These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

A low cost wireless data acquisition system for weather station monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the development of wireless data acquisition system (WDAS) for weather station monitoring is described. It is based on the Emitter\\/Receiver architecture and it does not require the physical connection of the monitored systems to the data collection server. The proposed system consists of a set of sensors for measuring meteorological parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, pressure, wind

M. Benghanem

2010-01-01

2

Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

2012-12-19

3

Equating minimalist snowmelt and runoff generation models via validation with a wireless weather station network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wireless network of 12 weather stations in the Val Ferret watershed (approximately 21 km2) in the Swiss Alps was used to validate snowmelt models with distributed temperature and radiation data. Using this extensive dataset, an improved yet simplistic degree-day method was compared with a radiation-based method proposed by Hock et al., 1999. The original degree-day approach is a widely used snowmelt model, relating snowmelt directly to air temperature. Numerous hydrological models use this minimalist approach due to its equivalent simplicity. Modifications of this simple method have been proposed in the past which typically incorporate local radiation conditions. However, these modifications generally require more data and/or a finer hydrological grid resolution. Results herein as well as theoretical considerations illustrate that the Hock point or grid-scale method is not always a robust method when combined with spatially explicit rainfall-runoff transformation models. This generalized hydrological application suggests that a simple diurnal cycle of the degree-day melt parameter has the potential to outperform the Hock local radiation-based approach for sub-daily melt simulations. We therefore suggest that the improved degree-day method enables a flexible melt modeling approach, which can be easily adapted into spatially-explicit hydrological models of varying complexity. Furthermore, as this new degree-day method is based upon solely daily temperature extremes, this approach is capable of being adapted for climate change predictions.

Tobin, C. C.; Schaefli, B.; Nicotina, L.; Simoni, S.; Barrenetxea, G.; Parlange, M. B.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

4

Weather Station Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson instructs students on how to read station models, the symbols used on weather maps to show data (temperature, wind speed and direction, barometeric pressure, etc.) for a given reporting station. It includes a diagram of a station model, an explanation of the data conveyed by the numbers and symbols, and a table of definitions for the graphic symbols used with models. There is also a set of interactive station models students can use for practice at interpretation, and an interactive exercise in which students use real-time weather data to interpret models.

5

The Home Weather Station.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

Steinke, Steven D.

1991-01-01

6

Designing a Weather Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

7

Weather Stations: Storms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test how cornstarch and glitter in water move when disturbed. Learners compare their observations with videos of Jupiter's and Earth's storm movements. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

Lunar and Planetary Institute

2011-01-01

8

Davis Weather Station Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a Davis weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

9

Weather Stations: Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a toaster to generate wind and compare the appliance's heat source to Jupiter's own hot interior. Learners discover that convection drives wind on Jupiter and on Earth. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

For safety reasons, this activity should be facilitated by an adult or used as a demonstration only.

Lunar and Planetary Institute

2011-01-01

10

Weather Stations: Phase Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe the water cycle in action! Water vapor in a tumbler condenses on chilled aluminum foil — producing the liquid form of water familiar to us as rain and dew. Learners discuss how Jupiter's lack of a surface simplifies its water cycle. Learners then consider the roles ammonia and ammonia compounds play in Jupiter's more complicated atmosphere. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

2014-07-11

11

WeatherHawk Weather Station Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a WeatherHawk weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

12

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three-part activity shows learners how to build three meteorology tools: a wind vane, a rain gauge, and a barometer. Then, they can use their tools to build their own weather station to record data about the weather, study the data to detect patterns, and use the patterns to predict the weather. This lesson also includes information about the difference between weather and climate.

2012-06-26

13

Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park.  It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

14

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. Older students can independently follow instructions on how to build five different instruments (barometer, hygrometer, rain gauge, weather vane, and compass). Younger students will need adult supervision with hammer and nails.

15

Weather Stations: Temperature and Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover the relationship between temperature and pressure in the lower atmospheres of Jupiter and Earth. Learners chart the increasing temperature as they add pressure to a 2-L soda bottle with a Fizz-Keeper Pump. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

2014-07-11

16

Garden Wall Weather Station, MT  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Garden Wall Weather Station is situated below the Garden Wall and adjacent to the Haystack Creek avalanche path in Glacier National Park. It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiat...

17

Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

18

Research on the Web: Antarctic Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web research activity helps students see the link between wind speeds and geographical features. All directions are included in a printable handout. Students begin by gathering wind-speed measurements for 10 weather stations in Antarctica, converting the data, as needed, to allow comparisons. Next, they record wind data for five consecutive days and calculate the average wind speed for each station. They then examine elevation data for the 10 weather stations. They end by developing a hypothesis for the different patterns they've observed.

19

Build Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 9-12. This lesson focuses on weather instruments, and has students build a rain gauge, barometer, wind vane, anemometer, and a psychrometer. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

20

RainWise Weather Station Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a Rainwise weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

21

Paradata for 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

22

A cold regions automatic weather station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few meteorological measurements are available from mountainous or arctic areas because of the difficulty of operating instruments in these environments. The development of an automatic weather station (AWS) capable of measuring the standard meteorological variables and able to operate (using minimal power) in conditions of heavy riming and high winds is described. The summit of Cairn Gorm (1246 m a.m.s.l.) was used as the test site because it has a harsh cold winter climate and is relatively accessible from Wallingford.

Strangeways, I. C.

1985-07-01

23

The Lizard Wireless Station of Guglielmo Marconi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the vacation with my wife in Cornwall, we by chance were walking by the Lizard wireless station, originally installed by Guglielmo Marconi and recently refurbished by The National Trust/UK. Fortunately the shed was open for public visitors and a student was present telling stories about the station and its history. The historic equipment was demonstrated by sending some Morse codes. The high voltage sparks and its sound were quite impressive while in the background the Morse code receiver punched dots and dashes onto the strip chart.

Montstein, Christian

2014-08-01

24

Types of weather at selected meteorological stations in Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper aims to present the structure of weather types at two meteorological stations Galle and Nuwara Eliya (Sri Lanka). The weather type is determined as a generalized characteristic of the weather by features and gradation of selected meteorological elements. All available data on daily average, maximum and minimum air temperature, the average daily total cloud amount and the daily precipitation amount come from OGIMET database and have been used to designate weather types. The analysis was performed for the period April 2002 - March 2012. The weather types were designated based on the modified A. Wo? (2010) classification of weather types. The frequency of groups, subgroups, classes, and types of weather were determined. Additionally, determined frequency of sequences of days with the same weather type. The analysis allows to conclude, that the structure of weather types at both stations was poorly differentiated. There were very stable weather conditions. In Galle, the most frequent was very warm, partly cloudy weather, without precipitation (920) and in Nuwara Eliya warm, partly cloudy weather without precipitation (820).

Dobrowolska, Ksenia

2014-09-01

25

Implementation of weather stations at Ghanaian high schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an initiative that aims to develop a dense weather observation network in Sub-Sahara Africa. The ambition is to have 20.000 low-cost innovative weather stations in place in 2015. An increased amount of weather data is locally required to provide stakeholders that are dependent on the weather, such as farmers and fishermen, with accurate forecasts. As a first proof of concept, showing that sensors can be built at costs lower than commercially available, a disdrometer was developed. In parallel with the design of the measurement instruments, a high school curriculum is developed that covers environmental sciences. In order to find out which requirements the TAHMO weather station and accompanying educational materials should meet for optimal use at Junior High Schools research was done at Ghanaian schools. Useful insights regarding the future African context of the weather station and requirements for an implementation strategy were obtained during workshops with teachers and students, visits to WMO observatories and case studies regarding use of educational materials. The poster presents the conclusions of this research, which is part of the bigger TAHMO framework.

Pieron, M.

2012-04-01

26

Approximation Algorithm for Base Station Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

to a finite-element search space for base station location. The first technique used in this reduction an infinite search space for base station location into finite "points" upon which we can apply a linearApproximation Algorithm for Base Station Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks Yi Shi and Y. Thomas

Hou, Y. Thomas

27

Optimal Base Station Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

to reduce an infinite search space to a finite-element search space for base station location. The first32 Optimal Base Station Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks YI SHI and Y. THOMAS HOU Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Base station location has a significant impact on network lifetime

Hou, Y. Thomas

28

Antarctic meteorology: a study with automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis chiefly addresses a) the use of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) in determining the near-surface climate and heat budget of Antarctica and, specifically, Dronning Maud Land (DML), and b) the determination of source regions of Antarctic moisture with the aid of a trajectory model and an atmospheric model. The primary motivation behind this interest is the drilling of two

C. Reijmer

2001-01-01

29

Development and Evaluation of a City-Wide Wireless Weather Sensor Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project analyzed the effectiveness of a city-wide wireless weather sensor network, the Taipei Weather Science Learning Network (TWIN), in facilitating elementary and junior high students' study of weather science. The network, composed of sixty school-based weather sensor nodes and a centralized weather data archive server, provides students…

Chang, Ben; Wang, Hsue-Yie; Peng, Tian-Yin; Hsu, Ying-Shao

2010-01-01

30

The New Weather Station for the VLA Bryan Butler, Wayne Koski  

E-print Network

The New Weather Station for the VLA Bryan Butler, Wayne Koski EVLA Memo 179 May 13, 2014 1.0 Introduction The weather station of the VLA (see e the location of the new weather station, its tower and instrumentation, some

Groppi, Christopher

31

Weather satellite picture receiving stations, APT digital scan converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The automatic picture transmission digital scan converter is used at ground stations to convert signals received from scanning radiometers to data compatible with ground equipment designed to receive signals from vidicons aboard operational meteorological satellites. Information necessary to understand the circuit theory, functional operation, general construction and calibration of the converter is provided. Brief and detailed descriptions of each of the individual circuits are included, accompanied by a schematic diagram contained at the end of each circuit description. Listings of integral parts and testing equipment required as well as an overall wiring diagram are included. This unit will enable the user to readily accept and process weather photographs from the operational meteorological satellites.

Vermillion, C. H.; Kamowski, J. C.

1975-01-01

32

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

33

47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations...requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations...specified by the Wireless Telecommunications...of each such low power auxiliary...

2010-10-01

34

Modeling a Wireless Network for International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of wireless local area network (LAN) simulation modeling methods to the hybrid LAN architecture designed for supporting crew-computing tools aboard the International Space Station (ISS). These crew-computing tools, such as wearable computers and portable advisory systems, will provide crew members with real-time vehicle and payload status information and access to digital technical and scientific libraries, significantly enhancing human capabilities in space. A wireless network, therefore, will provide wearable computer and remote instruments with the high performance computational power needed by next-generation 'intelligent' software applications. Wireless network performance in such simulated environments is characterized by the sustainable throughput of data under different traffic conditions. This data will be used to help plan the addition of more access points supporting new modules and more nodes for increased network capacity as the ISS grows.

Alena, Richard; Yaprak, Ece; Lamouri, Saad

2000-01-01

35

Design and Operation of Infrasound Stations for Hazardous Weather Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year tornadoes cause property damage and death, some of which could be avoided with increased warning lead time. The year 2011 was particularly severe, with more than 1600 tornadoes causing in excess of 500 deaths in the U.S. It is known that tornadoes and their precursors generate infrasound in the 0.5Hz to 10Hz frequency band, with precursors occurring some 30-60 minutes prior to tornado touch down, which is some 15-45 minutes earlier than the average tornado warning lead time in the U.S. Given the potential of infrasound to improve tornado early warning and emergency response, the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in conjunction with its research on small, boundary-layer observing X-band weather radars, has begun a research project whose goal is to combine the passive detection of tornado infrasound with active tracking of the parent storms that carry the tornadoes with its weather radars. In the spring of 2011 CASA conducted an infrasound field-test in Oklahoma, in the heart of the so-called "tornado-alley" where statistically the majority of springtime tornadoes in the U.S. occur. This being CASA's first infrasound experiment, the goal of the field-test was to gain an understanding of the issues involved in the design and operation of infrasound stations for severe weather monitoring and early warning. In this application, it is not so much the ability of infrasound to travel long distances that is of importance, but rather the fact that there can be precursor signals that unlike radar do not require line-of-sight to detect. In fact, for early warning, detection distance would generally need to be less than 100 km, since a propagation delay of much more than 5 minutes would be too late. Challenges encountered included persistent infrasound "clutter" from a nearby large windfarm, accurate bearing detection over a wide bandwidth with a fixed four sensor aperture, and the need to operate in the the high winds that surround the supercell storms that spawn tornadoes. This paper details our solutions to these signal processing and wind noise reduction challenges and how they will be applied to a redesign of the CASA infrasound monitoring stations for a 2012 re-deployment.

Pepyne, D.

2012-04-01

36

Waves and the equilibrium range at Ocean Weather Station P J. Thomson,1  

E-print Network

Waves and the equilibrium range at Ocean Weather Station P J. Thomson,1 E. A. D'Asaro,1 M. F at Ocean Weather Station P (OWS-P, 50 N 145 W) are used to evaluate the equilibrium range of surface wave. Introduction [2] Ocean surface waves are the result of wind blowing along a fetch distance for a duration

37

Building and Operating Weather Satellite Ground Stations for High School Science. Teachers Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) images are real-time weather pictures transmitted from satellites on a radio frequency in a video format. Amateur radio enthusiasts and electronic experimenters have for a number of years designed, built, and operated direct readout stations capable of receiving APT photographs. The equipment to receive weather

Summers, R. Joe; Gotwald, Timothy

38

Science Sampler: Weather RATS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather RATS, or Weather Research and Tracking Systems, is a collaborative effort among a national network of K-12 students, their teachers, wireless weather stations, internet data sharing, and professional engineers and meteorologists. Weather Rats is a new way to teach K-12 science and technology by tracking and comparing weather data from schools in Massachusetts, Arizona, Oklahoma, and Puerto Rico. In addition, it is hoped through this enriching project that Weather RATS will inspire many more students, especially girls and minorities, to pursue careers in science and engineering as a result of this project.

Mary Taft

2006-02-01

39

Predicting Weather by Connecting the Basic Cloud Types with Information Collected from the Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are challenged to predict the next day's weather based on cloud observations, prevailing winds, and barometric measurements over a period of several days. The activity can be done as guided or open-ended inquiry and serves as an authentic assessment to conclude a unit on weather. Resources needed to conduct this activity include weather instruments, some of which can be constructed from household materials. The resource includes background information, a pre-activity inquiry exploration for students, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 16 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

2013-01-18

40

Wireless traffic safety network for incident and weather information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular wireless communications with Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) utilizing Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication tools are key technological approaches in efforts to improve traffic safety and efficiency. The European project WiSafeCar (under the Celtic cluster of the EUREKA network) has as one of its key targets to develop an intelligent hybrid wireless traffic safety network between vehicles and

Timo Sukuvaara; Pertti Nurmi; Marjo Hippi; Riika Autio; Darya Stepanova; Pekka Eloranta; Laura Riihentupa; Kimmo Kauvo

2011-01-01

41

Traceability and Online Publication of Weather Station Measurements of Temperature, Pressure, and Humidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project to enhance the quality of climate data has been running at the Italian Institute of Metrology (INRiM) since 2007. The focus of the project has been the installation and development of a weather station to monitor temperature, air humidity, and pressure; the collection and storage of the measurements; and the provision online to allow open-access. The project aims to improve the traceability of measurement through development of calibration and measurement protocols able to be applied to the wide variety and geographical spread of weather stations. The data collected have a short traceability to the national standards and a well-known uncertainty budget. In this work the project progress in terms of data collection and calibration of the weather station is reported. The instant measured values of the weather parameters have been published online, as is a complete database of the recordings, stored in daily, monthly, and annually collected data archives. This is the first example at the Italian national level of an archive of reliable climate data open to public access. A traceability study was carried out through calibration of the weather station instruments both in situ (over the course of one seven-hour period) and in the laboratory (under the full range of expected temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions). Significant differences in the results of the two calibrations are noted and implications for the provision of traceability discussed.

Lopardo, G.; Marengo, D.; Meda, A.; Merlone, A.; Moro, F.; Pennecchi, F. R.; Sardi, M.

2012-09-01

42

Severe Weather Tool using 1500 UTC Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Soundings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

Bauman, William H., III

2013-01-01

43

Evaluation of pan evaporation modeling with two different neural networks and weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates neural networks models for estimating daily pan evaporation for inland and coastal stations in Republic of Korea. A multilayer perceptron neural networks model (MLP-NNM) and a cascade correlation neural networks model (CCNNM) are developed for local implementation. Five-input models (MLP 5 and CCNNM 5) are generally found to be the best for local implementation. The optimal neural networks models, including MLP 4, MLP 5, CCNNM 4, and CCNNM 5, perform well for homogeneous (cross-stations 1 and 2) and nonhomogeneous (cross-stations 3 and 4) weather stations. Statistical results of CCNNM are better than those of MLP-NNM during the test period for homogeneous and nonhomogeneous weather stations except for MLP 4 being better in BUS-DAE and POH-DAE, and MLP 5 being better in POH-DAE. Applying the conventional models for the test period, it is found that neural networks models perform better than the conventional models for local, homogeneous, and nonhomogeneous weather stations.

Kim, Sungwon; Singh, Vijay P.; Seo, Youngmin

2014-07-01

44

Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson  

E-print Network

Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson Thanks, and to Dr. Shelley N. Pressley. To monitor air quality in Pullman, the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research in the department of civil and environmental engineering, as well as providing a long-term record of air quality

Collins, Gary S.

45

Comments on: Antarctic Automatic Weather Station Program: 30 Years of Polar Observations  

E-print Network

Recently Lazzara et al. (2012) presented a review of the technical and scientific progress in deployment, data collection and analysis of the Automated Weather Stations (AWS) in the Antarctic. In the subsection entitled Science Applications using AWS Observations, the authors briefly account for several scientific occurrences of meteorological data collected by AWS.

Sienicki, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

46

University of Waterloo Weather Station Summary May 2013 A warm month with average precipitation  

E-print Network

University of Waterloo Weather Station Summary ­ May 2013 A warm month with average precipitation January. Most of the precipitation for the month happened during just 3 days (the 10th , 28th and 29th). Even with this average month, we are still about 100 mm over the precipitation we expect at this time

Waterloo, University of

47

Weather risk management in Mozambique: Technical note on current and planned weather stations and their potential  

E-print Network

2008 the Africa Agriculture and Rural Development (AFTAR) department of the World Bank undertook, The World Bank. #12;M. Tadross and A. Lotsch. Weather risk management in Mozambique i Contents: 1 and preparation phase was supported by the World Bank's Commodity Risk Management Group (CRMG) through technical

Tadross, Mark

48

Bringing More Meaning to Weather Predicting: The Weather Station and Reading the Sky Help Put it All Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter provides teachers with instructions to install a school weather station, and to build simple instruments to monitor weather conditions. Materials need to create a homemade weathervane include a two-liter soft drink bottle, a shallow metal pie pan, a plastic drinking straw, and a compass. Building an anemometer requires plastic cups, soda straws, a pencil with an unused new eraser on the end, a paper punch, and a thumbtack. Thermometers and a rain gauge must be purchased. A data table is included for estimating windspeed using the anemometer. The chapter includes research ideas that allow students to validate their instruments and test the predictive capability of resources such as the Farmer's Almanac. This resource is chapter 15 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The resource includes background information, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 15 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

49

Challenges and Opportunities for Compound Semiconductor Devices in Next Generation Wireless Base Station Power Amplifiers  

E-print Network

Station Power Amplifiers Lawrence Larson, Peter Asbeck, and Donald Kimball Center for Wireless Communications, Dept of ECE, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 Abstract -- Power Amplifiers for cellular base stations amplifiers will grow to well over $2B/year. These amplifiers typically produce 20- 80W of RF power, have

Asbeck, Peter M.

50

Meteorological data for water years 1988-94 from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report describes meteorological data collected from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from as early as April 1987 through September 1994. The measurements include solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind vector magnitude, wind direction, wind vector direction, barometric pressure, and precipitation. Measurements were made very 10 seconds and averaged every 15 minutes. The data were collected as part of the geologic and hydrologic site-characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. Precipitation at the site ranged from a low of 12 millimeters total for water year 1989 to a high of 312 millimeters total for water year 1993. Air temperature ranged from a low of 15.1 degrees Celsius in December 1990 (water year 1991) to a high of 41.9 degrees Celsius in July 1989 (water year 1989). The weather station network also provides information on the spatial variability of precipitation and temperature.

Flint, A.L.; Davies, W.J.

1997-11-01

51

Using Temperature and Precipitation at an Alpine Weather Station (Denali, AK) To Represent Regional Climate Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In anticipation of the development of a 1000-year ice core climate proxy from Denali National Park, Alaska Range, here we evaluate the relationships between weather recorded at a high-elevation (2375 m) automated weather station in Denali National Park (DNP) and National Weather Service station data from throughout Alaska. Our findings indicate that monthly average temperature anomalies from DNP are strongly correlated with temperature anomalies across mainland Alaska (r ? 0.5, p < 0.0007), with decreasing correlations in the southeast panhandle (0.25 ? r ? 0.5, p < 0.065) and especially for stations in the Bering Sea. We used an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to represent average Alaska monthly temperature anomaly since 1950. Initial results indicate that EOF 1, which is highly correlated with station data from central Alaska (r ? 0.6, p < 0.0001), has a significant positive correlation with the Pacific North America pattern (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001) and a weak negative correlation with the Southern Oscillation Index (r = -0.21, p < 0.0001). Additional analyses will further investigate the role of regional climate patterns in central Alaskan weather and climate. Analyses of precipitation relationships are still preliminary, but initial results indicate that, on a monthly scale, local precipitation changes can be interpreted on a regional basis. Analyses of temperature and precipitation seasonality have yet to be completed, but we will investigate the relationships between summertime DNP precipitation (the dominant precipitation season) and wintertime climate patterns. These results will be integrated with remote sensing data to quantify the response of the nearby Ruth and Kahiltna Glaciers to Alaskan climate variability.

Shapiro, H.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Campbell, S. W.

2012-12-01

52

Elevational species shifts in a warmer climate are overestimated when based on weather station data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong topographic variation interacting with low stature alpine vegetation creates a multitude of micro-habitats poorly represented\\u000a by common 2 m above the ground meteorological measurements (weather station data). However, the extent to which the actual\\u000a habitat temperatures in alpine landscapes deviate from meteorological data at different spatial scales has rarely been quantified.\\u000a In this study, we assessed thermal surface and soil

Daniel Scherrer; Samuel Schmid; Christian Körner

2011-01-01

53

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is written for fourth grade students. Students will explore weather and the effects it has on their lives. What is weather? video of what is weather Let's take a walk through the weather. Put on your hats and coats! Clouds Cloud Types Clouds - Dan's Wild Weather Page What to Wear? What to Wear? What to Drink? Weather Patterns and Climatic Regions ...

Ms. Bullough

2010-06-24

54

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

Ms. Stearns

2008-10-25

55

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn all about the aspects of weather that effect us every day. Click here to see a weather forecast for anywhere in the world World Wide Weather Watch See what happens to weather when you change conditions at your house Weather Maker Weather Games ...

Mrs. Hyde

2007-02-08

56

Undergraduate Earth System Science Education: Project-Based Learning, Land-Atmosphere Interaction, and a Newly Established Student Weather Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate students conducted a semester-long research project as part of a special topics course that launched the Austin College Weather Station in spring 2001. The weather station is located on restored prairie roughly 100 km north of Dallas, Texas. In addition to standard meteorological observations, the Austin College Weather Station measures surface quantities such as soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation, infrared radiation, and soil heat flux. These additional quantities are used to calculate the surface energy balance using the Bowen ratio method. Thus, the Austin College Weather Station provides valuable information on land-atmosphere interaction in a prairie environment. This project provided a remarkable learning experience for the students. Each student supervised two instruments on the weather station. Students skillfully learned instrumentation details and the physical phenomena measured by the instruments. Team meetings were held each week to discuss issues such as station location, power requirements, telecommunication options, and data acquisition. Students made important decisions during the meetings. They would then work collaboratively on specific tasks that needed to be accomplished before the next meeting. Students also assessed the validity of their measurements after the weather station came on-line. With this approach, students became the experts. They utilized the scientific method to think critically and to solve problems. For at least a semester, students became Earth system scientists.

Baker, D.

2004-12-01

57

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

Ms. Williams

2005-10-25

58

Bandwidth Allocation with Half-Duplex Stations in IEEE 802.16 Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEEE 802.16 is a recent IEEE standard for broadband wireless access networks. In IEEE 802.16 networks, the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is centralized and explicitly supports quality of service (QoS). That is to say, access to the medium by a number of Subscriber Stations (SSs) is centrally controlled by one Base Station (BS), which is responsible for allocating bandwidth

Andrea Bacioccola; Claudio Cicconetti; Alessandro Erta; Luciano Lenzini; Enzo Mingozzi

2007-01-01

59

Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

2013-12-01

60

Development of Data Video Base Station in Water Environment Monitoring Oriented Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, date video base station and remote monitoring center. For the sake of realizing to monitor large range waters such as reservoir, wetland, lake, river and ocean etc, the monitoring system has the function of perception, acquisition, processing and transmission for video-information in key

Kong Yifan; Jiang Peng

2008-01-01

61

Micro weather stations for in situ measurements in the Martian planetary boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking Lander meteorology measurements show that the Martian planetary boundary layer (PBL) has large diurnal and seasonal variations in pressure, wind velocity, relative humidity, and airborne dust loading. An even larger range of conditions was inferred from remote sensing observations acquired by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters. Numerical models indicate that these changes may be accompanied by dramatic vertical and horizontal wind shears (100 m/s/km) and rapid changes in the static stability. In-situ measurements from a relatively small number surface stations could yield global constraints on the Martian climate and atmospheric general circulation by providing ground truth for remote sensing instruments on orbiters. A more complete understanding of the meteorology of the PBL is an essential precursor to manned missions to Mars because this will be their working environment. In-situ measurements are needed for these studies because the spatial and temporal scales that characterize the important meteorological processes near the surface cannot be resolved from orbit. The Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Program will provide the first opportunity to deploy a network of surface weather stations for a comprehensive investigation of the Martian PBL. The feasibility and utility of a network of micro-weather stations for making in-situ meteorological measurements in the Martian PBL are assessed.

Crisp, D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Kenny, T. W.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Tillman, J. E.

1992-01-01

62

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Pamela Gore

1995-08-29

63

Weather and Dispersion Modeling of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface deposition of radioactive material from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was investigated for 11 March to 17 March 2011. A coupled weather and dispersion modeling system was developed and simulations of the accident performed using two independent source terms that differed in emission rate and height and in the total amount of radioactive material released. Observations in Japan during the first week of the accident revealed a natural grouping between periods of dry (12-14 March) and wet (15-17 March) weather. The distinct weather regimes served as convenient validation periods for the model predictions. Results show significant differences in the distribution of cumulative surface deposition of 137Cs due to wet and dry removal processes. A comparison of 137Cs deposition predicted by the model with aircraft observations of surface-deposited gamma radiation showed reasonable agreement in surface contamination patterns during the dry phase of the accident for both source terms. It is suggested that this agreement is because of the weather model's ability to simulate the extent and timing of onshore flow associated with a sea breeze circulation that developed around the time of the first reactor explosion. During the wet phase of the accident the pattern is not as well predicted. It is suggested that this discrepancy is because of differences between model predicted and observed precipitation distributions.

Dunn, Thomas; Businger, Steven

2014-05-01

64

Optimal base station placement for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation.  

PubMed

We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC. PMID:25594600

Shi, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Shi, Yi; Ding, Xu; Wei, Zhenchun

2015-01-01

65

Data assimilation of dead fuel moisture observations from remote automated weather stations  

E-print Network

Fuel moisture has a major influence on the behavior of wildland fires and is an important underlying factor in fire risk assessment. We propose a method to assimilate dead fuel moisture content observations from remote automated weather stations (RAWS) into a time-lag fuel moisture model. RAWS are spatially sparse and a mechanism is needed to estimate fuel moisture content at locations potentially distant from observational stations. This is arranged using a trend surface model (TSM), which allows us to account for the effects of topography and atmospheric state on the spatial variability of fuel moisture content. At each location of interest, the TSM provides a pseudo-observation, which is assimilated via Kalman filtering. The method is tested with the time-lag fuel moisture model in the coupled weather-fire code WRF-SFIRE on 10-hr fuel moisture content observations from Colorado RAWS in 2013. We show using leave-one-out testing that the TSM compares favorably with inverse squared distance interpolation as u...

Vejmelka, Martin; Mandel, Jan

2014-01-01

66

Unlocking wireless performance with co-operation in co-located base station pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-cell base station co-operation techniques, ranging from load-balancing, joint resource-allocation to macro-diversity schemes, have been known to improve wireless system performance significantly by exploiting the higher degrees of freedom to make more optimized decisions. However, the realization of these techniques has remained limited largely due to constraints on inter-BS communication and the latencies involved in information exchange for distributed base

Parul Gupta; Arun Vishwanath; Shivkumar Kalyanaraman; Yong Hua Lin

2010-01-01

67

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

Miss Jennie

2009-10-22

68

Determining the optimal spatial distribution of weather station networks for lumped and distributed hydrological modelling purposes using RCM datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many hydrological studies, the main limiting factor in model performance is low meteorological data quality and quantity. In some cases, like in Northern Canada and other sparsely populated areas, the meteorological records are practically inexistent. Installing weather stations becomes a necessity in these areas when water resource management becomes an issue, like when harnessing a river for hydropower generation for example. No guide exists as to where new stations should be located to optimize hydrological performance. The objective of this study is to propose a new experimental and exploratory method for determining the optimal density of a weather station network when being used for long-term hydrological modelling. Data from the Canadian Regional Climate Model at 15km resolution (CRCM15) was used to create a virtual network of stations with long and complete series of meteorological data over the Toulnustouc River basin in central Québec. Three hydrological models were used in this study. Two are lumped (HSAMI and HMETS) while the last is distributed (Hydrotel). The weather stations to be fed to the models were selected in order to minimize the number of stations while maintaining the best hydrological performance possible. A multi-objective genetic algorithm was put in place to determine which stations were to be used, and by the same occasion, where the stations should be located. It was shown that the number of stations making up the network on the Toulnustouc River basin should be at least two (2) but not higher than five (5), no matter what hydrological model is chosen. If the stations are positioned optimally, there is little to no gain to be made with a denser network. The optimization algorithm clearly identified that the right combinations of two or three stations can result in better hydrological performance than if a high density network was fed to the models. However, it was shown that a high number of stations will definitely reduce the variance related to the selection of the stations to be used. The major conclusion of this study is that if weather stations are positioned at optimal locations, a very few number of them are required to model runoff with as good as or better performance than when a high density network is used.

Arsenault, R.; Brissette, F.

2012-04-01

69

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn how to describe and observe changes in weather patterns by completing the following activities. The students will record and report changes in weather on their data sheet. The Process: Read the information on How Air Pressure Affects You. In this article you will see the term barometer. Write its definition. Now look over Weather Facts. Now go to Investigate Climate Conditions and use the weather maker to observe the effects of certain changes. Answer the questions: How much of a change in temperature is needed to make it ...

Ms. Lauren

2010-11-17

70

Using Satellite Imagery with ET Weather Station Networks to Map Crop Water Use for Irrigation Scheduling: TOPS-SIMS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evapotranspiration estimates for scheduling irrigation must be field specific and real time. Weather station networks provide daily reference ET values, but users need to select crop coefficients for their particular crop and field. A prototype system has been developed that combines satellite image...

71

Vertical distribution of zooplankton and myctophid fish at canadian weather station P, with description of a new multiple net trawl  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multiple net trawl, designed after the opening-closing Tucker trawl, was developed for sampling zooplankton or small mesopelagic fish. The trawl carries five separate nets and is monitored and controlled electronically. In August, 1973, the trawl was used to determine the vertical distribution of myctophid fish and zooplankton occurring in the upper 440 m at Canadian weather station P

B. Frost; L. McCrone

1974-01-01

72

High-resolution evapotranspiration estimates for California using satellite imagery and weather station measurements and the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially distributed potential Evapotranspiration, ET0, has been calculated to produce daily and hourly ET0 maps for the State of California at 2 km2 resolution. Hourly NOAA GOES imager satellite visible data are used to predict daily radiation. These are combined with interpolated California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) weather station meteorological data for temperature, wind speed and humidity to satisfy the Penman-Monteith ET0 equation. In the next step, we investigate the use of the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to improve the spatial estimates of daily evapotranspiration for the state of California. CIMIS real-time weather station and real-time satellite data are integrated into a prognostic version of the WRF model using its data nudging scheme. This paper we compares spatially interpolated climate parameters and evapotranspiration to the output of WRF with and without data assimilation of CIMIS data. The research assists California's Department of Water Resources to better monitor water use and water management. In addition to the scientific advances in understanding short- term weather systems and their impacts on plant resources, there is considerable societal importance, given impacts of current droughts and predictions for significantly reduced winter snow packs in California under some climate change scenarios.

Matthias, F.; Hart, Q. J.; Ustin, S. L.

2007-12-01

73

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

Smoothstone

74

Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks-radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

Valberg, Peter A; van Deventer, T Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H

2007-03-01

75

The optimization based dynamic and cyclic working strategies for rechargeable wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices.  

PubMed

In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating "bottleneck" sensor nodes is also developed in this paper. PMID:25785305

Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

2015-01-01

76

Comparative Analysis of Thunderstorm Activity in the West Caucasus According to the Instrumental Measurements and Weather Stations Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of thunderstorms days is one of the main characteristics of thunderstorms. In most cases, the number of days with different meteorological phenomena are the climate characteristic of the area. This characteristic is a common climate indicator. The comparative analysis of thunderstorms days quantity, received with lightning detector LS 8000 by Vaisala and weather stations of Krasnodar District (Russia), is presented. For this purpose the Krasnodar region was divided into 19 sites. The thunderstorm days amount and their comparison were conducted for each site according to the data of weather stations and LS 8000 lightning detectors. Totally 29 weather stations are located in this area. The number of thunderstorm days per year for the period of 2009-2012 was determined according to data, received from stations. It was received that average annual number of thunderstorm days for this area was from 33 to 39 days. The majority of thunderstorm days per year (up to 77) was registered in the south of Krasnodar region and on the Black Sea coast. The lowest thunderstorm activity (about 20 days) was observed in the North of the region. To compare visual and voice data for calculating thunderstorm days quantity of the Krasnodar region, the day was considered thundery if at least one weather station registered a storm. These instrumental observations of thunderstorms allow to obtain the basic characteristics and features of the distribution of thunderstorm activity over a large territory for a relatively short period of time. However, some characteristics such as thunderstorms intensity, damages from lightning flashes and others could be obtained only with instrumental observations. The territory of gathering thunderstorm discharges data by system LS8000 is limited by perimeter of 2250 km and square of 400 000 km2. According to the instrumental observations, the majority of storm activity also takes place on the Black Sea coast, near the cities of Sochi and Tuapse. Thus the number of thunderstorm days data characterized by the values from 49 to 158. To compare instrumental and visual-voice observations the difference between thunderstorms days quantity, obtained with visual-voice and instrumental methods, was selected as an indicator of thunderstorm activity. Total number of thunderstorm days in the Krasnodar region during 4 years is 565 according to the lightning detectors and 519 according to the weather stations. The presence of significant differences was revealed to compare number of thunderstorm days between instrumental observations and weather stations data. Thus the value of the average number of thunderstorms days on 29 meteorological stations of the Krasnodar region is reached 33-39 days. At the same time, 49-138 thunderstorm days were recorded according to the LS8000 system. This difference is caused by two factors: 1) limitations of visual-audio thunderstorms detection method at weather stations; 2) development of thunderstorms in a limited areas of the Krasnodar region, which is not the whole territory.

Knyazeva, Zalina; Gergokova, Zainaf; Gyatov, Ruslan; Boldyreff, Anton

2014-05-01

77

Predictability of PV power grid performance on insular sites without weather stations: use of artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The official meteorological network is poor on the island of Corsica: only three sites being about 50 km apart are equipped with pyranometers which enable measurements by hourly and daily step. These sites are Ajaccio (41°55'N and 8°48'E, seaside), Bastia (42°33'N, 9°29'E, seaside) and Corte (42°30'N, 9°15'E average altitude of 486 meters). This lack of weather station makes difficult the

Cyril Voyant; Marc Muselli; Christophe Paoli; Marie-laure Nivet; Philippe Poggi

2009-01-01

78

Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

Ham, J. M.

2013-12-01

79

National Scale Rainfall Map Based on Linearly Interpolated Data from Automated Weather Stations and Rain Gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the slew of disasters that devastates the Philippines on a regular basis, the national government put in place a program to address this problem. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards, or Project NOAH, consolidates the diverse scientific research being done and pushes the knowledge gained to the forefront of disaster risk reduction and management. Current activities of the project include installing rain gauges and water level sensors, conducting LIDAR surveys of critical river basins, geo-hazard mapping, and running information education campaigns. Approximately 700 automated weather stations and rain gauges installed in strategic locations in the Philippines hold the groundwork for the rainfall visualization system in the Project NOAH web portal at http://noah.dost.gov.ph. The system uses near real-time data from these stations installed in critical river basins. The sensors record the amount of rainfall in a particular area as point data updated every 10 to 15 minutes. The sensor sends the data to a central server either via GSM network or satellite data transfer for redundancy. The web portal displays the sensors as a placemarks layer on a map. When a placemark is clicked, it displays a graph of the rainfall data for the past 24 hours. The rainfall data is harvested by batch determined by a one-hour time frame. The program uses linear interpolation as the methodology implemented to visually represent a near real-time rainfall map. The algorithm allows very fast processing which is essential in near real-time systems. As more sensors are installed, precision is improved. This visualized dataset enables users to quickly discern where heavy rainfall is concentrated. It has proven invaluable on numerous occasions, such as last August 2013 when intense to torrential rains brought about by the enhanced Southwest Monsoon caused massive flooding in Metro Manila. Coupled with observations from Doppler imagery and water level sensors along the Marikina River, the local officials used this information and determined that the river would overflow in a few hours. It gave them a critical lead time to evacuate residents along the floodplain and no casualties were reported after the event.

Alconis, Jenalyn; Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Lester Saddi, Ivan; Mongaya, Candeze; Figueroa, Kathleen Gay

2014-05-01

80

The International Space Station as a Launch Platform for CubeSats to Study Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere (ITM) region (80 to 250 km) is the boundary between the sensible atmosphere of the Earth and space. This region receives energy and momentum contributions from the sun in the form of solar ultra-violet light and electromagnetic energy coupled via the earth's magnetosphere. The ITM region also receives energy and momentum from the lower atmosphere via waves that break and terminate turbulently in this beach-like region. The various processes, acting both as system drivers and feedback elements in the ITM region, are still poorly understood and the weather of the ITM region cannot be predicted. It is also the area where satellite drag ensures a quick end to satellite lifetimes and it has thus become known as the "inaccessible region." As the terrestrial populations wrestle with the question of "change" (global, climate, etc), our need to continue making long-term measurements is crucial, but is hampered by cost and launch opportunities for even smaller dedicated satellites. The ITM region itself has been identified as a region where almost un-measurable atmospheric changes have very measurable consequences. The International Space Station (ISS), orbiting just above this "inaccessible region", is an ideal platform from which CubeSats can be launched to study the region below. It could become a permanent launch platform for regular or responsive deployment of the small satellite fleet. For example, a group of satellites could be launched in response to a storm or an important lower atmospheric event that has been identified as occurring. Such satellites would last approximately one year before re-entering the upper atmosphere. It is an ideal location from which to routinely launch probes into the inaccessible region below to maintain a long term climate observational capability. The advantage of the ISS is that deployments of these small satellites is not contingent on finding a suitable ground based launch opportunity, whose scheduling could never be triggered by a storm type scenario. The relatively high the ISS orbit inclination also provides complete mid-latitude and equatorial coverage; during storms, the regions of interest are exactly these. We propose that 100 to 200 CubeSats could be stationed on the ISS as an Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module. Many of these spacecraft would be identical copies for space weather purposes but several different types of CubeSats could be accommodated. Small constellations would be deployed from the ISS over time by ground command. The CubeSat dispenser would eject spacecraft in the down and aft direction consistent with the ISS jettison policy to insure safety for the ISS. The dispenser would also provide the ability to communicate and recharge the hosted CubeSats through the ISS systems to maintain the CubeSats over an extended stay at the ISS. This ability would require modifications to the existing CubeSat standard. Within this paper we describe the conceptual design of such a CubeSat deplorer system for the ISS and the systems level study conducted at Utah State University - Space Dynamics Laboratory for the National Science Foundation on these concepts.

Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.; Sojka, J. J.

2011-12-01

81

Gallium Nitride -based Microwave Power Varactors for Wireless Base Station Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of wireless communication systems, the demand for providing tunability in the wireless communication circuits becomes more and more intense. Among the technologies, semiconductor varactor is the critical component that is capable of implementing tunable and adaptive characteristics, particularly for the frond-end components of the wireless communication systems. For base station applications, high voltage handling capability, typically of 100 V or greater, high quality factor (Q), typically of above 100 at operation frequency, and high linearity, OIP3 > 65 dBm, are required. This work will mainly discuss in detail the design, fabrication and characterization to achieve the high-voltage high-Q and high-linearity microwave power varactors for wireless base station applications. Some preliminary varactor applications in the test tunable circuits will be demonstrated too. In this dissertation, we first introduce the physics of the semiconductor varactors and the motivation for choosing GaN as the candidate material for this microwave power varactor. Then we elucidate the critical design considerations for achieving high breakdown voltage, high quality factor and high linearity. The novel Schottky barrier engineered design using a thin InGaN surface layer on top of GaN to enhance the breakdown voltage of GaN-based Schottky diodes is therefore introduced. We then show the theoretical and experimental studies on the suppression mechanisms for electron tunneling in the InGaN/GaN Schottky barriers. The detailed material characterization for the InGaN/GaN material system and its application for the enhancement-mode HEMTs are also presented. Next, we discuss the initial device fabrication procedure and the improving methods based on the initial DC and RF measurement results. Thereafter, we report the detailed characterizations of the fabricated devices including the high-voltage I-V and C-V, S-parameters for 1-port and 2-port devices, linearity and application in the tunable resonant circuits. Finally, we summarize the dissertation and outline the future work. In this work, we achieved a high-performance GaN-based microwave power varactors with breakdown voltage > 100 V, quality factor > 100 and OIP3 > 71 dBm. It meets the initial goal of this project as well as the specifications in some practical applications. To the best of our knowledge, this combination of breakdown voltage, Q and OIP3 represents remarkable advancement from any other reported varactors.

Lu, Wei

82

Analysis of fog occurrence on E11-A75 Motorway, with weather station data in relation to satellite observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport is often disturbed in wintertime by fog occurrence causing delay. Fog may also be responsible for dramatic accidents causing injuries and fatalities. For meteorological weather services, fog is defined as when visibility is less than 1000 m. However, for road traffic, when visibility becomes less than 200 m, fog is considered a traffic hazard for road transport. Fog forecast remains a difficult task. Satellite observation combined with surface measurements by a network of road weather stations can provide short-term information that could be useful to assist traffic authorities in taking decisions relating to traffic control measures or drivers information. Satellite images allow to identify cloud types and to establish a map of the risk of fog occurrence. The surface measurements help to discriminate between low clouds and fog. The analysis method has already been tested last winter on some case studies on the motorway E11-A75 in Auvergne region in France, thanks to a network of 15 weather stations along the 300 km of motorway. In the highest area that is between 580 and 1100 m, the value of the relative humidity has been analysed in relation to the visibility measured by a diffusiometer and the observations of road maintenance staff. The main results will be presented and connected to the traditional synoptic network of Météo-France. In order to improve the map of fog risks, the requirement to have relevant data has been pointed out, especially for the relative humidity near the ground surface (i.e. 2 m above the ground). To go further in this investigation, one weather station, at the Col de la Fageole, has been identified as having the greatest occurrence of dense fog, i.e. less than 200 m. Then it has been decided to enrich the instrumentation at this observation point later on with a present weather sensor and with a camera. This paper will focus on the physical data of the weather station. It will be examined how the additional data of the new sensor, the meteorological visibility and the discrimination of the nature of precipitation will help to improve the analysis.

Colomb, M.; Bernardin, F.; Favier, B.; Mallet, E.; Laurantin, O.

2010-07-01

83

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

Ms. Caitlin

2009-10-21

84

Activities in Teaching Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

Tonn, Martin

1977-01-01

85

50 years return period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design purpose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or on long-term applications with positive results. New standards like CENELEC EN 50341-1 (2012) take into account for the overhead line design characteristic loads, i.e. 50 years return period loads. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model as described in ISO 12494 annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a POT (Peak Over Threshold) method.

Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

2014-08-01

86

Comparison of parallel temperature measurements from conventional and automatic weather stations at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabra Observatory , located in a promontory at 411 meters above sea level in the outskirts of Barcelona, hosts a continuous climate record since 1913. Additionally, it has been recording since 1996 simultaneous temperature and precipitation data with conventional instruments and automated systems. The automatization of recording sites employed with climatological purposes is happening elsewhere in the country and across the globe. Unfortunately, in most cases long lasting parallel measurements, are not kept. Thereafter, this site offers an excellent opportunity to study the impact of the introduction of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The conventional station (CON) equips a liquid in glass thermometer, located inside a standard Stevenson screen. The automatic measurements (AWS) have been taken using MCV-STA sensors sheltered in a MCV small plate-like ventilated screen between 1996 and the end of July 2007. For our analysis, this MCV period is split in two (T1, T2) due to an obvious jump in the differences AWS-CON in October 2002, produced by unknown reasons. From August 2007 to the present (T3), a Vaisala HMP45AL sensor was placed inside a Stevenson Screen and used for automatic measurements. For daily maximum temperatures, the median differences reach 3.2°C in T1, 1.1°C in T2 and merely -0.1°C in T3. In this later period, 94% of the differences are comprised in a ±0.5°C range, compared to 23% in T2 and only 6% in T1. It is interesting to note how the overheating of the MCV screen dominates the difference series, as 85% of the AWS values taken in T1 and T2 are warmer than the conventional measurements, contrasting with only 27% of cases during T3, when the automated measurements were taken inside a Stevenson screen. These differences are highly temperature dependent: low (high) AWS temperatures are associated with small (large) differences with the CON series. This effect is also evident if temperatures are analyzed by seasons: summer differences are much higher than winter differences in T1 (median value of 3.6°C vs 2.6°C) and T2 (1.7°C vs. 1.0 °C). In T3, the effect of sheltering makes winter AWS temperatures slightly cooler (-0.2°C), meanwhile summer median difference is 0.0°C. This effect is also noticed when looking at other elements such as the sunshine hours. Days with very short sunshine periods (<=3 hours) are characterized by lower median differences in T1 and T2 (1.6°C/0.4°C) compared to those days with more than 10 hours of sunshine (3.8°C/1.6°C). For T3, in days with low sunshine duration, the AWS tends to be cooler by -0.2°C, meanwhile the median difference for days with more than 10 hours of sunshine is 0.0°C. Also, windy, rainless and high pressure days are linked to high temperature differences in T1 and T2. The AWS-CON differences for daily minimum temperatures are smaller and more uniform in all cases. In T1 and T2 (0.4°C for both periods) compared to those found in the daily maximum values. Also, the percentage of differences in a ±0.5° range approaches 50% in T1 and T2. In contrast, T3 median difference doubles to -0.2°C, compared to daily maximum temperature, although the percentage of differences inside the ±0.5 range remains at 94%. As can be seen, the sheltering differences become less important during nighttime. Not surprisingly, about 80% of the values in T1 and T2 and 93% in T3 are cooler in the AWS. Seasonally, in winter, the 3 periods show a median difference of -0.3°. During summer, nighttime values recorded at the MCV screen (T1, T2) differ by -0.5°C to the conventional thermometer readings, meanwhile the Vaisala sensor sheltered inside a Stevenson screen, has a median difference of -0.1°C with the conventional data. Also, although there is a relation with other climate elements such as sunshine duration, pressure, wind or precipitation, it is less remarkable than in the daytime values. In the framework of the Spanish project CGL2012-32193, "Determination and evaluation of the bias introduced by the automatation of meteorological stations in climate time

Aguilar, Enric; Gilabert, Alba; Prohom, Marc

2013-04-01

87

Presented at the IEEE Topical Workshop on Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications, San Diego, CA, September 2002. Broadband linear high power amplifier for base station  

E-print Network

Presented at the IEEE Topical Workshop on Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications, San Diego, CA, September 2002. Broadband linear high power amplifier for base station Pengcheng Jia, Lee broadband wireless and satellite communication systems call for linear, broadband and high power amplifier

88

Generalized Potential Temperature in a Diagnostic Study of High Impact Weather over an Urban Station of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropospheric atmosphere is neither absolutely dry nor completely saturated. It is, in general, moist. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the role of generalized potential temperature (GPT) in describing the humid state of the real moist atmosphere pertaining to understanding the prevalence of high impact weather systems over an urban station, Kolkata (22°32'N; 88°20'E), of India. A comparative study among GPT, equivalent potential temperature (EPT), potential temperature and relative humidity to reveal the significance of GPT in a precise understanding of the high impact weather of Kolkata is carried out. To attain the objectives, 50 cases of thunderstorms, 15 cases of tropical cyclones and 15 heavy rainfall days are selected during the pre-monsoon season (April-May) over Kolkata (22°32'N; 88°20'E), India. The condition—decision support system of rough set theory is adopted as the methodology. The result of the study reveals that GPT is the most pertinent convective parameter in estimating the prevalence of the high impact weather of Kolkata during the pre-monsoon season and is observed to be better than RH. The results, thus, show that the moist air is capable of describing the distribution of water vapour and thermodynamic properties of the real atmosphere more precisely than an absolutely dry and completely saturated state of the atmosphere.

Chaudhuri, Sutapa; Dutta, Debashree

2014-08-01

89

Total Lightning Flashrate and Severe Weather at Ground in a Thunderstorm at a Tropical Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many experimental and theoretical studies in the past have used the lightning characteristics to categorize the thunderstorms and predict the severity of thunderstorms, because many times severe weather is found to associate with unique lightning characteristics. However, the robust relationship between storm dynamics, severe weather, and lightning activity have not been clearly established. The north-eastern part of India is known to experience very severe thunderstorms during the pre-monsoon season, locally known as ‘Nor-wester’. Measurements of electric field made below such severe thunderstorm at Guwahati, India are reported here. Lightning flash rate increases drastically to about 84 flashes per minute during the active stage of the thunderstorm from about 15 flashes per minute during the initial phase, which lasted for about 7 minutes. Sudden increase in lightning flash rate ( ‘lightning jump’) of about 65 fpm/min is also observed in the beginning of active stage. The dissipating stage is marked by the slow and steady decrease in lightning frequency. Despite very high flash rate during the active stage, no severe weather conditions are observed at the ground. Skew-t graph at Guwahati shows large Convectively Available Potential Energy (CAPE) in the temperature range between -5 degC to - 20 degC. It is proposed that the short duration of the active stage may be the reason for the non-observance of severe weather conditions at the ground. It is also concluded that the vertical distribution of CAPE also may play some role in the non-observance of severe weather at ground during this thunderstorm. Further, electric field changes and recovery curves suggest that the thundercloud with normal positive dipole charge structure during initial phase. However, active and dissipation stages of thunderstorm indicate presence of strong Lower Positive Charge Centers (LPCC). During active and dissipation stages, all electric field change after a lightning discharge are bipolar, negative one immediately follows the first one, which is always positive. This behavior of electric field changes in the active and dissipation stages suggests that either in these stages all the lightning discharges are initiated from LPCC or removal of LPCC by a lightning discharge that had triggered another discharge from main negative charge region. Variation of lightning flash rate during different stages of the storm.

Pawar, S. D.; Murugavel, P.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

2009-12-01

90

A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

2014-01-01

91

Climatology of the East Antarctic ice sheet (100[degrees]E to 140[degrees]E) derived from automatic weather stations  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a climate picture of a large share of eastern Antarctica, arrived at from records obtained from automatic weather stations. These stations have permitted sampling of such data over extended periods of time, which have not been possible before. Data from remote sensing units has been sampled by the ARGOS data collection system on the NOAA series satellites since the late 1970's. Data is presented on temperature, pressure, and wind speed and direction.

Allison, I. (Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart (Australia)); Wendler, G. (Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia)); Radok, U. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1993-05-20

92

A procedure for automated quality control and homogenization of historical daily temperature and precipitation data (APACH): part 1: quality control and application to the Argentine weather service stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the quality-control component of an automatic procedure (APACH: A Procedure for Automated Quality\\u000a Control and Homogenization of Weather Station Data) developed to control quality and homogenize the historical daily temperature\\u000a and precipitation data from meteorological stations. The quality-control method is based on a set of decision-tree algorithms\\u000a analyzing separately precipitation and minimum and maximum temperature. All

Jean-Philippe Boulanger; J. Aizpuru; L. Leggieri; M. Marino

2010-01-01

93

Long-Range Wireless Mesh Network for Weather Monitoring in Unfriendly Geographic Conditions  

PubMed Central

In this paper a long-range wireless mesh network system is presented. It consists of three main parts: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Base Terminal Units (BTUs) and a Central Server (CS). The RTUs share a wireless network transmitting in the industrial, scientific and medical applications ISM band, which reaches up to 64 Km in a single point-to-point communication. A BTU controls the traffic within the network and has as its main task interconnecting it to a Ku-band satellite link using an embedded microcontroller-based gateway. Collected data is stored in a CS and presented to the final user in a numerical and a graphical form in a web portal. PMID:22164008

Toledano-Ayala, Manuel; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Soto-Zarazúa, Genaro M.; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Bazán Trujillo, Rey D.; Porrás-Trejo, Rafael E.

2011-01-01

94

Correlation features for rows averaged values of meteorological parameters obtained from measurements in regional network of the automated ultrasonic weather stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical estimates and analysis are presented of correlations within surface layer for averaged (over periods from 1 to 20 minutes) values of meteorological parameters obtained as a result of measurement data processing. The measurement data are acquired form information-measuring system which includes several spatially separated automated ultrasonic weather stations located in Tomsk suburbs.

Bogushevich, A. Ya.; Korolkov, V. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

2014-11-01

95

Wireless Acoustic Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server can control the operations of the field stations for calibration and for recording of measurement data. A test engineer positions and activates the WAMS. The WAMS automatically establishes the wireless network. Next, the engineer performs pretest calibrations. Then the engineer executes the test and measurement procedures. After the test, the raw measurement files are copied and transferred, through the wireless network, to a hard disk in the control server. Subsequently, the data are processed into 1.3-octave spectrograms.

Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

2007-01-01

96

Wireless Acoustic Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server can control the operations of the field stations for calibration and for recording of measurement data. A test engineer positions and activates the WAMS. The WAMS automatically establishes the wireless network. Next, the engineer performs pretest calibrations. Then the engineer executes the test and measurement procedures. After the test, the raw measurement files are copied and transferred, through the wireless network, to a hard disk in the control server. Subsequently, the data are processed into 1/3-octave spectrograms.

Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

2005-01-01

97

Teachers guide for building and operating weather satellite ground stations for high school science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of colleges and universities are operating APT direct readout stations. However, high school science teachers have often failed to realize the potential of meteorological satellites and their products as unique instructional tools. The ability to receive daily pictures from these satellites offers exciting opportunities for secondary school teachers and students to assemble the electronic hardware and to view real time pictures of Earth from outer space. The station and pictures can be used in the classroom to develop an approach to science teaching that could span many scientific disciplines and offer many opportunities for student research and participation in scientific processes. This can be accomplished with relatively small expenditures of funds for equipment. In most schools some of the equipment may already be available. Others can be constructed by teachers and/or students. Yet another source might be the purchase of used equipment from industry or through the government surplus channels. The information necessary for individuals unfamiliar with these systems to construct a direct readout for receiving real time APT photographs on a daily basis in the classroom is presented.

Summers, R. J.; Gotwald, T.

1981-01-01

98

Wireless  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless Networking Mini-Tutorial (WKMN) [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.wkmn.com/newsite/wireless.html#whatWi-Fi Alliancehttp://www.wi-fi.org/OpenSection/index.asp3Com: 802.11b Wireless LANs [pdf]http://www.3com.com/other/pdfs/infra/corpinfo/en_US/50307201.pdfInformation on BlueToothhttp://www.palowireless.com/bluetooth/e-week: WiFi Securityhttp://www.eweek.com/category2/0,1738,1591939,00.aspO'Reilly Network: Wireless Surveyinghttp://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/wireless/2004/05/27/wirelessonPocketPC.htmlBitpipe: Wireless LAN White Papers [pdf]http://www.bitpipe.com/data/rlist?t=sys_10_34_4_2_np&sort_by=status&src=googleThe first website from WKMN (1) identifies the major types of wireless used today as Local Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs) and Mobile Wireless, and Personal Area Networks. The WiFi Alliance, which certifies interoperability of IEEE 802.11 products in order "to promote them as the global, wireless LAN standard across all market segments" also gives an overview of WiFi, or Wireless Fidelity, on this second website (2). The IEEE 802.11 is the common standard used for LANs and is described more in this white paper from 3Com (3). The Bluetooth infrastructure, more common in Personal Area Networks, is described on this website (4 ). The current hot issue in the Wi-Fi world is security, which is discussed in this article from e-Week (5). Legal issues are also being raised, especially since the boundaries for wireless are unclear, which means people can survey for wireless networks without paying for access. This process is described in an article from the O'Reilly Network website (6). Finally, this last website (7) offers a number of white papers on wireless LAN.

99

Station Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will allow users to become acquainted with station models that are found on weather maps. Students will study the various atmospheric variables that are depicted on a station model and then practice on an interactive station model program. Part 1 - Being able to read and interpret weather maps is a very important skill in meteorology. One of the most basic skills of predicting the weather is being able to interpret a station model of a given location. A station model is a bundle of information that ...

Mr. Ertl

2007-11-03

100

Weather Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

101

Concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Ocean Weather Station P from 1969 to 1981  

SciTech Connect

From May 1959 to June 1981 the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide was measured in 2419 samples of air collected on a weather ship situated at 50/sup 0/N and 145/sup 0/W in the North Pacific Ocean. Three principal characteristics of the variation in concentration of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ are revealed by these data: an annual variation that repeats with nearly the same pattern each year, an interannual variation that correlates with the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere, and a long-term increase that is nearly proportional to the global input of CO/sub 2/ from the combustion of fossil fuels. The peak-to-trough amplitude of the smoothed annual signal increased from 13.3 ppM in 1969 to 14.5 ppM in 1981. The phasing of the annual CO/sub 2/ cycle suggests a close relation to the activity of land plants in the broad region of the northern hemisphere where plants grow mainly during the summer. The increasing amplitude suggests a heightening plant activity. The interannual variation and its first derivative correlate with the Southern Oscillation. A lag of 6 months in the derivative suggests a distant oceanic or terrestrial source-sink in the tropics or southern hemisphere. The seasonally adjusted CO/sub 2/ concentration increased from 324.9 ppM in May 1969 to 340.8 ppM in June 1981. This increase is 60% of the increase that would have occurred if all the CO/sub 2/ from fossil fuel combustion had remained in the atmosphere and had been uniformly distributed there. The seasonally adjusted concentration, when averaged from 1975 to 1981, is 0.8 ppM lower than that found at Point Barrow, Alaska, at 71/sup 0/N and 0.9 ppM higher than that found at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, at 19/sup 0/N, suggesting a steadily decreasing concentration in CO/sub 2/ from north to south in the broad band from 70/sup 0/N to 20/sup 0/N.

Keeling, C.D.; Whorf, T.P.; Wong, C.S.; Bellagay, R.D.

1985-10-20

102

Phenology model from weather station meteorology does not predict satellite-based onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal temperature changes in temperate forests are known to trigger the start of spring growth, and both interannual and spatial variations in spring growth have been tied to climatic variability. Satellite data are finding increased use in regional and global phenological studies, but to date there have been few efforts to rigorously tie remotely sensed phenology to surface climate records. Where satellite records have been compared to broad-scale climate patterns, broadleaf deciduous forests have typically been characterized as a single functional type and differences between communities ignored. We used a simple two-parameter spring warming model to explore the relationship between interannual climate variability and satellite-based phenology in New England broadleaf temperate forests. We employed daily air temperature records between 2000 and 2005 from 171 NOAA meteorological stations to parameterize a simple spring warming model predicting the date of MODIS half-maximum greenness (spring onset). We find that the best model starts accumulating heating degree days (HDD) after March 20th and when average daily temperatures exceed 5°C. Critical heat sums to reach onset range from 150 to 300 degree-days, with increasing requirements southward and in coastal regions. In our findings, the spring warming model offers little improvement on the photoperiod null model (i.e. the average date of onset). However, differences between the relative goodness-of-fit of the spring warming model compared to the null (coined the 'climate sensitivity ratio', or CSR) displayed unexpected spatial coherency. The spatial variation in CSR appears to be related to differences in forest composition, with clear differences between northern (beech-maple-birch) and central (oak-hickory) hardwood forests. The two forest types may respond to climate differently, with disparate sensitivities to the minimum temperature initiating spring growth (3 and 6°C, respectively). We conclude that spatial location and species composition are critical factors which regulate the phenological response to climate. Regardless of model choice, satellite observations of temperate phenology cannot be effectively tied to climate without regard to community composition.

Fisher, J. I.; Richardson, A. D.; Mustard, J. F.

2006-12-01

103

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.

Evan B. Forde

2004-04-01

104

Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations  

SciTech Connect

Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

1980-10-01

105

Energy efficient schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple mobile base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main design issues for a sensor network is conservation of the energy available at each sensor node. We propose to deploy multiple, mobile base stations to prolong the lifetime of the sensor network. We split the lifetime of the sensor network into equal periods of time known as rounds. Base stations are relocated at the start of

Shashidhar Rao Gandham; Milind Dawande; Ravi Prakash; S. Venkatesan

2003-01-01

106

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

DOE /NV

1999-01-28

107

Base-Station Selections for QoS Provisioning Over Distributed Multi-User MIMO Links in Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

We propose the QoS-aware BS-selection and the corresponding resource-allocation schemes for downlink multi-user transmissions over the distributed multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) links, where multiple location-independent base-stations (BS), controlled by a central server, cooperatively transmit data to multiple mobile users. Our proposed schemes aim at minimizing the BS usages and reducing the interfering range of the distributed MIMO transmissions, while satisfying diverse statistical delay-QoS requirements for all users, which are characterized by the delay-bound violation probability and the effective capacity technique. Specifically, we propose two BS-usage minimization frameworks to develop the QoS-aware BS-selection schemes and the corresponding wireless resource-allocation algorithms across multiple mobile users. The first framework applies the joint block-diagonalization (BD) and probabilistic transmission (PT) to implement multiple access over multiple mobile users, while the second one employ...

Du, Qinghe

2011-01-01

108

Martian Weather Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the Earth's population continues to grow and resources continue to dwindle, humankind has looked to other planets for possible colonization. With current technology, colonization of Mars is the most viable option. Although general facts about Mars are known, such as its low temperatures, low pressure, and atmospheric density, more specific information is needed. To this end, team ARES from the Colorado School of Mines has designed a module to measure atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the data will be transmitted twice daily to an orbiting satellite. In order to provide overlap in case of interference during transmission time, because of occurrences such as dust storms, the data will be stored for 24 hours. Our design is an expanding modular structure, similar to a Hoberman Micro Sphere by Hoberman Designs, Inc, in which the instruments are protected from the harsh atmospheric conditions yet are still able to take measurements. The interior will consist of eight octants. A rod attached to opposite sides of the frame expands upon landing, opening the frame. A swivel mechanism at the middle of the rod allows the octets to orient themselves. The bottom four octets will house the instruments, computer, and batteries while the top four will be solar panels and have the antennae. This design is adaptable to various shell designs; also, it is both strong enough to survive and able to orient itself after deployment.

Burnett, William; Bush, J. David; Harwell, Kendall; Jones, Alan; Kaneta, Joyce

2002-01-01

109

Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides  

E-print Network

Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides Clay Creech Phil Barbour #12;HMSC Weather Station #12;Temp-Humidity Sensor at Library #12;http://weather.hmsc.oregonstate.edu #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Archived Data is Available every 15 mins. #12;#12;A pyranometer measures solar radiation #12;#12;National Weather Service

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

110

Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser  

E-print Network

Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser #12;Weather Resources 1. Weather Stations 2. Weather Forecasts (NOAA/Maddalena) 3. Pyrgeometer 4. 86 GHz Tipping Radiometer 5. 12 GHz Interferometer #12;Weather Parameters 1 May 2004 to 1 March 2007 speedwindousInstantaneV :Hz)(12StationWeather e

Balser, Dana S.

111

Are The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment In Amazonia (LBA) Representative Of Long-Term Climatology? A Study Using Climate Weather Stations In Brazil.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia has already contributed understanding of the flux exchange between the Amazonian rainforest and atmosphere and other significant components of the ecohydrometeorological system, and it will continue to do so. However, when considering LBA-derived information on whether the Amazon is a source or sink of carbon, or whether land use changes in the Amazon are affecting the local and perhaps global climate, it is important to characterize the period during which the LBA project has been carried out in terms of its climatological context. In other words, to address the question "How does the climate during the LBA data collection period compare with the long-term climatology in Amazon." Such information is not only useful for future project planning but is crucial information for modeling purposes: the calibration or validation of models using LBA data may be influenced by the climate conditions prevalent when these data were collected. This investigates the extent to which the actual period of data collection at LBA sites is representative of the long-term climatology for the sites. The research uses long-term weather station data taken from the databases of Brazilian National Water Agency (Agencia Nacional de Aguas - ANA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - National Climatic Data Center division (NOAA-NCDC) for stations located near the Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira, Manaus, Santarem, Caxiuana, Jaru, Sinop, and Bananal LBA sites, and compares these weather station data during the LBA data collection period with the entire dataset available for each weather station. Analysis of the precipitation records demonstrates that the precipitation climate during the LBA study period was not significant different from the long- term climatology at all the LBA sites but that at a few sites the temperature climate during LBA was statistically different.

Rosolem, R.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Goncalves, L. G.

2007-12-01

112

The effect of weather and climate on traffic accidents, crime, and mortality in Bryan-College Station, Texas  

E-print Network

, however, has there been any concerted effort to investigate systematically the more subtle effects of weather on the psychological attitudes and physiological responses of man. Biometeorology is the field of science that studies the relationships... the usual approach of studies in human biometeorology. The emphasis, traditionally, has been on the in- depth investigation of a single area of interest, e. g. , weather effects on mortality, on discomfort, or on certain aspects of behavior...

Campbell, Timothy Richard

1973-01-01

113

Linking the Annual Variation of Snow Radar-derived Accumulation in West Antarctica to Long-term Automatic Weather Station Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the snow accumulation rate on polar ice sheets is important in assessing mass balance and ice sheet contribution to sea level rise. Measuring annual accumulation on a regional scale and extending back in time several decades has been accomplished using the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Snow Radar on the NASA DC-8 that is part of NASA's Ice-Bridge project. The Snow Radar detects and maps near-surface internal layers in polar firn, operating from 2- 6 GHz and providing a depth resolution of ~4 cm. During November 2011, Snow Radar data were obtained for large areas of West Antarctica, including a flight segment that passed within ~70 km of Byrd Station (80°S, 119°W). Byrd Station has a very long automatic weather station (AWS) record, extending from present to 1980, with 3 relatively brief gaps in the record. The AWS data for Byrd Station were obtained from the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC) at the University of Wisconsin. The L1B Snow Radar data products, available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), were analyzed using layer picking software to obtain the depth of reflectors in the firn that are detected by the radar. These reflectors correspond to annual markers in the firn, and allow annual accumulation to be determined. Using the distance between the reflectors and available density profiles from ice cores, water equivalent accumulation for each annual layer back to 1980 is obtained. We are analyzing spatial variations of accumulation along flight lines, as well as variations in the time series of annual accumulation. We are also analyzing links between annual accumulation and surface weather observations from the Byrd Station AWS. Our analyses of surface weather observations have focused on annual temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind extremes (e.g. 5th and 95th percentiles) and links to annual snow accumulation. We are also examining satellite-derived sea ice extent records for the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas sector (60°W-120°W) over the same 31-year time period and comparing results to annual snow accumulation. Results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

Feng, B.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P.; Paden, J. D.; Leuschen, C.; Purdon, K.

2013-12-01

114

QoS-Aware Base-Station Selections for Distributed MIMO Links in Broadband Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

We propose the QoS-aware BS-selection schemes for the distributed wireless MIMO links, which aim at minimizing the BS usages and reducing the interfering range, while satisfying diverse statistical delay-QoS constraints characterized by the delay-bound violation probability and the effective capacity technique. In particular, based on the channel state information (CSI) and QoS requirements, a subset of BS with variable cardinality for the distributed MIMO transmission is dynamically selected, where the selections are controlled by a central server. For the single-user scenario, we develop two optimization frameworks, respectively, to derive the efficient BS-selection schemes and the corresponding resource allocation algorithms. One framework uses the incremental BS-selection and time-sharing (IBS-TS) strategies, and the other employs the ordered-gain based BS-selection and probabilistic transmissions (OGBS-PT). The IBS-TS framework can yield better performance, while the scheme developed under the OGBS-PT fr...

Du, Qinghe

2011-01-01

115

A proposal for a unified process to improve probabilistic ground snow loads in the United States using SNODAS modeled weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow loads govern roof design in many parts of the United States. These loads are largely prescribed by the American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE 7 Standard for minimum design loads. Where ASCE 7 does not specify snow loads due to extreme local variability, such as in the West, many state jurisdictions have developed individual roof snow load documents and maps. However, among the western states border discrepancies and a general lack of uniformity in the methodology for developing such loads indicates a need for a unified approach. This paper proposes a methodology to develop ground snow loads for the western United States, the application of which is illustrated for the state of Colorado. An innovative approach is taken which utilizes a hydrological snowpack model, Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS), developed by NOAA. This model provides estimates of ground snow depth and snow water content, easily convertible into loads, at 588 SNODAS weather stations in Colorado. The methodology proposed here then incorporates statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate cluster analyses to regionalize the SNODAS stations by key shared properties. Several types of cluster analyses are evaluated including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), k-means, and a PCA-based method. Using various statistical and practical measures of quality, a step-wise hybrid method combining both AHC and k-means techniques is found to be the most statistically sound and robust clustering method. A relationship is then developed between ground snow depths and ground snow loads for each cluster of SNODAS weather stations. This paper proposes the following additional steps. A database of National Weather Service CO-OP stations with snow depth only measurements is gathered for the state of interest. The 50-year ground snow depths are extrapolated by testing the goodness-of-fit of several probability distributions. The ground snow depth-load relationships for each cluster produced by the hybrid method are then coupled with these 50-year ground snow depths to produce 50-year ground snow loads. Finally, these ground snow loads are mapped in GIS software using a Kriging geostatistical interpolation method to create continuous snow load isolines.

DePaolo, Michael Robert

116

50-year return-period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or long-term applications with positive results. New standard like CENELEC EN 580341-1 (2012) take into account characteristic loads, i.e. 50-year return-period loads, for the overhead line design. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model, as described in ISO 12494 standard (2001), annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a peak-over-threshold (POT) method. A practical method to determine the 90% confidence intervals of those characteristic values is given. As it is demonstrated that there is only one value of the ice class (IC) masses proposed by ISO 12494 in each confidence interval, characteristic loads can be easily expressed in terms of ICs. That method shows that ICs ranging from R1 (0.5 kg m-1) to R5 (5 kg m-1) could be used for overhead line design in France.

Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

2014-11-01

117

Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.

1996-01-01

118

Weather Maps in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

Charles Burrows

119

WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which MapServer is used to import spatial data by its database interface and to generate images of static geographic formats. However, a Java applet is additionally needed to display these images on the users local host. Furthermore, station data are visualized as time series by the scripting language PHP. Since February 2010, the visualization of gridded data products is a first step to a new data portal based on OpenLayers. In this GIS framework, all geographic information (e.g., OpenStreetMap) is displayed with MapServer. Furthermore, the visualization of all meteorological parameters are generated on the fly by a Python CGI script and transparently overlayed on the maps. Hence, station data and gridded data are visualized and further prepared for download in common data formats (csv, NetCDF). In conclusion, measured data and generated data products are provided with a data latency less than 1-2 hours in standard operation (near real time). Following an introduction of the processing system along the lines above, resulting data products are presented online at the WegenerNet data portal.

Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

2010-12-01

120

Development of a System to Generate Near Real Time Tropospheric Delay and Precipitable Water Vapor in situ at Geodetic GPS Stations, to Improve Forecasting of Severe Weather Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a system under development for generating ultra-low latency tropospheric delay and precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimates in situ at a prototype network of geodetic GPS sites in southern California, and demonstrating their utility in forecasting severe storms commonly associated with flooding and debris flow events along the west coast of North America through infusion of this meteorological data at NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Forecast Offices and the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL). The first continuous geodetic GPS network was established in southern California in the early 1990s and much of it was converted to real-time (latency <1s) high-rate (1Hz) mode over the following decades. GPS stations are multi-purpose and can also provide estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV using collocated pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology (Bevis et al. 1992, 1994; Duan et al. 1996) as implemented by NOAA with a nationwide distribution of about 300 GPS-Met stations providing PW estimates at subhourly resolution currently used in operational weather forecasting in the U.S. We improve upon the current paradigm of transmitting large quantities of raw data back to a central facility for processing into higher-order products. By operating semi-autonomously, each station will provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of the narrow communications bandwidth that often occurs in the aftermath of natural disasters. The onsite ambiguity-resolved precise point positioning solutions are enabled by a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS and a low-cost MEMS meteorological sensor package. The decreased latency (~5 minutes) PW estimates will provide the detailed knowledge of the distribution and magnitude of PW that NWS forecasters require to monitor and predict severe winter storms, landfalling atmospheric rivers, and summer thunderstorms associated with the North American monsoon. On the national level, the ESRL will evaluate the utility of ultra-low resolution GNSS observations to improve NOAA's warning and forecast capabilities. The overall objective is to better forecast, assess, and mitigate natural hazards through the flow of information from multiple geodetic stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders.

Moore, A. W.; Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Laber, J. L.; Morris, T.; Offield, D. G.; Small, I.; Squibb, M. B.

2012-12-01

121

Weather monitor station and 225 GHz radiometer system installed at Sierra Negra: the Large Millimeter Telescope site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50-m dish antenna designed to observe in the wavelength range of 0.85 to 4 mm at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra Puebla, Mexico. The telescope has a new atmospheric monitoring system that allows technical staff and astronomers to evaluate the conditions at the site and have enough information to operate the antenna in safe conditions, atmospheric data is also useful to schedule maintenance activities and conduct scientific observations, opacity data is used to calibrate the astronomical data and evaluate the quality of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. In this paper we describe the integration of a weather atmospheric monitoring system and a 225 GHz radiometer to the facilities around the telescope and also describe the hardware integration of these systems and the software methodology used to save and process the data and then make it available in real time to the astronomers and outside world through an internet connection. Finally we present a first set of atmospheric measurements and statistics taken with this new equipment during the wet and dry seasons of 2013/2014.

Ferrusca, D.; Contreras R., J.

2014-07-01

122

Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.

Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

2013-12-01

123

An architecture for wireless extension of PROFIBUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial communication systems and fieldbus systems can benefit in many ways from wireless LAN technology. However, the large amount of already deployed fieldbus LANs motivates to focus on wireless extensions of existing fieldbus systems, allowing to run wireless and wired stations in the same fieldbus LAN. There exist different architectural options for the coupling of wireless stations to a wired

Andreas Willig

2003-01-01

124

Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, November 2000)  

SciTech Connect

This addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to determine the extent of contamination existing at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321. This addendum was required when the extent of contamination exceeded the estimate in the original Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Located in Area 22 on the Nevada Test Site, Corrective Action Unit 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, consists of Corrective Action Site 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area, was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility. This facility was operational from 1951 to 1958 and dismantled after 1958. Based on site history and earlier investigation activities at CAU 321, the contaminant of potential concern (COPC) was previously identified as total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics). The scope of this corrective action investigation for the Fuel Storage Area will include the selection of biased sample locations to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, collection of soil samples using rotary sonic drilling techniques, and the utilization of field-screening methods to accurately determine the extent of COPC contamination. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives and be included in the revised CADD.

DOE /NV

2000-11-03

125

Weather Theory Introduction  

E-print Network

protects life on Earth from high energy radiation and the frigid vacuum of space. Composition a Flight Service Station (FSS) weather specialist and other aviation weather services. Be it a local flight, and waves that travel for great distances. Life on Earth is supported by the atmosphere, solar energy

126

Lessons Learned JSC Micro-Wireless Instrumentation Systems on Space Shuttle and International Space Station CANEUS 2006  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on lessons learned from NASA Johnson Space Center's micro-wireless instrumentation is shown. The topics include: 1) Background, Rationale and Vision; 2) NASA JSC/Structural Engineering Approach & History; 3) Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System; 4) WLEIDS Confidence and Micro-WIS Lessons Learned; and 5) Current Projects and Recommendations.

Studor, George

2007-01-01

127

Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind direction indicated the model error increased with the forecast period all four parameters. The hypothesis testing uses statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis is true. The goal of using the hypothesis test was to determine if the model bias of any of the parameters assessed throughout the model forecast period was statistically zero. For th is dataset, if this test produced a value >= -1 .96 or <= 1.96 for a data point, then the bias at that point was effectively zero and the model forecast for that point was considered to have no error. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed so the 45 WS would have an operational tool at their disposal that would be easy to navigate among the multiple stratifications of information to include tower locations, month, model initialization times, sensor heights and onshore/offshore flow. The AMU developed the GUI using HyperText Markup Language (HTML) so the tool could be used in most popular web browsers with computers running different operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and Linux.

Bauman, William H., III

2010-01-01

128

Satellite Weather Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an inexpensive (about $1,500) direct-readout ground station for use in secondary school science/mathematics programs. Includes suggested activities including, among others, developing map overlays, operating station equipment, interpreting satellite data, developing weather forecasts, and using microcomputers for data storage, orbit…

Summers, R. Joe

1982-01-01

129

Pilot Weather Advisor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

2006-01-01

130

Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground based, autonomous, low power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We report on the design and anticipated performance of the proposed instrument and show data from two prototype lidar instruments previously deployed to Antarctica.

Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Campbell, James; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

131

Weather impacts on space operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group for landing forecasts. Attention is given to prelaunch processing weather, launch support weather, Shuttle launch commit criteria, and range safety weather restrictions. Upper level wind requirements are examined. The frequency of hourly surface observations with thunderstorms at the Shuttle landing facility, and lightning downtime at the Titan launch complexes are illustrated.

Madura, J.; Boyd, B.; Bauman, W.; Wyse, N.; Adams, M.

132

Yellowstone Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yellowstone National Park's high altitude and mountainous terrain makes weather prediction very difficult. This website provides seasonal weather information, average temperature and precipitation data, links to weather forecasts, and other weather links.

Yellowstone National Park

133

Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

134

Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

135

Procedure for Packing Weather Files for DOE-2e  

E-print Network

simulation ............................................. 5 Table 2. List of 17 Texas weather stations and their WBAN ....................................................................... 6 Table 3. Abilene 2008 weather data from NCDC in Excel... In addition, Figure 1 and Table 2 show the 17 of Texas weather stations which represent the each area of the Texas. ESL-TR-10-09-03 Table 2. List of 17 Texas weather stations and their WBAN 2008 City Station WBAN Abilene Abilene Rgnl. AP. ABI 13962...

Kim, K. H.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.

136

Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods  

DOEpatents

An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

Deaton, Juan D. (Menan, ID); Schmitt, Michael J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Warren F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-12-13

137

Tracking mobile users in wireless communications networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking strategies for mobile wireless networks are studied. A cellular architecture in which base stations that are interconnected by a wired network communicate with mobile units via wireless links is assumed. The cost of utilizing the wireless links for the actual tracking of mobile users is considered. A tracking strategy in which a subset of all base stations is selected

Amotz Bar-Noy; Ilan Kessler

1993-01-01

138

911 Wireless Services  

MedlinePLUS

... and certain Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) licensees. Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) providers, however, are currently excluded. The ... wireless 911 call and the location of the cell site or base station transmitting the call. Phase ...

139

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

Lise Whitfield

2010-01-01

140

A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP, IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a fixed transmission rate. A protocol such as IntServ is used to provision resources along an end-to-end path of BSs for GR sessions. The Guaranteed Rates between the BSs are then specified in a doubly stochastic traffic rate matrix, which is recursively decomposed to yield a low-jitter GR frame transmission schedule. In the resulting schedule, the end-to-end delay and jitter are small and bounded, and the cell loss rate due to primary scheduling conflicts is zero. For dual-channel WMNs, the MAC protocol can achieve 100% utilization, as well as near-minimal queueing delays and near minimal delay jitter. The scheduling time complexity is O(NFlogNF), where N is the number of BSs. Extensive simulation results are presented.

Szymanski, T. H.

141

Challenges for Environmental Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many challenges posed to researchers looking to collect eco-hydrological information with monitoring systems exposed to the natural environment due, in part, to the unpredictable interactions between the environment and the wireless hardware and the scale of the deployment. While wireless sensor network technology has introduced autonomy and pervasiveness to studying the environment, it is not a panacea for outdoor monitoring systems. Despite the fact that each outdoor deployment will encounter its own unique set of challenges, it is often a benefit to researchers to know what problems were faced during other deployments and how these problems were mitigated or solved. This work examines a long-term (i.e., multi-year) environmental wireless sensor network which was deployed in a forested hill-sloped region of western Pennsylvania, USA and the main challenges that were encountered. These include: (1) the startup and maintenance costs of the wireless network; (2) the data collection system and remote access to the network; (3) the security of the network hardware and software; and (4) the reliability of wireless network connectivity. Based on our field study, it was found that while wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have less expensive startup costs compared to similarly sized wired systems (such as data logging), the WSN has relatively high maintenance costs as it requires frequent site visits (mean of 38 days per wireless node). One possible way to reduce the maintenance costs is by adjusting the sampling and/or collection frequency of the wireless nodes. In addition to the high maintenance costs, wireless communications, especially over complex networks, have low success rates of data capture from the field (approximately 50%). Environmental conditions, such as background noise, interference and weather conditions, may significantly influence the wireless communications. Technological advancements (such as smart sampling and data compression) are being developed to improve the data success rates within WSNs. Furthermore, a complex network of monitoring devices depends on the reliability of base station and gateway system for collecting, storing, and analyzing data from the field. Limitations and vulnerabilities in base station designs can lead to network outages and loss of data. In addition to addressing the above concerns, this project also examines both the reliability and security of a networked base station.

Liang, X.; Davis, T. W.

2013-12-01

142

How to Use the Weather Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial introduces The Weather Program, available from NCAR (the National Center for Atmospheric Research). The Weather program obtains weather data for requested stations and times. This tutorial provides students with experience with the interfaces, Netscape and a shell window. Students learn to access surface observations both decoded and raw and National Weather Service forecasts, watches and warnings. They learn to determine where warnings are active and to find specific requested weather information.

John Nielsen-Gammon

1996-01-01

143

Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Winter Weather Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

144

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

145

Reviews Book: Marie Curie and Her Daughters Resource: Cumulus Equipment: Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Equipment: 3D Magnetic Tube Equipment: National Grid Transmission Model Book: Einstein's Physics Equipment: Barton's Pendulums Equipment: Weather Station Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND Marie Curie and Her Daughters An insightful study of a resilient and ingenious family and their achievements Cumulus Simple to install and operate and with obvious teaching applications, this weather station 'donationware' is as easy to recommend as it is to use Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Good design and construction make for good results National Grid Transmission Model Despite its expense, this resource offers excellent value Einstein's Physics A vivid, accurate, compelling and rigorous treatment, but requiring an investment of time and thought WORTH A LOOK 3D Magnetic Tube Magnetic fields in three dimensions at a low cost Barton's Pendulums A neat, well-made and handy variant, but not a replacement for the more traditional version Weather Station Though not as robust or substantial as hoped for, this can be put to good use with the right software WEB WATCH An online experiment and worksheet are useful for teaching motor efficiency, a glance at CERN, and NASA's interesting information on the alpha-magnetic spectrometer and climate change

2013-09-01

146

Sky Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While satellites are the current backbone of telecommunications and wireless infrastructure, the company that maintains this Web site envisions a completely new technology. The Stratospheric Telecommunications Service (STS) relies on "lighter-than-air platforms which are held in a geo-stationary position in the stratosphere (approximately 21Km) over a major metropolitan area." The Sky Station company documents much of the STS theory online, as well as maintaining news and information articles about the progress of the system's development. US and international organizations have already reserved some of the radio frequency spectrum for stratospheric platforms, and it seems to have considerable support from important agencies.

147

High Altitude Weather Balloons to Support Rayleigh and Sodium Lidar Studies of the Troposphere, Stratosphere and Mesosphere at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This proposal funded 100 high altitude weather balloons costing $15,500 to support the deployment of a Rayleigh/Raman/Na lidar at the South Pole. One year of measurements have been completed and it is estimated that the balloons will provide another 1-2 years of data.

Papen, George

1995-01-01

148

STANDARDIZED ASCE PENMAN-MONTEITH: IMPACT OF SUM-OF-HOURLY VS. 24-HOUR TIMESTEP COMPUTATIONS AT REFERENCE WEATHER STATION SITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The standardized ASCE Penman-Monteith (ASCE-PM) model was used to estimate grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) over a range of climates at seven locations based on hourly and 24 h weather data. Hourly ETo computations were summed over 24 h periods and reported as sum-of-hourly (SOH). The SOH AS...

149

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

150

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

151

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting — from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment — and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.

2014-09-18

152

Eolian sand transport at three stations on a dune backed coastline in northern Indiana and their relationships to weather-related and site-specific controls  

SciTech Connect

Continuous measurements of eolian sand transport (using Automated Sand Traps) and wind speed/direction at 1.5 m above the surface were achieved on a dune backed coastline near Gary, Indiana. Data were collected on an hourly basis for a 6 month period during which 55 major sand movement events were observed. The sandstorms lasted from 1 to 16 hours with an average length of 4 hours and produced total transport quantities of up to 227 kg/m. the largest sand movement totals occurred when the wind was northerly; indeed 75% of the total sand captured at the authors station in a small blowout occurred during periods when the wind was from north. Northerly winds also dominated overall sand movement at their station on the crest of a vegetated foredune, but the total amount of transported sand was only 6.5% of that in the blowout. Hourly sand transport efficiency, expressed as the ratio of measured transport to theoretical transport (based on Bagnold's equation), averaged 0.34 at the blowout station during the spring of 1992, whereas averages for the dune crest station and a station on the backshore were 0.04 and 0.15, respectively, during the same period. Efficiencies were highly variable, even during individual storms, and exhibited no obvious systematic trend. However, storm-wind direction, topography, and sand surface character (e.g. vegetation and surface moisture conditions) were all observed to have an influence on the efficiency of sand transport at the study site.

Bennett, S.W.; Olyphant, G.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

153

UM Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

154

BBC Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the BBC offers an array of materials dealing with weather. Meteorologists can discover employment opportunities. Individuals with spectacular photographs of weather phenomenon can submit their images to the photo gallery. Students and educators can find introductory materials on basic weather concepts, forecasting, extreme events, and broadcasting the weather. The website offers fun weather-related games and projects, a meteorology glossary, and links to other educational websites.

155

Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather affects our everyday lives. Some days it's sunny and some days its not. The years weather is split up into seasons. 1. What are the four seasons? 2. What kind of weather do you see in the summer? 3. What kind of weather is unique to winter? 4. ...

Mrs. Bellows

2009-09-28

156

Fiber wireless networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband wireless networks based on a number of new frequency windows at higher microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies have been actively pursued to provide ultra-high bandwidth services over a wireless networks. These networks will have a large number of antenna base-stations with high throughput. Significant reductions in antenna base-station complexity can be achieved if most of the signal routing and switching functions centralized at a central office in the network. In such a network, fiber feed networks can be effectively deployed to provide high bandwidth interconnections between multiple antenna base-stations and the central office. With wavelength division multiplexing, efficient optical fiber feed network architectures could be realised to provide interconnection to a large number of antenna base-stations. In this paper, we present an over view of our recent research into system technologies for fiber wireless networks.

Nirmalathas, A.; Bakaul, M.; Lim, C.; Novak, D.; Waterhouse, R.

2005-11-01

157

47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations. 74...broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations. Applicants...auxiliary stations, and low power auxiliary stations authorized...application and procedural rules for wireless telecommunications...

2010-10-01

158

Weather Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable weather report is designed to help students easily note a field site's important meteorological details. The one-page PDF form asks for the following information: date, temperature, precipitation, weather type, and wind speed (based on environmental clues).

159

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather. Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Once you have a firm grasp on the science of weather forecasting, be sure to check out the other sections of this site, which include: "ice and snow," "our changing climate," "the water cycle," and "powerful storms."

160

Antarctic Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

161

Antarctic Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Antarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

2010-01-01

162

UMTS Network Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed over the 30 radiometric stations. As a the result, currently it exist a stable, flexible, safe and economic infrastructure of radiometric stations and telecommunications that allows, on the one hand, to have data in real time from all 30 remote weather stations, and on the other hand allows to communicate with them in order to reprogram them and to carry out maintenance works.

Hernandez, C.

2010-09-01

163

Tracking Mobile Users in Wireless Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking strategies for mobile wireless networks are studied. We assume a cellulararchitecture where base stations that are interconnected by a wired network communicatewith mobile units via wireless links. Previous works focused on the cost of utilizing thewired links for management of directories. In this paper, the issue considered is thecost of utilizing the wireless links for the actual tracking of

Amotz Bar-noy; Ilan Kessler

1993-01-01

164

World Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

Elias, Jaume Sanchez

2014-02-20

165

Wireless sensors for wildfire monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design of a system for wildfire monitoring incorporating wireless sensors, and report results from field testing during prescribed test burns near San Francisco, California. The system is composed of environmental sensors collecting temperature, relative humidity and barometric pressure with an on-board GPS unit attached to a wireless, networked mote. The motes communicate with a base station, which

David M. Doolin; Nicholas Sitar

2005-01-01

166

FAWN: Florida Automated Weather Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) provides up-to-date weather information through a system of automated weather stations distributed throughout the State of Florida. Research scientists at the University of Florida work closely with extension agents to monitor the FAWN system and make sure it provides fast, reliable, and convenient access. Overall, there are four parts to the FAWN system: collecting data, transmitting it to the collection site, processing the data, and redistributing it to the end user. FAWN database servers maintained by IFAS Information Technologies receive weather data about the date and time of collection, the air temperature, soil temperature, relative humidity, dewpoint, rainfall, wind direction, wind speed, and radiation from remote stations every 15 minutes. The information is processed and made available almost instantaneously through several different search methods accessible through FAWN web server, as well as an interactive voice-response system.

167

Chemical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tombstone weathering lab is designed to provide students with tangible understanding of chemical weathering and weathering rates. To prepare for this lab, students will have learned in previous labs to identify common minerals and rocks and will have attended lectures about the process of chemical weathering. During the first part of the lab we travel to the city cemetery to collect data on the age and extent of chemical weathering of tombstones that are made of limestone and igneous rocks. After collecting data for ~1 hour, we return to the computer lab where students use Microsoft Excel to analyze and interpret their data. Their task is to calculate a chemical weathering rate for limestone for our region and compare that rate to those from other regions. This activity gives students experience in the process of scientific inquiry: data collection, data analysis and data interpretation. Students develop Microsoft Excel skills: writing formulas, producing charts, understanding trendlines and R2 values.

Kira Lawrence

168

Weather Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The listed websites are recommended safe kid friendly sites that may be used when gathering data for the at home data project. Use the websites listed to learn more about daily weather patterns in different cities around the world. After you have collected and organized your data, create a graph representing the different weather patterns in that city. Use this site to record the daily high temperature for your assigned city. The Weather Channel Use this ...

Ms. Harris

2011-01-24

169

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

170

Predicting Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

171

Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The weather watch activity is designed to provide instruction on how to collect weather data from on-line databases. Following completion of this activity the user will be able to look up weather conditions for any city in North America, know what radar maps are used for and how to access them, and know how to access satellite images and make estimated guesses on cloud conditions for their area from them.

R. Hopson

172

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

173

Accuracy assessment of land surface temperature retrievals from Landsat 7 ETM + in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using iButton temperature loggers and weather station data.  

PubMed

The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are the largest snow/ice-free regions on this vast continent, comprising 1% of the land mass. Due to harsh environmental conditions, the valleys are bereft of any vegetation. Land surface temperature is a key determinate of microclimate and a driver for sensible and latent heat fluxes of the surface. The Dry Valleys have been the focus of ecological studies as they arguably provide the simplest trophic structure suitable for modelling. In this paper, we employ a validation method for land surface temperatures obtained from Landsat 7 ETM + imagery and compared with in situ land surface temperature data collected from four transects totalling 45 iButtons. A single meteorological station was used to obtain a better understanding of daily and seasonal cycles in land surface temperatures. Results show a good agreement between the iButton and the Landsat 7 ETM + product for clear sky cases. We conclude that Landsat 7 ETM + derived land surface temperatures can be used at broad spatial scales for ecological and meteorological research. PMID:24366817

Brabyn, Lars; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Stichbury, Glen; Cary, Craig; Storey, Bryan; Laughlin, Daniel C; Katurji, Marwan

2014-04-01

174

Integrated All-silicon Thin-film Power Electronics on Flexible Sheets For Ubiquitous Wireless Charging Stations based on Solar-energy Harvesting  

E-print Network

from the solar modules to AC power for wireless device charging through patterned capacitive antennas. With 0.5-2nF transfer antennas and solar modules of 100cm2 , the system provides 47-120W of power at 11 powered by the solar modules (S1/2). Each module consists of solar cells in series and operates

175

Wireless environmental data acquisition for the international space station (for mission flights 3A, 4A, 5A and 7A.1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invocon, Inc. has developed a next generation data acquisition and communications network to be deployed in, on, and around space structures under construction. This Wireless Instrumentation System (WIS) is a highly integrated remote data acquisition system for use in a wide variety of distributed sensor applications. Typical applications include modal analysis, condition-based maintenance, structural monitoring and manufacturing process control. Designed

Karl Kiefer; Kevin Champaigne

1999-01-01

176

Wacky Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

177

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

178

Kerberos Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

We proposed an authentication mechanism in the wireless sensor network. Sensor network uses the Kerberos authentication scheme for the authentication of bases station in the network. Kerberos provides a centralized authentication server whose function is to authenticate user by providing him the ticket to grant request to the base station. In this paper we have provided architecture for the authentication of base station in the wireless sensor network based on the Kerberos server authentication scheme.

Siddique, Qasim

2012-01-01

179

Station Model Plot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet provides a test of decoding station model plots. From the plot, the user must determine the temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, pressure and pressure change, and current weather. Values can be checked and attempted again.

Steve Ackerman

180

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

John Nielsen-Gammon

1996-09-01

181

Planetary Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

182

Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Applied Meteorology Unit developed a forecast tool that provides an assessment of the likelihood of local convective severe weather for the day in order to enhance protection of personnel and material assets of the 45th Space Wing Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark

2005-01-01

183

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

Duane Friend

184

Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... weather presents hazards including slippery roads/surfaces, strong winds and environmental cold. Employers must prevent illnesses, injuries, ... from surfaces) Use extreme caution when working near power lines Prevent harmful exposure to cold temperatures and ...

185

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

2013-05-29

186

Weatherizing America  

SciTech Connect

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

2009-01-01

187

Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades K-5. It focuses on basic information about the weather and how different weather maps depict conditions. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

188

Weather Creator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

KShumway

2009-09-28

189

Exploring Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

Miss Emily

2010-01-29

190

Weathering Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

Pete Stelling

191

Gravestone Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

2012-06-26

192

Space Weather Action Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Weather Action Center is a computer-based activity that allows students to track, from their classroom, the development and progress of solar storms. The activity incorporates online NASA data and addresses national education standards in science, technology and math. Students rotate through four space weather learning stations and are challenged to answer the following questions: Do sunspot regions exist today that could be a source of solar storms?; Have radio signals been recorded today from a flare or coronal mass ejection that could affect Earth?; Has there been a measurable disturbance in the Earth's magnetic field?; and Have auroras been seen within the last 24 hours because of a solar storm? A setup guide is provided to show how to create a Space Weather Action Center in the classroom, including recommendations, diagrams, and the necessary list of materials. The instructional guide features background and evaluation materials, alignments to national standards, extension activities, and instructions on how to read, analyze and record space weather data.

193

SECURING WIRELESS SECURING WIRELESS  

E-print Network

Network Security: 802.11, Bluetooth and Handheld Devices, in 2002. This guide assists organizations Bluetooth technology and wireless handheld devices such as text messaging devices, PDAs, and smart phones Special Publication (SP) 800-48, Wireless Network Security: 802.11, Bluetooth and Handheld Devices

194

Wireless traffic service communication platform for cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing weather conditions, especially in winter, have caused numerous disastrous traffic accidents in Northern Europe and in the Alpine region during recent years. Information about hazardous weather and road conditions is often potentially available but difficult or sometimes even impossible to deliver to drivers. This paper presents the international CARLINK (wireless platform for linking cars) project of the Celtic

Djamel Khadraoui; T. Sukuvaara

2009-01-01

195

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0. UPDATED WITH RECORD OF TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

U.S. DOE /NV

1999-02-08

196

Weather adjustment using seemingly unrelated regression  

SciTech Connect

Seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) is a system estimation technique that accounts for time-contemporaneous correlation between individual equations within a system of equations. SUR is suited to weather adjustment estimations when the estimation is: (1) composed of a system of equations and (2) the system of equations represents either different weather stations, different sales sectors or a combination of different weather stations and different sales sectors. SUR utilizes the cross-equation error values to develop more accurate estimates of the system coefficients than are obtained using ordinary least-squares (OLS) estimation. SUR estimates can be generated using a variety of statistical software packages including MicroTSP and SAS.

Noll, T.A. [Idaho Power Company, Boise, ID (United States)

1995-05-01

197

Improving Local Weather Forecasts for Agricultural Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For controlling agricultural systems, weather forecasts can be of substantial importance. Studies have shown that forecast errors can be reduced in terms of bias and standard deviation using forecasts and meteorological measurements from one specific meteorological station. For agricultural systems usually the forecasts of the nearest meteorological station are used whereas measurements are taken from the systems location. The objective

T. G. Doeswijk; K. J. Keesman

2005-01-01

198

Solar data acquisition wireless network for agricultural applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of a wireless data acquisition network for agricultural applications based on the Microchip PIC16C71, and the Intel 87C592 microcontrollers. The system uses a set of solar powered wireless data-acquisition stations (SPWAS) linked by radio frequency to a base station (BS). The base station has as main functions the control of the data-acquisition stations and the

Raul Morais; J. Boaventura Cunha; M. Cordeiro; C. Serodio; P. Salgado; C. Couto

1996-01-01

199

Each new car a weather station  

E-print Network

, skin allergies, research vessels, tapestries and basic natural sciences. Our Faculty boasts strong firmly established. ALLErGIES ANd SkIN CANCEr are on the rise in so- ciety, and research has presented

Johannesson, Henrik

200

The Weather Doctor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

Heidorn, Keith.

201

Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

2004-02-06

202

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday November 6th: Look at the five-day forecast for Logan Utah at Five Day Forecast in Utah. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make a bar graph for the ...

Ms. Broadhead

2007-11-06

203

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

204

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students will learn how to interpret weather patterns from satellite images, predict storm paths and forecast the weather for their area. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

205

Weather Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. Why does the wind blow? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What happens when the temperature is the same? 4. What happens when there is high relative humidity? 5. What ...

missy.jones@gmail.com

2009-09-28

206

47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section 74...Auxiliary Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast...defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a...

2013-10-01

207

47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section 74...Auxiliary Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast...defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a...

2012-10-01

208

47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section 74...Auxiliary Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast...defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a...

2014-10-01

209

47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section 74...Auxiliary Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast...defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a...

2011-10-01

210

Space Weather  

E-print Network

Space Weather :: Printer Friendly Version of Article 2005SW000176 http://www.agu.org/journals/sw/swa/feature/article/print.php?id=2005S... 1 of 5 07/07/2006 12:22 PM Shielding Space Explorers From Cosmic Rays Expert opinions-inducing radiation in space. Eugene N. Parker 18 August 2005 Any space traveler far removed from the protective

Shepherd, Simon

211

Weathering Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment is designed to allow students to observe and understand chemical and physical weathering of simulated "rocks". They will place the materials in plastic bags, one wet and one dry, and store them for 3-4 days. At the end of the storage period, they will observe the contents of both bags and answer some questions about what they see.

212

Wacky Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 5-lesson unit gives students practice in using calculating, graphing and modeling skills to analyze varoius aspects of weather. Students calculate fractions of a set of rainfall data, graph damage costs of selected hurricanes, and make Venn diagrams to compare droughts and hurricanes. Visuals and student handouts are provided.

Barbara Chichetti

2002-01-01

213

Weather Alert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students discuss the characteristics of storms, including the relationship of weather fronts and storms. Using everyday materials, they develop models of basic lightning detection systems (similar to a Benjamin Franklin design) and analyze their models to determine their effectiveness as community storm warning systems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

214

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

Mission Science Workshop

2013-01-01

215

Today's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

216

Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

Robinson, W. J., Jr.

1968-01-01

217

A cache cooperation management for wireless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proxy cache located at a base station is helpful for improving the performance of wireless multimedia streaming. In this paper, a cooperated proxy cache architecture, MobileCache, is proposed for the cell-based wireless environment. The proxies cooperate to provide seamless streaming for a wireless client. In order to improve the efficiency for MobileCache, a cache cooperation management scheme including cache replacement,

Zhe Xiangt; Zhun Zhong; Yuzhuo Zhong

2001-01-01

218

Performance of Routing Protocols for Real Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main task of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is to collect data and either send it to a base station immediately or to store it locally until the data is requested by a base station. WSN form a wireless network without specific in- frastructure thus efficient routing protocols are necessar y to let a data packet find its way

M. Becker; S. Schaust; E. Wittmann

219

Fair Scheduling in Wireless Packet Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fair scheduling of delay and rate-sensitive packet flows over a wireless channel is not addressed effectively by most contemporary wireline fair scheduling algorithms because of two unique characteristics of wireless media: (a) bursty channel errors, and (b) location-dependent channel capacity and errors. Besides, in packet cellular networks, the base station typically performs the task of packet scheduling for both downlink

Songwu Lu; Vaduvur Bharghavan; Rayadurgam Srikant

1997-01-01

220

The State of Wireless London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides the results from a survey, sponsored by the International Chamber of Commerce, which reports on the growth of wireless usage in the greater London area and compares networks built by "freenetwork" groups to those built by commercial providers. The results show that London has more than 5,000 wireless networks that are being used in offices, government buildings, prisons, police stations and government offices. The data is displayed clearly with impressive maps and detailed documentation. The reference list offers numerous links for more information about wireless networks.

221

National Weather Service  

MedlinePLUS

HOME FORECAST Local Graphical Aviation Marine Rivers and Lakes Hurricanes Severe Weather Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long Range Forecasts Climate Prediction PAST WEATHER Past Weather Heating/Cooling Days Monthly ...

222

Weather Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

Mrs. Mitchell

2010-09-23

223

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

224

THE USDA/AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE RESEARCH WEATHER NETWORK IN LAKE COUNTY, OHIO - 2002 UPDATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Permanent meteorological stations have been installed in Northeast Ohio production nurseries to archive weather data during horticultural experiments. Insect and disease management research require detailed knowledge of weather conditions. Data such as soil moisture and temperature, air temperature...

225

Implementing wireless sensor networks for architectural heritage conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preventive conservation in architectural heritage is one of the most important aims for the development and implementation of new techniques to assess decay, lending to reduce damage before it has occurred and reducing costs in the long term. For that purpose, it is necessary to know all aspects influencing in decay evolution depending on the material under study and its internal and external conditions. Wireless sensor networks are an emerging technology and a minimally invasive technique. The use of these networks facilitates data acquisition and monitoring of a large number of variables that could provoke material damages, such as presence of harmful compounds like salts, dampness, etc. The current project presents different wireless sensors networks (WSN) and sensors used to fulfill the requirements for a complete analysis of main decay agents in a Renaissance church of the 16th century in Madrid (Spain). Current typologies and wireless technologies are studied establishing the most suitable system and the convenience of each one. Firstly, it is very important to consider that microclimate is in close correlation with material deterioration. Therefore a temperature(T) and relative humidity (RH)/moisture network has been developed, using ZigBee wireless communications protocols, and monitoring different points along the church surface. These points are recording RH/T differences depending on the height and the sensor location (inside the material or on the surface). On the other hand, T/RH button sensors have been used, minimizing aesthetical interferences, and concluding which is the most advisable way for monitoring these specific parameters. Due to the fact that microclimate is a complex phenomenon, it is necessary to examine spatial distribution and time evolution at the same time. This work shows both studies since the development expects a long term monitoring. A different wireless network has been deployed to study the effects of pollution caused by other active systems such as a forced-air heating system, the parishioners presence or feasts and other ventilation conditions. Finally weather conditions are registered through a weather station. Outside and inside conditions are compared to incorporate data to the network for a later decay modeling.

Martínez-Garrido, M. I.; Aparicio, S.; Fort, R.; Izquierdo, M. A. G.; Anaya, J. J.

2012-04-01

226

Wireless autonomous device data transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

2013-01-01

227

GPS as a Weather Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) stations are not just useful for studying how tectonic plates and glaciers surge or creep or how land deforms as magma runs below it. They also are rapidly becoming important sensors for monitoring the terrestrial water cycle (see "Using GPS to study the terrestrial water cycle," pages 505-506). What is more, they can help study and forecast weather, according to scientists who presented their work at AGU's 2013 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

Kumar, Mohi

2013-12-01

228

Destructive Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

alizabethirwin

2010-11-03

229

Weather Photography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ph.D. student Harald Edens describes himself as a "photographer of lightning, clouds, atmospheric optical phenomena and astronomy". His Web site entitled Weather Photography proves this by providing a stunning collection of photographs and movies of atmospheric optics, lightning, clouds, and astronomy. The author describes how the photographs were taken, what equipment was used, and even discusses many of the phenomenon being observed such as mirages and halos. An added bonus of this very interesting site is that the author generously allows free personal use of the photographs.

230

Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This entertaining, interactive website is the perfect tool to educate users about the basics of weather forecasting and reporting. The two educational modules, created by EdHeads, each contain three levels and are designed for grades four through nine. While discovering how to predict a three-day forecast, students learn about warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, high and low pressure systems, isobars, and humidity. Teachers can find a helpful guide discussing how best to use the site as well as providing an overview of science standards, lesson plans, and pre- and post-tests for students.

231

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

232

Call processing model for wireless network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The switching network consists of a number of switches connected by trunks. The wireless network is built of base stations connected to switches. A call from a mobile user is set up through a base station and a number of switches. A switch has the input queue for the source and the output queue. The packets are held in the

A. Hac

1996-01-01

233

Wireless Access Pricing LEUNG, Kwan Fong  

E-print Network

and access price to maximize her own profit. We adopt the model proposed by [8] and enrich it with wireless's profit either. In the full coverage (both in two base stations model and three base stations model resources (profit-making) to her competitor (profit-losing). Mobile- to-mobile (MTM) access pricing has been

Huang, Jianwei

234

Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety  

E-print Network

Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety NOAA/NWS Winter Weather Safety Seasonal Campaign www.weather.gov #12;Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Hazards Winter Weather Safety www.weather.gov · Snow/Ice · Blizzards · Flooding · Cold Temperatures #12;Building a Weather

235

47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless...Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations....

2012-10-01

236

47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless...Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations....

2013-10-01

237

47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless...Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations....

2011-10-01

238

47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. 90...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless...Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations....

2010-10-01

239

Smart antennas for wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we discuss current and future antenna technology for wireless systems and the improvement that smart and adaptive antenna arrays can provide. We describe standard cellular antennas, smart antennas using fixed beams, and adaptive antennas for base stations, as well as antenna technologies for handsets. We show the potential improvement that these antennas can provide, including range extension,

JACK H. WINTERS

1998-01-01

240

Commercial Space Tourism and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space tourism, a concept which even a few years ago was perveived as science fantasy, is now a credible industry. Five individuals have paid up to $25 M to spend more than a week on the International Space Station. Several enterprises are working toward viable suborbital and orbital private space operations. while operational space weather support to human space flight has been the domain of government entities the emergence of space tourism now presents a new opportunity for the commercial space weather community. This article examines the space weather impact on crews and passengers of the future space tourism industry.

Turner, Ronald

2007-08-01

241

Commercializing Space Weather using GAIM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the en-ergy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the ionosphere is the key region that affects com-munication and navigation systems. The Utah State University (USU) Space Weather Center (SWC) was organized in 2009 to develop commercial space weather applications. It uses the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) system as the basis for providing improvements to communication and navigation systems. For example, in August 2009 SWC released, in conjunction with Space Environment Technologies, the world's first real-time space weather via an iPhone app, Space WX. It displays the real-time, current global ionosphere to-tal electron content along with its space weather drivers, is available through the Apple iTunes store, and is used around the world. The GAIM system is run operationally at SWC for global and regional (continental U.S.) conditions. Each run stream continuously ingests up to 10,000 slant TEC measurements every 15-minutes from approximately 500 stations in a Kalman filter to adjust the background output from the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM). Additionally, 80 real-time digisonde data streams from around the world provide ionosphere characterization up to the F-region peak. The combination of these data dramatically improves the current epoch ionosphere specification beyond the physics-based solution. The altitudinal range is 90-1500 km for output TEC, electron densities, and other data products with a few degrees resolution in latitude and longitude at 15-minute time granularity. We describe the existing SWC products that are used as commercial space weather information. SWC funding is provided by the State of Utah's Utah Science Technology and Research (USTAR) initiative. The SWC is physically located on the USU campus in Logan, Utah.

Tobiska, W. Kent; Schunk, Robert; Sojka, Jan J.

242

WEATHERING TRIALS OF AMULET(TM) C-L AND AMULET(TM) M-E ATTRACT AND KILL STATIONS WITH MALE MELON FLIES AND ORIENTAL FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Amulet™ C-L and Amulet™ M-E molded paper fiber “attract and kill” dispensers with cue-lure or methyl eugenol and fipronil, were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, and B. dosalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, respectively. In paired tests ...

243

Wireless Traffic Service Communication Platform for Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing weather conditions, especially in winter, have caused numerous disastrous traffic accidents in Northern Europe\\u000a and in the Alpine region during recent years. Information about hazardous weather and road conditions is often potentially\\u000a available but difficult or sometimes even impossible to deliver to drivers. This paper presents the international CARLINK\\u000a (Wireless Platform for Linking Cars) project [1] of the

Timo Sukuvaara; Pertti Nurmi; Daria Stepanova; Sami Suopajärvi; Marjo Hippi; Pekka Eloranta; Esa Suutari; Kimmo Ylisiurunen

2008-01-01

244

Controlling The Global Weather.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the weather controller is extremely complex, the existence of the required technology is plausible in the time range of several decades.While the concept of controlling the weather has often appeared in science fiction literature, this statement of the problem provides a scientific basis and a system architecture to actually implement global weather control. Large-scale weather control raises important legal and ethical questions. The nation that controls its own weather will perforce control the weather of other nations. Weather "wars" are conceivable. An international treaty may be required, limiting the use of weather control technology.

Hoffman, Ross N.

2002-02-01

245

Channel Access Unfairness of Wireless LAN Access Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an evaluation of chosen wireless LAN access methods involving stations with different bit error rates: n-1 stations in ideal transmission conditions (BER = 0) and 1 station with a given bit error rate (BER ne 0). The simulation results show that the IEEE 802.11 DCF and its modifications (Slow Decrease, AOB) are very sensitive to

E. Lopez-Aguilera; M. Heusse; F. Rousseau; A. Duda; J. Casademont

2007-01-01

246

High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce hybrid free-space optical and RF wireless links as potential technology for designing next-generation broadband wireless networks. We present various design challenges and potential solutions for real-time link performance characterization and adaptation for enhanced performance during adverse weather conditions. First, we introduce the hybrid wireless architecture and emphasize its significant role in achieving ubiquitous carrier-grade wireless connectivity. Second, we

HOSSEIN IZADPANAH; TAMER ELBATT; VIKAS KUKSHYA; FRANK DOLEZAL; BO K. RYU

2003-01-01

247

Forecast and virtual weather driven plant disease risk modeling system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe a system in use and development that leverages public weather station data, several spatialized weather forecast types, leaf wetness estimation, generic plant disease models, and online statistical evaluation. Convergent technological developments in all these areas allow, with funding f...

248

WEATHER OBSERVATIONS - SUMMARY OF THE DAY - FIRST ORDER  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Climatic Data Center makes available daily weather data for approximately 300 currently active National Weather Service stations, with a lag time (after end of data month) of about 8-10 weeks. Coverage includes the contiguous United States, Caribbean Islands, Pacific...

249

Daily Weather from Monthly Averages -- Hocus Pocus, or Useful Tool?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Just how much can you legitimately extract from monthly statistics of daily weather parameters? In this paper we present the utility and limitations of a simple weather generator (CLIGEN) which has over 750 registered users, most of whom are international. CLIGEN's 4,000-plus station files of mont...

250

A HIERARCHIAL STOCHASTIC MODEL OF LARGE SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND MULTIPLE STATION DAILY PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A stochastic model of weather states and concurrent daily precipitation at multiple precipitation stations is described. our algorithms are invested for classification of daily weather states; k means, fuzzy clustering, principal components, and principal components coupled with ...

251

Incorporating the Campus Radio Station into Your Emergency Communications Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radio stations have been a mainstay of American life since the 1920s. Broadcasting primarily over AM and FM frequencies, American radio stations have been used to provide entertainment, news, weather, and advertising to the public. Beginning in 1963 and continuing until 1997, local radio stations were part of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)…

Johnson, Thomas C.

2008-01-01

252

Weather in Your Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

253

What's the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. They will also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives. They should understand that weather can change daily and weather patterns change over the seasons, and that it has characteristics that can be measured and predicted. Suggestions for an optional field trip are also provided.

2005-01-01

254

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

255

The Impact of Weather on Air Traffic Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the National Airspace System (NAS) and how weather affects it. It describes the various components of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), how that organization manages air traffic, and how CWSU and WFO forecasts help the FAA's decision-making process. The module also provides tips on establishing a good professional relationship with this important partner (FAA), understanding their language, and preparing weather briefings that will give them the information they need. This module is part of a larger exercise to develop a station Weather Impacts Playbook, a supplement to the Station Duty Manual.

COMET

2005-05-31

256

NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

Miller, Robert D.

2007-01-01

257

On the Design and Tradeoff of Wireless Downlink Space Time Scheduler on Network Capacity and Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-known that wireless scheduling algorithm could exploit multi-user diversity to enhance the network capacity of wireless systems. However, the advantage of scheduling with respect to network coverage is a relatively unexplored topic. We consider a wireless system with an access point or base station equipped with transmit antennas as well as mobiles with single receive antenna. With multiple

Vincent K. N. Lau; Youjian Liu

258

A lightweight security protocol for ultra-low power ASIC implementation for wireless Implantable Medical Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newest generation of Implantable Medical De- vices (IMDs) employs wireless communication with a nearby base station in order to provide better treatment and monitoring of the patients. However, a wireless connection opens a host of potential security threats to the privacy and safety of patients. This paper proposes a lightweight security protocol providing authentication and confidentiality to wireless energy-limited

Saied Hosseini-Khayat

2011-01-01

259

Wireless Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless

Tech Directions, 2011

2011-01-01

260

Fiber-Wireless Networks and Subsystem Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid fiber-wireless networks incorporating WDM technology for fixed wireless access operating in the sub-millimeter-wave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency regions are being actively pursued to provide untethered connectivity for ultrahigh bandwidth communications. The architecture of such radio networks requires a large number of antenna base-stations with high throughput to be deployed to maximize the geographical coverage with the main switching and

Christina Lim; Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas; Masuduzzaman Bakaul; Prasanna Gamage; Ka-Lun Lee; Yizhuo Yang; Dalma Novak; Rod Waterhouse

2010-01-01

261

A comparison of methods for calculating population exposure estimates of daily weather for health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To explain the possible effects of exposure to weather conditions on population health outcomes, weather data need to be calculated at a level in space and time that is appropriate for the health data. There are various ways of estimating exposure values from raw data collected at weather stations but the rationale for using one technique rather than another;

Ivan Hanigan; Gillian Hall; Keith BG Dear

2006-01-01

262

Wireless Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless is just another name for radio. And of course, wireless is certainly not new. It was discovered in the late 1800s and quickly developed in the early 1900s by Marconi and others. Radio has many uses which include radio broadcasting (AM, FM, digital and satellite), 2-way radio (public service, aircraft, marine, etc.), personal and hobby (CB, FRS, ham radio, RC, etc.), and telemetry. Cell phones are two way radios as are wireless local area networks. TV, radar, satellites, and navigation systems like GPS are radio. Today radio is mostly taken for granted. However over the past decades, radio has changed our lives. The developments with the greatest impact are cell phones, wireless local area networks (WLANs) for computers, and short range radios for a variety of applications. These applications are today referred to as wireless. This module introduces you to basic radio concepts.

263

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

264

Competitive scheduling in wireless collision channels with correlated channel state  

E-print Network

We consider a wireless collision channel, shared by a finite number of mobile users who transmit to a common base station. Each user wishes to optimize its individual network utility that incorporates a natural tradeoff ...

Parrilo, Pablo A.

265

A Survey of Secure Wireless Ad Hoc Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

cooperate to form a network without using any in-frastructure such as access points or base stations. In-stead, the mobile nodes forward packets for each other, allowing communication among nodes outside wireless transmission range. The nodes'mobility and the fundamentally limited capacity of the wireless medium, together with wireless transmission effects such as attenu-ation, multipath propagation, and interference, combine to create significant

Hu. Yih-Chun; Adrian Perrig

2004-01-01

266

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK FOR AUTOMATED IRRIGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An in-field sensor-based irrigation system is of benefit to producers in efficient water management. A distributed wireless sensor network eliminates difficulties to wire sensor stations across the field and reduces maintenance cost. Implementing wireless sensor-based irrigation system is challengin...

267

Performance Analysis of Multiuser Diversity with Capture for Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of rate adaptation, multiuser diversity can be exploited in wireless networks by allowing the mobile user with the best channel to use the channel. However, polling mobile stations to obtain channel state information in large networks can result in large overhead, outweighing the multiuser diversity gain. Multiuser Diversity with Capture (MDC) is a wireless medium access control

Justin Foo; Defeng Huang

2008-01-01

268

Digital wireless electromagnetic interference (EMI) data acquisition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new digital wireless data acquisition system that cam be used to measure electro-magnetic interference (EMI) in power stations or other similar harsh environments. It comprises of a remote acquisition unit (RAU), a wireless data communication network (WDCN) and a PC-based control platform. Using digital technology, the system transmits a signal (transient or steady state) of short

W. H. Siew; Y. Wang; M. Faheem

2005-01-01

269

Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a significant enhancement to the agronomic decision-support process. Direct benefits to growers can take the form of increased yield and grade potential, as well as savings in money and time. Pest management strategies become more efficient due to timely and localized disease and pest modelling, and increased efficacy of pest and weed control. Examples from the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) WeatherFarm weather network will be utilized to illustrate the processes, decision tools and benefits to producers and farmers.

Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

2010-09-01

270

Materials International Space Station Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Patrick G. Forrester works with the the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) during extravehicular activity (EVA). MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

2001-01-01

271

Variation of radio field strength and radio horizon distance over three stations in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present seasonal results of radio field strength and radio horizon distance derived from the computation of surface refractivity through in-situ measurement of temperature, relative humidity and pressure across three stations (Akure, Minna and Enugu) in Nigeria. The measurements of the tropospheric parameters were made using a Davis Wireless Weather Station (Integrated Sensor Suite, ISS) installed on the ground surface at each of the stations. The study utilized data for two years of measurement (January 2008-December 2009). Results show that the values of surface refractivity were low during the dry season months and high during the wet season months. The lowest values of 323, 313 and 281 N-units were observed in February for Akure, Enugu and Minna respectively, while maximum values of 372, 375 and 365 N-units were observed in September, October and August for the respective locations. Also, the average value of field strength variability was found to be 6.67, 5.62 and 7.48 for Akure, Enugu and Minna respectively.

Adediji, A. T.; Ismail, Mahamod; Mandeep, J. S.

2014-03-01

272

Weather Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

1995-01-01

273

Pilot weather advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

1992-01-01

274

Space Weather FX  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Weather FX is a vodcast (video podcast) series that explores the science of space weather and how it can impact our every day lives. Episodes include Space Weather and its Effects, Connecting the Sun and Earth, When Space Weather Attacks, Stratospheric Sudden Warming, A Tour of Haystack's Radars, GPS and Space Weather, It Came from the Sun, and The Big Picture. The site also contain links to space weather information and educational materials. The episodes will run on one of four free video players.

275

The Weather Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

Mrs. Emma Grasser

2012-09-27

276

Edheads: Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.

2010-01-01

277

Wireless Downtowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coming soon to an urban center near you: wireless connectivity for your laptop or PDA, brought to you by City Hall. At least that's the hot trend among U.S. municipalities, 48 of which now offer wireless access, according to a recent report. Most municipal systems are the result of public-private partnerships, and many offer some level of free access. The first website (1) is an overview of the wireless downtown phenomenon which notes the importance of such systems for local economic development. The second link (2) is to a fact sheet about Wireless Philadelphia, which, as one of the first and largest downtown wi-fi projects, helped spark the national trend. The third website is a node map of NYCwireless (3) and the 147 access points where that municipal network currently can be accessed. The fourth link leads to a case study of chaska.net (4) , which provides wireless access to the 7,500 homes and 18,000 residents of that Minneapolis suburb. The fifth website is a pdf (5) of a slick brochure produced by the city of Gainesville, Fla., to promote its Digital Downtown project. The sixth link is to a Sacramento Bee editorial (6) making the case for downtown wireless. The seventh website is a free database listing 10,840 wireless access points in 767 locations worldwide (7) , organized by geographic region.

278

What will be the weather like tomorrow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since June 2010, our school is part of the network '"météo à l'école'": it hosts an autonomous weather station, approved by Météo France , which measures continuously the temperature and precipitation. The data is transmitted by a GSM module to a computer server. After its validation by Météo France, it is send online every day on a public accessible website : http://www.edumeteo.org/ The MPS Education ( Scientific Methods and Practices) in junior high school classes (one hour and half per week throughout the school year ) makes full use of data from the networks '"météo à l'école'" data and Météo France. Three scientific disciplines :; Mathematics, Life and Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Chemistry are part of a schedule defined after consultation and educational coherence to enable students to: - Discovering and understanding the operation of the sensors station, weather satellites ... - Operating satellite images, studying of the atmosphere and weather phenomena (formation of a storm, for example) - Operating collected data (networks 'météo à l'école' and Météo France) to identify climatic differences between regions, seasons, and their effects on living beings (study of the greenhouse effect and climate warming among others). The ultimate goal is to discover used tools and data to produce a weather forecast. We work for these purposes with the Cité de l'Espace in Toulouse (weather Pole) and the head forecaster Meteo France Merignac.

Christelle, Guilloux

2014-05-01

279

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

280

Technical Note: Novel method for water vapor monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new technique that overcomes the obstacles of the existing methods for monitoring near-surface water vapor, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, the proposed method can provide moisture observations at high temporal and spatial resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. We present results from real-data measurements taken from two microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show excellent correlation to surface station humidity measurements. The measurements were taken daily in two sites, one in northern Israel (28 measurements), the other in central Israel (29 measurements).The correlation of the microwave link measurements to those of the humidity gauges were 0.9 and 0.82 for the north and central sites, respectively. The RMSE were 20.8% and 33.1% for the northern and central site measurements, respectively.

David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

2008-06-01

281

Winter Weather: Frostbite  

MedlinePLUS

... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... related health problems. More Information: Hypothermia Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

282

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

283

Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

Mark Francek

2002-10-01

284

Owlie Skywarn's Weather Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity book from the National Weather Service that teaches about hazardous weather. The site also includes links to kids sites for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA).

Cris Garcia

2001-06-22

285

On Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

Peter Crane

2004-05-01

286

Wireless Andrew.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the Internet and laptops help Carnegie Mellon University students carry out sophisticated research anywhere on campus. How the university became a wireless community is discussed. (GR)

Fickes, Michael

2000-01-01

287

Fire Weather Climatology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The “Fire Weather Climatology” module provides a comprehensive look at fire regions across the United States and characteristics of typical fire seasons in each region. In addition, critical fire weather patterns are described in terms of their development, duration and impact on fire weather. Numerous case studies provide examples and opportunities to practice recognizing these critical patterns and how they can affect fire ignition and spread. This module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.

COMET

2008-04-28

288

Enviropedia: Introduction to Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

2007-12-12

289

Weather and Road Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

2014-09-14

290

Stormfax Weather Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

2002-06-10

291

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides an introduction for younger students to the concepts of weathering and erosion. Topics include types of weathering (physical versus chemical), rates of weathering, and weathering products (soil). The section on erosion explains the importance of water and gravity in the process, and discusses some of the more important erosional agents such as wind, water and ice, streams and glaciers. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

292

Wireless Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quicktime animation examines the basics in wireless communication. Wireless communication has become pervasive in everyday life, providing convenience, piece of mind as well as emergency preparedness for its users through instant accessibility. The cell phone antenna is the link to the outside world. Designed to transmit as well as receive the RF signals, it efficiently couples the electromagnetic waves to the transmitter and receiver.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart Jozef

293

Extreme Weather on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students utilize a set of photographs and a 30 minute video on weather to investigate extreme weather events. They are posed with a series of questions that ask them to identify conditions predictive of these events, and record them on a worksheet. Climate and weather concepts defined.

Anna Mika

294

METEOROLOGICAL Weather and Forecasting  

E-print Network

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Weather and Forecasting EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary and interpretation of information from National Weather Service watches and warnings by10 decision makers such an outlier to the regional severe weather climatology. An analysis of the synoptic and13 mesoscale

295

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is about a new method of predicting seasonal weather. The site describes the effects of El Nino on global weather and the accuracy of the new model. It includes links to classroom resources for a variety of weather-based units.

Cheryl Dybas

2008-12-07

296

Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

1998

297

Severe Weather Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Severe weather is an element of nature that cannot be controlled. Therefore, it is important that the general public be aware of severe weather and know how to react quickly and appropriately in a weather emergency. This study, done in the community surrounding the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, was conducted to compile and analyze…

Abrams, Karol

298

Hot Weather Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... Form - A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

299

Weather Girl Goes Rogue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This humorous video suggests what might happen if a weather forecaster reported the weather in the context of climate change. There is a sharp contrast between the anchor focusing on short-term local concerns and the weather forecaster describing what is happening on a long-term global basis.

Deep Rogue Ram

300

American Weather Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

Hughes, Patrick

301

Space Weather Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Weather Now page is intended to give the non-technical user a "plain language" look at space weather. It includes information about relevant events and announcements, data from and about different instruments and satellites watching various aspects of space weather, alerts and advisories, daily themes of products and services, and links appropriate for the various groups of users.

Space Environment Center

302

Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

National Geographic

303

Aviation weather services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

Sprinkle, C. H.

1983-01-01

304

Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 13. For Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Presented are the data accumulated during June at the intermediate photovoltaic project at Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

Not Available

1982-09-01

305

Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

2009-01-01

306

External Resource: Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes background information about weathering, as well as simple demonstrations/activities to model how weather conditions contribute to weathering and erosion. Topics include: chemical weathering, dunes, erosion, floods, glaciers, physi

1900-01-01

307

A resampling procedure for generating conditioned daily weather sequences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] A method is introduced to generate conditioned daily precipitation and temperature time series at multiple stations. The method resamples data from the historical record "nens" times for the period of interest (nens = number of ensemble members) and reorders the ensemble members to reconstruct the observed spatial (intersite) and temporal correlation statistics. The weather generator model is applied to 2307 stations in the contiguous United States and is shown to reproduce the observed spatial correlation between neighboring stations, the observed correlation between variables (e.g., between precipitation and temperature), and the observed temporal correlation between subsequent days in the generated weather sequence. The weather generator model is extended to produce sequences of weather that are conditioned on climate indices (in this case the Nin??o 3.4 index). Example illustrations of conditioned weather sequences are provided for a station in Arizona (Petrified Forest, 34.8??N, 109.9??W), where El Nin??o and La Nin??a conditions have a strong effect on winter precipitation. The conditioned weather sequences generated using the methods described in this paper are appropriate for use as input to hydrologic models to produce multiseason forecasts of streamflow.

Clark, M.P.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Brandon, D.; Werner, K.; Hay, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Yates, D.

2004-01-01

308

Wireless Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless communications is an industry that is growing at an incredible rate. Cellular phones are the most obvious example of this trend; it is hard to go anywhere without seeing someone using one. Rapidly advancing technologies and lower prices are making this all possible. At the current pace, there seems to be no limit to what is possible in the wireless industry.To learn about the events that led up to present day wireless communications, this site offers a very informative history of telecommunications (1) that goes all the way back to the time of carrier pigeons. A good introduction to wireless networking can be found in this mini-tutorial (2). The best parts of this tutorial are the discussions of many recent wireless developments and technologies. There are a few interactive games and activities that are supposed to be instructive and entertaining, but some of them can be annoying. For the more technically savvy user, the third site (3) starts by describing many of the principles that drive current wireless systems. The second part examines the technologies that will be used in future generations of services. To build on this material, the third generation mobile communications systems (3G) is the central topic at 3G Newsroom (4), providing breaking news about the development of 3G technology. Additionally, the site has an excellent introduction to 3G, including its applications and specifications. One of the advancements that is paving the way toward 3G is Bluetooth, which is explained in great detail here (5). This technology is capable of very high data transfer rates, but there are some limitations, which are all discussed in the articles on the site. Although Bluetooth is raising plenty of interest, this recent news story (6) is creating more than its share of debate. It outlines a very controversial move by the FCC to allow the use of ultrawideband technology in commercial wireless applications. The author explains in simple terms why there are so many concerns about something that could revolutionize wireless systems. The evolution of the global system for mobile communications (GSM) is traced at GSM World (7). Here users can learn about the roots of the wireless industry as well as what is in store for the future. A special section addresses health concerns associated with mobile phone use. Radio was one of the earliest form of wireless communication, and the Invention of Radio (8) documents the people and events that made it what it is today. The stories of such famous scientists and inventors as Marconi, DeForest, and Armstrong are told in brief accounts, and there is even a link to the well known War of the Worlds radio broadcast.

Leske, Cavin.

309

Fabulous Weather Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. After studying weather for three months, we celebrate what we have learned and stretch our thinking further into the weather world around us! Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in their understanding of how the weather works and how it can affect their lives. Our unit focused on guiding students to formulate explanations about animals based on scientific evidence.

Candice Marshall

2007-01-01

310

Avalanche Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.

COMET

2010-09-30

311

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center provides a variety of weather information, including a tropical weather menu with current and archived data on tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans. An interactive Weather Product Generator allows students to make their own surface data maps and meteograms (24-hour summaries of weather at a specific location), and view satellite imagery. There are also interactive weather maps for the U.S., Canada, and Alaska that display the latest observations, and text servers which provide current written observations for New England and North America. A set of past and current weather data products provides information on minimum and maximum temperatures, wind chill, and heat index. In addition, there are collections of satellite loops/movies, radar/lightning images, loops, and movies, and a set of tutorials on clouds, the sun and its effects on the environment, and balanced atmospheric flows.

312

Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

Huffman, Amy Bruno

1996-01-01

313

National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

314

Weather: What Forces Affect Our Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an easy-to-understand look at our weather system. Topics covered include the atmosphere, the water cycle, storms, ice and snow, weather forecasting and Earth's changing climate. There are features on ozone depletion, global warming, El Nino and La Nina. An activity allows users to identify cloud formations associated with tornadoes, complete with photographs. There is also a wind chill calculator.

2002-06-11

315

Environmental monitoring by wireless communication networks.  

PubMed

The global spread of wireless networks brings a great opportunity for their use in environmental studies. Weather, atmospheric conditions, and constituents cause propagation impairments on radio links. As such, while providing communication facilities, existing wireless communication systems can be used as a widely distributed, high-resolution atmospheric observation network, operating in real time with minimum supervision and without additional cost. Here we demonstrate how measurements of the received signal level, which are made in a cellular network, provide reliable measurements for surface rainfall. We compare the estimated rainfall intensity with radar and rain gauge measurements. PMID:16675693

Messer, Hagit; Zinevich, Artem; Alpert, Pinhas

2006-05-01

316

Topology control for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a two-tiered Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consisting of sensor clusters deployed around strategic locations and base-stations (BSs) whose locations are relatively flexible. Within a sensor cluster, there are many small sensor nodes (SNs) that capture, encode and transmit relevant information from the designated area, and there is at least one application node (AN) that receives raw data from

Jianping Pan; Yiwei Thomas Hou; Lin Cai; Yi Shi; Sherman X. Shen

2003-01-01

317

Adaptive Control of Duty Cycling in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Adaptive Control of Duty Cycling in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks Christopher M wireless sensor network deployments are using harvested environmental energy to extend system lifetime. Because the temporal profiles of such energy sources exhibit great variability due to dynamic weather

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

318

Weather and Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

319

Space Weathering of Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

Noble, Sarah

2011-01-01

320

UIUC DAS Google Earth Weather Bundle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Google Earth package gives the user a suite of automatically updating weather products that can be overlaid in any fashion they desire, as well as the ability to "fly" through the data in any manner. As an example, one can overlay automatically updating severe weather warnings on animated radar data as if they worked at the local weather service station and zoom in on their house to see if they are included within the warning area or how close the storms may be to their home. Although this weather bundle is meant for current and forecast data, some significant historical data is included like hurricane tracks from the Atlantic Basin from 1851-2007, imagery from Hurricane Katrina's landfall, satellite views of the Great Mississippi River Flood of 1993, or sea-surface temperature anomalies from the 1997-1998 El Nino. For users interested in Global Climate Change, there is historical temperature data for all locations on Earth that keep records from surface stations.

2008-01-01

321

Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

2007-01-01

322

Wireless Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

1991-01-01

323

Tales of future weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The traditional approach uses ensembles of climate model simulations, statistical bias correction, downscaling to the spatial and temporal scales relevant to decision-makers, and then translation into quantities of interest. The veracity of this approach cannot be tested, and it faces in-principle challenges. Alternatively, numerical weather prediction models in a hypothetical climate setting can provide tailored narratives for high-resolution simulations of high-impact weather in a future climate. This 'tales of future weather' approach will aid in the interpretation of lower-resolution simulations. Arguably, it potentially provides complementary, more realistic and more physically consistent pictures of what future weather might look like.

Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Petersen, A. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L. A.

2015-02-01

324

Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

2014-09-14

325

Weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

1975-01-01

326

WWW - Wonderful Web Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a web quest for students to research weather forecasting using the Internet. Students work in groups to study how accurate weather forecasts are by tracking the weather for 3 days in several locations. Using graphs students then compare how each location scored in accuracy and present their findings to the class. This site contains links for students to use for more background information, a process for the students to follow, and evaluation rubrics for the student-produced graphs and presentation.

Jason Parrish

2007-12-12

327

Winter weather activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

Whitney Frankovic

2009-09-28

328

Cosmic weather and cybernetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of computer techniques to study cosmic weather (i.e., manifestations of solar activity in near-earth space, the ionosphere, and the lower atmosphere) is examined. A scheme of observational facilities for the acquisition of data on cosmic weather is described; the basic types of observations that yield information on the state of the ionosphere at different altitudes are considered; and the role of computers in the prediction of cosmic weather is assessed.

Avdiushin, Sergei Ivanovich; Danilov, Aleksei Dmitrievich; Dlikman, Fishel'l'vovich

1987-09-01

329

Everything Weather- Archived Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

2001-01-01

330

National Weather Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.

331

46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...be above the weather deck. (b) If a cargo control station is in accommodation, service, or control spaces or has access to such a space, the station must: (1) Be a gas safe space; (2) Have an access to the space that meets §...

2011-10-01

332

46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...be above the weather deck. (b) If a cargo control station is in accommodation, service, or control spaces or has access to such a space, the station must: (1) Be a gas safe space; (2) Have an access to the space that meets §...

2012-10-01

333

46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be above the weather deck. (b) If a cargo control station is in accommodation, service, or control spaces or has access to such a space, the station must: (1) Be a gas safe space; (2) Have an access to the space that meets §...

2010-10-01

334

46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...be above the weather deck. (b) If a cargo control station is in accommodation, service, or control spaces or has access to such a space, the station must: (1) Be a gas safe space; (2) Have an access to the space that meets §...

2014-10-01

335

46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be above the weather deck. (b) If a cargo control station is in accommodation, service, or control spaces or has access to such a space, the station must: (1) Be a gas safe space; (2) Have an access to the space that meets §...

2013-10-01

336

The Emergency Email and Wireless Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a free public service, the Emergency Email and Wireless Network provides citizens with email, cell phone, or pager notifications from your local, regional, and national government sources. Users can choose to receive information about severe weather in their area; electric, gas, and water outages; daily weather forecasts; national disaster news; and more. On the registration page, visitors input their email address, home county, zip code, and the type of notification they would like, and can even block the service during certain times of the day.

337

Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate  

E-print Network

1 Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate Large Scale Weather SystemsLarge--scale Weather Systemsscale Weather Systems Tropical cyclones (1-2) Location, Structure, Life-cycle Formation and modification, airmasses that effect the British Isles Airmasses affecting the British Isles

338

Space Weather: Welcome, SEC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video presentation welcomes the Space Weather Prediction Center, formerly known as the Space Environment Center or SEC to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SWPC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.

COMET

2005-01-11

339

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Aubree Miller

2009-09-28

340

Living in the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is weather? Is climate different from weather? It doesn't matter where you live or where you travel, weather patterns influence your daily life. In this guide, students will engage in exploring and predicting the conditions in the atmosphere that are responsible for weather patterns and climatic conditions, and investigate how extreme weather impacts humans and the environment. While many of the keywords embedded into the "Living in the Weather" themes will be familiar, do your students really understand them? This guide provides teacher-tested, reliable links that allow you and your students to "surf" the internet in a quest to better understand how atmospheric conditions directly relate to weather on Earth. Understanding weather and climate can be a great opportunity for you to engage students in topics and themes that connect Earth and space science, life science, and physical science in a real way. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) focus on the study of weather and climate and their impact on human life. This guide uses the ongoing work and technology of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (known to the public simply as NOAA). NOAA scientists study our planet Earth in a global way. Working together with scientists worldwide, NOAA scientists study the diversity of living organisms (including humans) and their impact on our environment--not only in our country but in every country and continent around the world.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-12-13

341

Cockpit weather information needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along the route can be accomplished prior to pilot acceptance of the clearance. An ongoing multiphase test series is planned for testing and modifying the graphical weather system. Preliminary data shows that the nine test subjects considered the graphical presentation to be much better than their current weather information source for situation awareness, flight safety, and reroute decision making.

Scanlon, Charles H.

1992-01-01

342

Washington Post Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

343

GPS Estimates of Integrated Precipitable Water Aid Weather Forecasters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology provides enhanced density, low-latency (30-min resolution), integrated precipitable water (IPW) estimates to NOAA NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis tration Nat ional Weather Service) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to provide improved model and satellite data verification capability and more accurate forecasts of extreme weather such as flooding. An early activity of this project was to increase the number of stations contributing to the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) GPS meteorology observing network in Southern California by about 27 stations. Following this, the Los Angeles/Oxnard and San Diego WFOs began using the enhanced GPS-based IPW measurements provided by ESRL in the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons. Forecasters found GPS IPW to be an effective tool in evaluating model performance, and in monitoring monsoon development between weather model runs for improved flood forecasting. GPS stations are multi-purpose, and routine processing for position solutions also yields estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV (precipitable water vapor) using in situ pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology. NOAA ESRL has implemented this concept with a nationwide distribution of more than 300 "GPSMet" stations providing IPW estimates at sub-hourly resolution currently used in operational weather models in the U.S.

Moore, Angelyn W.; Gutman, Seth I.; Holub, Kirk; Bock, Yehuda; Danielson, David; Laber, Jayme; Small, Ivory

2013-01-01

344

Use of NWS Weather Measurements for Cross-checking Local Weather Measurements  

E-print Network

the LoanSTAR sites Inpares well with the data from the NWS sites. bwever, certain differences have been observed that can be traced to instrurne~mtion i~ld the location of the weather stations. This paper presents a comp'uison of wearher daw collected...STAR data are compared to hourly, daily-averaged, i~ld minl~nax daily-averaged NWS data. Surprisingly enough, the hourly and daily-averaged CV(RMSE) are virtually identical for the Houston weather s~7tionx. However, the comparison of minl~nax daily...

Crowley, G. D.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01

345

Value of global weather sensors  

SciTech Connect

Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.

Canavan, G.H.

1998-12-23

346

Wireless services business plan  

E-print Network

The primary goals of this thesis were to analyze the market for wireless applications/services and create a business plan for a viable wireless application. There has been tremendous hype relating to wireless data services ...

Koh, Bong (Bong Dug)

2005-01-01

347

Wireless Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses wireless access-control equipment in the school and university setting, particularly the integrated reader lock at the door with a panel interface module at the control panel. Describes its benefits, how it works, and its reliability and security. (EV)

Conforti, Fred

2003-01-01

348

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

349

Language Learning Stations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes use of learning stations at elementary and secondary levels. Explains vocabulary, grammar, conversation, listening, reading and culture stations; materials and equipment for stations; management concerns. (BK)

Strauber, Sandra K.

1981-01-01

350

Weathering Database Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

Snyder, Robert

2005-01-01

351

Exercising in Cold Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

352

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

353

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

354

Northwest Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

Sue Palewicz

355

World weather program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief description of the Global Weather Experiment is presented. The world weather watch program plan is described and includes a global observing system, a global data processing system, a global telecommunication system, and a voluntary cooperation program. A summary of Federal Agency plans and programs to meet the challenges of international meteorology for the two year period, FY 1980-1981, is presented.

1980-01-01

356

Winter Storms Weather Quizzes  

E-print Network

Quizzes pg 3 pg 22 pg 7 pg 29 pg 13 pg 17 #12;Weather can be calm and peaceful. It also can be violent and the news media. We will tell you what is happening. Stay tuned! Hurricane Warning When the National Weather

357

Sedimentary Rocks and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 42 questions on the topic of sedimentary rocks and weathering including clast sizes, depositional environments, and products of weathering. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users select an answer and are provided immediate feedback.

Timothy Heaton

358

Home Weatherization Visit  

ScienceCinema

Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29

359

Next Generation Weather Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website. This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States. Types of data include plotting maps, contoured images, soundings, and cross sections.

360

Weather Data Gamification  

E-print Network

of the weather patterns and climate change trends for those cities. We do a user-study to evaluate our application and prove its feasibility. An evaluation of the fantasy weather game indicates that the game had the desired effect of causing players to explore...

Gargate, Rohit

2013-07-25

361

Weather and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

362

Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

1998

363

Mild and Wild Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

364

Weather Vane and Anemometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this meteorology activity, learners construct simple devices to measure the direction and speed of wind. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes and generators work to analyze weather patterns. Note: a drill and other specialty tools are required for this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

2011-01-01

365

Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

Konvicka, Tom

366

Tracking Weather Satellites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

Martin, Helen E.

1996-01-01

367

EMERGENCY, DISASTER, & WEATHER INFORMATION  

E-print Network

EMERGENCY, DISASTER, & WEATHER INFORMATION University · Campus Emergency and Inclement Weather.umaryland.edu/health · Dental Care: 6-7102 or 6-7063 www.dental.umaryland.edu/ patientinfo · Student Counseling Center: 8.parking.umaryland.edu Police and Public Safety 6-6882, 711 (emergency) www.umaryland.edu/police Recreation and Fitness 6-PLAY

Weber, David J.

368

What Is Space Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.

369

Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

1998

370

Scholastic: Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

371

Fair weather atmospheric electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

Harrison, R. G.

2011-06-01

372

Food Safety for Warmer Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who doesn’t love to get outside ... to keep foods safe to eat during warmer weather. If you’re eating or preparing foods outside, ...

373

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

374

Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard  

MedlinePLUS

... cold air. But, not everyone knows that cold weather can also lower the temperature inside your body. ... cold it is where you are. Check the weather forecasts for windy and cold weather. Try to ...

375

Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications. Agriculture remains the number one industry in North Dakota and its success will always be dependent on the weather.

Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

2010-09-01

376

Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

Devereaux, A. S.

1999-01-01

377

Fire Weather Forecasting: Clear Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The “Fire Weather Forecasting: Clear Communications” distance learning module offers best practices for Fire Weather Forecasters needing to communicate weather information when deployed in the field. The 30-minute module defines strategies for communicating with Weather Forecast Offices and with customers. Examples include writing a useful fire weather forecast discussion and undertaking proper planning to quickly and accurately disseminate information. This distance learning module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.

2014-09-14

378

Evaporation over a Heterogeneous Mixed Savanna-Agricultural Catchment using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale rain fed agriculture is the primary livelihood for a large part of the population of Burkina Faso. Regional climate change means that this population is becoming increasingly vulnerable. Additionally, as natural savanna is converted for agriculture, hydrological systems are observed to become less stable as infiltration is decreased and rapid runoff is increased to the detriment of crop productivity, downstream populations and local water sources. The majority of the Singou River Basin, located in South East Burkina Faso is managed by hunting reserves, geared to maintaining high populations of wild game; however, residents surrounding the protected areas have been forced to intensify agriculture that has resulted in soil degradation as well as increases in the frequency and severity of flooding and droughts. Agroforestry, or planting trees in cultivated fields, has been proposed as a solution to help buffer these negative consequences, however the specific hydrologic behavior of the watershed land cover is unknown. We have installed a distributed sensor network of 17 Sensorscope wireless meteorological stations. These stations are dispersed across cultivated rice and millet fields, natural savanna, fallow fields, and around agroforestry fields. Sensorscope routes data through the network of stations to be delivered by a GPRS connection to a main server. This multi hop network allows data to be gathered over a large area and quickly adapts to changes in station performance. Data are available in real time via a website that can be accessed by a mobile phone. The stations are powered autonomously by small photovoltaic panels. This deployment is the first time that these meteorological stations have been used on the African continent. Initial calibration with measures from 2 eddy covariance stations allows us to calculate the energy balance at each of the Sensorscope stations. Thus, we can observe variation in evaporation over the various land cover in the watershed. This research will both contribute to scientific understanding of West African vegetation and inform local reforestation and agricultural management. Concurrent to this scientific research, the community is improving natural resource management efforts including reforestation, a botanical garden and environmental education. Our hope is that the results of our evaporation modeling will inform local farmers and thus help improve their adaption to changing weather patterns and land cover.

Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Barrenetxea, G.; Vetterli, M.; Yacouba, H.; Repetti, A.; Parlange, M. B.

2010-12-01

379

Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields  

PubMed Central

Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26–72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12–19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2013-01-01

380

NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

2007-01-01

381

Solar structure and terrestrial weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that solar activity has discernible effects on terrestrial weather is considered. Research involving correlation of weather conditions with solar and geomagnetic activity is discussed.

Wilcox, J. M.

1976-01-01

382

Correlations Between Homeowner Mold Insurance Claims and Weather Databases in Texas  

E-print Network

Table 1 in the first and second columns. The third through fifth columns in Table 3 identify the city, site description, and WBAN # for the weather data stations used in the mold claim correlations. Note that Dallas (Territory 2) and Fort Worth... Weather Station Description NCDC WBAN # 1 Houston Houston Houston Bush Intercontinental Airport 12960 2 Dallas Dallas/Fort Worth Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport 03927 3 Fort Worth Dallas/Fort Worth Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport 03927 4...

Kosar, D.; Nikolovski, D.

2006-01-01

383

Ultrahigh-Bitrate Wireless Data Communications via THz-Links; Possibilities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data rate in the communication networks increases by a two number digit every year. Even today's mobile, wireless devices offer a large number of high-bitrate data services reaching from entertainment over information to communication. However, for the so called last-mile problem, for the connection of the network with remote cellular base stations and for other wireless links ultrahigh-bitrate connections are required. Another important application of ultrahigh-bitrate wireless links is the very fast rebuilding of a network infrastructure after natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and blizzards. Contrary to optical links, carrier waves in the submillimeter-wave, or THz-region of the electromagnetic spectrum offer a high capacity and reliability even under worst weather conditions like a strong rain or dense fog. The THz-range has a large bandwidth so that even with simple modulation formats a quite high bitrate can be transmitted. However, ultrahigh bitrates require spectrally efficient modulation formats and these formats require THz-sources with a very high quality, i.e. low phase noise and narrow linewidth. Here an overview of the possibilities and challenges for ultrahigh bitrate transmission and the generation of high-quality THz-waves is given and a method for the generation of very stable and precise millimeter and THz waves is presented. In first proof of concept experiments a linewidth of < 1 Hz and a phase noise of < -130 dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz from the carrier was measured in the microwave range.

Schneider, Thomas

2014-08-01

384

Ultrahigh-Bitrate Wireless Data Communications via THz-Links; Possibilities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data rate in the communication networks increases by a two number digit every year. Even today's mobile, wireless devices offer a large number of high-bitrate data services reaching from entertainment over information to communication. However, for the so called last-mile problem, for the connection of the network with remote cellular base stations and for other wireless links ultrahigh-bitrate connections are required. Another important application of ultrahigh-bitrate wireless links is the very fast rebuilding of a network infrastructure after natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and blizzards. Contrary to optical links, carrier waves in the submillimeter-wave, or THz-region of the electromagnetic spectrum offer a high capacity and reliability even under worst weather conditions like a strong rain or dense fog. The THz-range has a large bandwidth so that even with simple modulation formats a quite high bitrate can be transmitted. However, ultrahigh bitrates require spectrally efficient modulation formats and these formats require THz-sources with a very high quality, i.e. low phase noise and narrow linewidth. Here an overview of the possibilities and challenges for ultrahigh bitrate transmission and the generation of high-quality THz-waves is given and a method for the generation of very stable and precise millimeter and THz waves is presented. In first proof of concept experiments a linewidth of < 1 Hz and a phase noise of < -130 dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz from the carrier was measured in the microwave range.

Schneider, Thomas

2015-02-01

385

Wireless Power Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

None

2013-07-22

386

Wireless Power Transfer  

ScienceCinema

Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

None

2013-11-19

387

Materials International Space Station Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Backdropped by a sunrise, the newly installed Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is visible on this image. MISSE would expose 750 material samples for about 18 months and collect information on how different materials weather the space environment. The objective of MISSE is to develop early, low-cost, non-intrusive opportunities to conduct critical space exposure tests of space materials and components plarned for use on future spacecraft. The experiment was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) and was installed on the outside of the ISS Quest Airlock during extravehicular activity (EVA) of the STS-105 mission. MISSE was launched on August 10, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

2001-01-01

388

Weather Observing Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

2014-09-14

389

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website uses real time data for many activities for learning about the weather. It can be modified to fit virtually any grade level. The project is broken up into 3 sets of lessons; Introductory Activities, Real Time Data Activities, and Language Arts Activities. Each lesson gives a recommended time for completion, to help keep students and teachers on track. There is a helpful teachers guide section with background information about real time data, curriculum standards, and assessment suggestions. Th students gallery has many examples of real projects other students have already created. There is also a helpful reference guide, with information on real time weather, projects, and weather lesson plans.

2006-01-01

390

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

391

Space Weather Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NOAA Space Weather Now website provides non-technical information and an assortment of images detailing current space weather. Visitors can find summaries describing auroras, plots of current auroral ovals on the poles, and viewing information for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The Real-Time Solar Wind Pages furnish dynamic plots of data, geomagnetic activity test product information, and resources about the four instruments used to collect data on geomagnetic storms. The website features Space Weather Scales to help the public understand the severity of environmental disturbances due to geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. Visitors can find the latest news, alerts, advisory bulletins, and much more.

392

Extreme Weather Sourcebook 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally reviewed in the February 26, 1999 Scout Report, the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Extreme Weather Sourcebook offers easy access to updated data on the economic damage from hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes in the United States and its territories. Time spans for each type of extreme weather vary, with hurricane data covering 1900-99, tornadoes 1950-99, floods 1955-1999, and lightning 1959-1994; however, all damage data are reported in constant 1999 dollars to simplify comparisons. The data are offered by weather event and state by rank or alphabetically.

393

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based Real Time Data Module was created by the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) for use by students in the elementary grades to allow them to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The site features a Teacher Area containing lesson plans, curriculum standards, guidelines for data collection, and a list of children's books with weather-related themes.

394

WeatherTracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WeatherTracker is the ideal desktop application for anyone who always wants to know what the weather outside is like. The temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, winds, and current conditions can be displayed in three different formats, updated hourly for North American Cities. The local forecasts, climate data and near shore marine forecasts can be displayed in other windows and are available for select North American cities. Other cities are limited to temperature and current conditions. WeatherTracker is shareware with a fee of $20.00.

395

Every cloud has a silver lining: Weather forecasting models could predict brain tumor  

E-print Network

, and combine them with incoming data streams from weather stations and satellites. Now, an innovative new study little progress has been made in this area, GBM is an important area to study, and is a particularly goodEvery cloud has a silver lining: Weather forecasting models could predict brain tumor growth Ever

Kuang, Yang

396

High Himalayan meteorology: Weather at the South Col of Mount Everest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mount Everest is often referred to as the earth's ‘third’ pole. As such it is relatively inaccessible and little is known about its meteorology. In 1998, a portable weather station was operated at the mountain's South Col, elevation 7,986 m. We believe that this represents the highest elevation at which continuous weather data has ever been collected and thus represents

G. W. K. Moore; John L. Semple

2004-01-01

397

Weather encapsulates the state of the atmosphere, primarily involving the component which affects  

E-print Network

affect the evolution of our weather (e.g. pressure, water vapour). In building up a picture of weather at meteorological stations and are used in reconstructing past changes in local temperature. The diurnal temperature likely to rise upward, leading to cloud formation, heating of the profile through latent heat

Allan, Richard P.

398

Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

2012-01-01

399

A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic.

Pan, Guobing; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Jiaoliao

2011-06-01

400

EMC and wireless healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a critical part of addressing the risks related to the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) on active medical devices exposed to emissions from wireless technology. In addition, for wireless technology in healthcare to be safe, effective, reliable, and secure specific wireless issues must also be addressed including quality of service, coexistence with other wireless equipment, data

Donald Witters; Seth Seidman; Howard Bassen

2010-01-01

401

Wireless Sensing and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless technologies can play a significant role in the monitoring and control of civil structures. Structural sensing and control technologies can benefit in terms of installation cost and time from wireless communication and embedded computing. This paper discusses the development of a low-cost wireless sensing system judiciously designed for civil structures. By incorporating an actuation signal generation interface, the wireless

Yang Wang; Kenneth J. Loh; Jerome P. Lynch; Kincho H. Law

402

Contemporary Wireless Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless means radio in its broadest sense. However, in the early 21st century, wireless refers primarily to the two dominant forms of wireless: cell phones and wireless local area networks (WLANs). This module describes the idea behind the cellular telephone system, how it works, and the primary technologies used in the US and throughout the world. This module also introduces the wireless local area network or WLAN. WLANs are radio-linked computers that are part of a larger network. The wireless links make portability and mobility of computers possible. This module also briefly introduces four common forms of short- range wireless: Bluetooth, ZigBee, ultra wideband (UWB) and RFID.

403

Wireless lysimeters for real-time online soil water monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of drainage water allows assessing the effectiveness of water management. Passive capillary wick-type lysimeters\\u000a (PCAPs) were used to monitor water flux leached below the root zone under an irrigated cropping system. Wireless lysimeters\\u000a were developed for web-based real-time online monitoring of drainage water using a distributed wireless sensor network (WSN).\\u000a Twelve PCAP sensing stations were installed across the field

Y. Kim; J. D. Jabro; R. G. Evans

404

WATMnet: A Prototype Wireless ATM System for Multimedia Personal Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype microcellular wireless asynchronous transfer mode network (WATMnet) capable of providing integrated multimedia communication services to mobile terminals is described in this paper. The experimental system's hardware consists of laptop computers (NEC Versa-M) with WATMnet interface cards, multiple VME\\/i960 processor-based WATMnet base stations, and a mobility-enhanced local-area ATM switch. The prototype wireless network interface cards operate at peak bit-rates

Dipankar Raychaudhuri; Leslie J. French; Robert J. Siracusa; Subir K. Biswas; Ruixi Yuan; Parthasarathy Narasimhan; Cesar A. Johnston

1997-01-01

405

WATMnet: a prototype wireless ATM system for multimedia personal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype microcellular wireless ATM network (WATMnet) capable of providing integrated multimedia communication services to mobile terminals is described in this paper. The experimental system's hardware consists of laptop computers (NEC Versa-M) with WATMnet interface cards, multiple VME\\/i960 processor-based WATMnet base stations, and a mobility-enhanced local-area ATM switch. The prototype wireless network interface cards operate at peak bit-rates up to

D. Raychaudhuri; L. J. French; R. J. Siracusa; S. K. Biswas; R. Yuan; P. Narasimhan; C. Johnston

1996-01-01

406

Predicting Solar Generation from Weather Forecasts Using Machine Learning  

E-print Network

, and dispatches generators to satisfy demand as it rises and falls. Fortunately, electricity demand is highly and solar intensity readings from a weather station deployment for nearly a year. Our results show that SVM predictable when aggregating over thousands of buildings and homes. As a result, today's grid is able

Shenoy, Prashant

407

Cold-Weather Sports  

MedlinePLUS

Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular fitness, and strengthen muscles. Activities that are ...

408

How does weather change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students gather temperature and weather data in the a.m and p.m. and develop a new, experimental question to predict temperature over the course of the year.

Susan Anderson, Taylors Falls Elementary, Taylors Falls, MN based on an activity from Houghton Mifflin Science Grade 2 Weather Patterns, p. D6.

409

Waste glass weathering  

SciTech Connect

The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

1993-12-31

410

The Weather Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of conversion tools helps convert units and values for weather data, including temperature, moisture, atmospheric pressure, wind, and other parameters. Formulas are also provided for the conversions.

411

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Large-scale weather patterns which occur in various locations around the Earth play a significant part in controlling the weather on a seasonal time scale. A National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded collaborative research effort between Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has led to a new understanding of the relationship between fall snow cover and winter climate variability. This research has led to the development of a new seasonal forecast model.

412

TypoWeather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The TypoWeather application is a great way to stay on top of the latest weather conditions. This handy device presents users with a five day outlook and an hourly breakdown that is updated based on data from the National Meteorological Service. Visitors can customize their layout to include alerts about certain meteorological conditions, such as wind patterns, humidity, and more. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-03-13

413

Rates of Chemical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

Michael Passow

414

Extreme Weather Sourcebook: Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Extreme Weather Sourcebook is a database maintained by the Societal Impacts Program (SIP) at NCAR of statistics on extreme weather events. The Sourcebook is intended as a resource for researchers, policy makers, the media, and the general public, among other users. This page from the Sourcebook showcases data on tornado damages as total losses for the years 1950-2009 in the United States.

University Consortium for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

415

Weathering of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

Wendy Van Norden

416

Cockpit weather information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

2000-01-01

417

Utility weatherization programs  

SciTech Connect

Public utility commissions (PUCs) have recently ordered or approved an increasing number of programs that install weatherization measures in residences. These programs tend to install only low-cost weatherization measures (e.g., caulking, weatherstripping, plastic storm windows, door sweeps) or major weatherization measures (e.g., insulation, storm windows, storm doors). When a program does not have income restrictions for eligibility, part of the costs are paid by the participating customer. For programs that install low-cost measures, the participant usually pays at the time of installation for the measures chosen. To require payment for major weatherization measures at the time of installation could deter participation, so these programs usually provide loans with the interest subsidized by the sponsor. Low-income customers, who have little or no disposable income, tend to shun Residential Conservation Service, loan, and other utility conservation programs that have costs to participants. Therefore PUCs have turned to programs that install weatherization measures without charge in order to reach low-income customers. This paper discusses some of the regulatory issues raised by these programs and how they have been justified by PUCs. It also gives information on cost and energy savings for 10 weatherization programs, both utility-sponsored and non-utility-sponsored, and attempts to interpret this information.

Kier, P.H.

1984-01-01

418

The Weather Is Our Water Supply:The Weather Is Our Water Supply: Community Involvement in Monitoring Climate  

E-print Network

Climate? #12;National Weather Service Collaboration Picture of a standard coop station, potentially map in Monitoring Climate Nolan Doesken Colorado Climate Center Atmospheric Science Department Colorado State government in the early 1970s, many states gradually established state funded climate offices. Many were

419

An effective solution of wireless channel sounder and its channel modeling application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real time wideband wireless channel sounder based on WCDMA system is introduced in this paper. After installing a baseband data acquisition device to the base station and some modifications on test UE, a real time wideband wireless channel sounder is established with fairly high performance and low cost comparing to commercial channel sounders. The time resolution of this sounder

Jiang Peigang; Wang Shaobo; Li Huajia

2004-01-01

420

Multiuser diversity with capture for wireless networks: protocol and performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In a wireless network, with the aid of rate adapta- tion, multiuser diversity can be exploited by allowing the mobile user with the best channel to use the channel. However, the overhead that results from polling mobile stations to obtain channel state information (CSI) in large networks can outweigh the multiuser diversity gain. In this paper, we propose a wireless

Justin Foo; Defeng Huang

2008-01-01

421

Polling-based MAC protocols for improving real-time performance in a wireless PROFIBUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of having a wireless PROFIBUS is appealing, since this can bring benefits like reduced cabling need and mobile stations to the factory floor. However, unfortunately, wireless transmission is error prone, which affects the timeliness and reliability behavior users expect from a fieldbus system (hard real time). In this paper, we compare two different approaches for the medium access

Andreas Willig

2003-01-01

422

Design and Analysis of a Secure Routing Protocol Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to limitations of power, computation capability and storage resources?» wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to many attacks. The paper proposed a novel routing protocol algorithm for Wireless sensor network. The proposed routing protocol algorithm can adopt suitable routing technology for the nodes according to distance of nodes to the base station, density of nodes distribution and residual energy of

Hongbing Cheng; Chunming Rong; Geng Yang

2011-01-01

423

Disruption-Tolerant Wireless Biomedical Monitoring for Marathon Runners: a Feasibility Study  

E-print Network

off-the shelf sensing devices and a limited number of base stations deployed along the marathon route Wireless Biomedical Sensor Networks (WBSN) are a va- riety of wireless sensor networks (WSN) in which be tolerated thanks to protocols implementing an ARQ * VALORIA, Université de Bretagne Sud ** IRISA, École

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

S-290 Unit 9: Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webcast covers procedures for taking accurate weather observations using belt weather kits and descriptions of other common weather observing equipment used in fire weather. In addition, maintenance of the primary components of the belt weather kit are demonstrated.

2014-09-14

425

2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide  

E-print Network

Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

Meyers, Steven D.

426

Social Aspects of Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the social context and citizen response to three weather modification projects provides an introduction to the discussion of a variety of social and economic issues related to planned weather modification. Various interest groups have markedly different perspectives on weather modification. Most persons subject to the consequences of weather modification have no opportunity to participate in the associated

J. Eugene Haas

1973-01-01

427

Fracture characteristics in weathered granites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of weathered materials is an important factor in the geotechnical characterization of rock for engineering purposes. Most engineering rock mass classifications include weathering schemes that separate the weathering profile into zones or grades that depend upon the engineering and geological properties of the rock. Many geotechnical characteristics, including weathering, are controlled by the density and arrangement of fractures

Judy Ehlen

1999-01-01

428

Remote Data Stations: Data and Oceanographic Buoys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) maintains a series of remote data stations on the Great Barrier Reef (Queensland) and Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia). This Website provides interested viewers with access to the remote data stations, including graphic displays of buoy locations and recent data, displayed as text and graphics (data include wind speed and direction, solar radiation, air pressure, and temperature). In addition to displaying data graphically, some data types (e.g., stick plots) are accompanied by concise descriptions of how to read/ interpret those data. In addition, remote data are summarized into station averages and the "last three readings" per station; a glossary of terms and links to weather events/ sites round out the site.

429

Advancing Profiling Sensors with a Wireless Approach  

PubMed Central

The notion of a profiling sensor was first realized by a Near-Infrared (N-IR) retro-reflective prototype consisting of a vertical column of wired sparse detectors. This paper extends that prior work and presents a wireless version of a profiling sensor as a collection of sensor nodes. The sensor incorporates wireless sensing elements, a distributed data collection and aggregation scheme, and an enhanced classification technique. In this novel approach, a base station pre-processes the data collected from the sensor nodes and performs data re-alignment. A back-propagation neural network was also developed for the wireless version of the N-IR profiling sensor that classifies objects into the broad categories of human, animal or vehicle with an accuracy of approximately 94%. These enhancements improve deployment options as compared with the first generation of wired profiling sensors, possibly increasing the application scenarios for such sensors, including intelligent fence applications. PMID:23443371

Galvis, Alex; Russomanno, David J.

2012-01-01

430

Weather and The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be able to do activities dealing with weather and water cycles. Learn what makes weather wet and wild, forcast and predict weather. Webweather For Kids Learn about tornadoes and hurricanes. Kidstorm Learn about the water cycles. water Cycles Now click on the following link: Interactive weather maker 1. How much change in temperature is needed to make it snow? On the right side of the page click on Weather Detective Web Quest. Follow the ...

Mrs. Merritt

2005-10-15

431

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

Tmean was 64.8 which is 4.0 degrees above the normal for the month. This ranks as the 2nd warmest, record status, etc.): None. Wind: In September 2010 there were 9 days with maximum wind gusts 20 mph and 0 days 30 mph. The maximum daily wind gust for the month was 29 miles per hour and occurred on 20

432

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

of 4.0" set in 1917. Wind: In October 2009 there were 9 days with maximum wind gusts 20 mph with 1 day 30 mph. The maximum daily wind gust for the month was 37 miles per hour and occurred on 30 September

433

Space Station propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on space station propulsion systems are presented. Topics covered include: space station propulsion system requirements; space station propulsion system design; space station propulsion system drivers; hydrazine technology development; waste fluid disposal system; space station propulsion system evolution; propellant selection trade study; technology needs to water electrolysis/oxygen-hydrogen propulsion system; and technology needs for bipropellant systems.

Henderson, J.

1990-01-01

434

Weather pattern climatology of the Great Plains and the related wind regime  

SciTech Connect

The meteorology of the Great Plains can be described as a constant progression of air masses, fronts and cyclonic storm systems. Each of these meteorological conditions can be characterized by identifiable isobaric and related weather parameter patterns. Nine such patterns have been defined to type the weather patterns in the Great Plains. Time series of weather pattern types were produced for 62 stations on the Great Plains. Statistical analyses of these time series produced annual and seasonal frequencies of occurrence of the weather pattern types. Maps of the annual and seasonal frequency of occurrence of weather pattern type are presented for the Great Plains. Persistence and alternation frequencies match what is expected for traveling temperate latitude cyclones, anticyclones and fronts. The wind regime for stations at which the anemometer height and location was constant (and known) for a minimum of three consecutive years was stratified by weather pattern type. Statistical analyses were made to show the response of the wind to the large-scale distribution of air pressure associated with a weather pattern type. The response of the wind to the weather pattern is a site-specific result of the interaction of the large-scale meteorology with local terrain, surface roughness and atmospheric stability. Mean wind speed discriminates between pairs of weather pattern types with better than 75% confidence for more than two-thirds of the possible pairs of weather pattern types.

Barchet, W.R.

1982-11-01

435

The Quest for the Perfect Weather Forecaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just how accurate are weather forecasters, anyway? How can a meteorologist from one television channel predict a completely different forecast for the same area on a different station? To answer these queries, this article describes two projects for middle level students to investigate these issues in a hands-on, active-learning environment. These three-week projects take the form of webquests?inquiry-oriented exercises focusing on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, for which the Internet is the primary information source (Dodge 1995).

Craig Berg

2004-01-01

436

Oceans, Climate, and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Kimberly Lightle

437

Weather from the Stratosphere?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

2006-01-01

438

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Kimberly Lightle

2006-01-01

439

Weather Scope : An Investigative Study of Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the course of this project, students will learn how to build instruments to measure weather, access online weather observations, collect weather data for an extended period, analyze weather data to reveal trends, and make predictions. They will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The module contains five lessons relating to weather, five relating to climate, and three enrichment activities. Project information, a teacher guide, reference materials, and an ask an expert feature are also provided.

2007-12-12

440

Downlink Wireless Packet Scheduling with Deadlines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation cellular wireless communication networks aim to provide a variety of quality-of-service (QoS) sensitive packet based services to downlink users. Included amongst these are real-time multimedia services, which have stringent delay requirements. Downlink packet scheduling at the base station plays a key role in efficiently allocating system res ources to meet the desired level of QoS for various users.

Aditya Dua; Nicholas Bambos

2007-01-01

441

Reliable Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is one of the major research areas in computer network field today. The function of WSN in this\\u000a chapter is to provide sensing services in an un-attended harsh environment. Sensed data need to be delivered to the base station\\u000a and to cope with the network unreliability problem. Few routing protocol takes into consideration of this problem.

Mohammad S. I. Alfares; Zhili Sun; Haitham Cruickshank

442

Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

2002-01-01

443

Activities of NICT space weather project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar-wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere. The three simulations are directly or indirectly connected each other based on real-time observa-tion data to reproduce a virtual geo-space region on the super-computer. Informatics is a new methodology to make precise forecast of space weather. Based on new information and communication technologies (ICT), it provides more information in both quality and quantity. At NICT, we have been developing a cloud-computing system named "space weather cloud" based on a high-speed network system (JGN2+). Huge-scale distributed storage (1PB), clus-ter computers, visualization systems and other resources are expected to derive new findings and services of space weather forecasting. The final goal of NICT space weather service is to predict near-future space weather conditions and disturbances which will be causes of satellite malfunctions, tele-communication problems, and error of GPS navigations. In the present talk, we introduce our recent activities on the space weather services and discuss how we are going to develop the services from the view points of space science and practical uses.

Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

444

Survey and Analysis of Weather Data for Building Energy Simulations  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, calibrated energy modeling of residential and commercial buildings has gained importance in a retrofit-dominated market. Accurate weather data plays an important role in this calibration process and projected energy savings. It would be ideal to measure weather data at the building location to capture relevant microclimate variation but this is generally considered cost-prohibitive. There are data sources publicly available with high temporal sampling rates but at relatively poor geospatial sampling locations. To overcome this limitation, there are a growing number of service providers that claim to provide real time and historical weather data for 20-35 km2 grid across the globe. Unfortunately, there is limited documentation from 3rd-party sources attesting to the accuracy of this data. This paper compares provided weather characteristics with data collected from a weather station inaccessible to the service providers. Monthly average dry bulb temperature; relative humidity; direct, diffuse and horizontal solar radiation; and wind speed are statistically compared. Moreover, we ascertain the relative contributions of each weather variable and its impact on building loads. Annual simulations are calculated for three different building types, including a closely monitored and automated energy efficient research building. The comparison shows that the difference for an individual variable can be as high as 90%. In addition, annual building energy consumption can vary by 7% while monthly building loads can vary by 40% as a function of the provided location s weather data.

Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

2012-01-01

445

Space weather center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five tutorials about space weather topics make up this web site. Plasma, the sun, Earth's magnetic field, magnetic storms, and the research and modeling of space weather are the topics, respectively, of the five tutorials. The tutorials use numerous enlargeable graphics, some animations and games, and additional special features like sound recordings of space weather phenomena to complement their textual content. In addition, the games and activities from all the tutorials are available together on a page accessible from the homepage. Within the tutorials, students learn about topics such as sunspots and the solar wind in the sun tutorial and space-based and Earth-based research tools in the research and modeling tutorial. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

2005-01-01

446

Jet Streams and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about jet streams and explore the effects the polar-front jet stream has on weather conditions in North America. They begin by doing an interactive activity that highlights the atmospheric conditions and phenomena that create jet streams. They then look at a model that illustrates the relationships between latitude and variations in air temperature, wind speed, and altitude and begin to make generalizations about these relationships. In the second part of this lesson, they use the knowledge gained in the first part to interpret weather maps, helping them to make direct connections between the behavior of the polar-front jet stream and seasonal weather patterns in North America. As a final exercise, they will use real data to deepen their understanding of the relationships between pressure, altitude, and the wind speed of jet streams.

2005-01-01

447

Delicious Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

Mary Gorte

448

Extreme Weather Sourcebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents a summary of damage caused by hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, lightning, hail, thunderstorms, and windstorms in the United States and its territories. Information was collected from as far back as 1900 (for hurricanes) and as recently as 1999 (for most categories). For each weather category, there is statistical information on monetary damages (in millions of dollars), sorted by rank and by alphabetic listing. There is also a summary table for composite damage from tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods; tables and graphs for damage and casualties caused by lightning; and summary information for other types of extreme weather (hail, thunderstorms, winter storms). Links are provided to information on data sources and methodology and on the societal impacts of weather.

449

Web Weather for Kids!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Web Weather for Kids offers hands-on classroom activities for students to learn about selected severe weather phenomena. Each activity has step-by-step instructions, materials lists, and guiding questions for students. A Teacher Tips page offers implementation strategies for teachers. Phenomena covered include the formation of thunderstorms, lightning, and tornados. Students explore the concepts of convection currents, precipitation, static electricity, wind shear and supercell updraft. Estimating the distance to a storm using the time delay between a flash of lightning and the sound of thunder is explained, as is what to do if caught near an electrical storm. Short videos of students involved in the activities enhance the site, as do links to more extensive information on the science of severe weather.

Susan Foster

450

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

2003-01-01

451

Weather and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, providing information about reliable public health services, tools, and resources.

COMET

2008-11-25

452

Indigenous Weather Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

453

Space Weather Action Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interdisciplinary activity, learners create a Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) to monitor solar storms and develop real SWAC news reports. Learners work in teams to first investigate sunspot regions, storm signals, a magnetosphere, and auroras and share their research with their peers. Then, learners assemble an instructional flip chart, data collection clipboards/notebook, and display board for their SWAC. Learners conclude the activity by writing their own weather reports, which can be filmed or broadcast if equipment is available. Once learners create a SWAC, solar storm research and reporting can become an ongoing activity.

NASA

2013-07-30

454

Weather and The Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will allow students to see the different weather conditions that are apart of the different seasons. It will also help students to identify the characterisitics that go along with each of the different seasons, For example, what weather conditions are present in each season and how we dress for each season. With a partner watch the video: Observing Clouds On piece of paper write your answers to the following questions: 1). What types of changes in the clouds did you observe? 2). What do you think caused the changes in the clouds? (Ex: teperature, morning to night, etc) Next, with your partner, please watch the second video: Observing Precipitation On ...

Ms. Maxwell

2012-02-07

455

Space Weather Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This workshop will focus on what space weather is about and its impact on society. An overall picture will be "painted" describing the Sun's influence through the solar wind on the near-Earth space environment, including the aurora, killer electrons at geosynchronous orbit, million ampere electric currents through the ionosphere and along magnetic field lines, and the generation of giga-Watts of natural radio waves. Reference material in the form of Internet sites will be provided so that teachers can discuss space weather in the classroom and enable students to learn more about this topic.

Gallagher, D. L.

2004-01-01

456

A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power  

PubMed Central

Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

2012-01-01

457

A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.  

PubMed

Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

2012-01-01

458

Weather Depot 1.21  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a quote commonly misattributed to Mark Twain goes, "Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does a thing about it." This little program from the folks at Weather Depot won't allow users to modify weather conditions, but it will let users customize their own weather planner (with hourly and daily updates), view regional radar, and view a map of current temperatures around the United States. Additionally, users may look up current road conditions, and view weather Web cams. Weather Depot 1.21 is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and higher.

459

75 FR 12311 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC...DPR-28, issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy...operation of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee...initial permit delays, inclement winter weather construction...

2010-03-15

460

Modular Wireless Data-Acquisition and Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular wireless data-acquisition and control system, now in operation at Kennedy Space Center, offers high performance at relatively low cost. The system includes a central station and a finite number of remote stations that communicate with each other through low-power radio frequency (RF) links. Designed to satisfy stringent requirements for reliability, integrity of data, and low power consumption, this system could be reproduced and adapted to use in a broad range of settings.

Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Medelius, Pedro; Mata, Carlos; Eckhoff, Anthony; Blalock, Norman

2004-01-01

461

The wireless revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current demand for and recent developments in wireless communication are described. Funding for wireless worldwide is examined. Tools and techniques used to characterize radio propagation are discussed, and some research results are presented

T. S. Rappaport

1991-01-01

462

Severe Weather Case Studies from the USArray Transportable Array Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthscope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) network serves as a real-time monitoring and recording platform for both seismic and weather phenomena. To date, most of the approximately 500 TA stations have been retrofitted with VTI SCP1000 MEMS barometric pressure gauges capable of recording data at 1 sample per second (sps). Additionally, over 100 of the TA stations have also been retrofitted with Setra 278 barometric gauges and NCPA infrasound sensors capable of recording data at 1 and 40 sps. While individual seismic events have been successfully researched via the TA network, observations of powerful weather events by the TA network have yet to be embraced by the scientific community. This presentation will focus on case studies involving severe weather passage across portions of the TA network throughout 2011 in order to highlight its viability as a platform for real-time weather monitoring and research. Examples of gust front passages and pressure couplets from severe thunderstorms will be presented, as will observations of the devastating tornado that passed through Joplin, Missouri on May 22nd with an enhanced Fujita (EF) strength of EF5. These data will demonstrate the overall viability of the TA network for monitoring severe weather events in real-time.

Tytell, J. E.; Vernon, F. L.; Busby, R. W.; Eakins, J. A.; Hedlin, M. A.; Muschinski, A.; Walker, K. T.; Woodward, R.

2011-12-01

463

Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1993-11-01

464

Introduction to Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adverse space weather is one of the principal threats to modern human technology. Solar coronal mass ejections, large solar flares, and high-speed solar wind streams often lead to sequences of damaging disturbances within the Earth's magnetosphere, in the atmosphere, and even on the Earth's surface. Powerful and long-lasting geomagnetic storms can develop following solar disturbances and enhancements of the highly relativistic electron populations throughout the outer terrestrial radiation zone can also result. High-energy protons and heavier ions arriving in near-earth space - or trapped in the magnetosphere and having clearest effect in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) - can damage satellite solar power panels, confuse optical trackers, and deposit harmful charges into sensitive electronic components. Recent international space science programs have made a concerted effort to study activity on the Sun, the propagation of energy bursts from the Sun to near-Earth space, energy coupling into the magnetosphere, and its redistribution and deposition in the upper and middle atmosphere. Extreme solar, geomagnetic and solar wind conditions can be observed by a large array of international satellites and ground-based sensors. Many types of space weather-related problems have been identified in recent years. This chapter presents examples of space weather-induced anomalies and failures and discusses community efforts to propose technical and operational solutions to space weather problems now and in the future.

Baker, Daniel N.

465

Dress for the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…

Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

2010-01-01

466

METEOROLOGICAL Monthly Weather Review  

E-print Network

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Monthly Weather Review EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary.d.williams@reading.ac.uk #12;2 Abstract In a recent study, Williams (2009) introduced a simple modification to the widely used. In the present paper, the effects of the modification are comprehensively evaluated in the SPEEDY atmospheric

Kalnay, Eugenia

467

Weather, Climate, and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

468

Weathering and mass wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class exercise is an opportunity for students to apply textbook information about weathering and mass wasting to local and nationally-recognized surface features, such as Stone Mountain (GA), Half Dome (CA), and others. It also serves as an introduction to the use of Google Earth as an analytical tool for calculating distances, slopes, and evaluating landforms. Designed for a geomorphology course

Jordan Clayton

469

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

470

Winter Weather Introduction  

E-print Network

equipment. · Organize and implement CF-FO operational plans. · Review all procedures with CF-FO Managers the labor and equipment hours. #12;Campus Facilities-Energy Management · Clear the coal road and interiorWinter Weather Management #12;Introduction · Campus Facilities Staff · Other Campus Organizations

Taylor, Jerry

471

Weather and Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

Wiley, Scott

2007-01-01

472

Wind, waves and weather  

SciTech Connect

The first part of this second edition covers basic meteorology, oceanography, and the observation and reporting of environmental conditions. The second section discusses offshore platforms, regulating agencies, the effect of the environment on offshore drilling and production, and safety procedures for severe weather and sea conditions.

Dykas, J.D.; Firstenberg, C.E.

1985-01-01

473

METEOROLOGICAL Monthly Weather Review  

E-print Network

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Monthly Weather Review EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary-mail: toy@atmos.colostate.edu #12;2 Abstract The isentropic system of equations has particular advantages is simply the pressure drag acting on isentropic coordinate surfaces under frictionless, adiabatic

Randall, David A.

474

Crop Conditions Weather Update  

E-print Network

1 Crop Conditions Weather Update Apple Diseases: What To Do? Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight Pesticide Use) fire blight - immediately cut out blighted twigs 10 to 12 inches below any sign of infection, being any longer. -Pecknold Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight: Growers should be especially alert for fire blight

Ginzel, Matthew

475

Crop Conditions Weather Update  

E-print Network

1 Crop Conditions Weather Update Extension Director Search at Purdue University Fire Blight Apple something to announce in a few weeks time. Fire Blight: Do not become complacent about fire blight! Even though fire blight has been at a low level the past few years you never want to let your guard down

Ginzel, Matthew

476

Weather or Not?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning activity, teams of students will be asked to forecast the weather up to 48 hours in advance of an outdoor event that is special to them. It may be a local or distant event. The activity is part of Exploring the Environment.

477

Weather: Global Awareness Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning scenario, students are challenged to plan concert locations for their favorite musical artists, using TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite data and other resources to locate regions at risk for extreme weather. A math extension activity is included, along with a glossary, teacher notes, student worksheets, assessment rubrics, and an appendix about problem-based learning.

2012-08-03

478

Dress for the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson,

Lara K. Smetana

2010-04-01

479

Rainy Weather Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

Reynolds, Karen

1996-01-01

480

Blogging About the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

Kyle Evans

2010-04-01

481

Weather and the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on weather and objects in the sky includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

482

Sunspots and Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation for students in how sunspots impact space weather between the Sun and Earth. Students research solar maximum and minimum as well as recent sunspot numbers to determine a connection between the numbers and solar activity. This page is accompanied by a page of websites for further resources.

483

Weather automation studies at the Otis Weather Test Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the Otis Weather Test Facility (WTF) is presented, taking into account the distribution of surface-based and tower-mounted instrumentation at the WTF, the automation of the rotating beam ceilometer, the present weather decision tree, and slant visual range techniques. A demonstration model of a Modular Automated Weather System (MAWS) is also considered. The versatility of MAWS results from

D. A. Chisholm

1978-01-01

484

AMS-02 as a Space Weather Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state-of-the-art space detector that measures particles in the energy range of hundreds of MeV to a few TeV. AMS-02 has been installed onboard of the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011 where it will operate for the duration of the station. To date, there is an abundance of space-based solar data collected in the low energy regimes, whereas there are very few direct measurements of higher energy particles available. AMS-02 is capable of measuring arrival time and composition of the highest energy SEPs in space. It is crucial to build a better knowledge base regarding the most energetic and potentially harmful events. We are currently developing a program to employ AMS-02 as a real-time space weather observatory. SEPs with higher energies are usually accelerated during a short period of time and they are the first particles to reach the Earth. AMS-02, measuring these highest energy SEPs, can alert the onset of an SEP event. During the past two years of operation, we have identified two main quantities in AMS-02 that are particularly sensitive to the arrival of SEPs: the detector livetime and the transition radiation detector (TRD) event size. By monitoring the detector livetime and the TRD event size, AMS-02 can pinpoint in real-time the arrival of SEPs inside the Earth's magnetosphere operating as a space weather detector.

Whitman, K.; Bindi, V.; Chati, M.; Consolandi, C.; Corti, C.

2013-12-01

485

Advertising via wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subscriber growth of wireless networks has created an increasing demand for wireless (mobile) advertising. However, at this point there are no standard industry practices to deal with some of the key mobile advertising issues. This research analyses the business model of a mobile advertising firm and highlights some of the key issues for modelling ad deliveries via wireless networks.

Ram D. Gopal; Arvind K. Tripathi

2006-01-01

486

External Resource: Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Teachers' Domain photo essay with images that depict surface features on Earth that result from weathering and erosion, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects. Topics: weathering, erosion, sediments, dunes, deltas, glaci

1900-01-01

487

FEBRUARY 1959 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW THE WEATHER AND CIRCULATION OF FEBRUARY 1959  

E-print Network

February 1959 was a month of marked variability in weather across the United States, as manifested partly by weekly alternations of above and below normal ternperatures and of record maximum and minimum temperatures (for the date) at some stations in the East (table 1). This month was feat,ured by the highest daily sea level pressures (up to 1053 mb.) on record at some stations in the upper Mississippi Valley at, the beginning of the month. It was also highlighted by a disastrous storm on the 9th and 10t,h, accompanied by tornadoes, one of which took the lives of 21 persons in St. Louis, &Io., early on the morning of the loth, with hundreds injured and millions of dollars in property damage. In addition to tornadoes, this storm included a wide variety of severe weather, such as blowing dust, glaze, high winds, floods, snow, and thunderstorms. It brought a repeat, of flood conditions requiring evacuation to sections of Indiana and Ohio, where only 20 days before similar disaster struck on January 21 [ 11. On a monthly basis few records were broken, although near-record snowfall occurred at some stations, such as

J. F. O' connor

488

The Relationship Between Fire Energy Release and Weather Conditions in Russian Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active fire remote sensing performed using spaceborne systems, such as MODIS radiometer aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, provides observations of fire locations, as well as an estimate of the amount of energy released by the fire (Fire Radiative Power). Such measures of fire radiative power (FRP) provide information on fireline heat release intensity and on the amount and rate of biomass combustion in the large scale. Biomass combustion rate is strongly related to fuel moisture and therefore to weather conditions. The correlation analysis of fire radiative power and weather fire danger was performed for the territory of Siberia. The measurements were made during stable anticyclons which lead to severe drought that caused extreme fire behavior. Weather conditions were characterized using weather fire danger indices. The measurements of FRP were performed using MODIS instrument and weather fire danger indices were calculated using weather stations data. The analysis was performed for several Siberian regions mostly liable to fires. Weather fire danger was characterized by Russian fire danger indices and using Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Only large fires having the final size of more than 500 ha were focused in this study. For the most weather stations it was rather good agreement between the fire danger indices and the measured fire radiative power for the most of the fires. For the weather stations considered the following weather indices had the best correlation with measured FRP values: Russian PV-1 index and Canadian DMC, DC and BUI indices. A regression model was formulated to characterize the relationship between wildfire radiative power and fire danger indices.However, it was found that the relationships have regional specificity and none of these indices can be considered as universal.

Shvetsov, E.

2012-12-01

489

Linking the Weather Generator with Regional Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the downscaling approaches, which transform the raw outputs from the climate models (GCMs or RCMs) into data with more realistic structure, is based on linking the stochastic weather generator with the climate model output. The present contribution, in which the parametric daily surface weather generator (WG) M&Rfi is linked to the RCM output, follows two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters are derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from weather series observed in 125 Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation series (including probability of wet day occurrence). (2) Presenting a methodology for linking the WG with RCM output. This methodology, which is based on merging information from observations and RCM, may be interpreted as a downscaling procedure, whose product is a gridded WG capable of producing realistic synthetic multivariate weather series for weather-ungauged locations. In this procedure, WG is calibrated with RCM-simulated multi-variate weather series in the first step, and the grid specific WG parameters are then de-biased by spatially interpolated correction factors based on comparison of WG parameters calibrated with gridded RCM weather series and spatially scarcer observations. The quality of the weather series produced by the resultant gridded WG will be assessed in terms of selected climatic characteristics (focusing on characteristics related to variability and extremes of surface temperature and precipitation). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO-Climate (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

Dubrovsky, Martin; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr; Huth, Radan

2013-04-01

490

Space Weather Impacts on Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The module builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.

2014-09-14

491

Trip Report: McMurdo Station, Antarctica 30 November 21 December 2006  

E-print Network

arrived at the United States Antarctic Program's (USAP) McMurdo Station on a C-17 via Christchurch, New Zealand on 30 November 2006. My research work was done at the McMurdo weather office ("MacWeather"), whichPa geopotential height plot if necessary, to the infrared (IR) imagery in a similar geographic orientation

Howat, Ian M.

492

75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices and Battery...wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery...wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or...

2010-02-24

493

M Station, Austin  

E-print Network

$100 $150 $200 $250 $300 ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (Standard) 90 ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (Standard) LEED Platinum (M Station) 9081 ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (Standard) LEED Platinum (M Station) M... Station 9081 108 ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (Standard) LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station 9081 10849 $0.00/sf Planning ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (Standard) LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station 9081 10849 $0.00/sf...

Mathon, S.

2011-01-01

494

Space Station Spartan study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

1985-01-01

495

Severe Weather Planning for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

2008-01-01

496

Road Weather and Transportation Systems  

E-print Network

Road Weather and Transportation Systems Rhonda Young, P.E., PhD Associate Professor Dept. of Civil & Arch. Engineering Portland State University April 18, 2014 #12;Engineering Perspective of Road Weather · How does weather impact transportation systems? · As engineers, is there anything we can do

Bertini, Robert L.

497

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

Groppi, Christopher

498

Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have

Michael Garstang; Roelof Bruintjes; Robert Serafin; Harold Orville; Bruce Boe; William Cotton; Joseph Warburton

2005-01-01

499

Making a Space Weather Script  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners write space weather reports using current data about the Sun and create a broadcast script to present the researched information to