consumption, this system has the potential for both spacecraft and aircraft applications as well as ground applications that require time critical data.

  2. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

  3. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used to study the correlation between soil moisture and the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), obtained from remote sensing data, which will allow us to produce soil moisture maps for the whole control area. These soil moisture fields will then be compared to those obtained from HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model ). Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations will also be performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign will consist of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD provided by the Technical University of Denmark (TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer provided by TKK, (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system provided by Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC), (iv) IR sensor provided by the Finnish Institute of Maritime Research (FIMR), (v) a low resolution digital video camera Together with the ground soil moisture measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements obtained from the Valencia Anchor Station site will be used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature so as to have satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test retrieval algorithms. The spatialization of the ground measurements up to a SMOS pixel will be carried out by using a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model (SUR- FEX) from Mátéo France. Output data, particularly soil moisture, will then used to simulate ee the L-band surface emission through the use of the L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model. This paper will present an overview of the whole Valencia Anchor Station Experimental Plan making more emphasis on the development of the ground activities which are considered a key element for the performance of the different validation components.

  4. A Sensible Approach to Wireless Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, S. Faruq

    2002-01-01

    Discusses radio frequency (R.F.) wireless technology, including industry standards, range (coverage) and throughput (data rate), wireless compared to wired networks, and considerations before embarking on a large-scale wireless project. (EV)

  5. Space Weather Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop will focus on what space weather is about and its impact on society. An overall picture will be "painted" describing the Sun's influence through the solar wind on the near-Earth space environment, including the aurora, killer electrons at geosynchronous orbit, million ampere electric currents through the ionosphere and along magnetic field lines, and the generation of giga-Watts of natural radio waves. Reference material in the form of Internet sites will be provided so that teachers can discuss space weather in the classroom and enable students to learn more about this topic.

  6. Olympian weather forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A unique public-private partnership will provide detailed weather information at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Utah, 8-24 February About 50 meteorologists with the National Weather Service (NWS) and several private groups will work in the background to provide accurate forecasts.This is the first time that U.S. government and private meteorologists will share forecasting responsibilities for the Olympics, according to the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. The partnership includes meteorologists with the University of Utah and KSL-TV in Salt Lake City.

  7. Towards a European Solar Radio Weather Prediction Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerotti, Mauro; Alberti, Valentina; Marassi, Alessandro; Comari, Maurizio; Coretti, Igor; Zlobec, Paolo; Pucillo, Mauro

    Solar radio weather (SRWx) is a key aspect of space weather for communication and navigation, as intense solar radio emissions are a potential threat to wireless communications and GPS operations. The mitigation of SRWx effects requires reliable nowcasting and forecasting of solar radio emission intensity and polarisation at different frequencies. This can be achieved via real-time multi-frequency diachronic monitoring to allow near-real-time radio data processing and near-real-time ingestion for post-event analysis and quality control. In this work we describe the architecture of a Solar Radio Weather Prediction Centre (SRWxPC) presently under development at the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste that has been designed to be compliant with the above requirements as a technological evolution of the Trieste Solar Radio System (TSRS). In particular, we stress the peculiarities that can make it the seed and testbed for a geographically distributed European centre specialised in monitoring and predicting interferences originated by solar radio emission. The design and development of SRWxPC has been benefiting from the participation in ESA/SWENET (Space Weather European Network) as solar radio data indices provider, in the COST Action ES0803 "Developing Space Weather Products and Services in Europe", and in the Italian Space Agency Project "Exploration of the Solar System".

  8. Linking Space Weather Science and Decision Making (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    Linking scientific knowledge to decision making is a challenge for both the science and policy communities. In particular, in the field of space weather, there are unique challenges such as decision makers may not know that space has weather that poses risks to our technologically-dependent economy. Additionally, in an era of limited funds for scientific research, hazards posed by other natural disasters such as flooding and earthquakes are by contrast well known to policy makers, further making the importance of space weather research and monitoring a tough sell. Today, with industries and individuals more dependent on the Global Positioning System, wireless technology, and satellites than ever before, any disruption or inaccuracy can result in severe economic impacts. Therefore, it is highly important to understand how space weather science can most benefit society. The key to connecting research to decision making is to ensure that the information is salient, credible, and legitimate. To achieve this, scientists need to understand the decision makers' perspectives, including their language and culture, and recognize that their needs may evolve. This presentation will take a closer look at the steps required to make space weather research, models, and forecasts useful to decision makers and ultimately, benefit society.

  9. Wireless Seismometer for Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Clougherty, Brian; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the seismic activity of Venus is critical to understanding its composition and interior dynamics. Because Venus has an average surface temperature of 462 C and the challenge of providing cooling to multiple seismometers, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents progress towards a seismometer sensor with wireless capabilities for Venus applications. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by a 1 cm movement of a ferrite probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 80 MHz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator sensor system at 420 C, which correlates to a 10 kHz mm sensitivity when the ferrite probe is located at the optimum location in the coil.

  10. Materials International Space Station Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Backdropped by a sunrise, the newly installed Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is visible on this image. MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment. The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock during extravehicular activity (EVA) of the STS-105 mission. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  11. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communicationsmore » or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.« less

  12. Wearable wireless photoplethysmography sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Erts, Renars; Nikiforovs, Vladimirs; Kviesis-Kipge, Edgars

    2008-04-01

    Wearable health monitoring sensors may support early detection of abnormal conditions and prevention of their consequences. Recent designs of three wireless photoplethysmography monitoring devices embedded in hat, glove and sock, and connected to PC or mobile phone by means of the Bluetooth technology, are described. First results of distant monitoring of heart rate and pulse wave transit time using the newly developed devices are presented.

  13. Wireless ferroelectric resonating sensor.

    PubMed

    Viikari, Ville; Seppa, Heikki; Mattila, Tomi; Alastalo, Ari

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless resonating sensor that is based on a ferroelectric varactor. The sensor replies with its data at an intermodulation frequency when a reader device illuminates it at 2 closely located frequencies. The paper derives a theoretical equation for the response of such a sensor, verifies the theory by simulations, and demonstrates a temperature sensor based on a ferroelectric varactor. PMID:20378440

  14. Weather, Climate, and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  15. The Weather Watchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Background information and six activities on predicting weather are provided. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also included are several ready-to-copy worksheets. (JN)

  16. Rainy Weather Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

  17. Weather Specialist (AFSC 25120).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This correspondence course is designed for self-study to help military personnel to attain the rating of weather specialist. The course is organized in three volumes. The first volume, containing seven chapters, covers background knowledge, meteorology, and climatology. In the second volume, which also contains seven chapters, surface…

  18. Weather in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The ATS-111 weather satellite, launched on November 18, 1967, in a synchronous earth orbit 22,000 miles above the equator, is described in this folder. The description is divided into these topics: the satellite, the camera, the display, the picture information, and the beneficial use of the satellite. Photographs from the satellite are included.…

  19. Weathering crusts on peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Kurt; Stober, Ingrid; Müller-Sigmund, Hiltrud

    2015-05-01

    Chemical weathering of dark-green massive peridotite, including partly serpentinized peridotite, produces a distinct and remarkable brown weathering rind when exposed to the atmosphere long enough. The structure and mineral composition of crusts on rocks from the Ronda peridotite, Spain, have been studied in some detail. The generic overall weathering reaction serpentinized peridotite + rainwater = weathering rind + runoff water describes the crust-forming process. This hydration reaction depends on water supply from the outcrop surface to the reaction front separating green peridotite from the brown crust. The reaction pauses after drying and resumes at the front after wetting. The overall net reaction transforms olivine to serpentine in a volume-conserving replacement reaction. The crust formation can be viewed as secondary serpentinization of peridotite that has been strongly altered by primary hydrothermal serpentinization. The reaction stoichiometry of the crust-related serpentinization is preserved and reflected by the composition of runoff waters in the peridotite massif. The brown color of the rind is caused by amorphous Fe(III) hydroxide, a side product from the oxidation of Fe(II) released by the dissolution of fayalite component in olivine.

  20. Weathering the Double Whammy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the institution's…

  1. Microbial Weathering of Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  3. Shipboard Weather Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmaccio, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    Details of how observers on a moving ship can furnish an accurate report of wind velocity are provided. A method employing vector addition and some trigonometry is covered. Wind velocity is initially indicated through an anemometer and a wind vane. Ships are urged to radio weather data. (MP)

  4. Dress for the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…

  5. Weather, Climate, and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  6. Weathering the Double Whammy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the institution's…

  7. Rainy Weather Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

  8. Dress for the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…

  9. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  10. Testing is done on the GOES-L weather satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In a specially built clean room at Astrotech, Titusville, Fla., Loral technician Roberto Caballero checks the position of the GOES-L weather satellite before beginning deployment of the sounder instrument's cooler cover door. The sounder, one of two meteorological instruments on the satellite, measures temperature and moisture in a vertical column of air from the satellite to Earth. Its findings will help forecast weather. GOES-L, which is to be launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard an Atlas II rocket in late March, is the fourth of a new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It is a three- axis inertially stabilized spacecraft that will provide pictures as well as perform the atmospheric sounding. Once launched, the satellite, to be designated GOES-11, will undergo checkout and provide backup capabilities for the existing, aging GOES East weather satellite.

  11. Activities of NICT space weather project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar-wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere. The three simulations are directly or indirectly connected each other based on real-time observa-tion data to reproduce a virtual geo-space region on the super-computer. Informatics is a new methodology to make precise forecast of space weather. Based on new information and communication technologies (ICT), it provides more information in both quality and quantity. At NICT, we have been developing a cloud-computing system named "space weather cloud" based on a high-speed network system (JGN2+). Huge-scale distributed storage (1PB), clus-ter computers, visualization systems and other resources are expected to derive new findings and services of space weather forecasting. The final goal of NICT space weather service is to predict near-future space weather conditions and disturbances which will be causes of satellite malfunctions, tele-communication problems, and error of GPS navigations. In the present talk, we introduce our recent activities on the space weather services and discuss how we are going to develop the services from the view points of space science and practical uses.

  12. Space Weather Forecasting at NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.; Evans, R. M.; Berrios, D.; Mullinix, R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing research forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to its critical role in space weather education. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. In this presentation, we will focus on how near real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), enable space weather forecasting and quality space weather products provided by our Center. A few critical near real-time data streams for space weather forecasting will be identified and discussed.

  13. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kinney, L.F.

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  14. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that ba...

  15. Weather pattern climatology of the Great Plains and the related wind regime

    SciTech Connect

    Barchet, W.R.

    1982-11-01

    The meteorology of the Great Plains can be described as a constant progression of air masses, fronts and cyclonic storm systems. Each of these meteorological conditions can be characterized by identifiable isobaric and related weather parameter patterns. Nine such patterns have been defined to type the weather patterns in the Great Plains. Time series of weather pattern types were produced for 62 stations on the Great Plains. Statistical analyses of these time series produced annual and seasonal frequencies of occurrence of the weather pattern types. Maps of the annual and seasonal frequency of occurrence of weather pattern type are presented for the Great Plains. Persistence and alternation frequencies match what is expected for traveling temperate latitude cyclones, anticyclones and fronts. The wind regime for stations at which the anemometer height and location was constant (and known) for a minimum of three consecutive years was stratified by weather pattern type. Statistical analyses were made to show the response of the wind to the large-scale distribution of air pressure associated with a weather pattern type. The response of the wind to the weather pattern is a site-specific result of the interaction of the large-scale meteorology with local terrain, surface roughness and atmospheric stability. Mean wind speed discriminates between pairs of weather pattern types with better than 75% confidence for more than two-thirds of the possible pairs of weather pattern types.

  16. Survey and Analysis of Weather Data for Building Energy Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Mahabir S; Shrestha, Som S; New, Joshua Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, calibrated energy modeling of residential and commercial buildings has gained importance in a retrofit-dominated market. Accurate weather data plays an important role in this calibration process and projected energy savings. It would be ideal to measure weather data at the building location to capture relevant microclimate variation but this is generally considered cost-prohibitive. There are data sources publicly available with high temporal sampling rates but at relatively poor geospatial sampling locations. To overcome this limitation, there are a growing number of service providers that claim to provide real time and historical weather data for 20-35 km2 grid across the globe. Unfortunately, there is limited documentation from 3rd-party sources attesting to the accuracy of this data. This paper compares provided weather characteristics with data collected from a weather station inaccessible to the service providers. Monthly average dry bulb temperature; relative humidity; direct, diffuse and horizontal solar radiation; and wind speed are statistically compared. Moreover, we ascertain the relative contributions of each weather variable and its impact on building loads. Annual simulations are calculated for three different building types, including a closely monitored and automated energy efficient research building. The comparison shows that the difference for an individual variable can be as high as 90%. In addition, annual building energy consumption can vary by 7% while monthly building loads can vary by 40% as a function of the provided location s weather data.

  17. Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

  18. The Design of Solar Synoptic Chart for Space Weather Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiao; Wang, JinSong; Feng, Xueshang; Zhang, XiaoXin

    2015-08-01

    The influence of space weather has already been an important part of our modern society. A chart with key concepts and objects in space weather is needed for space weather forecast. In this work, we search space weather liter- atures during the past forty years and investigate a variety of solar data sets, which including our own data observed by the vector magnetic field telescope and the Hα telescope at Wenquan and Shidao stations of National Center for Space Weather. Based on the literatures and data, we design the solar synoptic chart (SSC) that covers main objects of solar activities and contains images from different heights and temperatures of solar atmosphere. The SSC includes the information of active regions, coronal holes, filaments/prominences, flares and coronal mass ejections, and reveals magnetic structures from cooler photosphere to hotter corona. We use the SSC method to analyze the condition of the Sun and give two typical examples of the SSC. The result shows that the SSC is timely, comprehensive, concise and easy to understand, and it meets the needs of space weather forecast and can help improving the public education of space weather.

  19. Reaction of sorghum hybrids to anthracnose, grain mold and grain weathering in Burleson County, Texas, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty commercial hybrids were evaluated for resistance against anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum and grain mold or grain weathering caused by a number of fungal species at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Experiment Station in College Station (Burleson County). Six hybrids wer...

  20. Bringing Weather into Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael

    1979-01-01

    Discusses meteorological resources available to classroom teachers. Describes in detail the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather Radio and the A.M. Weather Show on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). Includes addresses where teachers can get more information. (MA)

  1. Launching a Wireless Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grignano, Domenic

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, as a technology director for East Rock Magnet School in New Haven, Connecticut, a federal government test site for laptop learning, shares his secrets to a successful implementation of a wireless laptop program: (1) Build a wireless foundation; (2) Do not choose the cheapest model just because of budget; (3) A sturdy…

  2. Launching a Wireless Laptop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grignano, Domenic

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author, as a technology director for East Rock Magnet School in New Haven, Connecticut, a federal government test site for laptop learning, shares his secrets to a successful implementation of a wireless laptop program: (1) Build a wireless foundation; (2) Do not choose the cheapest model just because of budget; (3) A sturdy…

  3. Wireless networking for international safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, Heidi Anne; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2003-06-01

    Wireless networking using the IEEE 802.11standards is a viable alternative for data communications in safeguards applications. This paper discusses the range of 802.11-based networking applications, along with their advantages and disadvantages. For maximum performance, safety, and security, Wireless networking should be implemented only after a comprehensive site survey has determined detailed requirements, hazards, and threats.

  4. Exploitation of Multi-beam Directional Antennas for a Wireless TDMA/FDD MAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmaca, Sedat; Ceken, Celal; Erturk, Ismail

    2008-05-01

    The effects of the multi-beam directional antennas on the performance of a new wireless TDMA/FDD MAC system are presented. Directional antennas intrinsically enable development of the SDMA systems and allow transmitting and receiving signals simultaneously at the same time slot. Employing a dynamic slot allocation table at a base station with 4 or 8 sector directional antennas and holding the wireless terminals' location information, a new SDMA/TDMA/FDD frame structure has been developed for wireless communications. The simulation studies realized using OPNET Modeler show that the proposed SDMA/TDMA/FDD system has substantially increased the traditional TDMA/FDD system capacity and provides 1.37 to 4 times better mean delay results when the number of users is increased from 4 to 32 under the same load in the wireless network models.

  5. Weather Fundamentals: Climate & Seasons. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes), describes weather patterns and cycles around the globe. The various types of climates around…

  6. Weather Specialist/Aerographer's Mate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…

  7. Improved weather information and aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallahan, K.; Zdanys, V.

    1973-01-01

    The major impacts of weather forecasts on aviation are reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) present and projected structure of American aviation, (2) weather problems considered particularly important for aviation, (3) projected needs for improved weather information by aviators, (4) safety and economics, and (5) future studies utilizing satellite meteorology.

  8. Severe Weather Planning for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

  9. Weather Folklore: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gail; Carter, Glenda

    1995-01-01

    Integrating children's weather-related family folklore with scientific investigation can be an effective way to involve elementary and middle level students in lessons spanning the disciplines of science, geography, history, anthropology, and language arts. Describes weather folklore studies and examples of weather investigations performed with…

  10. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices... server software, wireless handheld devices and battery packs by reason of infringement of certain claims... importation of certain wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or...

  11. Packet loss and compensation of Wi-Fi-based wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Han, Feng; Bao, Yuequan; Ou, Jinping

    2015-03-01

    In wireless data transmissions processes, the problem of packet loss become an important factor that affects the robustness of wireless data transmission. In order to solve the problem, the compressive sensing (CS) based wireless data transmission approach is proposed in this paper. The specific steps that use the CS approach to reconstruct lost data are as follows: The first step is to encode the original data in a random sampling matrix. Then the original data and the encoded data are sent to the receiving side through the wireless transmission. After the data is received, if there are packets lost, it can be reconstructed by CS approach. The reconstructed data are able to compensate for the incomplete original data in a certain range. In this paper, a wireless sensor network (WSN) based on Wi-Fi is developed for verifying the effectiveness and feasibility of the CS approach. The WSN consists of small nodes with sensors, base stations, PC client. Experimental results show that the wireless sensor network is working properly and steady. Moreover, the CS approach could compensate for the packet loss effectively, and increase the robustness and the speed of wireless transmission greatly.

  12. Whether weather affects music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

    2012-09-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

  13. Wireless electrochemiluminescence with disposable minidevice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenjing; Lai, Jianping; Gao, Wenyue; Li, Suping; Hanif, Saima; Xu, Guobao

    2014-09-16

    Wireless electrochemiluminescence system based on the wireless energy transmission technique has been demonstrated for the first time. It has a disposable transmitter and a coiled energy receptor. The coiled energy receptor is smartly used as the electrode. The wireless electrochemiluminescence system has been used to detect hydrogen peroxide with good sensitivity, featuring advantages of easy manipulation, low cost, and small size. The handy and cheap wireless electrochemiluminescence device can use laptops as a power supply. It is promising for the development of portable or disposable electrochemiluminescence devices for various applications (e.g., such as point of care testing, field analysis, scientific research, and chemical education). These advantages enable one to integrate many wireless electrochemiluminescence minidevices with screen printing coiled electrode arrays in microwell plates and charge-coupled devices (CCD) cameras to develop electrochemiluminescence high-throughput screening systems with broad applications in clinical analysis, drug screening, and biomolecular interaction studies. PMID:25184605

  14. Views of wireless network systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, William Frederick; Duggan, David Patrick

    2003-10-01

    Wireless networking is becoming a common element of industrial, corporate, and home networks. Commercial wireless network systems have become reliable, while the cost of these solutions has become more affordable than equivalent wired network solutions. The security risks of wireless systems are higher than wired and have not been studied in depth. This report starts to bring together information on wireless architectures and their connection to wired networks. We detail information contained on the many different views of a wireless network system. The method of using multiple views of a system to assist in the determination of vulnerabilities comes from the Information Design Assurance Red Team (IDART{trademark}) Methodology of system analysis developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. Aerospace crew station design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Gerald P. (editor); Montemerlo, Melvin D. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Consideration is given to spacecraft cockpits and work stations, commercial aircraft cockpits and crew stations, high performance aircraft cockpits and crew stations, and space stations and habitat crew stations. Particular attention is given to an historical review of NASA manned spacecraft crew stations, ESA spacelab crew stations, the evolution of commercial aircraft flight station design, Boeing 757/767 flight deck, a historical review of Concorde flight deck design, trends in the cockpit design of new European fighters, and state-of-the-art applications for Space Station crew interface design.

  16. Weather satellite activity mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On August 21 at 7:15 P.M. EDT, controllers lost contact with the NOAA-13 weather satellite due to a power system failure aboard the craft. Almost simultaneously, however, representatives of U.S. and European agencies signed an agreement promising mutual cooperation and backup of one another's geostationary weather satellites, effective when both agencies have systems in place, expected in 1995.The newest in a series of polar-orbiting weather satellites, NOAA-13 was launched on August 9 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif., to monitor the Earth's ocean and atmosphere, collecting data for direct transmission to users around the world and to central data-processing centers. According to officials at NASA and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, the spacecraft showed steadily decreasing battery voltages and currents during ground passes after 3:45 EDT on August 21, although output from the solar panels remained normal. Charles E. Thienel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., stated that these circumstances indicate a failure in the circuitry between the solar arrays and the batteries.

  17. Pipelines and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2010-05-01

    Long conductors of all types on Earth's surface are subject to disturbance and disruption by telluric currents (currents that flow within the Earth or on its surface) induced by space weather events. Attention is most often paid to the effects that these currents can produce in electric grids. After all, if an electric power system is disrupted, many other modern infrastructures that depend on the secure and continuous supply of electrical power will also be affected. A recent technical paper in Space Weather by R. A. Marshall and colleagues draws needed attention to the effects of telluric currents on long pipelines. This is a space weather topic that often does not receive the attention it warrants in terms of its critical relevance to modern-day life. Pipelines have long used cathodic protection systems to mitigate the corrosion of the pipes that can arise from potential differences between the ground and the pipes. These potential differences occur because telluric currents flow more readily in the pipes than in the ground. While pipeline engineers have long worked hard on this problem, it was the design and installation in the mid-1970s of the Alaska pipeline directly under the auroral zone that drew enhanced attention to this topic.

  18. Wireless Technology in K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walery, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Many schools begin implementing wireless technology slowly by creating wireless "hotspots" on the fly. This is accomplished by putting a wireless access point on a cart along with a set of wireless laptop computers. A teacher can then wheel the cart anywhere in the school that has a network drop, plug the access point in and have an instant…

  19. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  20. Deployable wireless Fresnel lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for enhancing the gain of a wireless signal are provided. In at least one specific embodiment, the apparatus can include a screen comprised of one or more electrically conductive regions for reflecting electromagnetic radiation and one or more non-conductive regions for permitting electromagnetic radiation therethrough. The one or more electrically conductive regions can be disposed adjacent to at least one of the one or more non-conductive regions. The apparatus can also include a support member disposed about at least a portion of the screen. The screen can be capable of collapsing by twisting the support member in opposite screw senses to form interleaved concentric sections.

  1. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  2. Wireless sensor node localization.

    PubMed

    Lédeczi, Ákos; Maróti, Miklós

    2012-01-13

    For most wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, the positions of the sensor nodes need to be known. Global positioning systems have not fitted into WSNs very well owing to their price, power consumption, accuracy and limitations in their operating environment. Hence, the last decade has brought about a large number of proposed methods for WSN node localization. They show tremendous variation in the physical phenomena they use, the signal properties they measure, the resources they consume, as well as in their accuracy, range, advantages and limitations. This paper provides a high-level, comprehensive overview of this very active research area. PMID:22124083

  3. A Combined Radio and Underwater Wireless Optical Communication System based on Buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuhang; Tong, Zheng; Cong, Bo; Yu, Xiangyu; Kong, Meiwei; Lin, Aobo

    2016-02-01

    We propose a system of combining radio and underwater wireless optical communication based on buoys for real-time image and video transmission between underwater vehicles and the base station on the shore. We analysis how the BER performance is affected by the link distance and the deflection angle of the light source using Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Wireless Remote Monitoring of Toxic Gases in Shipbuilding

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Garrido, Carlos; González-Castańo, Francisco J.; Chaves-Diéguez, David; Rodríguez-Hernández, Pedro S.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale wireless sensor networks have not achieved market impact, so far. Nevertheless, this technology may be applied successfully to small-scale niche markets. Shipyards are hazardous working environments with many potential risks to worker safety. Toxic gases generated in soldering processes in enclosed spaces (e.g., cargo holds) are one such risk. The dynamic environment of a ship under construction makes it very difficult to plan gas detection fixed infrastructures connected to external monitoring stations via wired links. While portable devices with gas level indicators exist, they require workers to monitor measurements, often in situations where they are focused on other tasks for relatively long periods. In this work, we present a wireless multihop remote gas monitoring system for shipyard environments that has been tested in a real ship under construction. Using this system, we validate IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee wireless networks as a suitable technology to connect gas detectors to control stations outside the ships. These networks have the added benefit that they reconfigure themselves dynamically in case of network failure or redeployment, for example when a relay is moved to a new location. Performance measurements include round trip time (which determines the alert response time for safety teams) and link quality indicator and packet error rate (which determine communication robustness). PMID:24534919

  5. Wireless remote monitoring of toxic gases in shipbuilding.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garrido, Carlos; González-Castaño, Francisco J; Chaves-Díeguez, David; Rodríguez-Hernández, Pedro S

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale wireless sensor networks have not achieved market impact, so far. Nevertheless, this technology may be applied successfully to small-scale niche markets. Shipyards are hazardous working environments with many potential risks to worker safety. Toxic gases generated in soldering processes in enclosed spaces (e.g., cargo holds) are one such risk. The dynamic environment of a ship under construction makes it very difficult to plan gas detection fixed infrastructures connected to external monitoring stations via wired links. While portable devices with gas level indicators exist, they require workers to monitor measurements, often in situations where they are focused on other tasks for relatively long periods. In this work, we present a wireless multihop remote gas monitoring system for shipyard environments that has been tested in a real ship under construction. Using this system, we validate IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee wireless networks as a suitable technology to connect gas detectors to control stations outside the ships. These networks have the added benefit that they reconfigure themselves dynamically in case of network failure or redeployment, for example when a relay is moved to a new location. Performance measurements include round trip time (which determines the alert response time for safety teams) and link quality indicator and packet error rate (which determine communication robustness). PMID:24534919

  6. Linking the Weather Generator with Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, Martin; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr; Huth, Radan

    2013-04-01

    One of the downscaling approaches, which transform the raw outputs from the climate models (GCMs or RCMs) into data with more realistic structure, is based on linking the stochastic weather generator with the climate model output. The present contribution, in which the parametric daily surface weather generator (WG) M&Rfi is linked to the RCM output, follows two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters are derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from weather series observed in 125 Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation series (including probability of wet day occurrence). (2) Presenting a methodology for linking the WG with RCM output. This methodology, which is based on merging information from observations and RCM, may be interpreted as a downscaling procedure, whose product is a gridded WG capable of producing realistic synthetic multivariate weather series for weather-ungauged locations. In this procedure, WG is calibrated with RCM-simulated multi-variate weather series in the first step, and the grid specific WG parameters are then de-biased by spatially interpolated correction factors based on comparison of WG parameters calibrated with gridded RCM weather series and spatially scarcer observations. The quality of the weather series produced by the resultant gridded WG will be assessed in terms of selected climatic characteristics (focusing on characteristics related to variability and extremes of surface temperature and precipitation). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO-Climate (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

  7. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why are some weather elements easier to verify than others? 5) What factors may contribute to the quality of the weather forecast?

  8. Temperature-precipitation relationships for Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect

    Isaac, G.A. ); Stuart, R.A. )

    1992-08-01

    The dependence of daily precipitation upon average daily temperature has been examined for all seasons using climatological data from 56 stations across Canada. For east and west coast sites, and the north, more precipitation occurs with warm and cold temperatures during January and July, respectively. In the middle of the country, the temperature dependence tends to increase toward the Arctic, with strong dependencies in the Northwest Territories and weaker dependencies on the Prairies. Southern Ontario and Quebec show almost no dependence of precipitation upon temperature during July, but more precipitation falls during warm weather during the winter. For stations within and immediately downwind of the Rockies, for all seasons, more precipitation occurs when the temperature is colder. These temperature-precipitation relationships can provide information on precipitation formation processes, as well as assistance in weather and climate forecasting.

  9. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  10. Performance evaluation of power control algorithms in wireless cellular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temaneh-Nyah, C.; Iita, V.

    2014-10-01

    Power control in a mobile communication network intents to control the transmission power levels in such a way that the required quality of service (QoS) for the users is guaranteed with lowest possible transmission powers. Most of the studies of power control algorithms in the literature are based on some kind of simplified assumptions which leads to compromise in the validity of the results when applied in a real environment. In this paper, a CDMA network was simulated. The real environment was accounted for by defining the analysis area and the network base stations and mobile stations are defined by their geographical coordinates, the mobility of the mobile stations is accounted for. The simulation also allowed for a number of network parameters including the network traffic, and the wireless channel models to be modified. Finally, we present the simulation results of a convergence speed based comparative analysis of three uplink power control algorithms.

  11. Biomonitoring with Wireless Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-03-01

    This review is divided into three sections: technologies for monitoring physiological parameters; biosensors for chemical assays and wireless communications technologies including image transmissions. Applications range from monitoring high risk patients for heart, respiratory activity and falls to sensing levels of physical activity in military, rescue, and sports personnel. The range of measurements include, heart rate, pulse wave form, respiratory rate, blood oxygen, tissue pCO2, exhaled carbon dioxide and physical activity. Other feasible measurements will employ miniature chemical laboratories on silicon or plastic chips. The measurements can be extended to clinical chemical assays ranging from common blood assays to protein or specialized protein measurements (e.g., troponin, creatine, and cytokines such as TNF and IL6). Though the feasibility of using wireless technology to communicate vital signs has been demonstrated 32 years ago (1) it has been only recently that practical and portable devices and communications net works have become generally available for inexpensive deployment of comfortable and affordable devices and systems.

  12. Household wireless electroencephalogram hat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Tran, Binh

    2012-06-01

    We applied Compressive Sensing to design an affordable, convenient Brain Machine Interface (BMI) measuring the high spatial density, and real-time process of Electroencephalogram (EEG) brainwaves by a Smartphone. It is useful for therapeutic and mental health monitoring, learning disability biofeedback, handicap interfaces, and war gaming. Its spec is adequate for a biomedical laboratory, without the cables hanging over the head and tethered to a fixed computer terminal. Our improved the intrinsic signal to noise ratio (SNR) by using the non-uniform placement of the measuring electrodes to create the proximity of measurement to the source effect. We computing a spatiotemporal average the larger magnitude of EEG data centers in 0.3 second taking on tethered laboratory data, using fuzzy logic, and computing the inside brainwave sources, by Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Consequently, we can overlay them together by non-uniform electrode distribution enhancing the signal noise ratio and therefore the degree of sparseness by threshold. We overcame the conflicting requirements between a high spatial electrode density and precise temporal resolution (beyond Event Related Potential (ERP) P300 brainwave at 0.3 sec), and Smartphone wireless bottleneck of spatiotemporal throughput rate. Our main contribution in this paper is the quality and the speed of iterative compressed image recovery algorithm based on a Block Sparse Code (Baranuick et al, IEEE/IT 2008). As a result, we achieved real-time wireless dynamic measurement of EEG brainwaves, matching well with traditionally tethered high density EEG.

  13. Operational Weather Needs For Exploration Class Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guetersloh, S.; Zapp, N.; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E.; Johnson, S.; Chancellor, J.; George, T.; Lin, T.; Gaza, R.; Zhou, D.; Bevill, T.; Flanders, J.

    2007-12-01

    The minimization of crew exposure to space radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations in lunar transit or on the lunar surface. LEO missions would most likely require operations which are either extreme in duration or which encounter an extreme sequence of solar activity in order to represent significant immediate crew or mission risk. With the differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, the new space weather monitoring goals for NASA and the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at Johnson Space Center cover two distinct areas: (a) Moon base operations and (b) manned exploration of Mars. For both scenarios, though there will be some radiation exposure during mission transit through the trapped radiation belts and GCR exposure during transit to and stay on the surface (of more concern for the Mars mission), the primary concern outside the Earth's magnetopause is that of large Solar Particle Events (SPEs). Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, the situation is dramatically different. Exposure to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon or Mars may differ by several orders of magnitude, making radiation exposure and the dependence on space weather a limiting factor to exploration of the solar system. In the past, the focus of funded scientific research has not necessarily been directly applicable for use for or during mission operations. However, work is currently underway to bridge the gap that exists between research goals and operational needs to transition current and future resources into space weather products and services. We present the status of current operational efforts, needs and interests in situational space weather monitoring with the goal of developing new tools that will enable exploration class missions.

  14. Research on an estimation method of DOA for wireless location based on TD-SCDMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Luo, Yuan; Cheng, Shi-xin

    2004-03-01

    To meet the urgent need of personal communication and hign-speed data services,the standardization and products development for International Mobile Telecommunication-2000 (IMT-2000) have become a hot point in wordwide. The wireless location for mobile terminals has been an important research project. Unlike GPS which is located by 24 artificial satellities, it is based on the base-station of wireless cell network, and the research and development of it are correlative with IMT-2000. While the standard for the third generation mobile telecommunication (3G)-TD-SCDMA, which is proposed by China and the intellective property right of which is possessed by Chinese, is adopted by ITU-T at the first time, the research for wireless location based on TD-SCDMA has theoretic meaning, applied value and marketable foreground. First,the basic principle and method for wireless location, i.e. Direction of Angle(DOA), Time of Arrival(TOA) or Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA), hybridized location(TOA/DOA,TDOA/DOA,TDOA/DOA),etc. is introduced in the paper. So the research of DOA is very important in wireless location. Next, Main estimation methods of DOA for wireless location, i.e. ESPRIT, MUSIC, WSF, Min-norm, etc. are researched in the paper. In the end, the performances of DOA estimation for wireless location based on mobile telecommunication network are analyzed by the research of theory and simulation experiment and the contrast algorithms between and Cramer-Rao Bound. Its research results aren't only propitious to the choice of algorithms for wireless location, but also to the realization of new service of wireless location .

  15. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate forecasts of space weather conditions, and timely hazard alert warnings. The program is expected to be fully operational for the peak activity of the next solar maximum, but for its future growth and development it is essential to have a wide network of international collaborations.

  16. Weather Forecasting Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Weather forecasters are usually very precise in reporting such conditions as temperature, wind velocity and humidity. They also provide exact information on barometric pressure at a given moment, and whether the barometer is "rising" or "falling"- but not how rapidly or how slowly it is rising or falling. Until now, there has not been available an instrument which measures precisely the current rate of change of barometric pressure. A meteorological instrument called a barograph traces the historical ups and downs of barometric pressure and plots a rising or falling curve, but, updated every three hours, it is only momentarily accurate at each updating.

  17. Radio Relays Improve Wireless Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Signal Hill, California-based XCOM Wireless Inc. developed radio frequency micromachine (RF MEMS) relays with a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract through NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In order to improve satellite communication systems, XCOM produced wireless RF MEMS relays and tunable capacitors that use metal-to-metal contact and have the potential to outperform most semiconductor technologies while using less power. These relays are used in high-frequency test equipment and instrumentation, where increased speed can mean significant cost savings. Applications now also include mainstream wireless applications and greatly improved tactical radios.

  18. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  19. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  20. Pipelining in structural health monitoring wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Dorvash, Siavash; Cheng, Liang; Pakzad, Shamim

    2010-04-01

    Application of wireless sensor network (WSN) for structural health monitoring (SHM), is becoming widespread due to its implementation ease and economic advantage over traditional sensor networks. Beside advantages that have made wireless network preferable, there are some concerns regarding their performance in some applications. In long-span Bridge monitoring the need to transfer data over long distance causes some challenges in design of WSN platforms. Due to the geometry of bridge structures, using multi-hop data transfer between remote nodes and base station is essential. This paper focuses on the performances of pipelining algorithms. We summarize several prevent pipelining approaches, discuss their performances, and propose a new pipelining algorithm, which gives consideration to both boosting of channel usage and the simplicity in deployment.

  1. Generation of Multivariate Surface Weather Series with Use of the Stochastic Weather Generator Linked to Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Farda, A.; Huth, R.

    2012-12-01

    The regional-scale simulations of weather-sensitive processes (e.g. hydrology, agriculture and forestry) for the present and/or future climate often require high resolution meteorological inputs in terms of the time series of selected surface weather characteristics (typically temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, humidity, wind) for a set of stations or on a regular grid. As even the latest Global and Regional Climate Models (GCMs and RCMs) do not provide realistic representation of statistical structure of the surface weather, the model outputs must be postprocessed (downscaled) to achieve the desired statistical structure of the weather data before being used as an input to the follow-up simulation models. One of the downscaling approaches, which is employed also here, is based on a weather generator (WG), which is calibrated using the observed weather series and then modified (in case of simulations for the future climate) according to the GCM- or RCM-based climate change scenarios. The present contribution uses the parametric daily weather generator M&Rfi to follow two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate/CZ (v.2) Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters will be derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from observational data in the Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include selected statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation (characteristics of the mean, variability, interdiurnal variability and extremes). (2) Testing a potential of RCM output for calibration of the WG for the ungauged locations. The methodology being examined will consist in using the WG, whose parameters are interpolated from the surrounding stations and then corrected based on a RCM-simulated spatial variability. The quality of the weather series produced by the WG calibrated in this way will be assessed in terms of selected climatic characteristics focusing on extreme precipitation and temperature characteristics (including characteristics of dry/wet/hot/cold spells). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

  2. Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    McCown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt W.; Rohde, Kenneth W.

    2012-05-08

    Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, a wireless device monitoring method includes accessing device configuration information of a wireless device present at a secure area, wherein the device configuration information comprises information regarding a configuration of the wireless device, accessing stored information corresponding to the wireless device, wherein the stored information comprises information regarding the configuration of the wireless device, comparing the device configuration information with the stored information, and indicating the wireless device as one of authorized and unauthorized for presence at the secure area using the comparing.

  3. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  4. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  6. Solar weather monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochedez, J.-F.; Zhukov, A.; Robbrecht, E.; van der Linden, R.; Berghmans, D.; Vanlommel, P.; Theissen, A.; Clette, F.

    2005-11-01

    Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC) at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP) events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  7. Ultrasonic wireless health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Lionel; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel; Richard, Claude; Guy, Philippe; Yuse, Kaori; Monnier, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The integration of autonomous wireless elements in health monitoring network increases the reliability by suppressing power supplies and data transmission wiring. Micro-power piezoelectric generators are an attractive alternative to primary batteries which are limited by a finite amount of energy, a limited capacity retention and a short shelf life (few years). Our goal is to implement such an energy harvesting system for powering a single AWT (Autonomous Wireless Transmitter) using our SSH (Synchronized Switch Harvesting) method. Based on a non linear process of the piezoelement voltage, this SSH method optimizes the energy extraction from the mechanical vibrations. This AWT has two main functions : The generation of an identifier code by RF transmission to the central receiver and the Lamb wave generation for the health monitoring of the host structure. A damage index is derived from the variation between the transmitted wave spectrum and a reference spectrum. The same piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting function and the Lamb wave generation, thus reducing mass and cost. A micro-controller drives the energy balance and synchronizes the functions. Such an autonomous transmitter has been evaluated on a 300x50x2 mm 3 composite cantilever beam. Four 33x11x0.3 mm 3 piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting and for the wave lamb generation. A piezoelectric sensor is placed at the free end of the beam to track the transmitted Lamb wave. In this configuration, the needed energy for the RF emission is 0.1 mJ for a 1 byte-information and the Lamb wave emission requires less than 0.1mJ. The AWT can harvested an energy quantity of approximately 20 mJ (for a 1.5 Mpa lateral stress) with a 470 ?F storage capacitor. This corresponds to a power density near to 6mW/cm 3. The experimental AWT energy abilities are presented and the damage detection process is discussed. Finally, some envisaged solutions are introduced for the implementation of the required data processing into an autonomous wireless receiver, in terms of reduction of the energy and memory costs.

  8. Using Large-scale Spatially and Temporally Consistent Reanalysis Data to Assess Fire Weather and Fire Regimes in Siberia in Preparation for Future Fire Weather Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Westberg, D. J.; Stackhouse, P. W.; McRae, D.; Jin, J.

    2008-12-01

    A primary driving force of land cover change in boreal regions is fire, where extreme fire seasons are influenced by local weather and ultimately climate. It is predicted that fire frequency, area burned, fire severity, fire season length, and severe fire seasons will increase under current climate change scenarios. The use of local ground based weather data can be used to gauge the local fire potential on a daily, monthly, or seasonal basis. However, the number and distribution of surface observing stations in Siberia have been declining since the early 1990's. A compounding problem is existing observing stations have missing data on various time scales. The density of stations is limited; hence results may not be representative of the spatial reality. One solution is the temporally and spatially consistent NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) satellite-derived weather data interpolated to a 1x1 degree grid. In previous work, we showed the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) derived using GEOS-4 weather and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation data compared well to ground based weather data from Jakutsk (Sakha) and Kyzyl (Tuva), Russia. Our primary focus is to expand on this work by spatially comparing the FWI derived from GEOS-4 / GPCP data and ground-based weather observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Extreme fires burned in Sakha and Tuva in 2002 and 2004, respectively, while in contrast, normal fire seasons occurred in Sakha and Tuva in 1999 and 2002, respectively. For this reason, we focus on the 1999, 2002, and 2004 fire seasons (April - September). In this investigation, we demonstrate how fire weather models perform on a large scale and investigate the performance of these models relative to input uncertainties. We intend to use this information to build regional-scale fire predictions systems that can be used for future interactive fire-weather-climate assessments.

  9. Weather forecasting expert system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

  10. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  11. Wireless Roadside Inspection Proof of Concept Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar; Knee, Helmut E; Plate, Randall S; Lascurain, Mary Beth

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) FMCSA commissioned the Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Program to validate technologies and methodologies that can improve safety through inspections using wireless technologies that convey real-time identification of commercial vehicles, drivers, and carriers, as well as information about the condition of the vehicles and their drivers. It is hypothesized that these inspections will: -- Increase safety -- Decrease the number of unsafe commercial vehicles on the road; -- Increase efficiency -- Speed up the inspection process, enabling more inspections to occur, at least on par with the number of weight inspections; -- Improve effectiveness -- Reduce the probability of drivers bypassing CMV inspection stations and increase the likelihood that fleets will attempt to meet the safety regulations; and -- Benefit industry -- Reduce fleet costs, provide good return-on-investment, minimize wait times, and level the playing field. The WRI Program is defined in three phases which are: Phase 1: Proof of Concept Test (POC) Testing of commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) or near-COTS technology to validate the wireless inspection concept. Phase 2: Pilot Test Safety technology maturation and back office system integration Phase 3: Field Operational Test Multi-vehicle testing over a multi-state instrumented corridor This report focuses on Phase 1 efforts that were initiated in March, 2006. Technical efforts dealt with the ability of a Universal Wireless Inspection System (UWIS) to collect driver, vehicle, and carrier information; format a Safety Data Message Set from this information; and wirelessly transmit a Safety Data Message Set to a roadside receiver unit or mobile enforcement vehicle.

  12. Wireless Damage Location Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A wireless damage location sensing system uses a geometric-patterned wireless sensor that resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response that will experience a change when the sensor experiences a change in its geometric pattern. The sensing system also includes a magnetic field response recorder for wirelessly transmitting the time-varying magnetic field and for wirelessly detecting the harmonic response. The sensing system compares the actual harmonic response to a plurality of predetermined harmonic responses. Each predetermined harmonic response is associated with a severing of the sensor at a corresponding known location thereof so that a match between the actual harmonic response and one of the predetermined harmonic responses defines the known location of the severing that is associated therewith.

  13. NPOESS Benefits McMurdo Station, Antarctica Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciaroni, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2008, Raytheon Company achieved a significant milestone for the NPOESS program by successfully completing the first phase of a major communications upgrade for Antarctica. The upgrade of the off-continent satellite communications link at McMurdo Station more than triples the bandwidth available for scientific research, weather prediction, and health and safety of those stationed at McMurdo. The project is part of the company's Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) under development for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). This upgrade paves the way for a second major communications upgrade planned for 2012 in preparation for the use of McMurdo Station as one of the 15 NPOESS ground stations worldwide that will be receiving environmental data collected by the NPOESS satellites. NPOESS will monitor global environmental conditions and collect and disseminate data related to weather, atmosphere, oceans, land and near-space environment.

  14. The Origin of "Space Weather"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cade, William B.; Chan-Park, Christina

    2015-02-01

    Although "space weather" is a fairly recent term, there is a rich history of similar terms being used beginning in the middle to late 1800s. "Solar meteorology," "magnetic weather," and "cosmic meteorology" all appeared during that time frame. The actual first appearance of space weather can be attributed to the publication Science News Letter in 1957 (with the first modern usage in 1959) and was possibly coined by the editor at the time, Watson Davis.

  15. Wireless Josephson amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-06-09

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9–11 GHz band with about 100 MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  16. Wireless Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Laura

    2015-03-01

    We report low temperature, microwave transmission measurements on a wireless two- dimensional network of Josephson junction arrays composed of superconductor-insulator -superconductor tunnel junctions. Unlike their biased counterparts, by removing all electrical contacts to the arrays and superfluous microwave components and interconnects in the transmission line, we observe new collective behavior in the transmission spectra. In particular we will show emergent behavior that systematically responds to changes in microwave power at fixed temperature. Likewise we will show the dynamic and collective response of the arrays while tuning the temperature at fixed microwave power. We discuss these spectra in terms of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition and Shapiro steps. We gratefully acknowledge the support Prof. Steven Anlage at the University of Maryland and Prof. Allen Goldman at the University of Minnesota. Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  17. Wireless Infrared Data Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    Infrared transmitter and receiver designed for wireless transmission of information on measured physical quantity (for example, temperature) from transducer device to remote-acquisition system. In transmitter, output of transducer amplified and shifted with respect to bias or reference level, then fed to voltage-to-frequency converter to control frequency of repetition of current pulses applied to infrared-light-emitting diode. In receiver, frequency of repetition of pulses converted back into voltage indicative of temperature or other measured quantity. Potential applications include logging data while drilling for oil, transmitting measurements from rotors in machines without using slip rings, remote monitoring of temperatures and pressures in hazardous locations, and remote continuous monitoring of temperatures and blood pressures in medical patients, who thus remain mobile.

  18. Wireless Josephson amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-06-01

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9-11 GHz band with about 100 MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  19. Solar weather/climate predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Goldberg, R. A.; Mitchell, J. M.; Olson, R.; Schaefer, J.; Silverman, S.; Wilcox, J.; Williams, G.

    1979-01-01

    Solar variability influences upon terrestrial weather and climate are addressed. Both the positive and negative findings are included and specific predictions, areas of further study, and recommendations listed.

  20. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  1. Bishop Paiute Weatherization Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Hernandez

    2010-01-28

    The DOE Weatherization Training Grant assisted Native American trainees in developing weatherization competencies, creating employment opportunities for Bishop Paiute tribal members in a growing field. The trainees completed all the necessary training and certification requirements and delivered high-quality weatherization services on the Bishop Paiute Reservation. Six tribal members received all three certifications for weatherization; four of the trainees are currently employed. The public benefit includes (1) development of marketable skills by low-income Native individuals, (2) employment for low-income Native individuals in a growing industry, and (3) economic development opportunities that were previously not available to these individuals or the Tribe.

  2. Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

  3. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2001-01-01

    The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.

  4. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  5. Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergardParker, L.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

  6. Wireless Instrumentation Use on Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.

  7. Supporting Weather Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Since its founding in 1992, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (GST), of Greenbelt, Maryland, has been developing technologies and providing services in support of NASA scientific research. GST specialties include scientific analysis, science data and information systems, data visualization, communications, networking and Web technologies, computer science, and software system engineering. As a longtime contractor to Goddard Space Flight Center s Earth Science Directorate, GST scientific, engineering, and information technology staff have extensive qualifications with the synthesis of satellite, in situ, and Earth science data for weather- and climate-related projects. GST s experience in this arena is end-to-end, from building satellite ground receiving systems and science data systems, to product generation and research and analysis.

  8. Intelligent Weather Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for automatically displaying, visually and/or audibly and/or by an audible alarm signal, relevant weather data for an identified aircraft pilot, when each of a selected subset of measured or estimated aviation situation parameters, corresponding to a given aviation situation, has a value lying in a selected range. Each range for a particular pilot may be a default range, may be entered by the pilot and/or may be automatically determined from experience and may be subsequently edited by the pilot to change a range and to add or delete parameters describing a situation for which a display should be provided. The pilot can also verbally activate an audible display or visual display of selected information by verbal entry of a first command or a second command, respectively, that specifies the information required.

  9. Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM): A Winter Weather Nowcasting System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Roy; Dixon, Mike; Hage, Frank; Cole, Jeff; Wade, Chuck; Tuttle, John; McGettigan, Starr; Carty, Thomas; Stevenson, Lloyd; Fellner, Warren; Knight, Shelly; Karplus, Eli; Rehak, Nancy

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a winter weather nowcasting system called Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM), designed to provide airline, airport, and air traffic users with winter weather information relevant to their operations. The information is provided on an easy to use graphical display and characterizes airport icing conditions for nonmeteorologists. The system has been developed and refined over a series of winter-long airport demonstrations at Denver's Stapleton International Airport, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, and New York's LaGuardia Airport. The WSDDM system utilizes commercially available weather information in the form of Next Generation Weather Radar WSR-88D radar reflectivity data depicted as color coded images on a window of the display and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) surface weather reports from Automated Surface Observating System stations and observers. METAR information includes wind speed and direction, air temperature, and precipitation type/rate, which are routinely updated on an hourly basis or more frequently if conditions are changing. Recent studies have shown that the liquid equivalent snowfall rate is the most important factor in determining the holdover time of a deicing fluid. However, the current operational snowfall intensity reported in METARs is based on visibility, which has been shown to give misleading information on liquid equivalent rates in many cases due to the wide variation in density and shape of snow. The particular hazard has been identified as high visibility-high snowfall conditions. The WSDDM system addresses this potentially hazardous condition through the deployment of snow gauges at an airport. These snow gauges report real-time estimates of the liquid equivalent snowfall rate once every minute to WSDDM users. The WSDDM system also provides 30-min nowcasts of liquid equivalent snowfall rate through the use of a real-time calibration of radar reflectivity and snow gauge snowfall rate. This paper discusses the development of the system, including the development of new wind shields for snow gauges to improve catch efficiency, as well as the development of the above mentioned real-time method to convert radar reflectivity to snowfall rate on the ground using snow gauges. In addition, we discuss results from a user evaluation of the system, as well as results from an efficiency and safety benefits study of the system.

  10. Terminal weather information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  11. Using a Weather Generator and SWAT to Improve Understanding of Variability in Watershed Flows and Phosphorous Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, S.; Shoemaker, C. A.; Wilks, D.; Cowan, D.

    2008-05-01

    Reliable weather data and accurate predictions of their variability can increase the reliability and precision of the current hydrologic modeling and analysis scenario. This paper explores the use of a network of coherent stochastic models called "weather generators", which correct the low bias in basin-wide precipitation which is a result of only low-elevation observation stations. The water quality model used for this purpose was SWAT2000, applied on the Cannonsville watershed in central New York. The previous studies on this watershed used weather data from the traditionally placed weather stations, lying on lower, more easily accessible elevations and these observing stations yield persistently under-estimated data. However, weather parameters show a strong dependence on elevation. So, we used the weather observing stations within and nearby the Cannonsville watershed with a DEM of the region and interpolated weather generator parameters at high spatial resolution and found the correcting factors that would give us a better estimate of weather input to the watershed model for calibrating model parameters to historical data. The weather generator was also used to develop 10 different weather scenarios that were later used to make forecasts about water quality. The improved weather pattern was then used to recalibrate SWAT2000 on flow, sediment and phosphorous using Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) algorithm. The improved weather pattern resulted in somewhat different values of calibrated parameters, expected to be better in prediction, given the better quality of spatially distributed weather. The recalibrated model was compared to the original model (Tolson and Shoemaker, 2006b). After the watershed model is recalibrated with better quality weather data, the weather generator was used to generate new weather scenarios at high spatial resolution. Since the weather is uncertain, many weather scenarios, starting in 2007, will be used for model runs to generate future hydrological output, especially the amount of phosphorus in dissolved and particulate form that enters the Cannonsville reservoir. The statistical characteristics of the output from the re-calibrated model, including the number of times the TMDL is violated and the annual averages, are computed and are used to calculate the mean expected increase in phosphorus levels and the ranges on the same. Though the region of study and the data taken were for Cannonsville watershed, the results of this study and the methods employed were found to be applicable in general to any watershed.

  12. A new wireless underground network system for continuous monitoring of soil water contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsema, Coen J.; Kuipers, Henk; Kleiboer, Leon; van den Elsen, Erik; Oostindie, Klaas; Wesseling, Jan G.; Wolthuis, Jan-Willem; Havinga, Paul

    2009-04-01

    A new stand-alone wireless embedded network system has been developed recently for continuous monitoring of soil water contents at multiple depths. This paper presents information on the technical aspects of the system, including the applied sensor technology, the wireless communication protocols, the gateway station for data collection, and data transfer to an end user Web page for disseminating results to targeted audiences. Results from the first test of the network system are presented and discussed, including lessons learned so far and actions to be undertaken in the near future to improve and enhance the operability of this innovative measurement approach.

  13. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires.

    PubMed

    Aponte Luis, Juan; Gómez Galán, Juan Antonio; Alcina Espigado, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  14. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Juan Aponte; Galán, Juan Antonio Gómez; Espigado, Javier Alcina

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  15. Aviation Weather Information Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.; Stancil, Charles E.; Eckert, Clifford A.; Brown, Susan M.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Richards, Mark A.; Schaffner, Philip R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has as its goal an improvement in aviation safety by a factor of 5 over the next 10 years and a factor of 10 over the next 20 years. Since weather has a big impact on aviation safety and is associated with 30% of all aviation accidents, Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) is a major element under this program. The Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Distribution and Presentation project is one of three projects under this element. This report contains the findings of a study conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under the Enhanced Weather Products effort, which is a task under AWIN. The study examines current aviation weather products and there application. The study goes on to identify deficiencies in the current system and to define requirements for aviation weather products that would lead to an increase in safety. The study also provides an overview the current set of sensors applied to the collection of aviation weather information. New, modified, or fused sensor systems are identified which could be applied in improving the current set of weather products and in addressing the deficiencies defined in the report. In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system.

  16. Weather Fundamentals: Rain & Snow. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) gives concise explanations of the various types of precipitation and describes how the water…

  17. The pioneers of weather forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In The Weather Experiment author Peter Moore takes us on a compelling journey through the early history of weather forecasting, bringing to life the personalities, lives and achievements of the men who put in place the building blocks required for forecasts to be possible.

  18. Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

  19. Weather to Make a Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Julie E.; Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2006-01-01

    DECIDE is a teacher-friendly, integrated approach designed to stimulate learning by allowing students to make decisions about situations they face in their lives while using scientific weather principles. This learning unit integrates weather science, decision theory, mathematics, statistics, geography, and reading in a context of decision…

  20. Weather to Make a Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Julie E.; Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2006-01-01

    DECIDE is a teacher-friendly, integrated approach designed to stimulate learning by allowing students to make decisions about situations they face in their lives while using scientific weather principles. This learning unit integrates weather science, decision theory, mathematics, statistics, geography, and reading in a context of decision…

  1. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  2. Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

  3. Space weather: science and effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Norma B.

    2009-03-01

    From the point-of-view of somebody standing outside on a cold winter night looking up at a clear cloudless sky, the space environment seems to be of a peaceful and stable nature. Instead, the opposite is found to be true. In fact the space environment is very dynamic on all spatial and temporal scales, and in some circumstances may have unexpected and hazardous effects on technology and humans both in space and on Earth. In fact the space environment seems to have a weather all of its own - its own “space weather”. Our Sun is definitely the driver of our local space weather. Space weather is an interdisciplinary subject covering a vast number of technological, scientific, economic and environmental issues. It is an application-oriented discipline which addresses the needs of “space weather product” users. It can be truly said that space weather affects everybody, either directly or indirectly. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of what space weather encompasses, emphasizing how solar-terrestrial physics is applied to space weather. Examples of “space weather product” users will be given highlighting those products that we as a civilization are most dependent on.

  4. Weather Fundamentals: Rain & Snow. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) gives concise explanations of the various types of precipitation and describes how the water…

  5. Weathering instability and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2005-04-01

    The argument in this paper is that the fundamental control on landscape evolution in erosional landscapes is weathering. The possibility of and evidence for instability in weathering at four scales is examined. The four scales are concerned with weathering processes, allocation of weathered products, the interrelations of weathering and denudation, and the topographic and isostatic responses to weathering-limited denudation (the regolith, hillslope, landscape unit, and landscape scales, respectively). The stability conditions for each model, and the circumstances under which the models themselves are relevant, are used to identify scale-related domains of stability and instability. At the regolith scale, the interactions among weathering rates, resistance, and moisture are unstable, but there are circumstances—over long timescales and where weathering is well advanced—under which the instability is irrelevant. At the hillslope scale, the system is stable when denudation is transport rather than weathering limited and where no renewal of exposure via regolith stripping occurs. At the level of landscape units, the stability model is based entirely on the mutual reinforcements of weathering and erosion. While this should generally lead to instability, the model would be stable where other, external controls of both weathering and erosion rates are stronger than the weathering-erosion feedbacks. At the broadest landscape scale, the inclusion of isostatic responses destabilizes erosion-topography-uplift relationships. Thus, if the spatial or temporal scale is such that isostatic responses are not relevant, the system may be stable. Essentially, instability is prevalent at local spatial scales at all but the longest timescales. Stability at intermediate spatial scales is contingent on whether weathering-erosion feedbacks are strong or weak, with stability being more likely at shorter and less likely at longer timescales. At the broadest spatial scales, instability is likely; although stability may be present at intermediate temporal scales if weathering-erosion feedbacks are weak. The distinction is important because stability is associated with convergent evolution whereby the effects of initial variations or disturbances are reduced over time as the landscape converges toward a stable equilibrium state. Instability, by contrast, indicates divergent evolution, increasing differentiation over time, and the persistence and growth of disturbance effects and initial variations.

  6. Wireless Power Transmission Technology Development and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinsiek, F.; Weber, K.-H.; Foth, W.-P.; Foth, H. J.; Schäfer, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology has been treated to a wide extent in the recent years. A broad variety of applications has been investigated, from earth to orbit, orbit to earth, in-orbit and planetary ones, as for moon and Mars missions. In this course the question to use laser or microwave technology has widely been discussed. Beaming energy to spacecrafts could provide an important space mission-economic potential. It promises significant reduction in the cost of access to space, for scientific and commercial missions, and increases the mission capabilities for in-space systems. For the future enhancement of ISS capabilities and operational efficiency, the use of WPT technology became part of the technology research planning for the ISS. The WPT may have the potential of providing operational benefits, increase of spacecraft systems efficiency for elements like co-orbiting platforms, transfer vehicles or other ISS related in-orbit spacecrafts, and planetary exploration vehicles. The laser technology provides specific technical, operational and economic benefits compared to microwave applications and provides the actual basis for the envisioned wireless power transmission concepts. An outlook in terms of future wireless power perspectives, both for terrestrial as for space-to-space scenarios is given; these applications are part of a technology demonstration roadmap for wireless power transmission key- and supporting technologies, which is characterized by dedicated technology demonstration milestones on ground and in space. The actual technology development philosophy as conceived at EADS-Space Transportation is described and includes main system demonstration missions, as a laboratory test bed employing a small rover system, a scaled airship model demonstration as planned in 2004 and an experiment onboard the International Space Station ISS. These demonstrations represent milestones in terms of technical capability verification on the way to solar power platforms in space, as an actual Solar Power Platform Design Concept in the 400 kW range for GEO including the receiver side on ground. Special attention is given to the fact, that technological spin-offs out of the Solar Power Platforms development are an essential aspect of the activities. The application of the suitable type of laser systems for future solar power concepts in space will be discussed, based on recent investigations in the frame of the EADS technology development work. The experimental application of a laser system for power transmission to a moveable and steerable target, a small rover, is addressed also and the demonstration philosophy and experimental set-up are detailed. The ground test objectives, the definition, design and performance of a "Wireless Power Transmission" system and the demonstration of the basic principles of power transmission and target acquisition, pointing and tracking are covered. The lessons learned and consequences for a continuation of this type of demonstration are outlined.

  7. Historical Weather Conditions and Maize Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, E.; Huybers, P.

    2010-12-01

    Projections of maize crops response to climate based on empirical models generally show a negative response to warmer temperatures. These models typically use monthly averages of temperature or assume that the response to a high frequency warming event is independent of when it occurs in the growing season. Biophysical modeling and experimental studies indicate that crop yields are dependent on high frequency warming events and that the timing of the event can also play a significant role in crop development. This research looks to the historical record of maize yields in the United States paired with daily station data to categorize high, low, and normal yield years with the particular high frequency patterns in maximum and minimum temperature as well as precipitation that led to such yields. A multiple linear regression model is used with these patterns to predict yields. These results expand on prior empirical modeling by incorporating high frequency temporal sensitivity into the regression model. The United States is the training region for the model because of high quality weather station and crop data. The weather data are taken from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and provide daily records of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation at 1218 sites across the lower 48 states, with some records extending into the mid-19th century. The United States Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS) provides data on maize yields at the county level back to 1910, and provides state level planting and harvest time data back to 1981, at it's peak maize was produced in 2821 counties offering a wide range of different climates. The study is limited by restricting itself to the United States and maize, but could provide the basis for similar studies on a wider range of crops, geographic regions and future projections of climate change.

  8. Public Awareness of Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2009-08-01

    As society increasingly relies on space-based infrastructure for communication and national security, there is a growing need to improve public awareness of the risks space weather poses. The National Space Weather Program (NSWP) should consider this need as it develops new strategic plans. The 2006 “Report of the Assessment Committee for the National Space Weather Program” (http://www.ofcm.gov/r24/fcm-r24.htm) continues to guide this important national program, which aims to improve space weather forecasting services and reduce technological vulnerabilities. NSWP, under the auspices of the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM), is coordinated by the NSWP Council, which consists of eight federal agencies. This council, through its Committee for Space Weather, is in the process of formulating new Strategic and Implementation plans for the NSWP using recommendations from the Assessment Committee.

  9. Smooth Sailing for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Through a cooperative venture with NASA's Stennis Space Center, WorldWinds, Inc., developed a unique weather and wave vector map using space-based radar satellite information and traditional weather observations. Called WorldWinds, the product provides accurate, near real-time, high-resolution weather forecasts. It was developed for commercial and scientific users. In addition to weather forecasting, the product's applications include maritime and terrestrial transportation, aviation operations, precision farming, offshore oil and gas operations, and coastal hazard response support. Target commercial markets include the operational maritime and aviation communities, oil and gas providers, and recreational yachting interests. Science applications include global long-term prediction and climate change, land-cover and land-use change, and natural hazard issues. Commercial airlines have expressed interest in the product, as it can provide forecasts over remote areas. WorldWinds, Inc., is currently providing its product to commercial weather outlets.

  10. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  11. Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this task was to upgrade to the existing severe weather database by adding observations from the 2010 warm season, update the verification dataset with results from the 2010 warm season, use statistical logistic regression analysis on the database and develop a new forecast tool. The AMU analyzed 7 stability parameters that showed the possibility of providing guidance in forecasting severe weather, calculated verification statistics for the Total Threat Score (TTS), and calculated warm season verification statistics for the 2010 season. The AMU also performed statistical logistic regression analysis on the 22-year severe weather database. The results indicated that the logistic regression equation did not show an increase in skill over the previously developed TTS. The equation showed less accuracy than TTS at predicting severe weather, little ability to distinguish between severe and non-severe weather days, and worse standard categorical accuracy measures and skill scores over TTS.

  12. Cool Stars and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jardine, M.; Cameron, A. C.; Morin, J.; Villadsen, J.; Saar, S. H.; Alvarado, J.; Cohen, Ofer; Holzwarth, V.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Reville, V.

    2015-01-01

    Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the ``space weather''. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session ``Cool stars and Space Weather'', that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

  13. [Weather sensitivity of healthy organism].

    PubMed

    Vodolazhski?, G I; Vodolazhskaia, M G

    2013-01-01

    Healthy organism is featured by keen physiological weather sensitivity. Normally it appears as the brain and behavior responses to the ordinary geophysical factors such as wind conditions, temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity. Based on the comparative evolutionary assessment, behavioral sensitivity to weather grows with its phylogenetic complication within a species, which was demonstrated in rats (Rattus norvegicus), and people. Behavioral response of rats is more acute than of people. In people, correlation between the electroencephalogram rhythms (EEG) and weather fluctuations becomes stronger as frequency of the delta-theta-alpha-beta rhythms increases. This dependence progresses throughout human ontogenesis, i.e. as one matures and advances in age. Number of correlations between the weather and REG or EEG parameters increases nonlinearly within the ontogenetic string from 3 to 72 years of age. Physiological weather sensitivity is manifested by a diversity of reactions enlarging the arsenal of adaptive plasticity of organism. PMID:23814889

  14. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  15. Mobilize Your instruction Program with Wireless Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Molly Susan; Heser, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of wireless technology for library bibliographic instruction at the Milwaukee Area Technical College. Highlights include a wireless mobile cart that holds laptop computers; faculty support; future plans; and recommendations, including investigating technology infrastructure and marketing. (LRW)

  16. Nowcasting extreme weather events over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, Petros; Nomikou, Vera; Mavromatidis, Elias; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Kotroni, Vassiliki

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and consistent very short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories providing a direct impact on the risk management. To this end, an advanced mesoscale meteorological data assimilation tool, the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS), has been implemented in order to serve as an early warning system. LAPS incorporates surface and upper air observations (METAR, SYNOP, satellite, soundings, radar, aircraft etc) into large-scale gridded data (as background fields) and produces high spatial and temporal resolution analysis fields and early forecasts. This study presents the performance of the LAPS system in describing two unusual events of hazardous weather conditions over Greece. The first case study is characterized by the passage of a cyclonic system accompanied with cold fronts over Southern Greece. Heavy downpour, lightning and flooding were the main characteristics of the storm that affected Athens metropolitan area on February 22nd 2013. In the second case study the passage of a cold front over SE Aegean Sea led in a destructive and deadly flash flooding that affected the Northern areas of Rhodes Island on November 22nd 2013. This second flash flood event was triggered by the extreme precipitation (almost 100 mm in 4 hours) and killed 4 people making it the deadliest ever for the area. For both case studies, the conventional numerical weather prediction models operating at various research institutes and universities provided a rather insufficient spatiotemporal estimation of the extreme precipitation. For these cases, the LAPS-based nowcasting procedure has been applied with and without the ingestion of high resolution remote sensed precipitation estimates. The LAPS outputs have been evaluated against independent observations obtained from a dense network of surface meteorological stations. Results indicate that LAPS outputs were better than those obtained from the conventional operational forecasts. Also, the use of the satellite information improved the LAPS-based hourly Quantitative Precipitation Estimates in terms of amount, timing and localization.

  17. Patterns and trends of high-impact weathers in China during 1959-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Wen, K.; Cui, L.

    2015-10-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics in the frequencies of four types of high-impact weathers (HIWs), i.e. snowfall, thunderstorm, foggy and hailstorm weathers were analyzed in China by using daily weather phenomenon data from 604 stations. Results indicate that snowfall, thunderstorm, foggy and hailstorm days showed significant decreasing trends with rates of 2.5, 2.6, 0.8 and 0.5 days per decade respectively, and snowfall, thunderstorm, foggy and hailstorm weather processes decreased significantly at rates of 0.3, 0.4, 0.1 and 0.1 times per decade during 1959-2014. Spatially, snowfall weathers were more in northeastern and western China, and thunderstorm weathers were more in southern and southwestern China. Foggy weathers were more in some high mountain stations, eastern China and central China, and hailstorm weathers were concentrated on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Over the past 56 years, snowfall days, thunderstorm days and thunderstorm weather processes decreased in most parts of China, with decreasing rates of 1.0-6.0 days, 1.5-8.0 days and 0.2-1.0 times per decade respectively. Hailstorm days decreased in northeastern China and most parts of northern and western China at a rate of 0.2-4.5 days per decade. The spatial trends of foggy days, foggy weather processes and snowfall weather processes were not significant in most parts of China. With climate change and rapidly economic development, more policies and strategies of reducing social vulnerabilities and/or exposures to HIWs are essential for the government and social publics.

  18. Space Station Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The strategies, reasoning, and planning guidelines used in the development of the United States Space Station Program are outlined. The power required to support Space Station missions and housekeeping loads is a key driver in overall Space Station design. conversely, Space Station requirements drive the power technology. Various power system technology options are discussed. The mission analysis studies resulting in the required Space Station capabilities are also discussed. An example of Space Station functions and a concept to provide them is presented. The weight, area, payload and altitude requirements on draft and mass requirements are described with a summary and status of key power systems technology requirements and issues.

  19. Verification of National Weather Service spot forecasts using surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Matthew Robert

    Software has been developed to evaluate National Weather Service spot forecasts issued to support prescribed burns and early-stage wildfires. Fire management officials request spot forecasts from National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices to provide detailed guidance as to atmospheric conditions in the vicinity of planned prescribed burns as well as wildfires that do not have incident meteorologists on site. This open source software with online display capabilities is used to examine an extensive set of spot forecasts of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and maximum wind speed from April 2009 through November 2013 nationwide. The forecast values are compared to the closest available surface observations at stations installed primarily for fire weather and aviation applications. The accuracy of the spot forecasts is compared to those available from the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD). Spot forecasts for selected prescribed burns and wildfires are used to illustrate issues associated with the verification procedures. Cumulative statistics for National Weather Service County Warning Areas and for the nation are presented. Basic error and accuracy metrics for all available spot forecasts and the entire nation indicate that the skill of the spot forecasts is higher than that available from the NDFD, with the greatest improvement for maximum temperature and the least improvement for maximum wind speed.

  20. Observations and Impact Assessments of Extreme Space Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2007-05-01

    "Space weather" refers to conditions on the Sun, in the solar wind, and in Earth`s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. Activity on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections can lead to high levels of radiation in space and can cause major magnetic storms at the Earth. Space radiation can come as energetic particles or as electromagnetic emissions. Adverse conditions in the near-Earth space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids. This can lead to a variety of socioeconomic losses. Astronauts and airline passengers exposed to high levels of radiation are also at risk. Society`s vulnerability to space weather effects is an issue of increasing concern. We are dependent on technological systems that are becoming more susceptible to space weather disturbances. We also have a permanent human presence in space with the International Space Station and the President and NASA have expressed a desire to expand our human space activities with missions to the moon and Mars. This will make space weather of even greater concern in the future. In this talk I will describe many space weather effects and will describe some of the societal and economic impacts that extreme events have had.

  1. Proposal of Wireless Traffic Control Schemes for Wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji

    This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.

  2. 77 FR 64446 - Wireless Microphones Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Rulemaking, 75 FR 3622, 75 FR 3682, 25 FCC Rcd 643 (2010) (Wireless Microphones Order and Wireless... Docket No. 02-380, Second Memorandum Opinion and Order, 75 FR 75814, 25 FCC Rcd 18661 (2010) (TV White... Memorandum Opinion and Order, 77 FR 29236, 27 FCC Rcd 3692 (2012). Background In the Wireless...

  3. 78 FR 20628 - Wireless Metering Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... development of new technologies in the wireless electric metering space. DATES: Comments on the Wireless Meter... to create new technologies. This model has been successfully deployed in the past through EERE's Roof... challenge specification to spur the development of new, low cost wireless electric metering devices....

  4. A Wireless Communications Systems Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzelgoz, Sabih; Arslan, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    A novel wireless communications systems laboratory course is introduced. The course teaches students how to design, test, and simulate wireless systems using modern instrumentation and computer-aided design (CAD) software. One of the objectives of the course is to help students understand the theoretical concepts behind wireless communication…

  5. Development of a Wireless Displacement Measurement System Using Acceleration Responses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Spencer, Billie F.

    2013-01-01

    Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM), earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:23881123

  6. Development of a wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration responses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Spencer, Billie F

    2013-01-01

    Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM), earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:23881123

  7. Demand-based bandwidth assignment MAC protocol for wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, K.; Dushyanth, B.; Gunasekaran, E.; Arivuthokai, S.; Bhuvaneswaran, R. S.; Shanmugavel, S.

    2004-04-01

    Wireless networks are being rapidly installed in enterprise networks. There are several issues that are critical with the current specifications and the prominent ones are bandwidth utilization, cell capacity, propagation delay, power efficiency and quality of service aspects of the IEEE802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. IEEE 802.11 specifications for wireless LAN use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme. Although this scheme is widely successful due to its simplicity, it is inefficient in utilizing the physical bandwidth. Wireless media being highly limited in bandwidth and power, a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) may help to increase the utilization of the channel bandwidth. Many satellite networks have used Demand Assignment Multiple Access-TDMA (DAMA-TDMA), where the time slots are allocated dynamically. In this paper, a variation of this protocol has been proposed, called as Demand Based Bandwidth Assignment (DBBA) protocol. One of the main challenges that this protocol resolves is to avoid collision to the maximum extent during the demand request contention period. In order to analyze the DBBA, a test bench has been developed to simulate the traffic. Based on the simulation result, it has been observed that the proposed DBBA protocol has higher bandwidth utilization, supports larger number of stations in one cell, lesser propagation delay, more power efficient and has the ability to provide better quality of service. Since there is no collision, the efficiency of the system can be increased without affecting the overall throughput of the system.

  8. Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

  9. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the air, our ... more sedentary can lead to the "cold-weather blahs." Kids might feel more tired, lethargic, or even ...

  10. Estimation of the seismic disaster-stricken area based on wireless communication data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Xie, Xiaofeng; Ning, Baokun; Sun, Gang

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the wireless communication data obtained after the earthquake are introduced to rapidly assess the earthquake disaster. Firstly, the wireless communication data including the real-time signaling data and the base station data are used to analyze the activities and the relationship of the mobile phones and the base stations. Based on the analysis results, five signaling parameters are selected and the Apriori algorithm is used to judge the damaged status of the stations. All the base stations within the affected area of the earthquake are divided into several categories according to the damage levels. Each category will produce a range of earthquake damage in the spatial domain within the affected area. Finally, when the earthquake disaster-stricken areas are located, the extent of the damage will be estimated. The Wenchuan earthquake, happened on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan Province of China reflects that the method discussed in the paper is feasible. The Wenchuan EQ also shows that the wireless communication data is very useful when we assess the damage soon after the disaster occurred, especially when there is no other way to get the field disaster information.

  11. Secure Many-to-One Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Viejo, Alexandre; Domingo-Ferrer, Josep; Sebé, Francesc; Castellŕ-Roca, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are formed by nodes with limited computational and power resources. WSNs are finding an increasing number of applications, both civilian and military, most of which require security for the sensed data being collected by the base station from remote sensor nodes. In addition, when many sensor nodes transmit to the base station, the implosion problem arises. Providing security measures and implosion-resistance in a resource-limited environment is a real challenge. This article reviews the aggregation strategies proposed in the literature to handle the bandwidth and security problems related to many-to-one transmission in WSNs. Recent contributions to secure lossless many-to-one communication developed by the authors in the context of several Spanish-funded projects are surveyed. Ongoing work on the secure lossy many-to-one communication is also sketched. PMID:22346700

  12. Adaptive Modulation and Coding for LTE Wireless Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, S. S.; Tiong, T. C.

    2015-04-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the new upgrade path for carrier with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The LTE is targeting to become the first global mobile phone standard regardless of the different LTE frequencies and bands use in other countries barrier. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is used to increase the network capacity or downlink data rates. Various modulation types are discussed such as Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Spatial multiplexing techniques for 4Ă—4 MIMO antenna configuration is studied. With channel station information feedback from the mobile receiver to the base station transmitter, adaptive modulation and coding can be applied to adapt to the mobile wireless channels condition to increase spectral efficiencies without increasing bit error rate in noisy channels. In High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), AMC can be used to choose modulation types and forward error correction (FEC) coding rate.

  13. A novel wireless local positioning system for airport (indoor) security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekavat, Seyed A.; Tong, Hui; Tan, Jindong

    2004-09-01

    A novel wireless local positioning system (WLPS) for airport (or indoor) security is introduced. This system is used by airport (indoor) security guards to locate all of, or a group of airport employees or passengers within the airport area. WLPS consists of two main parts: (1) a base station that is carried by security personnel; hence, introducing dynamic base station (DBS), and (2) a transponder (TRX) that is mounted on all people (including security personnel) present at the airport; thus, introducing them as active targets. In this paper, we (a) draw a futuristic view of the airport security systems, and the flow of information at the airports, (b) investigate the techniques of extending WLPS coverage area beyond the line-of-sight (LoS), and (c) study the performance of this system via standard transceivers, and direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems with and without antenna arrays and conventional beamforming (BF).

  14. The Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinners, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    Cost constraints to a large degree control the functionality and form of the IOC of the Space Station. Planning of Station missions must be delayed to retain flexibility, a goal also served by modular development of the Station and by multi-use laboratory modules. Early emphasis on servicing other spacecraft is recommended, as is using available Shuttle flight time for R&D on Space Station technologies and operations.

  15. GEM: Statistical weather forecasting procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) Program was to develop a weather forecast guidance system that would: predict between 0 to 6 hours all elements in the airways observations; respond instantly to the latest observed conditions of the surface weather; process these observations at local sites on minicomputing equipment; exceed the accuracy of current persistence predictions at the shortest prediction of one hour and beyond; exceed the accuracy of current forecast model output statistics inside eight hours; and be capable of making predictions at one location for all locations where weather information is available.

  16. Space Weather Forecasting: An Enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The space age began in earnest on October 4, 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 and was fuelled for over a decade by very strong national societal concerns. Prior to this single event the adverse effects of space weather had been registered on telegraph lines as well as interference on early WWII radar systems, while for countless eons the beauty of space weather as mid-latitude auroral displays were much appreciated. These prior space weather impacts were in themselves only a low-level science puzzle pursued by a few dedicated researchers. The technology boost and innovation that the post Sputnik era generated has almost single handedly defined our present day societal technology infrastructure. During the decade following Neil's walk on the moon on July 21, 1969 an international thrust to understand the science of space, and its weather, was in progress. However, the search for scientific understand was parsed into independent "stove pipe" categories: The ionosphere-aeronomy, the magnetosphere, the heliosphere-sun. The present day scientific infrastructure of funding agencies, learned societies, and international organizations are still hampered by these 1960's logical divisions which today are outdated in the pursuit of understanding space weather. As this era of intensive and well funded scientific research progressed so did societies innovative uses for space technologies and space "spin-offs". Well over a decade ago leaders in technology, science, and the military realized that there was indeed an adverse side to space weather that with each passing year became more severe. In 1994 several U.S. agencies established the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) to focus scientific attention on the system wide issue of the adverse effects of space weather on society and its technologies. Indeed for the past two decades a significant fraction of the scientific community has actively engaged in understanding space weather and hence crossing the "stove-pipe" disciplines. The perceived progress in space weather understanding differs significantly depending upon which community (scientific, technology, forecaster, society) is addressing the question. Even more divergent are these thoughts when the question is how valuable is the scientific capability of forecasting space weather. This talk will discuss present day as well as future potential for forecasting space weather for a few selected examples. The author will attempt to straddle the divergent community opinions.

  17. Stormy weather in galaxy clusters

    PubMed

    Burns

    1998-04-17

    Recent x-ray, optical, and radio observations coupled with particle and gas dynamics numerical simulations reveal an unexpectedly complex environment within clusters of galaxies, driven by ongoing accretion of matter from large-scale supercluster filaments. Mergers between clusters and continuous infall of dark matter and baryons from the cluster periphery produce long-lived "stormy weather" within the gaseous cluster atmosphere-shocks, turbulence, and winds of more than 1000 kilometers per second. This weather may be responsible for shaping a rich variety of extended radio sources, which in turn act as "barometers" and "anemometers" of cluster weather. PMID:9545210

  18. Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices, and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven H; Derr, Kurt W; Rohde, Kenneth W

    2014-05-27

    Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices include a communications module for receiving wireless communications of a wireless device. Processing circuitry is coupled with the communications module and configured to process the wireless communications to determine whether the wireless device is authorized or unauthorized to be present at the monitored area based on identification information of the wireless device. Methods of monitoring for the presence and identity of wireless devices are also provided.

  19. Mashup aggregation of citizen-scientists weather observations and application of OGC standards to weather data for Hydro-Meteorological Research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrina, Tatiana; Parodi, Antonio; Quarati, Alfonso; Clematis, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The growing interest towards hydro-meteorological information (e.g. forecasts and actual weather conditions) shown by citizen-scientists and increasing affordability of automated weather stations foster the development of volunteers' weather networks. The citizen-scientists weather data collections often are shared online. In some cases, for example during meteorological extreme events, such semi-professional weather networks can provide an unprecedented amount of weather observations in addition to official weather networks data. These observational data are usually provided in real time, registered with some minute frequency and data collections encompass the spatial spreading and temporal continuity. Therefore, these datasets may be extremely valuable in areas with complex orography and reduced covering by institutional weather sensors. The significant obstacles in operating of citizen-scientists weather observations are the lack of well-established aggregation mechanism for data produced by various weather networks according to different data encoding, schemes and formats. Usually, large quantity and complexity of datasets requires the innovative approaches in data collections processing. This paper describes the designing of an application addressing the collection and integration of Hydro-Meteorological (HM) datasets, provided by citizen-scientists. The application is based on the mashup approach that allows combining different sources with similar type of information and designing new data representation. This approach suits the HM community requirements for geospatial data operating, including aggregation of different type of information spread online. The integration of different datasets urges for standards data representation. The OGC consortium developed internationally recognized standards for geospatial data. These standards include interfaces and encoding schemes. In this paper OGC standards were applied to citizen-scientists weather observations, to provide standard representation, easier data integration and post analysis.

  20. LP instrument for "Obstanovka" experiment: use of wireless communication in complex space-borne experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, Boian; Batchvarov, Ditchko; Krasteva, Rumiana; Boneva, Ani; Nedkov, Rumen; Klimov, Stanislav; Stainov, Gencho

    The advance of the new wireless communications provides additional opportunities for spaceborne experiments. It is now possible to have one basic instrument collecting information from several sensors without burdensome harnessing among them. Besides, the wireless connection among various elements inside the instrument allows the hardware upgrading to be realized without changing globally the whole instrument. In complex experiments consisting of several instruments, the possibility is provided for continuous communication among the instruments, and for optimal choice of the appropriate mode of operation by the central processor. In the present paper, the LP instrument (electrostatic Langmuir probe) is described - an element of "Obstanovka" experiment designed to operate aboard the International Space Station, emphasizing on the use of wireless communication between the sensors and the main instrument.

  1. Optical wireless communication in sensor networks: data harvesting for disaster recovery operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi; Kedar, Debbie

    2007-09-01

    Networks of sensors are an emerging technology for real-time data gathering in applications such as pollution monitoring, home security, surveillance, industrial control, etc. Many miniature nodes with sensing, computing and wireless communication capabilities are randomly deployed in an area or volume to be probed. One of the possible communication modalities for sensor networks is optical wireless communication (OWC). Initially, the sensor population must be mapped prior to interrogation by the base station and data communication from the sensor node. In this paper we review some theoretical and experimental work in this area and underline some of the challenges and possible solutions. The specific scenario of wireless sensor networks in a disaster recovery operation is modeled.

  2. Traffic handling capability of a broadband indoor wireless network using CDMA multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang G.; Hafez, H. M.; Falconer, David D.

    1994-05-01

    CDMA (code division multiple access) may be an attractive technique for wireless access to broadband services because of its multiple access simplicity and other appealing features. In order to investigate traffic handling capabilities of a future network providing a variety of integrated services, this paper presents a study of a broadband indoor wireless network supporting high-speed traffic using CDMA multiple access. The results are obtained through the simulation of an indoor environment and the traffic capabilities of the wireless access to broadband 155.5 MHz ATM-SONET networks using the mm-wave band. A distributed system architecture is employed and the system performance is measured in terms of call blocking probability and dropping probability. The impacts of the base station density, traffic load, average holding time, and variable traffic sources on the system performance are examined. The improvement of system performance by implementing various techniques such as handoff, admission control, power control and sectorization are also investigated.

  3. STEREO Space Weather and the Space Weather Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Webb, D F.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is first and foremost a solar and interplanetary research mission, with one of the natural applications being in the area of space weather. The obvious potential for space weather applications is so great that NOAA has worked to incorporate the real-time data into their forecast center as much as possible. A subset of the STEREO data will be continuously downlinked in a real-time broadcast mode, called the Space Weather Beacon. Within the research community there has been considerable interest in conducting space weather related research with STEREO. Some of this research is geared towards making an immediate impact while other work is still very much in the research domain. There are many areas where STEREO might contribute and we cannot predict where all the successes will come. Here we discuss how STEREO will contribute to space weather and many of the specific research projects proposed to address STEREO space weather issues. We also discuss some specific uses of the STEREO data in the NOAA Space Environment Center.

  4. Wireless Communications in Reverberant Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measel, Ryan Thomas

    Implementation of WLANs in reverberant environments, such as industrial facilities, naval vessels, aircraft, and spacecraft, has proven challenging, because rich electromagnetic scattering can degrade link quality through multipath interference. As a result, the adoption of Wireless LANs in these environments has been slow. Previous studies concerning reverberant environments have focused on characterizing electromagnetic properties for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility testing. Little attention has been given to the performance of wireless communications. In this effort, the effect of electromagnetic reverberance on wireless communications is investigated in order to assess the feasibility of WLAN deployment. Work centered around two experimental measurement campaigns. The first campaign was performed in coupled reverberation chambers. The reverberation chambers provided a controllable environment which was configured to emulate the reverberance of below-deck spaces on a naval vessel. The process for quantifying and configuring the electromagnetic properties of a reverberation chamber is presented. The second campaign was performed on a naval vessel. Experimentation was conducted in a variety of locations on the ship. Locations were selected to represent a wide range of practical environments. Across both campaigns, several environment and node parameters were evaluated: level of reverberance, cavity coupling (effective aperture size), and LOS versus NLOS links. Additionally, advanced physical layer schemes and reconfigurable antennas are presented as methods to improve performance and mitigate multipath interference. To perform this work, a measurement platform and testing protocol were developed for systematic characterization of wireless communications in reverberant environments. The primary contributions of this work are empirical characterization of wireless communications in reverberant environments, approaches to improving the performance of wireless communications in presence of high levels of multipath interference, and a methodology for experimentation in reverberant environments.

  5. 47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on the operation of mobile and...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1333 Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. (a)...

  6. 47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on the operation of mobile and...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1333 Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. (a)...

  7. 47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on the operation of mobile and...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1333 Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. (a)...

  8. 47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on the operation of mobile and...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1333 Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. (a)...

  9. 47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on the operation of mobile and...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1333 Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. (a)...

  10. 47 CFR 27.1209 - Conversion of incumbent EBS and BRS stations to geographic area licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion of incumbent EBS and BRS stations to geographic area licensing. 27.1209 Section 27.1209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service...

  11. Compute the Weather in Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Beverly

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a weather prediction activity connecting local weather network by computer modem. Describes software for telecommunications, data gathering, preparation work, and instructional procedures. (YP)

  12. Wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-12-01

    The Science Application International Corporation (SAIC) RadStar{trademark} wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS) is designed to provide real-time monitoring of the radiation dose to workers as they perform work in radiologically contaminated areas. WRRMS can also monitor dose rates in a room or area. The system uses radio-frequency communications to transmit dose readings from the wireless dosimeters worn by workers to a remote monitoring station that can be located out of the contaminated area. Each base station can monitor up to 16 workers simultaneously. The WRRMS can be preset to trigger both audible and visual alarms at certain dose rates. The alarms are provided to the worker as well as the base station operator. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their self-reading dosimeters (SRDs), which are typically used to monitor workers, more difficult. The base station is an IBM-compatible personal computer that updates and records information on individual workers every ten seconds. Although the equipment costs for this improved technology are higher than the SRDs (amortized at $2.54/hr versus $1.02/hr), total operational costs are actually less ($639/day versus $851/day). This is because the WRRMS requires fewer workers to be in the contaminated zone than the traditional (baseline) technology. There are also intangible benefits associated with improved worker safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles, making the WRRMS an attractive alternative to the baseline technology. The baseline technology measures only integrated dose and requires workers to check their own dosimeters manually during the task.

  13. Winter weather conditions vs. air quality in Tricity, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga; Czarnecka, Małgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to assess the influence of meteorological conditions on the variability of sulfur dioxide and PM10 particulate matter concentration of pollutants during winter with consideration of an excess of admissible standards. The basis for the analysis were hourly concentrations of PM10 and sulfur dioxide as well as the basic meteorological elements automatically recorded at five stations located in the Tricity agglomeration, and operating within the weather station network belonging to the Agency of Regional Air Quality Monitoring in the Gdańsk Metropolitan Area (ARMAAG). The analysis covers the calendar winters (December-February) in the years 2004/2005 through 2009/2010. The variability of the concentrations of both pollutants under certain weather conditions, i.e. air temperature and relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, as well as wind speed and direction, were evaluated by means of cluster analysis using k-means belonging to a group of non-hierarchical cluster analysis method. The composite effect of meteorological conditions on the variability of sulfur dioxide and PM10 concentrations in isolated clusters were determined by multiple linear regression, using a stepwise procedure, at the significance level α = 0.05 and α = 0.01. The effect of individual weather elements on the pattern of concentration levels was determined using partial regression coefficients. Clusters grouping the highest concentrations of pollutants were characterised, in most cases, by the lowest air temperature and a lower wind speed, and often a higher pressure, and sometimes slightly lower relative air humidity, i.e. the conditions of anticyclonic weather. Weather conditions had a statistically significant effect on the concentrations of both pollutants in all clusters; however, air temperature and wind speed had the crucial role. Thermal conditions were the decisive factor in the winter season 2005/2006 with the most frequent, overnormative daily particulate matter concentration, yet the inversion layers both lower and upper, occurring almost every day in January 2006 also had a significant influence.

  14. Wireless technology for integrated manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Shourbaji, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the ground breaking work in Oak Ridge facilities that now leads us to the brink of the wireless revolution in manufacturing. The focus is on solving tough technological problems necessary for success and addressing the critical issues of throughput, security, reliability, and robustness in applying wireless technology to manufacturing processes. Innovative solutions to these problems are highlighted through detailed designs and testbed implementations that demonstrate key concepts. The DOE-Oak Ridge complex represented by the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies (ORCMT) continues to develop these technologies and will continue to focus on solving tough manufacturing problems.

  15. WIRELESS FOR A NUCLEAR FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, D; Joe Cordaro, J

    2007-03-28

    The introduction of wireless technology into a government site where nuclear material is processed and stored brings new meaning to the term ''harsh environment''. At SRNL, we are attempting to address not only the harsh RF and harsh physical environment common to industrial facilities, but also the ''harsh'' regulatory environment necessitated by the nature of the business at our site. We will discuss our concepts, processes, and expected outcomes in our attempts to surmount the roadblocks and reap the benefits of wireless in our ''factory''.

  16. Wireless Augmented Reality Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, Ann (Inventor); Jedrey, Thomas (Inventor); Agan, Martin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A portable unit is for video communication to select a user name in a user name network. A transceiver wirelessly accesses a communication network through a wireless connection to a general purpose node coupled to the communication network. A user interface can receive user input to log on to a user name network through the communication network. The user name network has a plurality of user names, at least one of the plurality of user names is associated with a remote portable unit, logged on to the user name network and available for video communication.

  17. Wireless Technologies Implications for Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhr, Peter L; Manges, Wayne W; Schweitzer, Patrick; Kagan, Hesh

    2010-01-01

    Wireless technologies have advanced well beyond simple SCADA radio systems and point-to-point links. The current applications supported by industrial-grade wireless sensors and systems range from field measurements (classic I/O) to voice, video, asset tracking, mobile operators, etc. Which such a wide array of supported applications, the belief that wireless technology will only impact power systems in terms of wireless sensors is shortsighted. This paper, coauthored by a group of individuals intimately involved in the general realm of industrial wireless , presents a simple snapshot of current radio technologies that are used (or seriously contemplated for use) in power systems.

  18. Littoral processes: US Coast Guard Station, Fort Point, San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1983-10-01

    The US Coast Guard Station, Fort Point is located three-quarters of a nautical mile southeast of the Golden Gate Strait, the entrance to San Francisco Bay. The existing storm wave conditions at Fort Point Station pier make it extremely dangerous for the SAR crews to get on and off the Motor Life Boats at times requiring the vessels to be moored at the San Francisco Yacht Harbor about 1.5 miles east of the Fort Point Station. To mitigate these harsh working conditions the US Coast Guard is considering the feasibility of constructing suitable all-weather moorings for the three Motor Life Boats at the Fort Point Station to enable unimpeded SAR operations, to provide safe working conditions for Coast Guard small boat crews, and to improve small boat maintenance conditions at Fort Point Station. The purpose of this report is to identify, analyze and evaluate physical environmental factors that could affect all-weather moorings siting, configuration and entrance location, as well as potential post construction alterations to littoral conditions and processes. This report includes a description of the site, description of pertinent littoral processes, evaluation of how these processes could affect construction of all-weather moorings, and discussion of design considerations, as well as mitigation measures to minimize potential adverse effects to the physical environment. 19 references, 27 figures, 26 tables.

  19. 47 CFR 1.1152 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MHz Local,Base Station & SMRS)(47 CFR part 90): (a) New, Renew/Mod (FCC 601 & 159) $35.00 FCC, P.O..., P.O. Box 979097, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000. 2. Microwave (47 CFR Pt. 101) (Private): (a) New, Renew... locations for wireless radio services. 1.1152 Section 1.1152 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1152 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for wireless radio services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MHz Local, Base Station & SMRS) (47 CFR part 90) (a) New, Renew/Mod (FCC 601 & 159) $40.00 FCC, P.O..., P.O. Box 979097, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000. 2. Microwave (47 CFR Pt. 101) (Private) (a) New, Renew... locations for wireless radio services. 1.1152 Section 1.1152 Telecommunication FEDERAL...