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1

Equating minimalist snowmelt and runoff generation models via validation with a wireless weather station network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wireless network of 12 weather stations in the Val Ferret watershed (approximately 21 km2) in the Swiss Alps was used to validate snowmelt models with distributed temperature and radiation data. Using this extensive dataset, an improved yet simplistic degree-day method was compared with a radiation-based method proposed by Hock et al., 1999. The original degree-day approach is a widely used snowmelt model, relating snowmelt directly to air temperature. Numerous hydrological models use this minimalist approach due to its equivalent simplicity. Modifications of this simple method have been proposed in the past which typically incorporate local radiation conditions. However, these modifications generally require more data and/or a finer hydrological grid resolution. Results herein as well as theoretical considerations illustrate that the Hock point or grid-scale method is not always a robust method when combined with spatially explicit rainfall-runoff transformation models. This generalized hydrological application suggests that a simple diurnal cycle of the degree-day melt parameter has the potential to outperform the Hock local radiation-based approach for sub-daily melt simulations. We therefore suggest that the improved degree-day method enables a flexible melt modeling approach, which can be easily adapted into spatially-explicit hydrological models of varying complexity. Furthermore, as this new degree-day method is based upon solely daily temperature extremes, this approach is capable of being adapted for climate change predictions.

Tobin, C. C.; Schaefli, B.; Nicotina, L.; Simoni, S.; Barrenetxea, G.; Parlange, M. B.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

2

Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

3

Future Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students build dioramas of futuristic weather stations to demonstrate their knowledge of weather forecasting. They will work in groups to research modern forecasting equipment and techniques, and then build a weather station that will do something we cannot do at present (such as stopping tornadoes). They will present their dioramas and then discuss the pros and cons of controlling the weather.

4

Palmer Automatic Weather Station  

NSF Publications Database

... EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : December 06, 1991 File : opp93040 DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS OFFICE OF ... Palmer Automatic Weather Station) To: Files (S.7 - Environment) This Environmental Action Memorandum ...

5

Designing a Weather Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

6

Weather Stations: Storms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test how cornstarch and glitter in water move when disturbed. Learners compare their observations with videos of Jupiter's and Earth's storm movements. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

Institute, Lunar A.; Nasa

2011-01-01

7

Weather Stations: Phase Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe the water cycle in action! Water vapor in a tumbler condenses on chilled aluminum foil â producing the liquid form of water familiar to us as rain and dew. Learners discuss how Jupiter's lack of a surface simplifies its water cycle. Learners then consider the roles ammonia and ammonia compounds play in Jupiter's more complicated atmosphere. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

Institute, Lunar A.; Nasa

2011-01-01

8

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. Older students can independently follow instructions on how to build five different instruments (barometer, hygrometer, rain gauge, weather vane, and compass). Younger students will need adult supervision with hammer and nails.

9

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this OLogy activity, kids learn about climate and atmospheric conditions by making their own weather station. The activity begins with an overview that explains that weather happens in the atmosphere, where conditions are always changing. Students are given step-by-step, illustrated directions to make a wind vane, a rain gauge and a barometer. The activity includes a printable Weather Chart and wind vane cutouts.

10

Weather Stations: Temperature and Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover the relationship between temperature and pressure in the lower atmospheres of Jupiter and Earth. Learners chart the increasing temperature as they add pressure to a 2-L soda bottle with a Fizz-Keeper Pump. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

Institute, Lunar A.; Nasa

2011-01-01

11

An Automatic Recording Weather Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Automatic Weather Station erected by the First Indian Antarctic Expedition. A simplified block diagram of the system electronics presents an overview of the sensors and associated electronic hardware. A detailed flow-chart of the acquisition and storage software is also presented together with details of the processor module, analog board, clock and power supply circuits and tape

E. Desa; A. P. S elvam; R. G. Prabhu Desai; M. R. Nayak

12

A novel underwater weather station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new form of underwater weather station has been designed for long term recording with great reliability and low power consumption.The novelty of the instrument lies in its use of a non-destructive,non-volatile magnetic memory. The original instrument was designed as a tide gauge capable of recording deep-sea tides on the ocean floor for at least a year's duration. Analog data

J. Matthews; Gil Mimken

1974-01-01

13

Micro Weather Stations for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A global network of weather stations will be needed to characterize the near-surface environment on Mars. Here, we review the scientific and measurement objectives of this network. We also show how these objectives can be met within the cost-constrained Mars Surveyor Program by augmenting the Mars Pathfinder-derived landers with large numbers of very small (less than 5 liter), low-mass (less than 5 kg), low-power, low-cost Mini-meteorological stations. Each station would include instruments for measuring atmospheric. pressures, temperatures, wind velocities, humidity, and airborne dust abundance. They would also include a data handling, telemetry, power, atmospheric entry, and deployment systems in a rugged package capable of direct entry and a high-impact landing. In this paper, we describe these systems and summarize the data-taking strategies and data volumes needed to achieve the surface meteorology objectives for Mars.

Crisp, David; Kaiser, William J.; VanZandt, Thomas R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Tillman, James E.

1995-01-01

14

Development of a long-lived, real-time automatic weather station based on WSN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale of weather monitoring is limited by the cost of the automatic weather stations (AWS), which is mainly the cost of high precision instruments and long-distance wireless telecommunication equipments. We propose a wireless sensor network (WSN) based AWS, which takes advantage of the low-cost, real-time and infrastructure-free characteristics of WSN [1]. We can therefore extend the scale of weather

Chin-jung Liu; Huang-chen Lee; Jung Yang; Jen-tse Huang; Yao-min Fang; Bing-jean Lee; Chung-ta King

2008-01-01

15

Build Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 9-12. This lesson focuses on weather instruments, and has students build a rain gauge, barometer, wind vane, anemometer, and a psychrometer. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

16

Precipitation at Ocean Weather Station `P".  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the 27-yr record of precipitation measurements at Ocean Weather Station `P' (50°N, 145°W). The credibility of the rainfall observations is assessed, and the testing of certain extraordinary features of the fall and winter seasonal precipitation time series is outlined. Using the portion of the record established to be close to `ground truth' (1954-1967), the authors have statistically related present weather observations to seasonal precipitation amounts at Ocean Weather Station `P.' With this approach, the authors have reproduced the first half (1954-1967) and predicted the second half (1969-1980) of the precipitation time series to compare to observations. Precipitation is physically estimated by determining the vertical moisture convergence at Ocean Weather Station `P' and comparing the relative consistency of the moisture convergence time series to the contemporaneous seasonal rate of measured precipitation. The analysis suggests that the Ocean Weather Station `P' record of measured precipitation is a substantial improvement over previous estimates of precipitation in the northeast Pacific for the period between 1954 and 1967, but that the second half of the record, particularly during the early 1970s, remains questionable. Reliable rainfall estimates along with measurements for the 27-yr record are given to aid studies dealing with energy balance calculations and the verification of oceanic precipitation generated by global climate models.

Jenkins, M. A.; Wong, W. C.; Higuchi, K.; Knox, J. L.

1994-05-01

17

Research results from Antarctic automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic weather station (AWS) units have been deployed in Antarctica since 1980 by the U.S. Antarctic Research Program. As of June 1987, 25 AWS units are operating in Antarctica in support of meteorological research. The AWS units measure air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction at a nominal height of 3 m above the surface and air pressure at the

Charles R. Stearns; Gerd Wendler

1988-01-01

18

Research on the Web: Antarctic Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students see the link between wind speeds and geographical features. Students begin by gathering wind-speed measurements for 10 weather stations in Antarctica, converting the data, as needed, to allow comparisons. Next, they record wind data for five consecutive days and calculate the average wind speed for each station. They then examine elevation data for the stations and end by developing an hypothesis for the different patterns they have observed. In Antarctica, scientists often have trouble measuring katabatic winds, which are so strong they can knock down the instruments. Students discover for themselves why Antarctica is the windiest place on Earth.

19

The Lizard Wireless Station of Guglielmo Marconi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the vacation with my wife in Cornwall, we by chance were walking by the Lizard wireless station, originally installed by Guglielmo Marconi and recently refurbished by The National Trust/UK. Fortunately the shed was open for public visitors and a student was present telling stories about the station and its history. The historic equipment was demonstrated by sending some Morse codes. The high voltage sparks and its sound were quite impressive while in the background the Morse code receiver punched dots and dashes onto the strip chart.

Montstein, Christian

2014-08-01

20

Standardisation of Temperature Observed by Automatic Weather Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily mean, maximum and minimum surface airtemperature data were gathered from a network ofautomatic weather stations (AWS) within the Moor HouseNational Nature Reserve in northern England. Five AWSwere installed next to the official EnvironmentalChange Network weather station at Moor House. Datawere compared graphically and correction constantswere calculated to adjust data from each AWS to thestandard of the official station by

A. Joyce; J. Adamson; B. Huntley; T. Parr; R. Baxter

2001-01-01

21

Analysis of station locations in a road weather information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many northern countries use a road weather information system (RWIS) with a network of stations to monitor winter road conditions. Present station locations were selected after field investigations of micro- and local-climate conditions (e.g. using thermal mapping). This paper describes an approach to optimally locate and equip the stations in order to best identify conditions hazardous to road transport. This

M. Eriksson; J. Norrman

2001-01-01

22

Implementation of weather stations at Ghanaian high schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an initiative that aims to develop a dense weather observation network in Sub-Sahara Africa. The ambition is to have 20.000 low-cost innovative weather stations in place in 2015. An increased amount of weather data is locally required to provide stakeholders that are dependent on the weather, such as farmers and fishermen, with accurate forecasts. As a first proof of concept, showing that sensors can be built at costs lower than commercially available, a disdrometer was developed. In parallel with the design of the measurement instruments, a high school curriculum is developed that covers environmental sciences. In order to find out which requirements the TAHMO weather station and accompanying educational materials should meet for optimal use at Junior High Schools research was done at Ghanaian schools. Useful insights regarding the future African context of the weather station and requirements for an implementation strategy were obtained during workshops with teachers and students, visits to WMO observatories and case studies regarding use of educational materials. The poster presents the conclusions of this research, which is part of the bigger TAHMO framework.

Pieron, M.

2012-04-01

23

Precipitation at ocean weather stations in the north Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of precipitation at ocean weather stations in the North Pacific reveals much less annual rain than previous estimates, except in the northwestern part of the ocean, as well as a stronger north-south gradient. Seasonal distributions were about as shown on most charts except for the northwest Pacific. The amounts and isohyetal patterns at sea are quite different from those at coastal land stations.

Reed, R. K.; Elliott, William P.

1973-10-01

24

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

the record set in 1929 and 2002. Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 1Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report Month: August on 16 August at 16:10 MST from 290º. #12;Evaporation Total class A pan evaporation for August 2010 was 7

25

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

26

Analysis of station locations in a road weather information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many northern countries use a road weather information system (RWIS) with a network of stations to monitor winter road conditions. Present station locations were selected after field investigations of micro- and local-climate conditions (e.g. using thermal mapping). This paper describes an approach to optimally locate and equip the stations in order to best identify conditions hazardous to road transport. This is achieved using multiple regression analysis of observed data and correlation with location meta-data. A geographical information system (GIS) is used to develop quantitative and objective descriptions of station locations by using knowledge of local and regional climate variations. Road climate is described using a slipperiness classification, in which weather situations are classified into ten types of slipperiness from the meteorological variables collected at RWIS stations. The relationships between quantified locations and data on road slipperiness in southern Sweden during one winter are analysed. The results show that the spatial patterns for different types of slipperiness are significantly related to local parameters. The three most prevalent types are analysed in detail: snowfall on a frozen road surface, hoarfrost and low visibility, and strong formation of hoarfrost.

Eriksson, M.; Norrman, J.

2001-12-01

27

A self-contained weather station for wind and solar energy prospecting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection of meteorological data for wind and solar energy studies has been facilitated through the development of electronic weather stations. The Weather Wizard is a microprocessor controlled weather station which can be programmed for specialized applications such as wind and solar energy resource assessment. Use of the Weather Wizard during a recent wind energy related project is discussed.

1982-01-01

28

The New Weather Station for the VLA Bryan Butler, Wayne Koski  

E-print Network

The New Weather Station for the VLA Bryan Butler, Wayne Koski EVLA Memo 179 May 13, 2014 1.0 Introduction The weather station of the VLA (see e the location of the new weather station, its tower and instrumentation, some

Groppi, Christopher

29

Polar automatic weather station project of the University of Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polar automatic weather station (AWS) of the University of Wisconsin is a battery-powered, solar panel-charged, computer-controlled unit that measures wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, air pressure, vertical temperature difference, and relative humidity. The nominal height of the measurements is three to five meters at the time of installation. The data are transmitted to polar-orbiting satellites equipped with the

C. R. Stearns; G. A. Weidner

1992-01-01

30

Weather satellite picture receiving stations, APT digital scan converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The automatic picture transmission digital scan converter is used at ground stations to convert signals received from scanning radiometers to data compatible with ground equipment designed to receive signals from vidicons aboard operational meteorological satellites. Information necessary to understand the circuit theory, functional operation, general construction and calibration of the converter is provided. Brief and detailed descriptions of each of the individual circuits are included, accompanied by a schematic diagram contained at the end of each circuit description. Listings of integral parts and testing equipment required as well as an overall wiring diagram are included. This unit will enable the user to readily accept and process weather photographs from the operational meteorological satellites.

Vermillion, C. H.; Kamowski, J. C.

1975-01-01

31

Data Transmission and Base-Station Placement for Optimizing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

, highly integrated and energy-efficient electronic devices, cou- pled with emerging technologiesData Transmission and Base-Station Placement for Optimizing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor in Wireless Sensor Networks of base-station positioning such that data from the sensors may be transmitted

32

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction: How much do you know about weather? What kinds of weather do we have surrounding us? What is the weather like today? You may know a lot about weather already, you may not. Either way, you will learn more now as we take a look into what causes our weather and the methods we use to record and predict it. We will all become meteorologists, which are scientists who study the atmosphere and can predict weather. Put on your raincoats, and lets started! Task: You are the resident meteorologist at a local news station. It is your job to record and predict the weather each day, and then present it that night on the evening news. Not only should you be able to show the weather that we will be experiencing right ...

Hendricks, Ms.

2007-12-06

33

Performance evaluation of the impact of mobile base station on clustered wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Base station mobility can be exploited to minimise the energy consumption in a wireless sensor network. This paper investigates the impact that base station movement has upon the performance of cluster-based wireless sensor networks. Three types of base station movement are considered: movement influenced by the position of cluster-heads, random movement and movement partially influenced by the position of cluster-heads.

Siddeswara Mayura Guru; Daniel Smith; Yanfeng Shu; Paulo de Souza

2009-01-01

34

Comparison of weather station snowfall with winter snow accumulation in high arctic basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most water balance studies in the High Arctic indicate that the weather stations underestimate annual precipitation, but the magnitude of such error is unknown. Based on up to seven years of field measurements, this study provides a comparison of snowfall at weather stations with the winter snow accumulation in their nearby drainage basins.Snowfall is the major form of precipitation in

Richard Heron; Peter Steer

1983-01-01

35

Waves and the equilibrium range at Ocean Weather Station P  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave and wind measurements at Ocean Weather Station P (OWS-P, 50°N 145°W) are used to evaluate the equilibrium range of surface wave energy spectra. Observations are consistent with a local balance between wind input and breaking dissipation, as described by Philips (1985). The measurements include direct covariance wind stress estimates and wave breaking dissipation rate estimates during a 3 week research cruise to OWS-P. The analysis is extended to a wider range of conditions using observations of wave energy spectra and wind speed during a 2 year mooring deployment at OWS-P. At moderate wind speeds (5-15 m/s), mooring wave spectra are in agreement, within 5% uncertainty, with the forcing implied by standard drag laws and mooring wind measurements. At high wind speeds (>15 m/s), mooring wave spectra are biased low, by 13%, relative to the forcing implied by standard drag laws and mooring wind measurements. Deviations from equilibrium are associated with directionality and variations at the swell frequencies. A spectral wave hindcast accurately reproduces the mooring observations, and is used to examine the wind input.

Thomson, J.; D'Asaro, E. A.; Cronin, M. F.; Rogers, W. E.; Harcourt, R. R.; Shcherbina, A.

2013-11-01

36

Implementing a wireless base station for a sensor network  

E-print Network

Using wireless sensor networks for monitoring infrastructure is a new trend in civil engineering. Compared with traditional ways to monitor infrastructure, wireless sensor networks are cheap, safe, and compact. However, ...

Song, Heewon, 1977-

2004-01-01

37

University of Waterloo Weather Station Summary October 2013 A warm month that was the second wettest ever in the region  

E-print Network

University of Waterloo Weather Station Summary ­ October 2013 A warm month that was the second we have seen at the UW weather station. Back in July, the 173.0 mm was the most ever seen in the 15 year history of the UW weather station, but now October comes along with 181.4 mm. The last day

Le Roy, Robert J.

38

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report  

E-print Network

, there were 15 days >=90 degrees. Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly precipitation was 1.70" and was 0Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report Month: July Year

39

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report  

E-print Network

May 2012: Minimum temperature of 54 ties the old record set in 1953. Precipitation and Snowfall: TotalColorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report Month: May Year

40

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report  

E-print Network

. Precipitation and Snowfall: Total monthly precipitation was 0.61" and was 1.56" below the normal for the monthColorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report Month: June Year

41

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report  

E-print Network

in 2010. Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly precipitation was 1.97" and was 0.62" above the normalColorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report Month: September

42

Building and Operating Weather Satellite Ground Stations for High School Science. Teachers Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) images are real-time weather pictures transmitted from satellites on a radio frequency in a video format. Amateur radio enthusiasts and electronic experimenters have for a number of years designed, built, and operated direct readout stations capable of receiving APT photographs. The equipment to receive weather

Summers, R. Joe; Gotwald, Timothy

43

Weather risk management in Mozambique: Technical note on current and planned weather stations and their potential  

E-print Network

2008 the Africa Agriculture and Rural Development (AFTAR) department of the World Bank undertook and their potential viability for designing and monitoring agricultural weather risk insurance Mark Tadross1 and Alex, The World Bank. #12;M. Tadross and A. Lotsch. Weather risk management in Mozambique i Contents: 1

Tadross, Mark

44

Severe Weather Tool using 1500 UTC Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Soundings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

Bauman, William H., III

2013-01-01

45

Development of Data Video Base Station in Water Environment Monitoring Oriented Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, date video base station and remote monitoring center. For the sake of realizing to monitor large range waters such as reservoir, wetland, lake, river and ocean etc, the monitoring system has the function of perception, acquisition, processing and transmission for video-information in key

Kong Yifan; Jiang Peng

2008-01-01

46

Bringing More Meaning to Weather Predicting: The Weather Station and Reading the Sky Help Put it All Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter provides teachers with instructions to install a school weather station, and to build simple instruments to monitor weather conditions. Materials need to create a homemade weathervane include a two-liter soft drink bottle, a shallow metal pie pan, a plastic drinking straw, and a compass. Building an anemometer requires plastic cups, soda straws, a pencil with an unused new eraser on the end, a paper punch, and a thumbtack. Thermometers and a rain gauge must be purchased. A data table is included for estimating windspeed using the anemometer. The chapter includes research ideas that allow students to validate their instruments and test the predictive capability of resources such as the Farmer's Almanac. This resource is chapter 15 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The resource includes background information, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 15 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

47

Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson  

E-print Network

Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson Thanks, and to Dr. Shelley N. Pressley. To monitor air quality in Pullman, the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research in the department of civil and environmental engineering, as well as providing a long-term record of air quality

Collins, Gary S.

48

University of Waterloo Weather Station Summary May 2013 A warm month with average precipitation  

E-print Network

University of Waterloo Weather Station Summary ­ May 2013 A warm month with average precipitation January. Most of the precipitation for the month happened during just 3 days (the 10th , 28th and 29th). Even with this average month, we are still about 100 mm over the precipitation we expect at this time

Waterloo, University of

49

A study of the surface mass balance in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, using automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use data from four automatic weather stations (AWSs) in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, to study the surface mass balance and its components. Distinct differences were found between the moisture climates of the high plateau, the katabatic wind zone and the coastal ice shelves: significant undersaturation occurs year-round in the katabatic wind zone, while on the high plateau and

Michiel R. van den Broeke; Carleen H. Reijmer

2004-01-01

50

Sensible heat exchange at the Antarctic snow surface: a study with automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data of four automatic weather stations (AWSs) are used to calculate the turbulent exchange of sensible heat at the Antarctic snow surface for a 4 year period (1998-2001). The AWSs are situated on the ice shelf, in the coastal\\/inland katabatic wind zone and on the interior plateau in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Sensible heat flux (SHF) is calculated using

Michiel van den Broeke; Dirk van As; Carleen Reijmer; Roderik van de Wal

2005-01-01

51

The NASA-Lewis terrestrial photovoltaics program. [solar cell power system for weather station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and technology efforts on solar cells and arrays having relevance to terrestrial uses are outline. These include raising cell efficiency, developing the FEP-covered module concept, and exploring low cost cell concepts. Solar cell-battery power systems for remote weather stations have been built to demonstrate the capabilities of solar cells for terrestrial applications.

Bernatowicz, D. T.

1973-01-01

52

Estimation of Remote Microclimates from Weather Station Data with Applications to Landscape Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several components of a system for quantitative application of climatic statistics to landscape planning and design (CLIMACS) have been developed. One component model (MICROSIM) estimated the microclimate at the top of a remote crop using physically-based models and inputs of weather station data. Temperatures at the top of unstressed, uniform crops on flat terrain within 1600 m of a recording

Robert Douglas Brown

1985-01-01

53

Surface radiation balance in Antarctica as measured with automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present 4 years of near-surface radiation balance observations of four Antarctic automatic weather stations (AWS). The AWS are situated along a traverse line in Dronning Maud Land, connecting the coastal ice shelf and the inland plateau via the katabatic wind zone, covering the three major climate regimes of East Antarctica. Important differences in the radiation balance of the three

Michiel van den Broeke; Carleen Reijmer; Roderik van de Wal

2004-01-01

54

Seasonal cycles of Antarctic surface energy balance from automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic surface energy balance (SEB) using 4 years (1998 2001) of automatic weather station (AWS) data. The four AWSs are situated on an ice shelf, in the coastal and inland katabatic wind zone and the interior plateau of Dronning Maud Land. To calculate surface temperature we use a SEB closure assumption for a

Michiel van den Broeke; Carleen Reijmer; Dirk van As; Roderik van de Wal; J. Oerlemans

2005-01-01

55

Seasonal cycles of Antarctic surface energy balance from automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic surface energy balance (SEB) using 4 years (1998-2001) of automatic weather station (AWS) data. The four AWSs are situated on an ice shelf, in the coastal and inland katabatic wind zone and the interior plateau of Dronning Maud Land. To calculate surface temperature we use a SEB closure assumption for a surface

Michiel Van den Broeke; Carleen Reijmer; As van Dirk; Roderik Van de Wal; J. Oerlemans

2005-01-01

56

Shallow Firn Layer Climatology Derived from Greenland Climate Network Automatic Weather Station Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) surface meteorological observations are used to analyze shallow firn temperature profiles at high elevation sites on the Greenland ice sheet. This research extends the record of shallow firn temperature climatology at four sites on the Greenland ice sheet, which contain up to ten years of temperature profile measurements. The high altitude automatic weather station (AWS) sites

K. M. Sampson; K. Steffen

2006-01-01

57

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report  

E-print Network

. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall: Total monthly precipitation was 2.93" and was 1.60" above the normalColorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report Month: September the total is 57 days. Highest Minimum Temperature 2 September 2012: Minimum temperature of 65 ties the old

58

FireWxNet: A Multi-Tiered Portable Wireless System for Monitoring Weather Conditions in Wildland Fire  

E-print Network

Fire Environments Carl Hartung, Richard Han Department of Computer Science University of Colorado firefighting is the ability to accurately predict the fire's be- havior. Such predictions are usually basedFireWxNet: A Multi-Tiered Portable Wireless System for Monitoring Weather Conditions in Wildland

Han, Richard Y.

59

Simple Random Sampling-Based Probe Station Selection for Fault Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Fault detection for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied intensively in recent years. Most existing works statically choose the manager nodes as probe stations and probe the network at a fixed frequency. This straightforward solution leads however to several deficiencies. Firstly, by only assigning the fault detection task to the manager node the whole network is out of balance, and this quickly overloads the already heavily burdened manager node, which in turn ultimately shortens the lifetime of the whole network. Secondly, probing with a fixed frequency often generates too much useless network traffic, which results in a waste of the limited network energy. Thirdly, the traditional algorithm for choosing a probing node is too complicated to be used in energy-critical wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we study the distribution characters of the fault nodes in wireless sensor networks, validate the Pareto principle that a small number of clusters contain most of the faults. We then present a Simple Random Sampling-based algorithm to dynamic choose sensor nodes as probe stations. A dynamic adjusting rule for probing frequency is also proposed to reduce the number of useless probing packets. The simulation experiments demonstrate that the algorithm and adjusting rule we present can effectively prolong the lifetime of a wireless sensor network without decreasing the fault detected rate. PMID:22163789

Huang, Rimao; Qiu, Xuesong; Rui, Lanlan

2011-01-01

60

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

Stearns, Ms.

2008-10-25

61

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is written for fourth grade students. Students will explore weather and the effects it has on their lives. What is weather? video of what is weather Let's take a walk through the weather. Put on your hats and coats! Clouds Cloud Types Clouds - Dan's Wild Weather Page What to Wear? What to Wear? What to Drink? Weather Patterns and Climatic Regions ...

Bullough, Ms.

2010-06-24

62

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

Williams, Ms.

2005-10-25

63

Snow temperature profiles and heat fluxes measured on the Greenland crest by an automatic weather station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1989 three automatic weather station (AWS) units were installed on the Greenland crest at the GISP2 (78.58 N, 38.46 W, 3265 m) and GRIP (78.57 N, 37.62 W, 3230 m) ice coring sites and at Kenton (72.28 N, 38.80 W, 3185 m), the air sampling site. The purpose of the AWS units is to measure the local meteorological

C. R. Stearns; G A. Weidner

1992-01-01

64

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

65

Relationship Between Land Cover Ratio and Urban Heat Island from Remote Sensing and Automatic Weather Stations Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban heat island (UHI) effect has a close relation to land covers type. This paper investigates the relationship between\\u000a land cover ratio and UHI in Guangzhou, south of China using remote sensing and automatic weather stations data. The temperature\\u000a data were obtained by Automatic weather stations (AWS) of Guangzhou in October, 2004, at the same time with the CBERS remote

Xingping Wen; Xiaofeng Yang; Guangdao Hu

66

Micro weather stations for in situ measurements in the Martian planetary boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking Lander meteorology measurements show that the Martian planetary boundary layer (PBL) has large diurnal and seasonal variations in pressure, wind velocity, relative humidity, and airborne dust loading. An even larger range of conditions was inferred from remote sensing observations acquired by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters. Numerical models indicate that these changes may be accompanied by dramatic vertical and horizontal wind shears (100 m/s/km) and rapid changes in the static stability. In-situ measurements from a relatively small number surface stations could yield global constraints on the Martian climate and atmospheric general circulation by providing ground truth for remote sensing instruments on orbiters. A more complete understanding of the meteorology of the PBL is an essential precursor to manned missions to Mars because this will be their working environment. In-situ measurements are needed for these studies because the spatial and temporal scales that characterize the important meteorological processes near the surface cannot be resolved from orbit. The Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Program will provide the first opportunity to deploy a network of surface weather stations for a comprehensive investigation of the Martian PBL. The feasibility and utility of a network of micro-weather stations for making in-situ meteorological measurements in the Martian PBL are assessed.

Crisp, D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Kenny, T. W.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Tillman, J. E.

1992-01-01

67

Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on weather in Iowa and weather lore. The bulletin contains historical articles, fiction, activities, and maps. The table of contents lists: (1) "Wild Rosie's Map"; (2) "History Mystery"; (3) "Iowa's Weather History"; (4) "Weather Wonders"; (6) "Seasonal Jobs"; (7) "Fiction: Winter Courage"; (8) "Stayin'…

Ruth, Amy, Ed.

1996-01-01

68

STATISTICAL CORRELATIONS OF SURFACE WIND DATA: A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE STATION AND A NEARBY AEROMETRIC MONITORING NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a statistical analysis of wind data collected at a network of stations in the Southeast Ohio River Valley. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which wind measurements made by the National Weather Service (NWS) station at the Tri-State Airp...

69

Sensor web enablement in a network of low-energy, low-budget amateur weather stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor Web Enablement (OGC SWE) has developed in into a powerful concept with many potential applications in environmental monitoring and in other fields. This has spurred development of software applications for Sensor Observation Services (SOS), while the development of client applications still lags behind. Furthermore, the deployment of sensors in the field often places tight constraints on energy and bandwidth available for data capture and transmission. As a „proof of concept" we equipped amateur weather stations with low-budget, standard components to read the data from its base station and feed the weather observation data into the sensor observation service using its standard web-service interface. We chose amateur weather station as an example because of the simplicity of measured phenomena and low data volume. As sensor observation service we chose the open source software package offered by the 52°North consortium. Furthermore, we investigated registry services for sensors and measured phenomena. When deploying a sensor platform in the field, power consumption can be an issue. Instead of common PCs we used Network Storage Link Units (NSLU2) with a Linux operating system, also known as "Debian SLUG". The power consumption of a "SLUG" is of the order of 1W, compared to 40W in a small PC. The "SLUG" provides one ethernet and two USB ports, one used by its external USB hard-drive. This modular set-up is open to modifications, for example the addition of a GSM modem for data transmission over a cellular telephone network. The simple set-up, low price, low power consumption, and the low technological entry-level allow many potential uses of a "SLUG" in environmental sensor networks in research, education and citizen science. The use of a mature sensor observation service software allows an easy integration of monitoring networks with other web services.

Herrnkind, S.; Klump, J.; Schmidt, G.

2009-04-01

70

WiFi Weather Station and Snow Depth Monitoring System for Snow Research at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PI, Dr. Rob Hellstrom, has been studying snow cover at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (HFR) station over the past three years (Hellstrom, 2008). This research has applied leading-edge sensor technology to measure the impact of various types of forest cover on winter and spring season snow accumulation and the newly installed wireless network at HFR provides

Robert Hellström

2010-01-01

71

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

Jennie, Miss

2009-10-22

72

Data assimilation of dead fuel moisture observations from remote automated weather stations  

E-print Network

Fuel moisture has a major influence on the behavior of wildland fires and is an important underlying factor in fire risk assessment. We propose a method to assimilate dead fuel moisture content observations from remote automated weather stations (RAWS) into a time-lag fuel moisture model. RAWS are spatially sparse and a mechanism is needed to estimate fuel moisture content at locations potentially distant from observational stations. This is arranged using a trend surface model (TSM), which allows us to account for the effects of topography and atmospheric state on the spatial variability of fuel moisture content. At each location of interest, the TSM provides a pseudo-observation, which is assimilated via Kalman filtering. The method is tested with the time-lag fuel moisture model in the coupled weather-fire code WRF-SFIRE on 10-hr fuel moisture content observations from Colorado RAWS in 2013. We show using leave-one-out testing that the TSM compares favorably with inverse squared distance interpolation as u...

Vejmelka, Martin; Mandel, Jan

2014-01-01

73

Multi-decadal Estimation of Trends in Evapotranspiration from Weather Station Data using a New Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a new method of estimating evapotranspiration using historical weather station data and analyze the associated trends in evapotranspiration in the context of climate change. The method used to estimate ET is described and validated at field sites elsewhere (Salvucci and Gentine (2013), PNAS, 110(16): 6287-6291). The approach is built around the idea that the key, rate-limiting, parameter of typical ET models, the land-surface resistance to water vapor transport, can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and ET. The emergent relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than what would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. This relation was found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid to humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). Using this relation, daily estimates of ET are obtained across the United States for the second half of the twentieth century using meteorological data measured at common weather stations, without requiring measurements of surface limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, canopy conductance). Required measurements include diurnal air temperature, specific humidity, wind speed, and net shortwave radiation. Using relatively simple models for the less commonly measured radiation terms (incoming long wave radiation, dependent on screen height air temperature and humidity, and ground heat flux, dependent on surface temperature), estimates of daily ET are made and compared with a water budget estimate of ET using UNH GRDC runoff dataset across the United States. The estimated ET trends (both annual and seasonal) are regional and the variability of the ET trends can be attributed to three terms: radiation (longwave down + net shortwave), surface resistance, and atmospheric resistance. An analysis of ET trends and the associated drivers of these trends will be presented.

Rigden, A. J.; Salvucci, G.; Gentine, P.

2013-12-01

74

Determination of Precipitable Water Vapors by Combining Ground-based GPS Measurements and Automatic Weather Station Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has initiated a research project to obtain near-real-time estimates of precipitable water vapor (PWV) based on ground-based GPS measurements. About 80 GPS permanent stations are being utilized to calculate GPS PWV. Currently, however, only 10 GPS permanent stations have their own weather sensors connected to the GPS receiver. To overcome this limitation, interpolation of

D. Kim; J. Won; H. Kim; K. Kim

2010-01-01

75

Forecasting GPS Scintillations For Low Latitude Stations, in Brazil, using Real-Time Space Weather Data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a useful constellation of satellites for navigation. In low latitudes, however, the signals from these satellites are plagued with ionospheric scintillations, due to the presence of plasma irregularities in the ionosphere, between sunset and sunrise. This phenomenon occurs during approximately six months of the year, although many nights may present less scintillations or no scintillations at all. To help in finding out, in advance, which nights will be `calm', in terms of scintillations, we propose a method for predicting how frequent strong scintillations will be for a given night. To do this, firstly, we need to have at hand real time indices of space weather, which can be found at NOAA/SEC, in Boulder, Colorado or, more specifically, in their summary `Space Weather Alerts and Warnings Timeline.' Secondly, we need a measurement of the amount of scintillations, for each night, that we take to be the average scintillation index for all scintillations on all observed satellites, for that night. The scintillation index is similar to the statistical dispersion, applied to the time-series that represents the satellites signal. From all the data supplied in the NOOA/SEC timeline, we choose to use only the alerts and warnings concerning geomagnetic data, and mostly the ones related to the Kp index. The reason for choosing geomagnetic data is that the earth's magnetic field shows the effects of solar charged particles on earth, which can be measured by geo-synchronous satellites (e.g., GOES.) With these two ingredients (previous scintillation data and space-weather indices,) we show that during magnetic storms the ionosphere is quieter, with regards to scintillation on GPS signals. Then, it is possible to do the opposite: by looking at the space weather warnings, we can predict the amount of scintillation at a given night. The scintillation data used to support this method ranges from 2003 through 2005. In this work, emphasis is given to the period October-November, 2003, which contains three days used by other authors, to support an argument that is opposite to ours. Our data has been collected at a station at Natal, Brazil, located at 5.84° S and 35.20° W. The magnetic declination is 21° W and the magnetic dip is 20°.

Bonelli, E.

2005-05-01

76

A 15-year West Antarctic climatology from six automatic weather station temperature and pressure records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apart from a small number of mostly coastal stations with human observers, automatic weather stations (AWS) are the dominant source of direct measurements of near-surface climate parameters on the West Antarctic ice sheet. To help alleviate the shortage of surface meteorological data in Antarctica and to better exploit this invaluable data resource, we have used artificial neural network (ANN)-based techniques to extend and fill data gaps in selected AWS records. Climatological analyses of the complete 15-year temperature and pressure records (1979-1993) are reported here for six West Antarctic AWS sites (Siple Station, Byrd, Lettau, Marilyn, Elaine, and Ferrell) spanning ˜90° of longitude. Three sites (Siple, Lettau, and Marilyn) show significant warming trends during the austral summer season (December-February). Warm anomalies of 2°-5°C appeared at all sites during 1980 (winter) and 1989 (winter-spring) with a cold anomaly of up to 3°C during fall 1982. Average intersite seasonal correlation comparisons are highest during fall and winter and lowest in summer; Byrd correlates with no other sites in summer. All sites have short, sharp temperature transitions during the fall and spring seasons and a relatively stable winter season with occasional early to midwinter warmings. Typical winter season conditions are present for up to 5-6 months of the year. An exception occurs at Byrd during 1988 and 1989, when climatologically normal winter conditions did not appear to become fully established. Mean monthly temperatures during this unusual period were 5°-10°C above normal.

Reusch, David B.; Alley, Richard B.

2004-02-01

77

A Dozen Years of Temperature Observations at the Summit: Central Greenland Automatic Weather Stations 1987-99  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 4 May 1987, the first automatic weather station (AWS) near the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet began transmitting data. Air temperature records from this site, AWS Cathy, as well as nearby AWS at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project II (GISP2, now Summit) camp have been combined with Special Sensor Microwave Imager brightness temperature data to create a composite

Christopher A. Shuman; Konrad Steffen; Jason E. Box; Charles R. Stearns

2001-01-01

78

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

79

Characteristics of intense space weather events as observed from a low latitude station during solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a dual-frequency high-resolution software-based GPS receiver, TEC and phase have been monitored from Calcutta, India situated near the northern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly for studying some Space Weather events during 2008-2010. Data from a dual-frequency Ionospheric TEC and Scintillation Monitor operational at this station under the international SCINDA program of the U.S. Air Force have also been used. This paper presents two cases of intense Space Weather events occurring in the equatorial latitudes under magnetically quiet conditions during the abnormally prolonged minimum of solar cycle 24. High values of S4 with maximum ˜0.8 were noted on GPS links located almost due south of Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; magnetic dip: 32°N) when the look angles of the satellites are more-or-less aligned with the axis of the anisotropic field-aligned irregularities over the magnetic equator. Associated bite-outs in TEC of amplitude 40 units were recorded in the local post-sunset hours. Well-defined patches of phase scintillations and associated cycle slips were identified. On these days, higher values of ambient ionization were noted and the diurnal maximum of the electrojet strength was found to be delayed followed by a significant rise of the F region with a high upward drift velocity over the magnetic equator around sunset indicated by ionosonde. Measurements of in situ ion density using LEO DMSP corroborate the F region height rise. Presence of irregularities in ionization density distributions around 450km was found from C/NOFS measurements.

Paul, A.; Roy, B.; Ray, S.; Das, A.; Dasgupta, A.

2011-10-01

80

Effect of non-wooden radiation shield on measurements of air temperature and humidity in Automatic Weather Stations at climatologically different Indian stations Pune and Mumbai  

Microsoft Academic Search

India Meteorological Department(IMD) has upgraded during 2006-07 its network of Automatic Weather Stations with 100 Sutron-make, USA and 25 of indigenous Astra-make AWS. The earlier network had 15 AWS of Sutron- make with measurements of temperature and humidity sensors done with sensors housed in conventional wooden Stevenson screens. For the first time in the upgraded network of 100 AWS a

Rudra Pratap

81

Comparative Analysis of Thunderstorm Activity in the West Caucasus According to the Instrumental Measurements and Weather Stations Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of thunderstorms days is one of the main characteristics of thunderstorms. In most cases, the number of days with different meteorological phenomena are the climate characteristic of the area. This characteristic is a common climate indicator. The comparative analysis of thunderstorms days quantity, received with lightning detector LS 8000 by Vaisala and weather stations of Krasnodar District (Russia), is presented. For this purpose the Krasnodar region was divided into 19 sites. The thunderstorm days amount and their comparison were conducted for each site according to the data of weather stations and LS 8000 lightning detectors. Totally 29 weather stations are located in this area. The number of thunderstorm days per year for the period of 2009-2012 was determined according to data, received from stations. It was received that average annual number of thunderstorm days for this area was from 33 to 39 days. The majority of thunderstorm days per year (up to 77) was registered in the south of Krasnodar region and on the Black Sea coast. The lowest thunderstorm activity (about 20 days) was observed in the North of the region. To compare visual and voice data for calculating thunderstorm days quantity of the Krasnodar region, the day was considered thundery if at least one weather station registered a storm. These instrumental observations of thunderstorms allow to obtain the basic characteristics and features of the distribution of thunderstorm activity over a large territory for a relatively short period of time. However, some characteristics such as thunderstorms intensity, damages from lightning flashes and others could be obtained only with instrumental observations. The territory of gathering thunderstorm discharges data by system LS8000 is limited by perimeter of 2250 km and square of 400 000 km2. According to the instrumental observations, the majority of storm activity also takes place on the Black Sea coast, near the cities of Sochi and Tuapse. Thus the number of thunderstorm days data characterized by the values from 49 to 158. To compare instrumental and visual-voice observations the difference between thunderstorms days quantity, obtained with visual-voice and instrumental methods, was selected as an indicator of thunderstorm activity. Total number of thunderstorm days in the Krasnodar region during 4 years is 565 according to the lightning detectors and 519 according to the weather stations. The presence of significant differences was revealed to compare number of thunderstorm days between instrumental observations and weather stations data. Thus the value of the average number of thunderstorms days on 29 meteorological stations of the Krasnodar region is reached 33-39 days. At the same time, 49-138 thunderstorm days were recorded according to the LS8000 system. This difference is caused by two factors: 1) limitations of visual-audio thunderstorms detection method at weather stations; 2) development of thunderstorms in a limited areas of the Krasnodar region, which is not the whole territory.

Knyazeva, Zalina; Gergokova, Zainaf; Gyatov, Ruslan; Boldyreff, Anton

2014-05-01

82

Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

Ham, J. M.

2013-12-01

83

Long-Range Wireless Mesh Network for Weather Monitoring in Unfriendly Geographic Conditions  

PubMed Central

In this paper a long-range wireless mesh network system is presented. It consists of three main parts: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Base Terminal Units (BTUs) and a Central Server (CS). The RTUs share a wireless network transmitting in the industrial, scientific and medical applications ISM band, which reaches up to 64 Km in a single point-to-point communication. A BTU controls the traffic within the network and has as its main task interconnecting it to a Ku-band satellite link using an embedded microcontroller-based gateway. Collected data is stored in a CS and presented to the final user in a numerical and a graphical form in a web portal. PMID:22164008

Toledano-Ayala, Manuel; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Soto-Zarazua, Genaro M.; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Bazan Trujillo, Rey D.; Porras-Trejo, Rafael E.

2011-01-01

84

Wireless Acoustic Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server can control the operations of the field stations for calibration and for recording of measurement data. A test engineer positions and activates the WAMS. The WAMS automatically establishes the wireless network. Next, the engineer performs pretest calibrations. Then the engineer executes the test and measurement procedures. After the test, the raw measurement files are copied and transferred, through the wireless network, to a hard disk in the control server. Subsequently, the data are processed into 1/3-octave spectrograms.

Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

2005-01-01

85

Wireless Acoustic Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server can control the operations of the field stations for calibration and for recording of measurement data. A test engineer positions and activates the WAMS. The WAMS automatically establishes the wireless network. Next, the engineer performs pretest calibrations. Then the engineer executes the test and measurement procedures. After the test, the raw measurement files are copied and transferred, through the wireless network, to a hard disk in the control server. Subsequently, the data are processed into 1.3-octave spectrograms.

Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

2007-01-01

86

Predictability of PV power grid performance on insular sites without weather stations: use of artificial neural networks  

E-print Network

The official meteorological network is poor on the island of Corsica: only three sites being about 50 km apart are equipped with pyranometers which enable measurements by hourly and daily step. These sites are Ajaccio (seaside), Bastia (seaside) and Corte (average altitude of 486 meters). This lack of weather station makes difficult the predictability of PV power grid performance. This work intends to study a methodology which can predict global solar irradiation using data available from another location for daily and hourly horizon. In order to achieve this prediction, we have used Artificial Neural Network which is a popular artificial intelligence technique in the forecasting domain. A simulator has been obtained using data available for the station of Ajaccio that is the only station for which we have a lot of data: 16 years from 1972 to 1987. Then we have tested the efficiency of this simulator in two places with different geographical features: Corte, a mountainous region and Bastia, a coastal region. ...

Voyant, Cyril; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure; Poggi, Philippe

2009-01-01

87

Comparison of parallel temperature measurements from conventional and automatic weather stations at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabra Observatory , located in a promontory at 411 meters above sea level in the outskirts of Barcelona, hosts a continuous climate record since 1913. Additionally, it has been recording since 1996 simultaneous temperature and precipitation data with conventional instruments and automated systems. The automatization of recording sites employed with climatological purposes is happening elsewhere in the country and across the globe. Unfortunately, in most cases long lasting parallel measurements, are not kept. Thereafter, this site offers an excellent opportunity to study the impact of the introduction of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The conventional station (CON) equips a liquid in glass thermometer, located inside a standard Stevenson screen. The automatic measurements (AWS) have been taken using MCV-STA sensors sheltered in a MCV small plate-like ventilated screen between 1996 and the end of July 2007. For our analysis, this MCV period is split in two (T1, T2) due to an obvious jump in the differences AWS-CON in October 2002, produced by unknown reasons. From August 2007 to the present (T3), a Vaisala HMP45AL sensor was placed inside a Stevenson Screen and used for automatic measurements. For daily maximum temperatures, the median differences reach 3.2°C in T1, 1.1°C in T2 and merely -0.1°C in T3. In this later period, 94% of the differences are comprised in a ±0.5°C range, compared to 23% in T2 and only 6% in T1. It is interesting to note how the overheating of the MCV screen dominates the difference series, as 85% of the AWS values taken in T1 and T2 are warmer than the conventional measurements, contrasting with only 27% of cases during T3, when the automated measurements were taken inside a Stevenson screen. These differences are highly temperature dependent: low (high) AWS temperatures are associated with small (large) differences with the CON series. This effect is also evident if temperatures are analyzed by seasons: summer differences are much higher than winter differences in T1 (median value of 3.6°C vs 2.6°C) and T2 (1.7°C vs. 1.0 °C). In T3, the effect of sheltering makes winter AWS temperatures slightly cooler (-0.2°C), meanwhile summer median difference is 0.0°C. This effect is also noticed when looking at other elements such as the sunshine hours. Days with very short sunshine periods (<=3 hours) are characterized by lower median differences in T1 and T2 (1.6°C/0.4°C) compared to those days with more than 10 hours of sunshine (3.8°C/1.6°C). For T3, in days with low sunshine duration, the AWS tends to be cooler by -0.2°C, meanwhile the median difference for days with more than 10 hours of sunshine is 0.0°C. Also, windy, rainless and high pressure days are linked to high temperature differences in T1 and T2. The AWS-CON differences for daily minimum temperatures are smaller and more uniform in all cases. In T1 and T2 (0.4°C for both periods) compared to those found in the daily maximum values. Also, the percentage of differences in a ±0.5° range approaches 50% in T1 and T2. In contrast, T3 median difference doubles to -0.2°C, compared to daily maximum temperature, although the percentage of differences inside the ±0.5 range remains at 94%. As can be seen, the sheltering differences become less important during nighttime. Not surprisingly, about 80% of the values in T1 and T2 and 93% in T3 are cooler in the AWS. Seasonally, in winter, the 3 periods show a median difference of -0.3°. During summer, nighttime values recorded at the MCV screen (T1, T2) differ by -0.5°C to the conventional thermometer readings, meanwhile the Vaisala sensor sheltered inside a Stevenson screen, has a median difference of -0.1°C with the conventional data. Also, although there is a relation with other climate elements such as sunshine duration, pressure, wind or precipitation, it is less remarkable than in the daytime values. In the framework of the Spanish project CGL2012-32193, "Determination and evaluation of the bias introduced by the automatation of meteorological stations in climate time

Aguilar, Enric; Gilabert, Alba; Prohom, Marc

2013-04-01

88

Generalized Potential Temperature in a Diagnostic Study of High Impact Weather over an Urban Station of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropospheric atmosphere is neither absolutely dry nor completely saturated. It is, in general, moist. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the role of generalized potential temperature (GPT) in describing the humid state of the real moist atmosphere pertaining to understanding the prevalence of high impact weather systems over an urban station, Kolkata (22°32'N; 88°20'E), of India. A comparative study among GPT, equivalent potential temperature (EPT), potential temperature and relative humidity to reveal the significance of GPT in a precise understanding of the high impact weather of Kolkata is carried out. To attain the objectives, 50 cases of thunderstorms, 15 cases of tropical cyclones and 15 heavy rainfall days are selected during the pre-monsoon season (April-May) over Kolkata (22°32'N; 88°20'E), India. The condition—decision support system of rough set theory is adopted as the methodology. The result of the study reveals that GPT is the most pertinent convective parameter in estimating the prevalence of the high impact weather of Kolkata during the pre-monsoon season and is observed to be better than RH. The results, thus, show that the moist air is capable of describing the distribution of water vapour and thermodynamic properties of the real atmosphere more precisely than an absolutely dry and completely saturated state of the atmosphere.

Chaudhuri, Sutapa; Dutta, Debashree

2014-08-01

89

Predictability of PV power grid performance on insular sites without weather stations: use of artificial neural networks  

E-print Network

The official meteorological network is poor on the island of Corsica: only three sites being about 50 km apart are equipped with pyranometers which enable measurements by hourly and daily step. These sites are Ajaccio (41\\degree 55'N and 8\\degree 48'E, seaside), Bastia (42\\degree 33'N, 9\\degree 29'E, seaside) and Corte (42\\degree 30'N, 9\\degree 15'E average altitude of 486 meters). This lack of weather station makes difficult the predictability of PV power grid performance. This work intends to study a methodology which can predict global solar irradiation using data available from another location for daily and hourly horizon. In order to achieve this prediction, we have used Artificial Neural Network which is a popular artificial intelligence technique in the forecasting domain. A simulator has been obtained using data available for the station of Ajaccio that is the only station for which we have a lot of data: 16 years from 1972 to 1987. Then we have tested the efficiency of this simulator in two places w...

Voyant, Cyril; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure; Poggi, Philippe; Haurant, P; 10.4229/24thEUPVSEC2009-5BV.2.35

2010-01-01

90

Prioritized Access for Emergency Stations in Next Generation Broadband Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

strategies and some simulated results. 1. Introduction Historically, wireless communications for emergency in 1933 [10]. Since this time, dedicated emergency communication systems have been developed separate from bodies [3, 6] define the four fol- lowing kinds of emergency communications. Citizen to au- thority

Kranakis, Evangelos

91

A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

2014-01-01

92

WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach\\/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km ×

T. Kabas; A. Leuprecht; C. Bichler; G. Kirchengast

2010-01-01

93

Climatology of the East Antarctic ice sheet (100[degrees]E to 140[degrees]E) derived from automatic weather stations  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a climate picture of a large share of eastern Antarctica, arrived at from records obtained from automatic weather stations. These stations have permitted sampling of such data over extended periods of time, which have not been possible before. Data from remote sensing units has been sampled by the ARGOS data collection system on the NOAA series satellites since the late 1970's. Data is presented on temperature, pressure, and wind speed and direction.

Allison, I. (Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart (Australia)); Wendler, G. (Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia)); Radok, U. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1993-05-20

94

Composite Temperature Record from the Greenland Summit, 1987-1994: Synthesis of Multiple Automatic Weather Station Records and SSM\\/I Brightness Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air temperature (TA) records from automatic weather stations (AWS) in central Greenland and associated Special Sensor Microwave\\/Imager (SSM\\/I) brightness temperature (TB) data (37 GHz, vertical polarization) have been used to create a composite, daily, monthly, and annual average temperature record of the Greenland summit for the period 1987-1994. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperatures from a single station;

C. A. Shuman; M. A. Fahnestock; R. A. Bindschadler; R. B. Alley; C. R. Stearns

1996-01-01

95

Mass-balance measurements from a network of automatic weather stations in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most accurate way to record continuous mass balance variations for a specific location is by placing an automatic weather station (AWS). In spite of this, the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet had a poor spatial coverage of these measurement systems, as changing ice surfaces, strong winds, etc. may call for frequent visits, and therewith high logistical expenses. However, we are in the process of building a comprehensive network of AWSs in the ablation zone (part of the PROMICE programme for monitoring the Greenland Ice Sheet), increasing the number of permanent transects around the ice sheet from two to nine. We will present preliminary mass-balance data of the stations placed during the previous two summers, focusing on the summer of 2008. After completion of the network in 2009, the measurements will serve as input for a melt model run over the entire ice sheet. Another ambition is to use the data to validate regional climate models. We will discuss the uncertainties of such modeling in the ablation zone, and possibly compare model results for 2008 to our observations.

van As, D.; Ahlstrom, A. P.

2008-12-01

96

Teachers guide for building and operating weather satellite ground stations for high school science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of colleges and universities are operating APT direct readout stations. However, high school science teachers have often failed to realize the potential of meteorological satellites and their products as unique instructional tools. The ability to receive daily pictures from these satellites offers exciting opportunities for secondary school teachers and students to assemble the electronic hardware and to view real time pictures of Earth from outer space. The station and pictures can be used in the classroom to develop an approach to science teaching that could span many scientific disciplines and offer many opportunities for student research and participation in scientific processes. This can be accomplished with relatively small expenditures of funds for equipment. In most schools some of the equipment may already be available. Others can be constructed by teachers and/or students. Yet another source might be the purchase of used equipment from industry or through the government surplus channels. The information necessary for individuals unfamiliar with these systems to construct a direct readout for receiving real time APT photographs on a daily basis in the classroom is presented.

Summers, R. J.; Gotwald, T.

1981-01-01

97

Geostatistical improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information using satellite land surface and weather stations data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present study was to use the simple cokriging methodology to characterize the spatial variability of Penman-Monteith reference evapotranspiration and Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration methods based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spetroradiometer (MODIS) global evapotranspiration products and high-resolution surfaces of WordClim temperature and precipitation data. The climatic element data referred to 39 National Institute of Meteorology climatic stations located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil and surrounding states. The use of geostatistics and simple cokriging technique enabled the characterization of the spatial variability of the evapotranspiration providing uncertainty information on the spatial prediction pattern. Evapotranspiration and precipitation surfaces were implemented for the climatic classification in Minas Gerais. Multivariate geostatistical determined improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information. The regions in the south of Minas Gerais derived from the moisture index estimated with the MODIS evapotranspiration (2000-2010), presented divergence of humid conditions when compared to the moisture index derived from the simple kriged and cokriged evapotranspiration (1961-1990), indicating climate change in this region. There was stronger pattern of crossed covariance between evapotranspiration and precipitation rather than temperature, indicating that trends in precipitation could be one of the main external drivers of the evapotranspiration in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

de Carvalho Alves, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Luiz Gonsaga; Vianello, Rubens Leite; Sediyama, Gilberto C.; de Oliveira, Marcelo Silva; de Sá Junior, Arionaldo

2013-07-01

98

Phenology model from weather station meteorology does not predict satellite-based onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal temperature changes in temperate forests are known to trigger the start of spring growth, and both interannual and spatial variations in spring growth have been tied to climatic variability. Satellite data are finding increased use in regional and global phenological studies, but to date there have been few efforts to rigorously tie remotely sensed phenology to surface climate records. Where satellite records have been compared to broad-scale climate patterns, broadleaf deciduous forests have typically been characterized as a single functional type and differences between communities ignored. We used a simple two-parameter spring warming model to explore the relationship between interannual climate variability and satellite-based phenology in New England broadleaf temperate forests. We employed daily air temperature records between 2000 and 2005 from 171 NOAA meteorological stations to parameterize a simple spring warming model predicting the date of MODIS half-maximum greenness (spring onset). We find that the best model starts accumulating heating degree days (HDD) after March 20th and when average daily temperatures exceed 5°C. Critical heat sums to reach onset range from 150 to 300 degree-days, with increasing requirements southward and in coastal regions. In our findings, the spring warming model offers little improvement on the photoperiod null model (i.e. the average date of onset). However, differences between the relative goodness-of-fit of the spring warming model compared to the null (coined the 'climate sensitivity ratio', or CSR) displayed unexpected spatial coherency. The spatial variation in CSR appears to be related to differences in forest composition, with clear differences between northern (beech-maple-birch) and central (oak-hickory) hardwood forests. The two forest types may respond to climate differently, with disparate sensitivities to the minimum temperature initiating spring growth (3 and 6°C, respectively). We conclude that spatial location and species composition are critical factors which regulate the phenological response to climate. Regardless of model choice, satellite observations of temperate phenology cannot be effectively tied to climate without regard to community composition.

Fisher, J. I.; Richardson, A. D.; Mustard, J. F.

2006-12-01

99

A Dozen Years of Temperature Observations at the Summit: Central Greenland Automatic Weather Stations 1987-99.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 4 May 1987, the first automatic weather station (AWS) near the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet began transmitting data. Air temperature records from this site, AWS Cathy, as well as nearby AWS at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project II (GISP2, now Summit) camp have been combined with Special Sensor Microwave Imager brightness temperature data to create a composite temperature history of the Greenland summit. This decadal-plus-length (4536 days) record covers the period from May 1987 to October 1999 and continues currently. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperature data from AWS Cathy (May 1987-May 1989), AWS GISP2 (June 1989-November 1996), and AWS Summit (May 1996 and continuing). Despite the 35-km distance between them, the AWS Cathy data have been converted to the equivalent basis of temperatures from the AWS GISP2 and AWS Summit locations. The now completed `Summit' temperature time series represents a unique record that documents a multiyear temperature recovery after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 and that initiates a baseline needed for climate change detection.

Shuman, Christopher A.; Steffen, Konrad; Box, Jason E.; Stearns, Charles R.

2001-04-01

100

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during February 1999. Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method. Soil samples were collected at 0.6-m (2-ft) intervals from the surface to 1.8 m (6 ft) below ground surface. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE, 1999b). Soil sample results indicated that two locations in the bermed area contain total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel at concentrations of 124 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 377 mg/kg. This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). The TPH-impacted soil will be removed and disposed as part of the corrective action.

D. S. Tobiason

2000-06-01

101

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.

Forde, Evan B.

2004-04-01

102

Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations  

SciTech Connect

Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

1980-10-01

103

University of Waterloo Weather Station Summary February 2013 The first colder than average month in almost 2 years, that was also very wet and  

E-print Network

Temperature -24.6°C Average Daily High Temperature -2.6°C (Long term average ­1.9°C) Average Daily Low Temperature -12.4°C (Long term average -10.5°C) Total Precipitation 97.5 mm (Long term average 51.3 mm) (LongUniversity of Waterloo Weather Station Summary ­ February 2013 The first colder than average month

Le Roy, Robert J.

104

Analysis of daily rainfall of the Sahelian weather-station Linguère (Senegal) - Trends and its impacts on the local population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 20th century, the West African Sahel has been a hot-spot of climatic changes. After severe drought-events in the 1970s and 1980s which were followed by a significant drop in annual precipitation, rainfall seems to increase again during the past years. Most studies are based on monthly or yearly datasets. However, many processes and events which are important for the local population depending on rainfall are not related to monthly or annual precipitation but are related to intra-annual, often daily scales. During this study, interviews with farmers and herders were conducted in the Senegalese Sahel. The results show, that wet months with unsuitably distributed precipitation can cause more harm than bringing benefits - depending on the phenological stage of the plants. Agricultural crops for example need rainfall breaks. On the other hand, natural herbaceous vegetation tolerates longer wet periods. So, a wet season can still hide dry spells that alter crops and vegetation development. Based on the results of these interviews, this study developed two indexes, one for local farmers and one for herders separately, showing if the year was favorable for them or not. The indexes integrate the length of rainy seasons, intensity and frequency of rainfall events, breaks between events and also the previous year. This way, each year is assigned to one of 5 classes. Using daily rainfall data of the Linguère weather-station (from the Senegal Meteorological Service, ANACIM), trends of the indexes from 1945 to 2002 are detected and compared to results of the interviews. Statistically relating the indexes to yearly and monthly data demonstrates, how much information can be gathered by those datasets. Furthermore, changes in intensity and frequency are related with yearly and monthly sums showing relations between daily data and annual sums. For example, a high correlation (r=0.73) between the amount of rain days (> 1 mm) and the annual rainfall is observed in Linguère.

Strommer, Gabriel; Brandt, Martin; Diongue-Niang, Aida; Samimi, Cyrus

2013-04-01

105

Automatic Weather Stations  

NSF Publications Database

... in Antarctica. Only one RTG-powered unit remains. Located at Dome C, 74.50?S, 123.00?E, it is to be ... If properly removed, no trace of the unit will remain. The principal direct impacts of AWS unit ...

106

Spatial variability of near surface soil moisture in an alpine catchment: application of a wireless network of meteorological stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is an essential control on hydrological and meteorological behavior and knowledge of its spatial variability is considered to be of high importance for the performance of distributed hydrological models. Near surface soil moisture measurements can be provided by remote sensing on large scales or by point measurements on local scales. For the study of small and medium scale catchments in complex terrain, it is necessary to know the soil moisture on intermediate scales in order to link it with evapotranspiration and runoff processes. Moreover, the time resolution of the soil moisture measurements is often a limiting factor to correctly assess the impact of the soil moisture spatial variability on hydrological models. Few studies have tried to assess the spatial variability of soil moisture in mountainous catchment. Since 2008, an alpine watershed in the Swiss Alps has been intensely monitored with a network of wireless meteorological stations. The study area covers a total surface of 20.4 km2 with altitude ranges from 1775 m at the outlet to 3206 m above sea level (mean elevation: 2422.8m) and is characterized by steep (mean slope: 31.6°, maximum 88.9°) and variable terrain. Among other meteorological forcing parameters, soil moisture is measured using Decagon 5TM and 5TE probes at typical depths of 20cm and 40cm below surface with a time resolution of one minute. We present some preliminary results from statistical and geostatistical analysis of the soil moisture dataset. Moreover, we investigate the information content that antecedent soil moisture measurements add to rainfall measurements in order to predict and understand both runoff events and recession flows.

Mutzner, R.; Weijs, S. V.; Barrenetxea, G.; Parlange, M. B.

2012-12-01

107

Weather in Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homepage includes information about the weather in Antarctica and links to pages on the climate, wind chill, clouds, snow and ice, and pressure and storms of Antarctica. The current weather conditions updated automatically at various stations are also provided.

Hutchings, Thomas

1998-01-01

108

Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser  

E-print Network

Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser #12;Weather Resources 1. Weather Stations 2. Weather Forecasts (NOAA/Maddalena) 3. Pyrgeometer 4. 86 GHz Tipping Radiometer 5. 12 GHz Interferometer #12;Weather Parameters 1 May 2004 to 1 March 2007 speedwindousInstantaneV :Hz)(12StationWeather e

Balser, Dana S.

109

Thermal, pressure and wind fields at ground level in the area of the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica, as observed by a network of automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground temperature, pressure and wind speed monthly averages in the area of the Italian Station at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, were analyzed for the period 1987—1991 by means of a network of nine AWS (auto- matic weather stations). Spatial configurations of temper- ature show a well-defined, relatively warm island in the area of Terra Nova Bay, between Drygalsky and Campbell

E. Cogliani; G. Abbate; S. Racalbuto

1996-01-01

110

Thermal, pressure and wind fields at ground level in the area of the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica, as observed by a network of automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground temperature, pressure and wind speed monthly averages in the area of the Italian Station at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, were analyzed for the period 1987–1991 by means of a network of nine AWS (automatic weather stations). Spatial configurations of temperature show a well-defined, relatively warm island in the area of Terra Nova Bay, between Drygalsky and Campbell ice tongues,

E. Cogliani; G. Abbate; S. Racalbuto

1997-01-01

111

Linking the Annual Variation of Snow Radar-derived Accumulation in West Antarctica to Long-term Automatic Weather Station Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the snow accumulation rate on polar ice sheets is important in assessing mass balance and ice sheet contribution to sea level rise. Measuring annual accumulation on a regional scale and extending back in time several decades has been accomplished using the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Snow Radar on the NASA DC-8 that is part of NASA's Ice-Bridge project. The Snow Radar detects and maps near-surface internal layers in polar firn, operating from 2- 6 GHz and providing a depth resolution of ~4 cm. During November 2011, Snow Radar data were obtained for large areas of West Antarctica, including a flight segment that passed within ~70 km of Byrd Station (80°S, 119°W). Byrd Station has a very long automatic weather station (AWS) record, extending from present to 1980, with 3 relatively brief gaps in the record. The AWS data for Byrd Station were obtained from the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC) at the University of Wisconsin. The L1B Snow Radar data products, available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), were analyzed using layer picking software to obtain the depth of reflectors in the firn that are detected by the radar. These reflectors correspond to annual markers in the firn, and allow annual accumulation to be determined. Using the distance between the reflectors and available density profiles from ice cores, water equivalent accumulation for each annual layer back to 1980 is obtained. We are analyzing spatial variations of accumulation along flight lines, as well as variations in the time series of annual accumulation. We are also analyzing links between annual accumulation and surface weather observations from the Byrd Station AWS. Our analyses of surface weather observations have focused on annual temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind extremes (e.g. 5th and 95th percentiles) and links to annual snow accumulation. We are also examining satellite-derived sea ice extent records for the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas sector (60°W-120°W) over the same 31-year time period and comparing results to annual snow accumulation. Results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

Feng, B.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P.; Paden, J. D.; Leuschen, C.; Purdon, K.

2013-12-01

112

OpenWeather: a peer-to-peer weather data transmission protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the weather is performed using instruments termed weather stations. These weather stations are distributed around the world, collecting the data from the different phenomena. Several weather organizations have been deploying thousands of these instruments, creating big networks to collect weather data. These instruments are collecting the weather data and delivering it for later processing in the collections

Adrian Yanes

2011-01-01

113

Lessons Learned JSC Micro-Wireless Instrumentation Systems on Space Shuttle and International Space Station CANEUS 2006  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on lessons learned from NASA Johnson Space Center's micro-wireless instrumentation is shown. The topics include: 1) Background, Rationale and Vision; 2) NASA JSC/Structural Engineering Approach & History; 3) Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System; 4) WLEIDS Confidence and Micro-WIS Lessons Learned; and 5) Current Projects and Recommendations.

Studor, George

2007-01-01

114

Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.

1996-01-01

115

The effect of weather and climate on traffic accidents, crime, and mortality in Bryan-College Station, Texas  

E-print Network

reporting form, were shown to be slight over the 4-year period from December 1968 through November 1972. The cumulative totals for assault, during this same time period, show a definite iv seasonal trend, but this was supported in only two of the 4 years... indicate a very slight trend towards above-normal complaint calls (exclusive of automobile accidents) coincident with precipitation. A general but slight association between climate, weather and mortality is shown. All seasonal changes in mortality...

Campbell, Timothy Richard

2012-06-07

116

WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which MapServer is used to import spatial data by its database interface and to generate images of static geographic formats. However, a Java applet is additionally needed to display these images on the users local host. Furthermore, station data are visualized as time series by the scripting language PHP. Since February 2010, the visualization of gridded data products is a first step to a new data portal based on OpenLayers. In this GIS framework, all geographic information (e.g., OpenStreetMap) is displayed with MapServer. Furthermore, the visualization of all meteorological parameters are generated on the fly by a Python CGI script and transparently overlayed on the maps. Hence, station data and gridded data are visualized and further prepared for download in common data formats (csv, NetCDF). In conclusion, measured data and generated data products are provided with a data latency less than 1-2 hours in standard operation (near real time). Following an introduction of the processing system along the lines above, resulting data products are presented online at the WegenerNet data portal.

Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

2010-12-01

117

Composite Temperature Record from the Greenland Summit, 1987-1994: Synthesis of Multiple Automatic Weather Station Records and SSM/I Brightness Temperatures.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air temperature (TA) records from automatic weather stations (AWS) in central Greenland and associated Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature (TB) data (37 GHz, vertical polarization) have been used to create a composite, daily, monthly, and annual average temperature record of the Greenland summit for the period 1987-1994. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperatures from a single station; AWS Cathy (May 1987 to May 1989), which was moved 28 km and became AWS Kenton (starting in June 1989 and continuing). The Cathy daily average TA record has been converted to the equivalent basis of Kenton by a technique based on the ratio of the contemporaneous daily average TB data from the two locations. The accuracy of this technique has been statistically tested using 16 months of contemporaneous TA and TB data from the GISP2 and Kenton AWS. The resulting composite temperature record provides a multiyear dataset for comparison to other climate records from the Greenland summit.

Shuman, C. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Bindschadler, R. A.; Alley, R. B.; Stearns, C. R.

1996-06-01

118

Weather monitor station and 225 GHz radiometer system installed at Sierra Negra: the Large Millimeter Telescope site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50-m dish antenna designed to observe in the wavelength range of 0.85 to 4 mm at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra Puebla, Mexico. The telescope has a new atmospheric monitoring system that allows technical staff and astronomers to evaluate the conditions at the site and have enough information to operate the antenna in safe conditions, atmospheric data is also useful to schedule maintenance activities and conduct scientific observations, opacity data is used to calibrate the astronomical data and evaluate the quality of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. In this paper we describe the integration of a weather atmospheric monitoring system and a 225 GHz radiometer to the facilities around the telescope and also describe the hardware integration of these systems and the software methodology used to save and process the data and then make it available in real time to the astronomers and outside world through an internet connection. Finally we present a first set of atmospheric measurements and statistics taken with this new equipment during the wet and dry seasons of 2013/2014.

Ferrusca, D.; Contreras R., J.

2014-07-01

119

Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods  

DOEpatents

An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

Deaton, Juan D. (Menan, ID); Schmitt, Michael J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Warren F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-12-13

120

47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...section is to display the consumer disclosure text in a prominent...shall prominently display the consumer disclosure text in close...with the dimensions of the advertisement or description. (3) If...power auxiliary stations, the consumer disclosure text must be...

2011-10-01

121

Estimation of urban sensible heat flux using a dense wireless network of observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the sensible heat flux over urban terrain is challenging due to irregular surface geometry and surface\\u000a types. To address this, in 2006–07, a major field campaign (LUCE) took place at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne\\u000a campus, a moderately occupied urban site. A distributed network of 92 wireless weather stations was combined with routine\\u000a atmospheric profiling, offering

Daniel F. Nadeau; W. Brutsaert; M. B. Parlange; E. Bou-Zeid; G. Barrenetxea; O. Couach; M.-O. Boldi; J. S. Selker; M. Vetterli

2009-01-01

122

Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.

Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

2011-12-01

123

Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.

Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

2013-12-01

124

A gridded multisite weather generator and synchronization to observed weather data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are described for constructing a daily multisite weather generator at a collection of arbitrary (e.g., gridded) locations and for synchronizing the gridded generator to observed weather series at a set of reference stations. The gridded generator is constructed by interpolating conventional single-station weather generator parameters using locally weighted regressions and producing coherent simulations of daily weather from them using

Daniel S. Wilks

2009-01-01

125

Satellite Weather Watch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an inexpensive (about $1,500) direct-readout ground station for use in secondary school science/mathematics programs. Includes suggested activities including, among others, developing map overlays, operating station equipment, interpreting satellite data, developing weather forecasts, and using microcomputers for data storage, orbit…

Summers, R. Joe

1982-01-01

126

Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground based, autonomous, low power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We report on the design and anticipated performance of the proposed instrument and show data from two prototype lidar instruments previously deployed to Antarctica.

Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Campbell, James; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

127

Pilot Weather Advisor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

2006-01-01

128

nown as the "Voice of NOAA's National Weather Service," NOAA Weather Radio (NWR) is  

E-print Network

K nown as the "Voice of NOAA's National Weather Service," NOAA Weather Radio (NWR) is provided stations broadcasting continuous weather information directly from the nearest National Weather Service office. NWR broadcasts official National Weather Service warnings, watches, forecasts and other hazard

129

Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

130

Link Budget Analysis for Terahertz Fixed Wireless Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the broad bandwidths, terahertz (THz)-waves offer the possibility for wireless transmission of high data rates. Especially, broadband wireless access over short ranges and fixed wireless links based on THz-waves are very promising. They can be incorporated as a bridge for optical networks or an alternative for the connection of wireless stations in difficult environments, to transmit next generation

Thomas Schneider; Andrzej Wiatrek; Stefan Preussler; Michael Grigat; Ralf-Peter Braun

2012-01-01

131

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

Whitfield, Lise

2010-01-01

132

47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification. A WMTS station is not required to...

2013-10-01

133

47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification. A WMTS station is not required to...

2010-10-01

134

47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification. A WMTS station is not required to...

2012-10-01

135

47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification. A WMTS station is not required to...

2011-10-01

136

Weather Vane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this meteorology activity, learners build weather vanes using straws, paperclips, and cardstock. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes are used to understand and predict weather.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2011-01-01

137

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

138

Thermal, pressure and wind fields at ground level in the area of the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica, as observed by a network of automatic weather stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground temperature, pressure and wind speed monthly averages in the area of the Italian Station at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, were analyzed for the period 1987-1991 by means of a network of nine AWS (automatic weather stations). Spatial configurations of temperature show a well-defined, relatively warm island in the area of Terra Nova Bay, between Drygalsky and Campbell ice tongues, throughout the year. A second warm island is present to the north along the coast, between Aviator and Mariner ice tongues, for most of the year. From February to March a rapid drop in temperature is observed at all stations. A strong thermal gradient develops during February, March, April and October, November, December, between the coastal region and inner highlands. The baric configuration follows the elevation of the area. Annual average pressure and temperature as functions of stations altitude show linear trends. Severe katabatic wind episodes are recorded at all stations, with wind speed exceeding 25 m s-1 and direction following the orographic features of the inner areas. Co-occurrences of these episodes were observed for stations located along stream lines of cold air drainage. The autocorrelation function of maximum wind speed time series shows wind persistence of 2-3 days and wind periodicity of about one week. Acknowledgements. We gratefully appreciate the on-line DMSP database facility at APL (Newell et al., 1991) from which this study has benefited greatly. We wish to thank E. Friis-Christensen for his encouragement and useful discussions. A. Y. would like to thank the Danish Meteorological Institute, where this work was done, for its hospitality during his stay there and the Nordic Baltic Scholarship Scheme for its financial support of this stay. Topical Editor K.-H. Glassmeier thanks M. J. Engebretson and H. Lühr for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: A. Yahnin-->

Cogliani, E.; Abbate, G.; Racalbuto, S.

1996-10-01

139

RBSP Space Weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

2012-12-01

140

CoopMAC: A Cooperative MAC for Wireless LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the broadcast nature of wireless signals, a wireless transmission intended for a particular destination station can be overheard by other neighboring stations. A focus of recent research activities in cooperative communications is to achieve spatial diversity gains by requiring these neighboring stations to retransmit the overheard information to the final destination. In this paper we demonstrate that such

Pei Liu; Zhifeng Tao; Sathya Narayanan; Thanasis Korakis; Shivendra S. Panwar

2007-01-01

141

Reviews Book: Marie Curie and Her Daughters Resource: Cumulus Equipment: Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Equipment: 3D Magnetic Tube Equipment: National Grid Transmission Model Book: Einstein's Physics Equipment: Barton's Pendulums Equipment: Weather Station Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND Marie Curie and Her Daughters An insightful study of a resilient and ingenious family and their achievements Cumulus Simple to install and operate and with obvious teaching applications, this weather station 'donationware' is as easy to recommend as it is to use Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Good design and construction make for good results National Grid Transmission Model Despite its expense, this resource offers excellent value Einstein's Physics A vivid, accurate, compelling and rigorous treatment, but requiring an investment of time and thought WORTH A LOOK 3D Magnetic Tube Magnetic fields in three dimensions at a low cost Barton's Pendulums A neat, well-made and handy variant, but not a replacement for the more traditional version Weather Station Though not as robust or substantial as hoped for, this can be put to good use with the right software WEB WATCH An online experiment and worksheet are useful for teaching motor efficiency, a glance at CERN, and NASA's interesting information on the alpha-magnetic spectrometer and climate change

2013-09-01

142

Optimum Placement of Radio Relays in Millimeter-Wave Wireless Dual-Hop Networks [Wireless Corner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern wireless mesh networks, the transmitted-information signals from the source node arrive at the final destination through relay stations. The introduction of relay stations into metropolitan-area networks allows the provision of ubiquitous broadband access, even in remote places, and increases the scalability potential. Due to the increased demand for bandwidth and the spectral congestion at low frequencies, these wireless

V. K. Sakarellos; D. Skraparlis; A. D. Panagopoulos; J. D. Kanellopoulos

2009-01-01

143

Evaluation of temperature and wind over Antarctica in a Regional Atmospheric Climate Model using 1 year of automatic weather station data and upper air observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2 (RACMO2\\/ANT) is used to simulate the Antarctic atmosphere for the year 1998. The parameterizations of the physical processes in the model are taken from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global model and adapted to better represent the specific conditions over the Antarctic continent. The snow albedo was increased by decreasing

C. H. Reijmer; E. van Meijgaard; M. R. van den Broeke

2005-01-01

144

Integrated All-silicon Thin-film Power Electronics on Flexible Sheets For Ubiquitous Wireless Charging Stations based on Solar-energy Harvesting  

E-print Network

from the solar modules to AC power for wireless device charging through patterned capacitive antennas. With 0.5-2nF transfer antennas and solar modules of 100cm2 , the system provides 47-120W of power at 11 powered by the solar modules (S1/2). Each module consists of solar cells in series and operates

145

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

146

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

147

UM Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

1994-01-01

148

Wireless Headset Communication System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

1995-01-01

149

Eolian sand transport at three stations on a dune backed coastline in northern Indiana and their relationships to weather-related and site-specific controls  

SciTech Connect

Continuous measurements of eolian sand transport (using Automated Sand Traps) and wind speed/direction at 1.5 m above the surface were achieved on a dune backed coastline near Gary, Indiana. Data were collected on an hourly basis for a 6 month period during which 55 major sand movement events were observed. The sandstorms lasted from 1 to 16 hours with an average length of 4 hours and produced total transport quantities of up to 227 kg/m. the largest sand movement totals occurred when the wind was northerly; indeed 75% of the total sand captured at the authors station in a small blowout occurred during periods when the wind was from north. Northerly winds also dominated overall sand movement at their station on the crest of a vegetated foredune, but the total amount of transported sand was only 6.5% of that in the blowout. Hourly sand transport efficiency, expressed as the ratio of measured transport to theoretical transport (based on Bagnold's equation), averaged 0.34 at the blowout station during the spring of 1992, whereas averages for the dune crest station and a station on the backshore were 0.04 and 0.15, respectively, during the same period. Efficiencies were highly variable, even during individual storms, and exhibited no obvious systematic trend. However, storm-wind direction, topography, and sand surface character (e.g. vegetation and surface moisture conditions) were all observed to have an influence on the efficiency of sand transport at the study site.

Bennett, S.W.; Olyphant, G.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

150

Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed to give students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Students discover that mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedrock into smaller fragments by physical as opposed to chemical means and that rock weathering, although it seems to occur slowly in human terms, is an extremely significant part of the rock cycle. They will learn that weathered rock materials are called sediments and are the structural basis for soils and can also be compacted into sedimentary rock. Students will realize that rock weathering rates vary widely depending on mineral content, texture, rock type, and climate and that differential weathering (varying weathering rates for two or more rock types in physical contact with each other) has given rise to some of the world's most breathtaking scenery.

151

Weathering Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.

2002-01-01

152

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather. Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Once you have a firm grasp on the science of weather forecasting, be sure to check out the other sections of this site, which include: "ice and snow," "our changing climate," "the water cycle," and "powerful storms."

2008-03-27

153

Antarctic Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

154

47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section 74...Auxiliary Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast...defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a...

2010-10-01

155

47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section 74...Auxiliary Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast...defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a...

2012-10-01

156

47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section 74...Auxiliary Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast...defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a...

2011-10-01

157

47 CFR 74.870 - Wireless video assist devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wireless video assist devices. 74.870 Section 74...Auxiliary Stations § 74.870 Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast...defined in § 74.801 may operate wireless video assist devices on a...

2013-10-01

158

Research on Rainfall data of Debris Flow Monitoring Station via WSN Technique and Spatial Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall record is one of the most important Hydrological data. While analyzing the rainfall data, the integrality of the rainfall materials can't be neglected. There are correct rainfall materials that can just offer an intact hydrology analysis. In 2007, Taiwan suffered Krosa typhoon and caused debris flow disasters. This research discusses the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau's (SWCB) debris flow station's rainfall data with Central Weather Bureau's (CWB). Based on CWS's rainfall materials, remove the effect or terrain and then utilize ArcGIS9.1 of GIS software interpolation methods such as Kriging methods to estimate the debris flow station's rainfall value. In addition, we propose a wireless sensor network (WSN) based automatic weather stations (AWS), which takes advantage of the low-cost, real-time and infrastructure-free characteristics of WSN. We can therefore extend the scale of weather monitoring without increasing the number of telecommunication equipments. This WSN-based AWS is able to cover a plane and gather multiple sets of weather measurements in real-time at a better data resolution.

Fang, Y.; Lee, B.; King, C.; Chen, M.; Lien, J.; Yin, H.; Wang, H.

2008-12-01

159

Research on Application and RF EMC of Bidirectional Wireless Communication System in Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless communication means is necessary for routine work and emergency operating in nuclear power station. With the developments of wireless technical and nuclear power plant, wireless communication system requires more comprehensive and widespread application. The secure and stable bidirectional wireless communication system is to have an important status in plant communication systems. In certain regions of nuclear power plant,

Yao Yu; Bing Chen; Yi Luo

2011-01-01

160

New weather radar coming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

Maggs, William Ward

161

Predicting Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

2008-03-28

162

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

163

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

164

UMTS Network Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed over the 30 radiometric stations. As a the result, currently it exist a stable, flexible, safe and economic infrastructure of radiometric stations and telecommunications that allows, on the one hand, to have data in real time from all 30 remote weather stations, and on the other hand allows to communicate with them in order to reprogram them and to carry out maintenance works.

Hernandez, C.

2010-09-01

165

FAWN: Florida Automated Weather Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) provides up-to-date weather information through a system of automated weather stations distributed throughout the State of Florida. Research scientists at the University of Florida work closely with extension agents to monitor the FAWN system and make sure it provides fast, reliable, and convenient access. Overall, there are four parts to the FAWN system: collecting data, transmitting it to the collection site, processing the data, and redistributing it to the end user. FAWN database servers maintained by IFAS Information Technologies receive weather data about the date and time of collection, the air temperature, soil temperature, relative humidity, dewpoint, rainfall, wind direction, wind speed, and radiation from remote stations every 15 minutes. The information is processed and made available almost instantaneously through several different search methods accessible through FAWN web server, as well as an interactive voice-response system.

166

Forecast skill of a high-resolution real-time mesoscale model designed for weather support of operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA funded Mesoscale Environmental Simulations and Operations (MESO), Inc. to develop a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). The model has been modified specifically for short-range forecasting in the vicinity of KSC/CCAS. To accomplish this, the model domain has been limited to increase the number of horizontal grid points (and therefore grid resolution) and the model' s treatment of precipitation, radiation, and surface hydrology physics has been enhanced to predict convection forced by local variations in surface heat, moisture fluxes, and cloud shading. The objective of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of MASS including the real-time initialization and configuration for running the data pre-processor and model, and (2) to summarize the preliminary evaluation of the model's forecasts of temperature, moisture, and wind at selected rawinsonde station locations during February 1994 and July 1994. MASS is a hydrostatic, three-dimensional modeling system which includes schemes to represent planetary boundary layer processes, surface energy and moisture budgets, free atmospheric long and short wave radiation, cloud microphysics, and sub-grid scale moist convection.

Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.; Manobianco, John

1994-01-01

167

Superconducting microwave filter systems for cellular telephone base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second decade following the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), wireless communications has emerged as the earliest large commercial market. The enormous growth of the wireless industry coupled with its increasing technology demands has created a significant opportunity for HTS technology in wireless base stations. These systems combine high-performance HTS RF filters with cryocooled semiconductor preamplifiers to offer enhanced

RANDY W. SIMON; ROBERT B. HAMMOND; STUART J. BERKOWITZ; BALAM A. WILLEMSEN

2004-01-01

168

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

169

Space Weather  

E-print Network

Space Weather :: Printer Friendly Version of Article 2004SW000119 http://www.agu magnetic Faraday cages, to designing artificial magnetospheres around the spacecraft, to employing into nature. Louis J. Lanzerotti is Editor of Space Weather, Distinguished Research Professor at the New

Shepherd, Simon

170

Wacky Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

171

AN URBAN WEATHER GENERATOR COUPLING BUILDING SIMULATIONS WITH A PHYSICALLY BASED URBAN MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building simulation programs predict the thermal performance of buildings under certain weather conditions. Weather information is usually taken from an available weather data file obtained from the closest meteorological station. However, the differences between the local urban climate and the conditions at the closest meteorological station can lead to inaccurate building simulation results. This paper presents an Urban Weather Generator

Bruno Bueno Unzeta; Leslie K. Norford; Rex Britter

172

47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection. All WMTS transmitters must be available for...

2013-10-01

173

47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection. All WMTS transmitters must be available for...

2010-10-01

174

47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection. All WMTS transmitters must be available for...

2011-10-01

175

47 CFR 95.1129 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1129 Station inspection. All WMTS transmitters must be available for...

2012-10-01

176

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-09-01

177

Planetary Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

178

Wireless Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless

Tech Directions, 2011

2011-01-01

179

Wireless Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless is just another name for radio. And of course, wireless is certainly not new. It was discovered in the late 1800s and quickly developed in the early 1900s by Marconi and others. Radio has many uses which include radio broadcasting (AM, FM, digital and satellite), 2-way radio (public service, aircraft, marine, etc.), personal and hobby (CB, FRS, ham radio, RC, etc.), and telemetry. Cell phones are two way radios as are wireless local area networks. TV, radar, satellites, and navigation systems like GPS are radio. Today radio is mostly taken for granted. However over the past decades, radio has changed our lives. The developments with the greatest impact are cell phones, wireless local area networks (WLANs) for computers, and short range radios for a variety of applications. These applications are today referred to as wireless. This module introduces you to basic radio concepts.

2011-01-03

180

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

2013-05-29

181

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

Friend, Duane

182

Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and Generators Handling Human Remains ...

183

Wireless Sensor Network for Wearable Physiological Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated

Poondi Srinivasan Pandian; Kadavath Peedikayil Safeer; Pragati Gupta; Doddamallur Thirumala Iyengar Shakunthala; B. S. Sundersheshu; Vinod Chidambar Padaki

2008-01-01

184

NASA's Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) effort is to develop and integrate advanced technologies for real-time personal display of information relevant to the health and safety of space station\\/shuttle personnel. The WARP effort will develop and demonstrate technologies that will ultimately be incorporated into operational Space Station systems and that have potential earth applications such as aircraft pilot

Martin Agan; Leeann Voisinet; Ann Devereaux

1998-01-01

185

Weather Creator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

Kshumway

2009-09-28

186

Exploring Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

Emily, Miss

2010-01-29

187

Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades K-5. It focuses on basic information about the weather and how different weather maps depict conditions. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

188

Space Weather Action Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Weather Action Center is a computer-based activity that allows students to track, from their classroom, the development and progress of solar storms. The activity incorporates online NASA data and addresses national education standards in science, technology and math. Students rotate through four space weather learning stations and are challenged to answer the following questions: Do sunspot regions exist today that could be a source of solar storms?; Have radio signals been recorded today from a flare or coronal mass ejection that could affect Earth?; Has there been a measurable disturbance in the Earth's magnetic field?; and Have auroras been seen within the last 24 hours because of a solar storm? A setup guide is provided to show how to create a Space Weather Action Center in the classroom, including recommendations, diagrams, and the necessary list of materials. The instructional guide features background and evaluation materials, alignments to national standards, extension activities, and instructions on how to read, analyze and record space weather data.

189

Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Applied Meteorology Unit developed a forecast tool that provides an assessment of the likelihood of local convective severe weather for the day in order to enhance protection of personnel and material assets of the 45th Space Wing Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark

2005-01-01

190

Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new technique for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both) may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements. We present results from real-data measurements taken from microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show very good correlation with surface station humidity measurements (comparisons were performed for several links, found at different locations, during different time periods, showing correlations in the range of 0.5-0.9).

David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

2010-09-01

191

Development of a Wireless Remote Monitoring System Utilizing Multiple Wireless Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel remote monitoring system for all day outdoor observation using multiple wireless sensors and wireless communication (Handy phone and PHS) is proposed. The whole system consists of three parts: (i) a host station that is PC (Personal Computer), (ii) remote station that contains a camera controlled by CPU and power supply (battery attached by solar cell), and (iii) multiple wireless sensors having each ID signal. The remote station usually works by an event-driven method based on the wireless sensor signals. Because of this event-driven method, various multi-vision systems are easily configurable. This paper describes the details of the system and evaluates the possibility of the application of the system. Since some of the systems are now really running in many places, we can consider that the effectiveness of the system is shown by the fact in a practical sense.

Masuda, Shinichi; Hattori, Tetsuo

192

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

2010-01-01

193

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

194

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday November 6th: Look at the five-day forecast for Logan Utah at Five Day Forecast in Utah. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make a bar graph for the ...

Broadhead, Ms.

2007-11-06

195

Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

2004-02-06

196

Unisys Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Unisys weather website offers a host of weather analyses and forecasts. In the Analyses link, visitors can find satellite images as well as surface, upper air, and radar images. Visitors can learn the intricacies of Unisys's many forecast models such as the Nested Grid Model (NGM), Aviation Model, and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) Model. Users can find archived hurricane data for the Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific, and the Western Pacific. The site also furnishes archived surface maps, infrared satellite images, upper air charts, and sea surface temperature (SST) plots.

197

Wireless Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quicktime animation examines the basics in wireless communication. Wireless communication has become pervasive in everyday life, providing convenience, piece of mind as well as emergency preparedness for its users through instant accessibility. The cell phone antenna is the link to the outside world. Designed to transmit as well as receive the RF signals, it efficiently couples the electromagnetic waves to the transmitter and receiver.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart J.

2012-08-08

198

Each new car a weather station  

E-print Network

with old craft #12;2 science faculty magazine december 2013 Science Faculty Magazine is for those of Science University of Gothenburg Box 460 405 30 Göteborg Sweden E-mail: info@science.gu.se PRint Litorapid suBscRiBe Sign up for a subscription at www. science.gu.se/english/about/magazine. The magazine

Johannesson, Henrik

199

Weather adjustment using seemingly unrelated regression  

SciTech Connect

Seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) is a system estimation technique that accounts for time-contemporaneous correlation between individual equations within a system of equations. SUR is suited to weather adjustment estimations when the estimation is: (1) composed of a system of equations and (2) the system of equations represents either different weather stations, different sales sectors or a combination of different weather stations and different sales sectors. SUR utilizes the cross-equation error values to develop more accurate estimates of the system coefficients than are obtained using ordinary least-squares (OLS) estimation. SUR estimates can be generated using a variety of statistical software packages including MicroTSP and SAS.

Noll, T.A. [Idaho Power Company, Boise, ID (United States)

1995-05-01

200

Weathering Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment is designed to allow students to observe and understand chemical and physical weathering of simulated "rocks". They will place the materials in plastic bags, one wet and one dry, and store them for 3-4 days. At the end of the storage period, they will observe the contents of both bags and answer some questions about what they see.

201

Weather control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to

Leepson

1980-01-01

202

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

203

Wireless Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless communications is an industry that is growing at an incredible rate. Cellular phones are the most obvious example of this trend; it is hard to go anywhere without seeing someone using one. Rapidly advancing technologies and lower prices are making this all possible. At the current pace, there seems to be no limit to what is possible in the wireless industry.To learn about the events that led up to present day wireless communications, this site offers a very informative history of telecommunications (1) that goes all the way back to the time of carrier pigeons. A good introduction to wireless networking can be found in this mini-tutorial (2). The best parts of this tutorial are the discussions of many recent wireless developments and technologies. There are a few interactive games and activities that are supposed to be instructive and entertaining, but some of them can be annoying. For the more technically savvy user, the third site (3) starts by describing many of the principles that drive current wireless systems. The second part examines the technologies that will be used in future generations of services. To build on this material, the third generation mobile communications systems (3G) is the central topic at 3G Newsroom (4), providing breaking news about the development of 3G technology. Additionally, the site has an excellent introduction to 3G, including its applications and specifications. One of the advancements that is paving the way toward 3G is Bluetooth, which is explained in great detail here (5). This technology is capable of very high data transfer rates, but there are some limitations, which are all discussed in the articles on the site. Although Bluetooth is raising plenty of interest, this recent news story (6) is creating more than its share of debate. It outlines a very controversial move by the FCC to allow the use of ultrawideband technology in commercial wireless applications. The author explains in simple terms why there are so many concerns about something that could revolutionize wireless systems. The evolution of the global system for mobile communications (GSM) is traced at GSM World (7). Here users can learn about the roots of the wireless industry as well as what is in store for the future. A special section addresses health concerns associated with mobile phone use. Radio was one of the earliest form of wireless communication, and the Invention of Radio (8) documents the people and events that made it what it is today. The stories of such famous scientists and inventors as Marconi, DeForest, and Armstrong are told in brief accounts, and there is even a link to the well known War of the Worlds radio broadcast.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

204

The Weather Doctor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

Heidorn, Keith.

2002-01-01

205

Fiber-Wireless Networks and Subsystem Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid fiber-wireless networks incorporating WDM technology for fixed wireless access operating in the sub-millimeter-wave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency regions are being actively pursued to provide untethered connectivity for ultrahigh bandwidth communications. The architecture of such radio networks requires a large number of antenna base-stations with high throughput to be deployed to maximize the geographical coverage with the main switching and

Christina Lim; Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas; Masuduzzaman Bakaul; Prasanna Gamage; Ka-Lun Lee; Yizhuo Yang; Dalma Novak; Rod Waterhouse

2010-01-01

206

Use of NWS Weather Measurements for Cross-checking Local Weather Measurements  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the use of an independent network of remote weather stations for building energy analysis to assist agencies participating in the Texas LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program. A review of the sensors and procedures...

Crowley, G. D.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01

207

Tacoma Power Weatherization  

E-print Network

Tacoma Power Weatherization Specifications August 2009 KnowYourPower.com | #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition Page 2 #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition

208

Performance Measurement of 802.11a Wireless Links from UAV to Ground Nodes with Various Antenna Orientations  

E-print Network

Performance Measurement of 802.11a Wireless Links from UAV to Ground Nodes with Various Antenna measured performance of 802.11a wireless links from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to ground stations-station elevations. By comparing the performance of 32 simultaneous pairs of UAV and ground station configurations

Kung, H. T.

209

Weather Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

Mitchell, Mrs.

2010-09-23

210

Weather control  

SciTech Connect

Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to produce rain are the most successful weather modification techniques. Both are used extensively and with varying degrees of success in the United States and around the world. Cloud seeding, though, is not effective in easing the harshness of a drought, such as the one that hit the Southwest, Midwest and Great Plains this summer.

Leepson, M.

1980-09-05

211

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

212

A Cooperative MAC protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

A Cooperative MAC protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Thanasis Korakis, Zhifeng Tao , Yevgeniy. In this paper, we extend a cooperative MAC protocol called CoopMAC [1] into the ad hoc network environment1. Extensive simulations in a large scale wireless ad- hoc network (150 stations) show that CoopMAC

Panwar, Shivendra S.

213

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

Najman, M.

2009-09-01

214

NAME: Smith, Joe 1534883 Wireless Medical Monitor Network  

E-print Network

(located on body) Process Flow 1. Signals from sensor array 2. Conditioning circuitry 3. Body processing 4 readings and wirelessly transmits these signals to a base station for remote monitoring. Microphone

Hero, Alfred O.

215

National Weather Service  

MedlinePLUS

HOME FORECAST Local Graphical Aviation Marine Rivers and Lakes Hurricanes Severe Weather Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long Range Forecasts Climate Prediction PAST WEATHER Past Weather Heating/Cooling Days Monthly ...

216

Wireless Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

1991-01-01

217

Weather Forecasting for Weather Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We take a nonstructural time-series approach to modeling and forecasting daily average temperature in ten U.S. cities, and we inquire systematically as to whether it may prove useful from the vantage point of participants in the weather derivatives market. The answer is, perhaps surprisingly, yes. Time series modeling reveals both strong conditional mean dynamics,and conditional variance dynamics in daily

Sean D. Campbell; Francis X. Diebold

2005-01-01

218

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

219

Wireless Tots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first wireless technology program for preschoolers was implemented in January at the Primrose School at Bentwater in Atlanta, Georgia, a new corporate school operated by Primrose School Franchising Co. The new school serves as a testing and training facility for groundbreaking educational approaches, including emerging innovations in…

Scott, Lee-Allison

2003-01-01

220

Wireless endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Miniaturization of electronic components may allow the construction of new types of endoscopes that no longer require external wires, cables, or optical fibers. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of wireless endoscopy and to construct experimental prototypes using miniature charge-coupled device cameras, light sources, microwave transmitters, and batteries. Methods: Feasibility, dimensions of miniature components, and power requirements were

Feng Gong; Paul Swain; Timothy Mills

2000-01-01

221

47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. 90.1333 ...SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services...1333 Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. (a)...

2010-10-01

222

Digital Wireless Communication  

E-print Network

Digital Wireless Communication: Physical Layer Exploitation Wireless Networking and Communications Signals and Systems Digital Signal Processing Analog Communication Digital Communication Intro to Wireless;Why at the Graduate Level? It involves many different areas of expertise Digital communication

Heath Jr., - Robert W.

223

Wireless services business plan  

E-print Network

The primary goals of this thesis were to analyze the market for wireless applications/services and create a business plan for a viable wireless application. There has been tremendous hype relating to wireless data services ...

Koh, Bong (Bong Dug)

2005-01-01

224

Federal Aviation Administration and National Weather Service Aviation Research and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the developmental status of aviation weather services. Particular attention is given to justifying the need for better, more reliable service. The accomplishments of several automatic weather stations are discussed.

Connolly, J. W.

1980-01-01

225

The Weather Dude  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

Walker, Nick.

2002-01-01

226

Commercializing Space Weather using GAIM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the en-ergy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the ionosphere is the key region that affects com-munication and navigation systems. The Utah State University (USU) Space Weather Center (SWC) was organized in 2009 to develop commercial space weather applications. It uses the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) system as the basis for providing improvements to communication and navigation systems. For example, in August 2009 SWC released, in conjunction with Space Environment Technologies, the world's first real-time space weather via an iPhone app, Space WX. It displays the real-time, current global ionosphere to-tal electron content along with its space weather drivers, is available through the Apple iTunes store, and is used around the world. The GAIM system is run operationally at SWC for global and regional (continental U.S.) conditions. Each run stream continuously ingests up to 10,000 slant TEC measurements every 15-minutes from approximately 500 stations in a Kalman filter to adjust the background output from the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM). Additionally, 80 real-time digisonde data streams from around the world provide ionosphere characterization up to the F-region peak. The combination of these data dramatically improves the current epoch ionosphere specification beyond the physics-based solution. The altitudinal range is 90-1500 km for output TEC, electron densities, and other data products with a few degrees resolution in latitude and longitude at 15-minute time granularity. We describe the existing SWC products that are used as commercial space weather information. SWC funding is provided by the State of Utah's Utah Science Technology and Research (USTAR) initiative. The SWC is physically located on the USU campus in Logan, Utah.

Tobiska, W. Kent; Schunk, Robert; Sojka, Jan J.

227

A-cell: a novel multi-hop architecture for 4G and 4G+ wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we envision wireless multi-hopping as a complementary technology to conventional cellular networks. Hybrid wireless networks consisting of mobile base stations are expected to play a vital role in enhancing future cellular communications. However, numerous challenges pertaining to the wireless network and the user equipment are yet to be addressed. We herein utilize multi-hop relaying as overlay architecture

Ahmed Safwat

2003-01-01

228

External Resource: Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A student activity with teacher's sheet, to give the students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedroc

1900-01-01

229

Wireless Sensing and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless technologies can play a significant role in the monitoring and control of civil structures. Structural sensing and control technologies can benefit in terms of installation cost and time from wireless communication and embedded computing. This paper discusses the development of a low-cost wireless sensing system judiciously designed for civil structures. By incorporating an actuation signal generation interface, the wireless

Yang Wang; Kenneth J. Loh; Jerome P. Lynch; Kincho H. Law

230

Performance analysis of wireless broadband systems employing optical fiber links  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an analysis of the performance of wireless broadband communication systems employing fiber-optic links to connect the base station with the control station. Rainfall attenuation on the radio link, and nonlinear distortions arising from the direct modulation of the laser source, besides the noise contributions coming out from both the optical transmitter and receiver, are considered in the

Roberto Sabella

1999-01-01

231

Contemporary Wireless Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless means radio in its broadest sense. However, in the early 21st century, wireless refers primarily to the two dominant forms of wireless: cell phones and wireless local area networks (WLANs). This module describes the idea behind the cellular telephone system, how it works, and the primary technologies used in the US and throughout the world. This module also introduces the wireless local area network or WLAN. WLANs are radio-linked computers that are part of a larger network. The wireless links make portability and mobility of computers possible. This module also briefly introduces four common forms of short- range wireless: Bluetooth, ZigBee, ultra wideband (UWB) and RFID.

2012-08-21

232

Adaptive Control of Duty Cycling in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Adaptive Control of Duty Cycling in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks Christopher M wireless sensor network deployments are using harvested environmental energy to extend system lifetime. Because the temporal profiles of such energy sources exhibit great variability due to dynamic weather

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

233

Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

Devereaux, A. S.

1999-01-01

234

NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

2007-01-01

235

Corridor Integrated Weather System  

Microsoft Academic Search

n Flight delays are now a major problem in the U.S. National Airspace System. A significant fraction of these delays are caused by reductions in en route capacity due to severe convective weather. The Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) is a fully automated weather analysis and forecasting system designed to support the development and execution of convective weather impact mitigation

James E. Evans; Elizabeth R. Ducot

2006-01-01

236

Weather in Your Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

237

A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic.

Pan, Guobing; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Jiaoliao

2011-06-01

238

Treatment for a fully weathered rock dam foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main dam at the upper reservoir of Tianhuanping pumped storage power station is a rockfill dam with an asphalt concrete impervious lining on the upstream face. It is constructed on a non-homogeneous fully weathered rock foundation. In this paper, we present the case study on the treatment for this non-homogeneous fully weathered rock dam foundation. The treatment includes the

Y. S. Wang; S. H. Liu

2005-01-01

239

Adverse-Weather Trends in the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an assessment of changes in the occurrence frequency of four types of adverse-weather (freezing precipitation, blowing snow, fog, and low ceilings) and no-weather (i.e., no precipitation or visibility obscuration) events as observed at 15 Canadian Arctic stations of good hourly weather observations for 1953-2004. The frequency time series were subjected to a homogenization procedure prior to a

John M. Hanesiak; Xiaolan L. Wang

2005-01-01

240

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

241

What's the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. They will also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives. They should understand that weather can change daily and weather patterns change over the seasons, and that it has characteristics that can be measured and predicted. Suggestions for an optional field trip are also provided.

2005-01-01

242

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

243

Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

Anderton, D. A.

1985-01-01

244

A HIERARCHIAL STOCHASTIC MODEL OF LARGE SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND MULTIPLE STATION DAILY PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A stochastic model of weather states and concurrent daily precipitation at multiple precipitation stations is described. our algorithms are invested for classification of daily weather states; k means, fuzzy clustering, principal components, and principal components coupled with ...

245

Hanford Meteorological Station Computer Codes: Volume 4, The SUM Computer Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the end of each swing shift, the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS), operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, archives a set of daily weather observations. These weather observations are a summary of the maximum and minimum temperature, total precip...

G. L. Andrews, J. W. Buck

1987-01-01

246

The Impact of Weather on Air Traffic Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the National Airspace System (NAS) and how weather affects it. It describes the various components of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), how that organization manages air traffic, and how CWSU and WFO forecasts help the FAA's decision-making process. The module also provides tips on establishing a good professional relationship with this important partner (FAA), understanding their language, and preparing weather briefings that will give them the information they need. This module is part of a larger exercise to develop a station Weather Impacts Playbook, a supplement to the Station Duty Manual.

Spangler, Tim

2005-05-31

247

Interactive Weather Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.

2002-01-01

248

Pilot weather advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

1992-01-01

249

Edheads: Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.

2010-01-01

250

Advancing Profiling Sensors with a Wireless Approach  

PubMed Central

The notion of a profiling sensor was first realized by a Near-Infrared (N-IR) retro-reflective prototype consisting of a vertical column of wired sparse detectors. This paper extends that prior work and presents a wireless version of a profiling sensor as a collection of sensor nodes. The sensor incorporates wireless sensing elements, a distributed data collection and aggregation scheme, and an enhanced classification technique. In this novel approach, a base station pre-processes the data collected from the sensor nodes and performs data re-alignment. A back-propagation neural network was also developed for the wireless version of the N-IR profiling sensor that classifies objects into the broad categories of human, animal or vehicle with an accuracy of approximately 94%. These enhancements improve deployment options as compared with the first generation of wired profiling sensors, possibly increasing the application scenarios for such sensors, including intelligent fence applications. PMID:23443371

Galvis, Alex; Russomanno, David J.

2012-01-01

251

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of forest fires is the primary way of minimizing their dam- ages. We present the design of a wireless sensor network for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires according to the Fire Weather Index (FWI) System which is one of the most comprehensive forest fire danger rating systems in

Mohamed Hefeeda; M. Bagheri

2009-01-01

252

STEREO Space Weather Sonification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) satellites in Fall 2006 sets the stage to better understand the origin and consequences of Coronal Mass Ejections (CME's). Two spacecrafts will orbit the Sun with instruments imaging the Sun and instruments measuring in-situ particles and fields. In order to share the particle and fields data with educators and the public, we created software to convert this space weather data into sound, a process known as sonification. Our goal is that many non-scientists use the software and data to listen to STEREO data, inspiring them to learn about the STEREO mission and its science. We will present sounds using STEREO data from tests of the particle instruments and data from the electric fields instrument. There are many ways in which these sounds can be used to share the excitement about the STEREO science mission. Several personnel from popular articles and a radio station have interviewed us about these sounds, sharing the STEREO mission and our project with hundreds if not thousands of readers and listeners. Together with the STEREO sounds, we will share and discuss how we use these sounds for education and outreach as well as the difficulties encountered by such a project. This project is part of the Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) component of the two instrument suites STEREO In-situ Measurements of Particles and CME Transients (IMPACT) and STEREO/waves (SWAVES).

Peticolas, L. M.; Craig, N.; Luhmann, J.; Schroeder, P.; Bale, S.; MacDowall, R. J.

2006-12-01

253

Cell Phone Facts: Consumer Information on Wireless Phones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint operation between the Federal Communications Commission and the Food and Drug Administration, Cell Phone Facts is a thorough overview of wireless telephone technology and the associated health effects related to its use. There is a long list of common questions and answers sorted into various topics, such as safety standards, research results of radiofrequency energy, and interference with medical equipment. A glossary of wireless phone terminology clarifies some technical phrases and concepts. Several short reviews of recent research studies are also presented. In addition to the many facts about wireless phones, there is also some information about base stations and the elevated radiofrequency levels near them.

2006-01-03

254

A Framework for Cross-layer Optimization of Video Streaming in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general framework for optimizing the quality of video streaming in wireless networks that are composed of multiple wireless stations. The framework is general because: (i) it can be applied to different wireless networks, such as IEEE 802.11e WLAN and IEEE 802.16 WiMAX, (ii) it can employ different objective functions for the optimization, and (iii) it can adopt

CHENG-HSIN HSU; MOHAMED HEFEEDA

2009-01-01

255

Ubiquitous Wireless Interworking (UWIN)  

E-print Network

generation wireless infrastructure? Must lower costs for service providers throughout the life-cycle (install of star- cell? #12;Research Questions cont. Opportunity to "think outside of the box" with wireless the service provider verified, tested, and uploaded? #12;Star Cell Increase cell size via wireless extensions

Gruner, Daniel S.

256

Wireless sensor prototype platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and performance measurements of a wireless sensor prototype platform (UbiSensor). UbiSensor combines techniques used in wireless microsensors and radio frequency identification (RFID) resulting a wireless sensor having sensing, data processing, network protocol execution, and energy scavenging capabilities. The platform design is driven by energy consumption minimization of given tasks. A commercially available microcontroller, low power

Mikko Kohvakka; Marko Hannikainen; T. D. Hamalainen

2003-01-01

257

Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confluence of inexpensive wireless communication, computation, and sensing has created a new generation of smart devices. Using tens to thousands of these devices in self-organizing networks has created a new technology referred to as wireless sensor networks. This article gives an overview of the wireless sensor networks.

John A. Stankovic

2008-01-01

258

Fingerprint and weathering characteristics of stranded oils after the Hebei Spirit oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007, mixtures of three types of Middle East crude oil were stranded along 375km of coastline in Western Korea. Stranded oils were monitored for their identity and weathering status in 19 stations in three provinces. The results obtained using a weathering model indicated that evaporation would be a dominant weathering process immediately

Uu Hyuk Yim; Sung Yong Ha; Joon Geon An; Jong Ho Won; Gi Myung Han; Sang Hee Hong; Moonkoo Kim; Jee-Hyun Jung; Won Joon Shim

259

Broadcast media and the dissemination of weather information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although television is the public's most preferred source of weather information, it fails to provide weather reports to those groups who seek the information early in the day and during the day. The result is that many people most often use radio as a source of information, yet preferring the medium of television. The public actively seeks weather information from both radio and TV stations, usually seeking information on current conditions and short range forecasts. forecasts. Nearly all broadcast stations surveyed were eager to air severe weather bulletins quickly and often. Interest in Nowcasting was high among radio and TV broadcasters, with a significant portion indicating a willingness to pay something for the service. However, interest among TV stations in increasing the number of daily reports was small.

Byrnes, J.

1973-01-01

260

Ultrahigh-Bitrate Wireless Data Communications via THz-Links; Possibilities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data rate in the communication networks increases by a two number digit every year. Even today's mobile, wireless devices offer a large number of high-bitrate data services reaching from entertainment over information to communication. However, for the so called last-mile problem, for the connection of the network with remote cellular base stations and for other wireless links ultrahigh-bitrate connections are required. Another important application of ultrahigh-bitrate wireless links is the very fast rebuilding of a network infrastructure after natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and blizzards. Contrary to optical links, carrier waves in the submillimeter-wave, or THz-region of the electromagnetic spectrum offer a high capacity and reliability even under worst weather conditions like a strong rain or dense fog. The THz-range has a large bandwidth so that even with simple modulation formats a quite high bitrate can be transmitted. However, ultrahigh bitrates require spectrally efficient modulation formats and these formats require THz-sources with a very high quality, i.e. low phase noise and narrow linewidth. Here an overview of the possibilities and challenges for ultrahigh bitrate transmission and the generation of high-quality THz-waves is given and a method for the generation of very stable and precise millimeter and THz waves is presented. In first proof of concept experiments a linewidth of < 1 Hz and a phase noise of < -130 dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz from the carrier was measured in the microwave range.

Schneider, Thomas

2014-08-01

261

On Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

Crane, Peter

2004-05-01

262

Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

Francek, Mark

2002-10-01

263

Owlie Skywarn's Weather Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity book from the National Weather Service that teaches about hazardous weather. The site also includes links to kids sites for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA).

Garcia, Cris; Davis, Steve

2001-06-22

264

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

265

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

266

Weather and Road Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

Comet

2008-07-21

267

Stormfax Weather Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

2002-06-10

268

Enviropedia: Introduction to Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

2007-12-12

269

Fire Weather Climatology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The âFire Weather Climatologyâ module provides a comprehensive look at fire regions across the United States and characteristics of typical fire seasons in each region. In addition, critical fire weather patterns are described in terms of their development, duration and impact on fire weather. Numerous case studies provide examples and opportunities to practice recognizing these critical patterns and how they can affect fire ignition and spread. This module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.

Comet

2008-04-28

270

RAP-a novel medium access control protocol for wireless data networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel medium access control scheme, randomly addressed polling (RAP), is proposed and studied. RAP used in wireless networks allows that the base stations poll successfully only knowing the active mobile nodes via decentralized control without knowing the exact mobile nodes under coverage. Therefore, RAP can provide seemingless services for wireless (data) networks with good utilization of channel(s), transparent to

Kwang-Cheng Cheti; Cheng-Hua Leet

1993-01-01

271

A Cooperative Game Framework for Bandwidth Allocation in 4G Heterogeneous Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important features of the evolving fourth generation (4G) wireless networks is the capability of a mobile station to connect to several wireless access networks simultaneously. This introduces new challenges in bandwidth allocation among mobiles since the load characteristics of different networks must be taken into account to design efficient resource allocation algorithms. In this paper, we

Dusit Niyato; Ekram Hossain

2006-01-01

272

DEFENDING AGAINST PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION ATTACKS ON WIRELESS SENSOR Chi Zhang, Yanchao Zhang, Yuguang Fang  

E-print Network

intent, strategy and position, and aid users to launch counter-attacks. However, due to the specialDEFENDING AGAINST PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION ATTACKS ON WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Chi Zhang, Yanchao Zhang In order to defeat physical destruction attacks on wireless sensor networks, the base station (BS) need

Zhang, Yanchao

273

Polling-based MAC protocols for improving real-time performance in a wireless PROFIBUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of having a wireless PROFIBUS is appealing, since this can bring benefits like reduced cabling need and mobile stations to the factory floor. However, unfortunately, wireless transmission is error prone, which affects the timeliness and reliability behavior users expect from a fieldbus system (hard real time). In this paper, we compare two different approaches for the medium access

Andreas Willig

2003-01-01

274

Weather Theory Introduction  

E-print Network

11-1 Weather Theory Chapter 11 Introduction Weather is an important factor that influences aircraft), visibility (clearness or cloudiness), and barometric pressure (high or low). The term weather can also apply of the atmosphere. Atmosphere The atmosphere is a blanket of air made up of a mixture of gases that surrounds

275

American Weather Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

Hughes, Patrick

276

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is about a new method of predicting seasonal weather. The site describes the effects of El Nino on global weather and the accuracy of the new model. It includes links to classroom resources for a variety of weather-based units.

Dybas, Cheryl

2008-12-07

277

Extreme Weather on Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students utilize a set of photographs and a 30 minute video on weather to investigate extreme weather events. They are posed with a series of questions that ask them to identify conditions predictive of these events, and record them on a worksheet. Climate and weather concepts defined.

Mika, Anna; Education, National G.

278

Space Weather Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Weather Now page is intended to give the non-technical user a "plain language" look at space weather. It includes information about relevant events and announcements, data from and about different instruments and satellites watching various aspects of space weather, alerts and advisories, daily themes of products and services, and links appropriate for the various groups of users.

Center, Space E.; Service, National O.

279

Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

Geographic, National

280

METEOROLOGICAL Weather and Forecasting  

E-print Network

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Weather and Forecasting EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary and interpretation of information from National Weather Service watches and warnings by10 decision makers such an outlier to the regional severe weather climatology. An analysis of the synoptic and13 mesoscale

281

Winter Weather Introduction  

E-print Network

Winter Weather Management #12;Introduction · Campus Facilities Staff · Other Campus Organizations #12;Purpose · Organize and coordinate the campus response to winter weather events to maintain campus for use by 7 AM. · Response will be modified depending upon forecast and current weather conditions. #12

Taylor, Jerry

282

Intelligent weather agent for aircraft severe weather avoidance  

E-print Network

avoidance capability has increased. In this thesis, an intelligent weather agent is developed for general aviation aircraft. Using a radar image from an onboard weather radar, the intelligent weather agent determines the safest path around severe weather...

Bokadia, Sangeeta

2012-06-07

283

WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND MOBILE COMPUTING Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. 2013; 13:12631280  

E-print Network

is powered by petrol or electricity, its maximum travel distance per tour is bounded. The mobile sink in wireless sen- sor networks assumed that there is a fixed base station (sink). The sensed data is relayed

Liang, Weifa

284

Wireless Grid: Enabling Ubiquitous Sensor Networks with Wireless Energy Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor node life-time limitation in wireless sensor networks has long become an issue, preventing it to become a reliable ubiquitous network. In this paper, a new concept called wireless grid, which includes a fusion of wireless sensor network and wireless power transmission is introduced. By doing this, battery life-time problem can be avoided, hence, providing high network reliability. Wireless power

Ragil Putro Wicaksono; Gia Khanh Tran; Kei Sakaguchi; Kiyomichi Araki

2011-01-01

285

Wideband local access: wireless LAN and wireless ATM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the status of wideband wireless local access technologies is provided. Service scenarios and availability of the market and products for wireless LAN and wireless ATM technologies are discussed. Similarities among IEEE 802.11 and HIPERLAN standards for wireless LANs and the developing prototypes for wireless ATM are evaluated. An update on the status of the available unlicensed bands

K. Pahlavan; A. Zahedi; P. Krishnamurthy

1997-01-01

286

Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

2009-01-01

287

Reliable bursty convergecast in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the challenges of bursty convergecast in multi-hop wireless sensor networks, where a large burst of packets from different locations needs to be transported reliably and in real-time to a base station. Via experiments on a 49 MICA2 mote sensor network using a realistic traffic trace, we determine the primary issues in bursty convergecast, and accordingly design a protocol,

Hongwei Zhang; Anish Arora; Young-ri Choi; Mohamed G. Gouda

2005-01-01

288

Downlink Wireless Packet Scheduling with Deadlines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation cellular wireless communication networks aim to provide a variety of quality-of-service (QoS) sensitive packet based services to downlink users. Included amongst these are real-time multimedia services, which have stringent delay requirements. Downlink packet scheduling at the base station plays a key role in efficiently allocating system res ources to meet the desired level of QoS for various users.

Aditya Dua; Nicholas Bambos

2007-01-01

289

March 2013 Page 1 of 15 www.mcswa.com Michigan Severe Weather Awareness Week, April 7-13, 2013  

E-print Network

Insurance Lightning Safety Disaster Preparedness for Pets Wireless Emergency Alerts (NEW) NOAA Weather The Michigan Committee for Severe Weather Awareness (MCSWA) was formed in 1991 to promote safety awareness Tornado and Thunderstorm Safety Tornado and Thunderstorm Facts Flood Preparation and Planning Flood

Liu, Taosheng

290

External Resource: Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes background information about weathering, as well as simple demonstrations/activities to model how weather conditions contribute to weathering and erosion. Topics include: chemical weathering, dunes, erosion, floods, glaciers, physi

1900-01-01

291

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center provides a variety of weather information, including a tropical weather menu with current and archived data on tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans. An interactive Weather Product Generator allows students to make their own surface data maps and meteograms (24-hour summaries of weather at a specific location), and view satellite imagery. There are also interactive weather maps for the U.S., Canada, and Alaska that display the latest observations, and text servers which provide current written observations for New England and North America. A set of past and current weather data products provides information on minimum and maximum temperatures, wind chill, and heat index. In addition, there are collections of satellite loops/movies, radar/lightning images, loops, and movies, and a set of tutorials on clouds, the sun and its effects on the environment, and balanced atmospheric flows.

292

Avalanche Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.

Comet

2010-09-30

293

Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

Huffman, Amy Bruno

1996-01-01

294

A resampling procedure for generating conditioned daily weather sequences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] A method is introduced to generate conditioned daily precipitation and temperature time series at multiple stations. The method resamples data from the historical record "nens" times for the period of interest (nens = number of ensemble members) and reorders the ensemble members to reconstruct the observed spatial (intersite) and temporal correlation statistics. The weather generator model is applied to 2307 stations in the contiguous United States and is shown to reproduce the observed spatial correlation between neighboring stations, the observed correlation between variables (e.g., between precipitation and temperature), and the observed temporal correlation between subsequent days in the generated weather sequence. The weather generator model is extended to produce sequences of weather that are conditioned on climate indices (in this case the Nin??o 3.4 index). Example illustrations of conditioned weather sequences are provided for a station in Arizona (Petrified Forest, 34.8??N, 109.9??W), where El Nin??o and La Nin??a conditions have a strong effect on winter precipitation. The conditioned weather sequences generated using the methods described in this paper are appropriate for use as input to hydrologic models to produce multiseason forecasts of streamflow.

Clark, M. P.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Brandon, D.; Werner, K.; Hay, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Yates, D.

2004-01-01

295

Medicina Station Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Medicina 32-m dish is an alt-az antenna run by the Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. The radiotelescope is located about 30 km east of Bologna, Italy. It is part of the European VLBI Network. Details on the telescope characteristics and equipments can be found at the EVN Home Page (http://www.nfra.nl/evn/). In the last couple of years, the main goal at the Medicina Station was to get the telescope agile in changing the observing frequency. Achieving this goal will greatly increase the observational efficiency of the telescope. Moreover it will make the operation of changing the receivers more safe and it makes this task independent of weather conditions. The first part of the project has been completed and the new subreflector is fully in operation. The increased flexibility in changing frequency, together with the facility of recording both thick and thin tapes implemented at all the European VLBI Network (EVN) stations has immediately produced an increase in the number of geodetic VLBI observations to which the Medicina Station will take part in 1999.

Orfei, Allesandro

1999-08-01

296

Weather and Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

297

Space Weathering of Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

Noble, Sarah

2011-01-01

298

Two-Step Fair Scheduling of Continuous Media Streams over Error-Prone Wireless Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In wireless cellular networks, streaming of continuous media (with strict QoS requirements) over wireless links is challenging due to their inherent unreliability characterized by location-dependent, bursty errors. To address this challenge, we present a two-step scheduling algorithm for a base station to provide streaming of continuous media to wireless clients over the error-prone wireless links. The proposed algorithm is capable of minimizing the packet loss rate of individual clients in the presence of error bursts, by transmitting packets in the round-robin manner and also adopting a mechanism for channel prediction and swapping.

Oh, Soohyun; Lee, Jin Wook; Park, Taejoon; Jo, Tae-Chang

299

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

300

Weather and Climate Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.

301

Space Weather Media Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is version 3 of the space Weather Media Viewer, created to work with the space Weather Action Center to see near-real time data and to provide additional images and resources available for educational use. It features easy downloads that can also be added to news reports and space weather reports. It was designed for ease in adding any media (videos, images) data.

2011-01-01

302

Winter weather activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

303

Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

Comet

2012-03-21

304

WWW - Wonderful Web Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a web quest for students to research weather forecasting using the Internet. Students work in groups to study how accurate weather forecasts are by tracking the weather for 3 days in several locations. Using graphs students then compare how each location scored in accuracy and present their findings to the class. This site contains links for students to use for more background information, a process for the students to follow, and evaluation rubrics for the student-produced graphs and presentation.

Parrish, Jason

2007-12-12

305

Weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

1975-01-01

306

Weather assessment and forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

1977-01-01

307

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

308

Washington Post Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

1997-01-01

309

Space Weather: Welcome, SEC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video presentation welcomes the Space Weather Prediction Center, formerly known as the Space Environment Center or SEC to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SWPC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.

Comet

2005-01-11

310

Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate  

E-print Network

1 Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate Large Scale Weather SystemsLarge--scale Weather Systemsscale Weather Systems Tropical cyclones (1-2) Location, Structure, Life-cycle Formation and modification, airmasses that effect the British Isles Airmasses affecting the British Isles

311

A CDMA wireless packet network for voice-data transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter investigates the possibility of integrating voice and data communications in a CDMA wireless packet network to provide access to a base station over a common short-range radio uplink channel for many spatially dispersed voice and data user terminals. Speech activity detection is assumed for voice communications to temporarily devote codes unused by voice user terminals during silence periods

Romano Fantacci; Luca Zoppi

1997-01-01

312

Learning Coarse Correlated Equilibria in Two-Tier Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

stations learn the probability distribution of their transmission strategies (power levels and frequency-of-service (QoS) and data rate constraints on next- generation wireless cellular networks. This increase led mobile operators to explore new ways to achieve network coverage improvements, higher spectral

Boyer, Edmond

313

Networked Wireless Sensor Data Collection: Issues, Challenges, and Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been applied to many applications since emerging. Among them, one of the most important applications is Sensor Data Collections ,w here sensed data are collected at all or some of the sensor nodes and forwarded to a central base station for further processing. In this paper, we present a survey on recent advances in this

Feng Wang; Jiangchuan Liu

2011-01-01

314

Opportunistic Scheduling with Quantized Feedback in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless scheduling algorithm can extract multiuser diversity (MUDiv) via prioritizing the users with best current channel condition. One drawback of MUDiv is the required feedback carrying the instantiations channel rate from all active users to the access point base station. This paper shows that this feedback load is, for the most part, unjustified. To alleviate this problem, we propose an

Yahya Al-harthi; Ahmed H. Tewfik; Mohamed-slim Alouini

2005-01-01

315

A hybrid wireless network enhanced with multihopping for emergency communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hybrid wireless network scheme enhanced with ad hoc networking for disaster damage assessment and emergency communications. The network aims to maintain the connection between a base station (BS) and nodes by way of multihopping. In the event that a direct link between BS and a node is disconnected, the node switches modes from cellular to ad

Takahiro Fujiwara; Noboru Iida; Takashi Watanabe

2004-01-01

316

A Broadband Vertical Polarized Antenna for Wireless Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A folded metal dipole is of considerable interest as a broadband antenna element, and has good potential for use in low cost wireless base station antenna applications. In this paper, experimental and simulation results are presented which include a metal vertical polarized dipole alone and arranged in a staggered six element array. The results show that this dipole element and

G. Deng; M. Hunton; B. Vassilakis

2007-01-01

317

Wireless, remotely powered telemetry in 0.25 ?m CMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This new architecture for wireless power and data telemetry recovers power and system clock from a weak incident RF signal. An efficient RF-DC converter rectifies and multiplies the received signal, generating a practical DC voltage, far higher than the incident RF signal amplitude, increasing the range between the base station and the transponder. An injection locked LC oscillator recovers the

Fatih Kocer; Paul M. Walsh; Michael P. Flynn

2004-01-01

318

A Distributed Architecture for Multimedia in Dynamic Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a self-organizing, wireless mobile radio net- work for multimedia support. The proposed architecture is distri- buted and it has the capability of rapid deployment and dynamic reconfiguration. Without the need of base stations, this architec- ture can operate in areas without a wired backbone infrastruc- ture. This architecture provides an instant infrastructure for real-time traffic transmission. Based

Chunhung Richard; Linand Mario Gerla

1995-01-01

319

A distributed architecture for multimedia in dynamic wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a self-organizing wireless mobile radio networking multimedia support. The proposed architecture is distributed and it has the capability of rapid deployment and dynamic reconfiguration. Without the need of base stations, this architecture can operate in areas without a wired backbone infrastructure. This architecture provides an instant infrastructure for real-time traffic transmission. Based on the instant infrastructure, a

Chunhung Richard Lin; Mario Gerla

1995-01-01

320

A New Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Dynamic Multihop Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The routing techniques used in conventional packet radio networks are not suitable for dynamic multihop wireless networks because of their unique architecture. In this paper a new hierarchical multihop routing algorithm is introduced which balances the cost of location-update and path-finding operations by partitioning the terminals and mobile base stations to produce a virtual topology. Based on the virtual topology

Ian F. Akyildiz; Wei Yen; Bülent Yener

1997-01-01

321

Optical Wireless Multi-Spot Diffusing; a MIMO Configuration  

E-print Network

or by the very thin outer layer of human skin of the uncovered parts of the body. It does not penetrate body.ed Abstract- Optical (infrared) wireless communications links offer an attractive solution for indoor channels between a base station and terminals. This paper considers issues involved in the design

Kavehrad, Mohsen

322

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

323

Systems Study of an Automated Fire Weather Data System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor system applicable to an automated weather station was developed. The sensor provides automated fire weather data which correlates with manual readings. The equipment and methods are applied as an aid to the surveillance and protection of wildlands from fire damage. The continuous readings provided by the sensor system make it possible to determine the periods of time that the wilderness areas should be closed to the public to minimize the possibilities of fire.

Nishioka, K.

1974-01-01

324

Mild and Wild Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

325

People and Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

326

Weather Cardboard Carpentry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are instructions and diagrams for building weather instruments (wind vane, Celsius temperature scale, and anemometer) from simple tools and Tri-Wall, a triple-thick corrugated cardboard. Ordering sources for Tri-Wall are listed. Additional weather instruments that can be constructed are suggested. (CS)

DeBruin, Jerome E.

1977-01-01

327

Home Weatherization Visit  

SciTech Connect

Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

Chu, Steven

2009-01-01

328

Weathering warming in Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the results of a field experiment heating patches of a subalpine meadow in the Rocky Mountains to determine what will weather and what will weather under projected global warming. The problems with actually measuring the feedback is discussed, along with the changes which come as the meadow is heated.

Gillis, A.M.

1996-03-01

329

Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

Konvicka, Tom

330

Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering and erosion work together as natural forces, removing and transporting material. Sediments, the by-products of these processes, are subsequently deposited to produce characteristic landforms such as dunes, deltas, and glacial moraines. This slide show presents images of landforms that result from erosion and weathering, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects.

331

Critical Fire Weather Patterns  

E-print Network

-- 1.1 Typical Summer Weather Cycle PDT -- 1.1 Dry Thunderstorms PHX -- 1.1 North Winds PHX -- 2 Thunderstorms RNO -- 1.1 Washoe Zephyr RNO -- 2.1 Winds & Thunderstorms SAC -- 1.1 Pre--Frontal Winds SLC -- 1 days. Normally the pacific weather front will have enough instability for a few dry thunderstorms

Clements, Craig

332

What Is Space Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.

333

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the U.S. military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly non-existent. This study examin...

B. E. Coble

1996-01-01

334

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the United States (US) military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly nonexistent. This...

B. B. Coble

1997-01-01

335

Weathering Database Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

Snyder, Robert

2005-01-01

336

Exercising in Cold Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

337

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

338

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

339

Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

Winkler, Erhard M.

1987-06-01

340

Scholastic: Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

341

Debate: Wired versus Wireless.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

2000-01-01

342

Securing wireless mesh networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using wireless mesh networks to offer Internet connectivity is becoming a popular choice for wireless Internet service providers as it allows fast, easy, and inexpensive network deployment. However, security in WMNs is still in its infancy as very little attention has been devoted thus far to this topic by the research community. In this article we describe the specifics of

Naouel Ben Salem; Jean-Pierre Hubaux

2006-01-01

343

Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks are gaining popularity and are star- ting to be used in actual projects and commercial scale. Wi- reless sensor networks face dierent challenges than regular distributed systems, which have to be reflected in system and middleware design. Dierent middleware approaches are presented, along with implementing systems. The versatility of wireless sensor networks is underlined with examples of

Florian Schaub

344

Predicting the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the science behind predicting the weather. First, the United States Search and Rescue Task Force describe the basic tools and knowledge used to create weather forecasts (1). Students can find concise, clear explanations of weather, fronts and air masses, high and low pressure, precipitation, and water vapor and humidity as well. By performing the activities presented in the second website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection (2). This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Third, Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps (3 ). Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. The fourth website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather (4). Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Next, NOAA provides graphics for five forecast models: the ETA, the Global Forecast System (GFS), the Wave Watch III (WW3), the Nested Grid model (NGM), and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) (5). Outputs are available for North America, North Pacific, Western North Atlantic, and the Polar Ice Drift. Users can find links to detailed descriptions of the inputs and history of each model. Sixth, the British government's Met Office describes numerical modeling and its components (6). Students and educators can learn about the future in forecasting as well as educational opportunities with the Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET).

345

Using wireless technologies in healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an increasingly mobile society and the worldwide deployment of mobile and wireless networks, wireless infrastructure can support many current and emerging healthcare applications. However, before wireless infrastructure can be used in a wide scale, there are several challenges that must be overcome. These include how to best utilise the capabilities of diverse wireless technologies and how to effectively manage

Upkar Varshney

2006-01-01

346

The Climatological Automated Recording Station (CARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background to the design specification for a self-contained automatic weather station (CARS) is outlined together with the meteorological parameters required to be measured. The components of the system - recorder, sensors power supplies - are described and the utilization in the field of CARS is discussed.

D. J. McKay

1975-01-01

347

Flow Level Performance Analysis of Wireless Data Networks: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give an example of flow level performance analysis of data traffic in wireless networks by studying a scenario where two base stations with link adaptation serve in a coordinated fashion downloading users on a road or street between the stations. Due to the dynamic nature of such systems, a detailed flow level analysis is challenging and conventional methods run

Juha Leino; Aleksi Penttinen; Jorma Virtamo

2006-01-01

348

Power-Efficient Direct-Voting Assurance for Data Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks place sensors into an area to collect data and send them back to a base station. Data fusion, which fuses the collected data before they are sent to the base station, is usually implemented over the network. Since the sensor is typically placed in locations accessible to malicious attackers, information assurance of the data fusion process is

H.-T. Pai; Y. S. Han

2007-01-01

349

Secure data aggregation without persistent cryptographic operations in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-network data aggregation is an essential operation to reduce energy consumption in large-scale wireless sensor networks. With data aggregation, however, raw data items are invisible to the base station and thus the authenticity of the aggregated data is hard to guarantee. A compromised sensor node may forge an aggregation value and mislead the base station into trusting a false reading.

Kui Wu; Dennis Dreef; Bo Sun; Yang Xiao

2007-01-01

350

Stable Distributed Power Control with High SIR Target for Cellular Wireless Communication Systems Jiayuan Chen1  

E-print Network

Stable Distributed Power Control with High SIR Target for Cellular Wireless Communication Systems station is needed to control all the links in a cellular system. A good paper on centralized power control systems. In distributed power control (DPC), each base station controls and updates the transmitted powers

Haddadi, Hamed

351

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

352

Weather and Fire  

E-print Network

Recent cooler temperatures and rain showers have moderated fire behavior across Alaska. “The fires are taking a breather, but our firefighters are not, ” said Pete Buist, Fire Information Officer. When the weather provides a break like this, firefighters take advantage of it by redoubling their efforts and maximizing progress towards completing fire management objectives. Yesterday’s weather included over 3,000 lightning strikes across the state and scattered showers from inch to nearly an inch in some locations. Mild temperatures and scattered showers are expected to continue into the weekend. A thermal Weather is one of the most significant factors in determining the severity of wildland fires. The intensity of fires and the rate with which they spread is directly related to the wind speed, temperature and relative humidity. Accurate and timely weather information is vital to the planning and execution of strategies for suppressing wildfires. trough is moving northward across Alaska, but thunderstorms will decrease and temperatures will increase over the next few days. A high pressure ridge is attempting to move westward into the Interior, and if successful, warm weather could return next week. For additional details on fire weather see the AICC weather page at

unknown authors

2010-01-01

353

Fire Weather Forecasting: Clear Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The âFire Weather Forecasting: Clear Communicationsâ distance learning module offers best practices for Fire Weather Forecasters needing to communicate weather information when deployed in the field. The 30-minute module defines strategies for communicating with Weather Forecast Offices and with customers. Examples include writing a useful fire weather forecast discussion and undertaking proper planning to quickly and accurately disseminate information. This distance learning module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.

Comet

2008-03-05

354

World Weather Information Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.

355

Weather Map Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I gave this assignment so that students could relate real-time weather changes to mid-latitude cyclones and air mass movement. Basically, by the time I assigned the project, we have discussed all the necessary weather phenomena and this project gives the students a way to apply what we have discussed to "reality" by explaining why the weather occurred the way it did over a short time period. It also provides me with a way to assess how well they are able to tie all the major concepts together, which is one of the goals of the course.

Brueseke, Matt

356

Weather Observing Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

Comet

2014-03-11

357

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses weather conditions and their contribution to weathering and erosion. Students learn to explain the process of physical and chemical weathering. They also learn to compare and contrast erosion resulting from wind, ice and water. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

358

WeatherTracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WeatherTracker is the ideal desktop application for anyone who always wants to know what the weather outside is like. The temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, winds, and current conditions can be displayed in three different formats, updated hourly for North American Cities. The local forecasts, climate data and near shore marine forecasts can be displayed in other windows and are available for select North American cities. Other cities are limited to temperature and current conditions. WeatherTracker is shareware with a fee of $20.00.

359

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website uses real time data for many activities for learning about the weather. It can be modified to fit virtually any grade level. The project is broken up into 3 sets of lessons; Introductory Activities, Real Time Data Activities, and Language Arts Activities. Each lesson gives a recommended time for completion, to help keep students and teachers on track. There is a helpful teachers guide section with background information about real time data, curriculum standards, and assessment suggestions. Th students gallery has many examples of real projects other students have already created. There is also a helpful reference guide, with information on real time weather, projects, and weather lesson plans.

2006-01-01

360

Space Weather Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NOAA Space Weather Now website provides non-technical information and an assortment of images detailing current space weather. Visitors can find summaries describing auroras, plots of current auroral ovals on the poles, and viewing information for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The Real-Time Solar Wind Pages furnish dynamic plots of data, geomagnetic activity test product information, and resources about the four instruments used to collect data on geomagnetic storms. The website features Space Weather Scales to help the public understand the severity of environmental disturbances due to geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. Visitors can find the latest news, alerts, advisory bulletins, and much more.

361

Wireless nanosensor network system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many types of wireless modules are being developed to enhance wireless performance with low power consumption, compact size, high data rates, and wide range coverage. However trade-offs must be taken into consideration in order to satisfy all aspects of wireless performance. For example, in order to increase the data rate and wide range coverage, power consumption should be sacrificed. To overcome these drawbacks, the paper presents a wireless client module which offers low power consumption along with a wireless receiver module that has the strength to provide high data rates and wide range coverage. Adopting Zigbee protocol in the wireless client module, the power consumption performance is enhanced so that it plays a part of the mobile device. On the other hand, the wireless receiver module, as adopting Zigbee and Wi-Fi protocol, provides high data rate, wide range coverage, and easy connection to the existing Internet network so that it plays a part of the portable device. This module demonstrates monitoring of gait analysis. The results show that the sensing data being measured can be monitored in any remote place with access to the Internet network.

Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyukjun; Kegley, Lauren; Yoon, Hargsoon; Varadan, Vijay K.

2009-03-01

362

Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications. Agriculture remains the number one industry in North Dakota and its success will always be dependent on the weather.

Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

2010-09-01

363

Weathering in a Cup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two easy student activities that demonstrate physical weathering by expansion are described. The first demonstrates ice wedging and the second root wedging. A list of the needed materials, procedure, and observations are included. (KR)

Stadum, Carol J.

1991-01-01

364

Weathering of Martian Evaporites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporites in martian meteorites contain weathering or alteration features that may provide clues about the martian near-surface environment over time. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Wentworth, S. J.; Velbel, M. A.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Longazo, T. G.; McKay, D. S.

2001-01-01

365

Tombstone Weathering Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups in a cemetery to collect a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the extent of weathering of tombstones and their ages. The data are shared between all students, graphed as scatter plots, and the rate of weathering is estimated. Students write about and then discuss the results, the difference between the quantitative and qualitative measures, and speculate on factors in addition to time that may be important for weathering rate. The exercise ends with each students writing a hypothesis about a factor that influences weathering rate and describing a research project that could test that hypothesis. This activity is aimed at developing an understanding of the scatter in "real data", allowing for practice of team work, and hypothesis generation and testing. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Anders, Alison

366

Weather Information Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

1991-01-01

367

Microbial Weathering of Olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature.

Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.; McKay, D. S.

2002-03-01

368

Weather and Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human lo...

1975-01-01

369

Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... a two-wave radio, waterproof matches and paraffin fire starters with you. Do not use alcohol and ...

370

Winter Weather: Hypothermia  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and Generators Handling Human Remains ...

371

Winter Weather: Indoor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... 3 feet of anything that may catch on fire, such as drapes, furniture, or bedding. Never cover ...

372

Cold-Weather Sports  

MedlinePLUS

Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular fitness, and strengthen muscles. Activities that are ...

373

Digital wireless control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Digital Wireless Control System (DWCS) is designed to initiate high explosives safely while using a wireless remote control system. Numerous safety features have been designed into the fire control system to mitigate the hazards associated with remote initiation of high explosives. These safety features range from a telemetry (TM) fire control status system to mechanical timers and keyed power lockout switches. The environment, safety, and health (ES&H) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) SP471970 is intended as a guide when working with the DWCS. This report describes the Digital Wireless Control System and outlines each component's theory of operation and its relationship to the system.

Smith, R.

1993-08-01

374

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based unit has been created for use by students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, students develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities. The lesson plans have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum, and to allow for flexibility in implementation.

2011-01-01

375

Weathering of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

Van Norden, Wendy

376

Weather Here and There  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Education Project of the Resource for Science Education Program offers the Weather Here and There educational unit. The Web site consists of six lessons geared for students in grades four through six that cover everything from characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere to forecasting the weather. Each lesson contains the objectives, materials, background information, vocabulary, evaluation, etc. needed to easily prepare and complete each.

1995-01-01

377

TypoWeather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The TypoWeather application is a great way to stay on top of the latest weather conditions. This handy device presents users with a five day outlook and an hourly breakdown that is updated based on data from the National Meteorological Service. Visitors can customize their layout to include alerts about certain meteorological conditions, such as wind patterns, humidity, and more. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-03-13

378

Google Earth Weather Bundle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Google Earth Weather Bundle, from the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Illinois, gives the user a suite of automatically updating weather products that can be overlaid in any fashion he or she desires. It can be downloaded from the department's web site at the University of Illinois, and is meant for worldwide use by a wide range of audiences, from the general public to meteorologists.

379

Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils  

PubMed Central

This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated. PMID:24031193

Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirollo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

2008-01-01

380

Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated. PMID:24031193

Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirôllo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

2008-01-01

381

Utility weatherization programs  

SciTech Connect

Public utility commissions (PUCs) have recently ordered or approved an increasing number of programs that install weatherization measures in residences. These programs tend to install only low-cost weatherization measures (e.g., caulking, weatherstripping, plastic storm windows, door sweeps) or major weatherization measures (e.g., insulation, storm windows, storm doors). When a program does not have income restrictions for eligibility, part of the costs are paid by the participating customer. For programs that install low-cost measures, the participant usually pays at the time of installation for the measures chosen. To require payment for major weatherization measures at the time of installation could deter participation, so these programs usually provide loans with the interest subsidized by the sponsor. Low-income customers, who have little or no disposable income, tend to shun Residential Conservation Service, loan, and other utility conservation programs that have costs to participants. Therefore PUCs have turned to programs that install weatherization measures without charge in order to reach low-income customers. This paper discusses some of the regulatory issues raised by these programs and how they have been justified by PUCs. It also gives information on cost and energy savings for 10 weatherization programs, both utility-sponsored and non-utility-sponsored, and attempts to interpret this information.

Kier, P.H.

1984-01-01

382

Cockpit weather information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

2000-01-01

383

Wireless Phone Threat Assessment for Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station simulator is used to control the phones. The measurements are conducted using reverberation chambers, and the results are compared against FCC and aircraft installed equipment emission limits. The results are also compared against baseline emissions from laptop computers and personal digital assistant devices that are currently allowed to operate on aircraft.

Nguyens, T. X.; Koppen, S. V.; Smith, L. J.; Williams, R. A.; Salud, M. T.

2005-01-01

384

Reliable MIMO communication between firefighters equipped with wearable antennas and a base station using space-time codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-body wireless data communication using textile antennas integrated into clothing increases the safety of rescue workers operating in an indoor environment as vital information can be communicated to the command station. The indoor radio propagation is influenced by fading and shadowing. Yet, MIMO techniques significantly enhance the reliability of such a wireless link, producing a lower bit error rate for

Patrick Van Torre; Luigi Vallozzi; Hendrik Rogier; Marc Moeneclaey; Jo Verhaevert

2011-01-01

385

Network coded wireless architecture  

E-print Network

Wireless mesh networks promise cheap Internet access, easy deployment, and extended range. In their current form, however, these networks suffer from both limited throughput and low reliability; hence they cannot meet the ...

Katti, Sachin Rajsekhar

2008-01-01

386

Social Aspects of Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the social context and citizen response to three weather modification projects provides an introduction to the discussion of a variety of social and economic issues related to planned weather modification. Various interest groups have markedly different perspectives on weather modification. Most persons subject to the consequences of weather modification have no opportunity to participate in the associated

J. Eugene Haas

1973-01-01

387

2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide  

E-print Network

Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

Meyers, Steven D.

388

Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used to study the correlation between soil moisture and the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), obtained from remote sensing data, which will allow us to produce soil moisture maps for the whole control area. These soil moisture fields will then be compared to those obtained from HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model ). Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations will also be performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign will consist of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD provided by the Technical University of Denmark (TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer provided by TKK, (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system provided by Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC), (iv) IR sensor provided by the Finnish Institute of Maritime Research (FIMR), (v) a low resolution digital video camera Together with the ground soil moisture measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements obtained from the Valencia Anchor Station site will be used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature so as to have satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test retrieval algorithms. The spatialization of the ground measurements up to a SMOS pixel will be carried out by using a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model (SUR- FEX) from Mátéo France. Output data, particularly soil moisture, will then used to simulate ee the L-band surface emission through the use of the L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model. This paper will present an overview of the whole Valencia Anchor Station Experimental Plan making more emphasis on the development of the ground activities which are considered a key element for the performance of the different validation components.

Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

389

COMPARISON OF THE BIODEGRADABILITY OF COMMERCIAL AND WEATHERED DIESEL OILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 - dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using the Bartha and Pramer

Jonas Contiero

390

Interplanetary sources of space weather disturbances in 1997 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-five disturbed intervals from 1997 through 2000 were analyzed and selected on the basis of space weather effect occurrences such as significant compression of the dayside magnetosphere, strong magnetic storms, ionospheric perturbations, relativistic electron enhancements, and increases in the rate of data failures and radiation doses on board the Mir station. Solar wind disturbances were considered as the main factor

A. V. Dmitriev; N. B. Crosby; J.-K. Chao

2005-01-01

391

A resampling procedure for generating conditioned daily weather sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is introduced to generate conditioned daily precipitation and temperature time series at multiple stations. The method resamples data from the historical record “nens” times for the period of interest (nens = number of ensemble members) and reorders the ensemble members to reconstruct the observed spatial (intersite) and temporal correlation statistics. The weather generator model is applied to 2307

Martyn P. Clark; Subhrendu Gangopadhyay; David Brandon; Kevin Werner; Lauren Hay; Balaji Rajagopalan; David Yates

2004-01-01

392

Optimization in the design of fire weather monitoring networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of two large-scale nonlinear optimization models, one stochastic and the other deterministic, for the optimal positioning of remote automatic weather stations (sensors) in an area of Southern California prone to forest fires. The requirements to implement the models under rather incomplete information are discussed and numerical results are presented which demonstrate the superiority of the

James Brucker; S. E. Jacobsen

1989-01-01

393

Wet Weather Characterization of Selected Rhode Island Baseline Monitoring Principle Investigators  

E-print Network

Wet Weather Characterization of Selected Rhode Island Baseline Monitoring Stations Principle Management (RI DEM) by establishing a Baseline Monitoring Program for the rivers of Rhode Island. The purpose of the program was to establish a long term, water quality database, under dry weather, or steady state

Rhode Island, University of

394

High Himalayan meteorology: Weather at the South Col of Mount Everest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mount Everest is often referred to as the earth's ‘third’ pole. As such it is relatively inaccessible and little is known about its meteorology. In 1998, a portable weather station was operated at the mountain's South Col, elevation 7,986 m. We believe that this represents the highest elevation at which continuous weather data has ever been collected and thus represents

G. W. K. Moore; John L. Semple

2004-01-01

395

A new generation of sensors for automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for the measurement of atmospheric temperature is described. The temperature sensor is a quartz crystal oscillator for which the frequency transfer characteristic is a linear function of temperature. For measuring the atmospheric pressure the aneroid capsule is combined with a capacitive displacement measuring system. The humidity sensor is an element made from a pure hard plaster which does

F. T. Ludbrook

1974-01-01

396

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

record. #12;The total monthly snowfall was 6.9" which is 0.4" above normal (106%). This ranks as the 50th. Temperature (record status, days above/below thresholds): None Precipitation: The total monthly precipitation snowiest November in the 121 year record (1889- 2009). Water year 2010 snowfall is 32.6" which is 23

397

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

.2% of average). The total monthly snowfall was a Trace. Misc. Precipitation (predominant type, record status. #12;Precipitation: The total monthly precipitation was 0.01" and was 0.81" below average (1

398

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

set in 1921, 1957 and 1994. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 0 September at 15:50 MST from 210º. Evaporation Total class A pan evaporation for September 2010 was 5

399

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

temperature of 39 breaks the old record of 38 set in 2009. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly.8% of normal). This ranks as the 54th driest water year in the 123 year record. Total monthly snowfall is 5 record, tied with 1959 and 1960. Seasonal snowfall is 15.2" which is 16.7" below normal (47.6% of normal

400

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 1.26" and was 0.61" below normal (67% of normal for the month was 30 miles per hour and occurred on 10 July at 15:20 MST from 290º. Evaporation Total class

401

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

monthly precipitation was 1.28" and was 0.10" below normal (93% of normal). The total monthly snowfall. Temperature Records: No maximum/minimum temperatures were set in September 2008. Precipitation: The total

402

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

of 67 breaks the old record of 66 set in 1982. Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly precipitation). This ranks as the 58th driest water year in the 122 year record. Total monthly snowfall is 6.4" which is 0, tied with 1967. Seasonal snowfall is 21.6" which is 14.3" below normal (60.2% of normal). This ranks

403

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 0.15" and was 0.27" below normal (36% of normal year record. The total monthly snowfall was 3.7" which is 4.7" below normal (44%). This ranks as the 72) and tied with 1953 and 1964. Water year 2010 snowfall is 56.6" which is 24.7" above normal (177% of normal

404

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

/below thresholds): None. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 3.15" and was 1.45 1905 9.2 The total monthly snowfall was 1.9" which is 5.2" below normal (27% of normal). This ranks as the 39th least snowiest April in the 122 year record. The last time we received this little snowfall

405

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 1.96" and was 0.03" below normal (99% of normal year record. The total monthly snowfall was 0.0" which is 0.1" below normal (0% of normal). This is one of 117 June's out of 122 with zero snowfall. 2010 seasonal snowfall remained 88.7" which is 29.9" above

406

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

.28 1923 27.57 1997 25.23 1951 22.58 1915 22.36 1979 22.13 2009 21.88 The total monthly snowfall was 20 The lowest maximum temperature record of 24 tied the record set in 1992. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 1.11" and was 0.62" above normal (227% of normal). This ranks as the 12

407

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

.72. Total monthly snowfall is a Trace which is 11.8" below normal for the month (0% of normal). This ranks March 2011: Minimum temperature of 52 ties old record set in 1978. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly precipitation was 0.29" and was 1.31" below normal (18% of normal). This ranks as the 16th

408

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

/below thresholds): None #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly precipitation was 0.70" and was 0.12" below.2% of normal). This ranks as the 57th wettest water year in the 122 year record. Total monthly snowfall is 5. Seasonal snowfall is also 5.0" which is 10.0" below normal (33.3% of normal). This ranks as the 82nd

409

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

>=60) Frequencyin% Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 0.65" and was 0th wettest water year (Oct-Feb) in the 122 year record. The total monthly snowfall was 13.0" which seasonal snowfall is 69.6" which is 32.7" above normal (189% of normal). This ranks as the 2nd snowiest

410

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

in the 121 year record (1889-2009). The total monthly snowfall was 25.7" which is THE SNOWIEST October: Highest maximum temperature of 83 ties old record set in 2003. Precipitation: The total monthly in the 121 year record (1889-2009). Year October Snowfall (in) 2009 25.7 1969 18.7 1997 17.5 1906 15.5 1925

411

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

degrees set in 2000. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 2.13" and was 0rd wettest water year (Oct-May) in the 122 year record. The total monthly snowfall was 4.1" which. The last time there was this much snow in May was in 2001 with 6.5" of snowfall. 2010 seasonal snowfall

412

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

of 66 degrees breaks the old record of 65 set in 1921. Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly as the 55th driest calendar year in the 122 year record. Total monthly snowfall is 4.4" which is 4.1" below snowfall is also 9.4" which is 14.1" below normal (40.0% of normal). This ranks as the 68th least snowy

413

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 1.55" and was 0.13" above normal (109 (Oct-Feb) in the 122 year record. The total monthly snowfall was 13.1" which is 1.3" above normal (111%). This ranks as the 39th snowiest March in the 122 year record. 2010 seasonal snowfall is 82.7" which is 32

414

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

which had a 4-month average temperature of 66.2 degrees. Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly in the 122 year record (1889-2010). Total monthly snowfall was a Trace. This ranks as the 48th least snowy:10 MST from 290º. #12;Evaporation Total class A pan evaporation for October 2010 was 3.44" compared

415

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

average. The total monthly snowfall was 0.0". The current Water Year (as of August) precipitation is 13 of 67 F set in 1890. Precipitation: The total monthly precipitation was 3.94" and was 2.54" above

416

S-290 Unit 9: Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webcast covers procedures for taking accurate weather observations using belt weather kits and descriptions of other common weather observing equipment used in fire weather. In addition, maintenance of the primary components of the belt weather kit are demonstrated.

Comet

2009-04-22

417

Myocardial infarction and weather.  

PubMed

The association of meterological factors with acute myocardial infarction was studied within a one-year period in Helsinki. Seasonal variation was found with the lowest incidence in summer and the highest in late autumn. Environmental temperature was not significantly correlated with the incidence of myocardial infarction but the case fatality rate was higher on coldest days. Atmospheric pressure turned out to be the meteorological variable with the highest correlation with the occurrence of myocardial infarction. Rapid decrease in atmospheric pressure was also associated with increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction. Relative humidity had little independent effect. The weather types with highest and lowest risk of heart attack were determined by the combined use of factor and cluster analysis. The most unfavourable turned out to be a relatively cold and moist weather with low atmospheric pressure, common in Helsinki during early winter and late autumn. The incidence of infarction did not increase on typical cold and dry winter days. The most favourable weather was warm, dry and stable summer weather. The difference in incidences between most and least favourable weather types was three-fold. PMID:616207

Sarna, S; Romo, M; Siltanen, P

1977-08-01

418

Weather from the Stratosphere?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

2006-01-01

419

Oceans, Climate, and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-10-01

420

THE WEATHER An unusually persistent and moist weather pattern led to rainfall totals from September 9th -15th  

E-print Network

and rainfall over an even larger area. · Mostoftherainfellin36hours,fromtheafternoonofSeptember 11th until" for selected locations are shown. (Map: Colorado Climate Center, CSU) · Seven-day rainfall totals (9/9 to 9 weather station (since 1893) set new records for 1-day (9.08"), 2-day (11.52") and 7-day (16.9") totals

421

Hydrologic-data stations and lake levels, Kenai-Nikiski area, Alaska, 1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The locations of 2 National Weather Service stations, 29 observation wells, 4 stream gages, and 12 lake-stage stations are depicted on a 1:63, 360-scale map. The periods of record and station descriptions are listed. Hydrographs depict water-level fluctuations of 12 lakes during the period 1970-1983. (USGS)

Bailey, Bonnie J.

1983-01-01

422

Performance analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in wireless LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol is the de facto standard for wireless local area networks (LANs), and has also been implemented in many network simulation packages for wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks. However, it is well known that, as the number of active stations increases, the performance of IEEE 802.11 MAC in terms of delay and throughput degrades dramatically, especially

Hongqiang Zhai; Younggoo Kwon; Yuguang Fang

2004-01-01

423

Optimizing the packet forwarding throughput of multi-hop wireless chain networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature, it has been shown that due to signal interferences between neighboring stations, the maximum packet forwarding throughput of a N-hop wireless chain network decreases as N increases and is only 1\\/N of the wireless bandwidth. This 1\\/N trend continues until the throughput finally stabilizes at only 1\\/5 or even less when N becomes large. To solve this

Shie Yuan Wang

2003-01-01

424

Spaceborne weather radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

1990-01-01

425

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the National Science Foundation has developed a number of Flash-enabled features that showcase the latest research done under their general direction. Many of these features deal directly with a host of pragmatic issues, and some are quite delightful in their overall execution and visual appeal. One such feature highlighted on this site deals with predicting seasonal weather. Of course, predicting such trends in weather are both important to the general public, and to those businesses that are sensitive to the weather conditions. In a series of brief essays, replete with illustrative diagrams, visitors can learn about a new proposed seasonal forecast model. The site is rounded out by a link to a number of classroom resources, thematically organized for convenience.

2005-01-01

426

Jet Streams and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about jet streams and explore the effects the polar-front jet stream has on weather conditions in North America. They begin by doing an interactive activity that highlights the atmospheric conditions and phenomena that create jet streams. They then look at a model that illustrates the relationships between latitude and variations in air temperature, wind speed, and altitude and begin to make generalizations about these relationships. In the second part of this lesson, they use the knowledge gained in the first part to interpret weather maps, helping them to make direct connections between the behavior of the polar-front jet stream and seasonal weather patterns in North America. As a final exercise, they will use real data to deepen their understanding of the relationships between pressure, altitude, and the wind speed of jet streams.

2005-01-01

427

Delicious Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

Gorte, Mary

428

Video transmission over wireless networks  

E-print Network

Compressed video bitstream transmissions over wireless networks are addressed in this work. We first consider error control and power allocation for transmitting wireless video over CDMA networks in conjunction with multiuser detection. We map a...

Zhao, Shengjie

2005-08-29

429

Weather Scope : An Investigative Study of Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the course of this project, students will learn how to build instruments to measure weather, access online weather observations, collect weather data for an extended period, analyze weather data to reveal trends, and make predictions. They will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The module contains five lessons relating to weather, five relating to climate, and three enrichment activities. Project information, a teacher guide, reference materials, and an ask an expert feature are also provided.

2007-12-12

430

The Quest for the Perfect Weather Forecaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just how accurate are weather forecasters, anyway? How can a meteorologist from one television channel predict a completely different forecast for the same area on a different station? To answer these queries, this article describes two projects for middle level students to investigate these issues in a hands-on, active-learning environment. These three-week projects take the form of webquests?inquiry-oriented exercises focusing on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, for which the Internet is the primary information source (Dodge 1995).

Berg, Craig; Kahl, Jonathan; Horwitz, Kevin; Gruhl, Mary

2004-01-01

431

RFIC's challenges for third-generation wireless systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Third generation (3G) cellular wireless systems are envisioned to offer low cost, high-capacity mobile communications with data rates of up to 2 Mbit/s, with global roaming and advanced data services. Besides adding mobility to the internet, 3G systems will provide location-based services, as well as personalized information and entertainment. Low cost, high dynamic-range radios, both for base stations (BS) and for mobile stations (MS) are required to enable worldwide deployment of such networks. A receiver's reference sensitivity, intermodulation characteristics, and blocking characteristics, set by a wireless standard, define performance requirements of individual components of a receiver front end. Since base station handles multiple signals from various distances simultaneously, its radio specifications are significantly more demanding than those for mobile devices. While high level of integration has already been achieved for second generation hand-sets using low-cost silicon technologies, the cost and size reduction of base stations still remains a challenge and necessity. While silicon RFIC technology is steadily improving, it is still difficult to achieve noise figure (NF), linearity, and phase noise requirements with presently available devices. This paper will discuss base station specification for 2G (GSM) and 3G (UMTS) systems, as well as the feasibility of implementing base station radios in low-cost silicon processes.

Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lin, Jenshan; Gould, Penny; Kermalli, Munawar

2001-11-01

432

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

2003-01-01

433

Weather and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, providing information about reliable public health services, tools, and resources.

Comet

2008-11-25

434

Olympian weather forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique public-private partnership will provide detailed weather information at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Utah, 8-24 February About 50 meteorologists with the National Weather Service (NWS) and several private groups will work in the background to provide accurate forecasts.This is the first time that U.S. government and private meteorologists will share forecasting responsibilities for the Olympics, according to the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. The partnership includes meteorologists with the University of Utah and KSL-TV in Salt Lake City.

Showstack, Randy

435

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This background chapter reviews the basic principles of meteorology that educators need to guide inquiry activities in the classroom. Topics include structure of the atmosphere, Coriolis effect, water cycle, greenhouse effect, cyclones, anticyclones, and jet streams. This is chapter 2 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

436

A Cellular System for Wireless Structural Integrity Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Installation and maintenance costs, and improved reliability of structural integrity monitoring in industrial applications demanding a large number of sensors applied to the structure can be achieved using wireless links between the sensors. This paper describes a wireless network system designed to interconnect a variety of ultrasonic transducers. Miniaturized wireless-coupled sensors which incorporate the sensor drive electronics, a DSP and Bluetooth communication module have been developed, initially for thickness measurement but capable of being reconfigured for time-of-flight crack monitoring, large area mapping using Lamb wave arrays and passive acoustic emission sensing. A networked system capable of inter-sensor and base station communications in an industrial environment is in progress and preliminary results obtained are presented.

Benny, Graham; Steel, Kenneth; McNab, Alistair; Hayward, Gordon

2004-02-01

437

An Influence of Space Weather Conditions On Weather and Climate In Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on precipitation in Brazil for three meteorological stations (Pelotas: 3145'S, 5221'W; Campinas: 2253'S, 4704'W; Fortaleza: 345'S, 3831'W) covering lat- itudinal range of Brazil from 1849 up to 2000 were considered. Periodic analysis of the annual rainfall level shows a pronounced 22-year periodicity for several littoral re- gions. The amplitude of the variation reaches~90%. In the equatorial station Fortaleza the correlation coefficients between the solar magnetic cycle and the rainfall pattern are -77%+-4% during 1849 to 1940 and +80.0+-4% during 1952- 2000, showing the phase change, and in the south-middle latitude station Pelotas the correlation coeffi- cients are +60%+-13% in 1893-1920 and -84%+-4% from 1929 up to 2000 reaching even more than 90% during the time intervals 1928- 1939; 1948- 1959 and 1970- 1981. The phase change is found to have occurred mostly during the 16th and 18th solar cycles, first recorded at higher latitudes, and later discerned in the equatorial re- gion. The phase of the space weather versus terrestrial weather correlation is different for the various latitudinal regions. The rainfall time series also demonstrate a 52% correlation with an apparent 24- year periodicity that is possibly connected with the atmosphere-ocean coupling; and this feature is without any phase change in the time series. Specific analysis of short-term rainfall variations shows a significant increase in rainfall level several days after solar magnetic sector boundary (MSB) crossing de- tected by Earth orbiting spacecraft. This additional finding is an argument in favor of existence of physical link between rainfall variations and the solar magnetic field cy- cle. The results appear to have bearing both as a scientific instrument for the solution of the sun-weather connection problem, and may possibly have significance for long term practical weather forecasting in the South American region and elsewhere.

Pugacheva, G.; Almeida, A.; Gusev, A.; Martin, I.; Pankov, V.; Schuch, N.

438

Recovery of lost data for wireless sensor network used in structural health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a wireless sensor network, data loss often occurs during the data transmission between wireless sensor nodes and the base station, which decreases the communication reliability in wireless sensor network applications. Errors caused by data loss inevitably affect the data analysis of the structure and subsequent decision making. This paper proposed an approach to recover lost data in a wireless sensor network based on the compressive sampling (CS) technique. The main idea in this approach is to project the transmitted data from x onto y, where y is the linear projection of x on a random matrix. The data vector y is permitted to lose part of the original data x in wireless transmissions between the sensor nodes and the base station. After the base station receives the imperfect data, the original data vector x can be reconstructed based on the data y using the CS method. The acceleration data collected from the vibration test of Shandong Harbin Sifangtai Bridge by wireless sensors is used to analyze the data loss recovery ability of the proposed method.

Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui; Sun, Xiaodan; Ou, Jinping

2012-04-01

439

Barrier coverage with wireless sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In old times, castles were surrounded by moats (deep trenches filled with water, and even alligators) to thwart or discourage intrusion attempts. One can now replace such barriers with stealthy and wireless sensors. In this paper, we develop theoretical foundations for laying barriers of wireless sensors. We define the notion of k-barrier coverage of a belt region using wireless sensors.

Santosh Kumar; Ten-Hwang Lai; Anish Arora

2005-01-01

440

Energy options for wireless sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful design strategies for energy efficient wireless sensor networks must involve the optimization of system energy at all levels including sensor circuits, communication, and powering methods. The paper reviews the various sensor powering options focusing on remote wireless powering and hybrid powering solutions. The comparative analysis of the two main wireless remote powering methods based on power transfer from RF

C. Belhadj-Yahya; Prince Mohammad Bin

2010-01-01

441

Remote Data Stations: Data and Oceanographic Buoys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) maintains a series of remote data stations on the Great Barrier Reef (Queensland) and Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia). This Website provides interested viewers with access to the remote data stations, including graphic displays of buoy locations and recent data, displayed as text and graphics (data include wind speed and direction, solar radiation, air pressure, and temperature). In addition to displaying data graphically, some data types (e.g., stick plots) are accompanied by concise descriptions of how to read/ interpret those data. In addition, remote data are summarized into station averages and the "last three readings" per station; a glossary of terms and links to weather events/ sites round out the site.

442

Blogging About the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

Evans, Kyle; Frazier, Wendy

2010-04-01

443

Rainy Weather Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

Reynolds, Karen

1996-01-01

444

What Makes the Weather?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides (1) background information showing how the sun, earth, air, and water work together to create weather; (2) six activities on this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy coloring page on the water cycle. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

445

Weather and Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

Wiley, Scott

2007-01-01

446

Weather or Not?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning activity, teams of students will be asked to forecast the weather up to 48 hours in advance of an outdoor event that is special to them. It may be a local or distant event. The activity is part of Exploring the Environment.

447

Rocks and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, weathering, erosion and transport, and the rock cycle are explained in this resource for students through written content, interactive content, audio, video and games. A multiple choice test is included. Students may score their tests and the correct responses will be given.

448

Microbial Weathering of Olivine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

2002-01-01

449

Weathering the Double Whammy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the institution's…

Wellman, Jane V.

2002-01-01

450

Dress for the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson,

Smetana, Lara K.; Glen, Nicole J.

2010-04-01

451

Weather and Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will research, discuss, and write reports on the relationship between climate and agriculture. They will pretend that they have just purchased farms in specific parts of the United States and will investigate the weather and climate of that region in order to maximize the chances that their farms will succeed.

452

Pigeons and Weather Warnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the Standard of the 5th instant is an account of a pigeon race from Penzance to London, a distance of 270 miles, which was done by one bird in 5 hours 34 minutes, and by another in 5 hours and 59 minutes. Might not the carrier-pigeon be employed to bring accounts of the weather 300, 400, or even 500

1879-01-01

453

Small-Scale Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts covered so far that pertain to the Earth's weather will finally be applied in this chapter. A number of basic mechanisms that govern small-scale things such as cloud formation, rain, fog, dew point, and humidity, will be addressed.

Robertson, William C.

2005-01-01

454

Crop Conditions Weather Update  

E-print Network

1 Crop Conditions Weather Update Eastern Flower Thrips on Strawberries Stopping Spread of Apple Scab Fire Blight Strawberry Diseases Chemical thinning Important Grape Sprays Cluster Thinning on Strawberries: High numbers of Eastern Flower Thrips have been reported on late blooming strawberry varieties

Ginzel, Matthew

455

Weather and the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on weather and objects in the sky includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

456

Accessing Space Weather Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

2009-12-01

457

METEOROLOGICAL Monthly Weather Review  

E-print Network

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Monthly Weather Review EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary.d.williams@reading.ac.uk #12;2 Abstract In a recent study, Williams (2009) introduced a simple modification to the widely used. In the present paper, the effects of the modification are comprehensively evaluated in the SPEEDY atmospheric

Kalnay, Eugenia

458

Paintball Summer Weather  

E-print Network

Highlights · Paintball · Summer Weather · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Paintball! Come out and have some fun! This Saturday, September 6th, we are going to play Paintball! Paintball is a popular. The origin of the word "tip" is something that is not 100% certain, but the most common story

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

459

Weather, Climate, and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

460

Dress for the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice when preparing for…

Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

2010-01-01

461

Salt Weathering on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement,

E. Jagoutz

2006-01-01

462

Salt weathering on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement,

E. Jagoutz

2004-01-01

463

NASA's Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) effort is to develop and integrate advanced technologies for real-time personal display of information relevant to the health and safety of space station/shuttle personnel. The WARP effort will develop and demonstrate technologies that will ultimately be incorporated into operational Space Station systems and that have potential earth applications such as aircraft pilot alertness monitoring and in various medical and consumer environments where augmented reality is required. To this end a two phase effort will be undertaken to rapidly develop a prototype (Phase I) and an advanced prototype (Phase II) to demonstrate the following key technology features that could be applied to astronaut internal vehicle activity (IVA) and potentially external vehicle activity (EVA) as well: 1) mobile visualization, and 2) distributed information system access. Specifically, Phase I will integrate a low power, miniature wireless communication link and a commercial biosensor with a head mounted display. The Phase I design will emphasize the development of a relatively small, lightweight, and unobtrusive body worn prototype system. Phase II will put increased effort on miniaturization, power consumption reduction, increased throughput, higher resolution, and ``wire removal'' of the subsystems developed in Phase I.

Agan, Martin; Voisinet, Leeann; Devereaux, Ann

1998-01-01

464

Wireless optical network for a home network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the European collaborative project OMEGA, two optical-wireless prototypes have been developed. The first prototype operates in the near-infrared spectral region and features Giga Ethernet connectivity, a simple transceiver architecture due to the use of on-off keying, a multi-sector transceiver, and an ultra-fast switch for sector-to-sector hand over. This full-duplex system, composed by one base station and one module, transmits data on three meters. The second prototype is a visible-light-communications system based on DMT signal processing and an adapted MAC sublayer. Data rates around to 100 Mb/s at the physical layer are achieved. This broadcast system, composed also by one base station and one module, transmits data up to two meters. In this paper we present the adapted optical wireless media-access-control sublayer protocol for visible-light communications. This protocol accommodates link adaptation from 128 Mb/s to 1024 Mb/s with multi-sector coverage, and half-duplex or full-duplex transmission.

Bouchet, Olivier; Porcon, Pascal; Walewski, Joachim W.; Nerreter, Stefan; Langer, Klaus-Dieter; Fernández, Luz; Vucic, Jelena; Kamalakis, Thomas; Ntogari, Georgia; Neokosmidis, Ioannis; Gueutier, Eric

2010-08-01

465

Space Weather Research in Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Kazakhstan there is an experimental complex for space weather study and forecasting. This complex is situated near Almaty (Kazakhstan). It includes an experimental setup for records of cosmic ray intensity (neutron monitor) at the altitude of 3340 m above sea level, a magnetic observatory ´Alma-Ataª, an optical interferometer SATI for recording the emission of night sky, an ionospheric sounder and a solar radio telescope. Nowadays the measurements of the solar radio flux at frequencies of 1.078 GHz and 2.8 GHz (10.7 cm) is carried out on the regular basis with 1-second time resolution. A new Callisto radio spectrometer (eC37) was installed and configured while the ´Orbitaª ground station. All data are represented on the web site of the Institute of the Ionosphere (www.ionos.kz) in real time. Since July 2006 the space environment prediction laboratory represents the fore cast of geomagnetic activity every day on the same site.

Zhantayev, Zh.; Kryakunova, O.; Nikolayevskiy, N.; Zhumabayev, B.

2014-02-01

466

Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1993-11-01

467

Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

2011-01-01

468

Survey and Analysis of Weather Data for Building Energy Simulations  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, calibrated energy modeling of residential and commercial buildings has gained importance in a retrofit-dominated market. Accurate weather data plays an important role in this calibration process and projected energy savings. It would be ideal to measure weather data at the building location to capture relevant microclimate variation but this is generally considered cost-prohibitive. There are data sources publicly available with high temporal sampling rates but at relatively poor geospatial sampling locations. To overcome this limitation, there are a growing number of service providers that claim to provide real time and historical weather data for 20-35 km2 grid across the globe. Unfortunately, there is limited documentation from 3rd-party sources attesting to the accuracy of this data. This paper compares provided weather characteristics with data collected from a weather station inaccessible to the service providers. Monthly average dry bulb temperature; relative humidity; direct, diffuse and horizontal solar radiation; and wind speed are statistically compared. Moreover, we ascertain the relative contributions of each weather variable and its impact on building loads. Annual simulations are calculated for three different building types, including a closely monitored and automated energy efficient research building. The comparison shows that the difference for an individual variable can be as high as 90%. In addition, annual building energy consumption can vary by 7% while monthly building loads can vary by 40% as a function of the provided location s weather data.

Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

2012-01-01

469

Towards Weather Ethics: From Chance to Choice with Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of weather and climate ethics is a novel branch of applied ethics, based on environmental sciences and philosophy. Due to recent scientific findings concerning climate change, intentional weather and climate modification schemes have become even more relevant to finding feasible ways to moderate climate change and therefore are in need of careful analysis. When, if ever, can weather

Sanna Joronen; Markku Oksanen; Timo Vuorisalo

2011-01-01

470

Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz frequency band. The technical challenges in design such a system and the techniques to overcome the challenges will be discussed in this presentation.

Hwu, Shian U.

2012-01-01

471

Wireless soil moisture sensor networks for environmental monitoring and irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dependable spatial-temporal soil parameter data is required for informed decision making in precision farming and hydrological applications. Wireless sensor networks are seen as a key technology to satisfy these demands. Hence, research and development focus is on reliable outdoor applications. This comprises sensor design improvement, more robust communication protocols, less power consumption as well as better deployment strategies and tools. Field trials were performed to investigate and iteratively improve wireless sensor networks in the above-mentioned areas. They accounted for different climate conditions, soil types and salinity, irrigation practices, solar power availability and also for different radio spectrum use which affects the reliability of the wireless links. E.g. 868 MHz and 2.4 GHz wireless nodes were compared in the field with regard to range. Furthermore a low-cost soil moisture sensor was developed to allow for large-scale field experiments. It is based on the measurement of the high frequency dielectric properties of the soil. Two agricultural sites were equipped with 80 sensors and 20 wireless nodes each. The soil moisture data is collected in regular intervals, aggregated in a base station and visualized through a web-based geographical information system. The complete system and results of field experiments are presented.

Hübner, Christof; Cardell-Oliver, Rachel; Becker, Rolf; Spohrer, Klaus; Jotter, Kai; Wagenknecht, Tino

2010-05-01

472

External Resource: Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Teachers' Domain photo essay with images that depict surface features on Earth that result from weathering and erosion, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects. Topics: weathering, erosion, sediments, dunes, deltas, glaci

1900-01-01

473

Food Safety for Warmer Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who ... they produce,” says Dr. Alison O’Brien, a food safety expert at the Uniformed Services University of the ...

474

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Oct 28,2014 Th is winter season will bring cooler temperatures and ice ... for some. It’s important to know how cold weather can affect your heart, especially if you have ...

475

Space Weather Impacts on Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The module builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.

Comet

2012-06-12

476

AMS-02 as a Space Weather Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state-of-the-art space detector that measures particles in the energy range of hundreds of MeV to a few TeV. AMS-02 has been installed onboard of the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011 where it will operate for the duration of the station. To date, there is an abundance of space-based solar data collected in the low energy regimes, whereas there are very few direct measurements of higher energy particles available. AMS-02 is capable of measuring arrival time and composition of the highest energy SEPs in space. It is crucial to build a better knowledge base regarding the most energetic and potentially harmful events. We are currently developing a program to employ AMS-02 as a real-time space weather observatory. SEPs with higher energies are usually accelerated during a short period of time and they are the first particles to reach the Earth. AMS-02, measuring these highest energy SEPs, can alert the onset of an SEP event. During the past two years of operation, we have identified two main quantities in AMS-02 that are particularly sensitive to the arrival of SEPs: the detector livetime and the transition radiation detector (TRD) event size. By monitoring the detector livetime and the TRD event size, AMS-02 can pinpoint in real-time the arrival of SEPs inside the Earth's magnetosphere operating as a space weather detector.

Whitman, K.; Bindi, V.; Chati, M.; Consolandi, C.; Corti, C.

2013-12-01

477

Spring Break-Weathering Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to photograph something that shows either physical or chemical weathering. They must be in the photograph for purposes of scale. They must then write up their description of the weathering feature and explain the actual weathering processes. This assignment can also be expanded to include mass wasting and mass wasting prevention.

Farthing, Dori

478

Differences Between Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students collect weather data over several days or weeks, graph temperature data, and compare the temperature data collected with long-term climate averages from where they live. Understanding the difference between weather and climate and interpreting local weather data are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes.

Research, National C.

479

Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have

Michael Garstang; Roelof Bruintjes; Robert Serafin; Harold Orville; Bruce Boe; William Cotton; Joseph Warburton

2005-01-01

480

Science Sampler: Clever with weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In eighth-grade Earth science at Louisville Middle School in Louisville, Colorado, students learn how large-scale weather patterns such as the jet stream and weather fronts interact to generate local weather conditions. The authors have developed a modeli

Crowder, David; Hoenigman, Rhonda

2011-02-01

481

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

Groppi, Christopher

482

Severe Weather Planning for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

2008-01-01

483

Whether weather affects music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

2012-09-01

484

Full-duplex fiber-wireless link with 40 Gbit/s 16-QAM signals for alternative wired and wireless accesses based on homodyne/heterodyne coherent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel full-duplex fiber-wireless link with 40 Gbit/s 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals is proposed to provide alternative wired and wireless accesses for the user terminals. In the central station (CS), the downstream signal for wired and wireless accesses is beared onto the CW laser source via an optical I/Q modulator to realize the QAM modulation. At the hybrid optical network unit (HONU), a tunable laser is used to provide coherent optical local oscillator for homo-/heterodyne beating to coherently down-convert the baseband optical signal to the baseband electrical one for wired access or to the mm-wave one for wireless access according to the requirement of the user terminals. Simultaneously, the lightwave from the tunable laser is also used as the uplink optical carrier for either wired or wireless access, and is modulated colorlessly by the baseband or mm-wave signal of the uplink alternatively. After filtering, only one tone carrying the uplink signal is transmitted back to the CS even for the wireless access. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our proposed full-duplex link for the alternative wired and wireless accesses maintains good performance even when the transmission link with standard single mode fiber (SSMF) is extended to 30 km.

Zhang, Ruijiao; Ma, Jianxin; Wang, Zhao; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Yanjie; Zheng, Guoli; Liu, Wen; Yu, Jianguo; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qin; Liu, Renhao

2014-06-01

485

Real-Time Wireless Data Acquisition System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current and future aerospace requirements demand the creation of a new breed of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors must possess a high degree of intelligence to provide critical data efficiently and in real-time. Intelligence will include self-calibration, self-health assessment, and pre-processing of raw data at the sensor level. Most of these features are already incorporated in the Wireless Sensors Network (SensorNet(TradeMark)), developed by the Instrumentation Group at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A system based on the SensorNet(TradeMark) architecture consists of data collection point(s) called Central Stations (CS) and intelligent sensors called Remote Stations (RS) where one or more CSs can be accommodated depending on the specific application. The CS's major function is to establish communications with the Remote Stations and to poll each RS for data and health information. The CS also collects, stores and distributes these data to the appropriate systems requiring the information. The system has the ability to perform point-to-point, multi-point and relay mode communications with an autonomous self-diagnosis of each communications link. Upon detection of a communication failure, the system automatically reconfigures to establish new communication paths. These communication paths are automatically and autonomously selected as the best paths by the system based on the existing operating environment. The data acquisition system currently under development at KSC consists of the SensorNet(TradeMark) wireless sensors as the remote stations and the central station called the Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN). The RFF1N is the central station which remotely communicates with the SensorNet(TradeMark) sensors to control them and to receive data. The system's salient feature is the ability to provide deterministic sensor data with accurate time stamps for both time critical and non-time critical applications. Current wireless standards such as Zigbee(TradeMark) and Bluetooth(Registered TradeMark) do not have these capabilities and can not meet the needs that are provided by the SensorNet technology. Additionally, the system has the ability to automatically reconfigure the wireless communication link to a secondary frequency if interference is encountered and can autonomously search for a sensor that was perceived to be lost using the relay capabilities of the sensors and the secondary frequency. The RFHN and the SensorNet designs are based on modular architectures that allow for future increases in capability and the ability to expand or upgrade with relative ease. The RFHN and SensorNet sensors .can also perform data processing which forms a distributed processing architecture allowing the system to pass along information rather than just sending "raw data points" to the next higher level system. With a relatively small size, weight and power consumption, this system has the potential for both spacecraft and aircraft applications as well as ground applications that require time critical data.

Valencia, Emilio J.; Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Mata, Carlos

2007-01-01

486

National Weather Service Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the National Weather Service (NWS). Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years; the glossary will aid users in better understanding NWS products. The glossary is searchable by keyword or browsable by letter of the alphabet.

487

National Weather Service Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the National Weather Service (NWS). Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years; the glossary will aid users in better understanding NWS products. The glossary is searchable by keyword or browsable by letter of the alphabet.

2010-09-03

488

Salt Weathering on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974). However, irrespectively of the climatic environment a liquid brine is a necessity for salt induced fragmentation of rocks.M. C. Malin (1974) JGR Vol 79,26 p 3888-3894

Jagoutz, E.

2006-12-01

489

Design development and implementation of wireless nurse call station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a nurse call system is designed and developed which provides continuous monitoring of patient's status. The system helps in assisting patients who are bedridden and have no other means of communication with medical staffs in the absence of their caretakers. The conventional nurse call systems employ push button switches mounted near hospital beds that facilitate patients to

S. Aswin; N. Gopalakrishnan; S. Jeyender; R. Gnana Prasanna; S. Pravin Kumar

2011-01-01

490

Pipelines and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long conductors of all types on Earth's surface are subject to disturbance and disruption by telluric currents (currents that flow within the Earth or on its surface) induced by space weather events. Attention is most often paid to the effects that these currents can produce in electric grids. After all, if an electric power system is disrupted, many other modern infrastructures that depend on the secure and continuous supply of electrical power will also be affected. A recent technical paper in Space Weather by R. A. Marshall and colleagues draws needed attention to the effects of telluric currents on long pipelines. This is a space weather topic that often does not receive the attention it warrants in terms of its critical relevance to modern-day life. Pipelines have long used cathodic protection systems to mitigate the corrosion of the pipes that can arise from potential differences between the ground and the pipes. These potential differences occur because telluric currents flow more readily in the pipes than in the ground. While pipeline engineers have long worked hard on this problem, it was the design and installation in the mid-1970s of the Alaska pipeline directly under the auroral zone that drew enhanced attention to this topic.

Lanzerotti, Louis J.

2010-05-01

491

Insecurity of Wireless Networks  

SciTech Connect

Wireless is a powerful core technology enabling our global digital infrastructure. Wi-Fi networks are susceptible to attacks on Wired Equivalency Privacy, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and WPA2. These attack signatures can be profiled into a system that defends against such attacks on the basis of their inherent characteristics. Wi-Fi is the standard protocol for wireless networks used extensively in US critical infrastructures. Since the Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) security protocol was broken, the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) protocol has been considered the secure alternative compatible with hardware developed for WEP. However, in November 2008, researchers developed an attack on WPA, allowing forgery of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packets. Subsequent enhancements have enabled ARP poisoning, cryptosystem denial of service, and man-in-the-middle attacks. Open source systems and methods (OSSM) have long been used to secure networks against such attacks. This article reviews OSSMs and the results of experimental attacks on WPA. These experiments re-created current attacks in a laboratory setting, recording both wired and wireless traffic. The article discusses methods of intrusion detection and prevention in the context of cyber physical protection of critical Internet infrastructure. The basis for this research is a specialized (and undoubtedly incomplete) taxonomy of Wi-Fi attacks and their adaptations to existing countermeasures and protocol revisions. Ultimately, this article aims to provide a clearer picture of how and why wireless protection protocols and encryption must achieve a more scientific basis for detecting and preventing such attacks.

Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Weber, John Mark [Dynetics, Inc.; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Pan, W. David [University of Alabama, Huntsville

2012-01-01

492

uncorrectedproof Wireless Pers Commun  

E-print Network

Protocols in Wireless Networks: Performance Analysis and Optimum Power Allocation Weifeng Su � Ahmed K communications.18 The optimum power allocation depends on the channel link quality. An interesting result19: 36 AuthorProof #12;uncorrectedproof W. Su et al. depend on the direct link between source

Liu, K. J. Ray

493

How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why are some weather elements easier to verify than others? 5) What factors may contribute to the quality of the weather forecast?

Gawor, J.

2012-04-01

494

Linking the Weather Generator with Regional Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the downscaling approaches, which transform the raw outputs from the climate models (GCMs or RCMs) into data with more realistic structure, is based on linking the stochastic weather generator with the climate model output. The present contribution, in which the parametric daily surface weather generator (WG) M&Rfi is linked to the RCM output, follows two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters are derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from weather series observed in 125 Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation series (including probability of wet day occurrence). (2) Presenting a methodology for linking the WG with RCM output. This methodology, which is based on merging information from observations and RCM, may be interpreted as a downscaling procedure, whose product is a gridded WG capable of producing realistic synthetic multivariate weather series for weather-ungauged locations. In this procedure, WG is calibrated with RCM-simulated multi-variate weather series in the first step, and the grid specific WG parameters are then de-biased by spatially interpolated correction factors based on comparison of WG parameters calibrated with gridded RCM weather series and spatially scarcer observations. The quality of the weather series produced by the resultant gridded WG will be assessed in terms of selected climatic characteristics (focusing on characteristics related to variability and extremes of surface temperature and precipitation). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO-Climate (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

Dubrovsky, Martin; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr; Huth, Radan

2013-04-01

495

Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

2012-01-01

496

Salt weathering on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974). However, irrespectively of the climatic environment a liquid brine is a necessity for salt induced fragmentation of rocks. If salt weathering is responsible for the fragmented rocks on the Martian surface it implies a temporary present of liquid H_2O. However, due to the present dry atmosphere on Mars brines can only be present in restricted places without being in equilibrium with the atmosphere (Clark and van Hart 1980). M. C. Malin (1974) JGR Vol 79,26 p 3888-3894 B. C. Clark and D. C. vanHart (1980) ICARUS 45, 370-378

Jagoutz, E.

497

The Relationship Between Fire Energy Release and Weather Conditions in Russian Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active fire remote sensing performed using spaceborne systems, such as MODIS radiometer aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, provides observations of fire locations, as well as an estimate of the amount of energy released by the fire (Fire Radiative Power). Such measures of fire radiative power (FRP) provide information on fireline heat release intensity and on the amount and rate of biomass combustion in the large scale. Biomass combustion rate is strongly related to fuel moisture and therefore to weather conditions. The correlation analysis of fire radiative power and weather fire danger was performed for the territory of Siberia. The measurements were made during stable anticyclons which lead to severe drought that caused extreme fire behavior. Weather conditions were characterized using weather fire danger indices. The measurements of FRP were performed using MODIS instrument and weather fire danger indices were calculated using weather stations data. The analysis was performed for several Siberian regions mostly liable to fires. Weather fire danger was characterized by Russian fire danger indices and using Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Only large fires having the final size of more than 500 ha were focused in this study. For the most weather stations it was rather good agreement between the fire danger indices and the measured fire radiative power for the most of the fires. For the weather stations considered the following weather indices had the best correlation with measured FRP values: Russian PV-1 index and Canadian DMC, DC and BUI indices. A regression model was formulated to characterize the relationship between wildfire radiative power and fire danger indices.However, it was found that the relationships have regional specificity and none of these indices can be considered as universal.

Shvetsov, E.

2012-12-01

498

Space Station fluid resupply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewgraphs on space station fluid resupply are presented. Space Station Freedom is resupplied with supercritical O2 and N2 for the ECLSS and USL on a 180 day resupply cycle. Resupply fluids are stored in the subcarriers on station between resupply cycles and transferred to the users as required. ECLSS contingency fluids (O2 and N2) are supplied and stored on station

Al Winters

1990-01-01

499

Russia's national space weather service in 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RWC Russia (Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow) -forecasting center unites activity of the National Heliogeophysics Service of Russia and the Regional Warning Center of ISES. Nowadays the centre operates and fulfils numerous functions such as space weather monitoring, collecting, working and handing out the data to both Russian and foreign customers, compiling and spreading various kinds of the space weather condition forecasts. The first regular space weather forecast is known to have been issued on June 10, 1974. Since then this kind of activity has been processed and issued permanently 7 days a week. During year 2009 there were more than 17000 various short terms (semi -day, 1,2,3 and five days) forecasts of the geomagnetic fields and ionosphere conditions, magnetic fields, flare activity, radiation hazard in polar zones and the satellites traces. In the end of 2008 the Institute of Applied Geophysics was provided with necessary subsidizing to support the Space Weather Center. The fundamental repairs of the Institute's building have begun and are being done at present. They are to be completed this year. The allocated funds are sufficient to start the technical renovation of the Service, including: provision of the staff with up-to-date computing machinery; up-grading the observation stations equipment; preparing the apparatus and instruments for monitoring the near-earth space by two of our satellites "Meteor" and "Electro" ("Electro" -geostationary satellite). The "Meteor" satellite (subpolar orbit on altitude of 900 km) equipped with complex including: measurements of electron fluxes with energy more than 0.15 MeV, and proton fluxes with energy more than 5 MeV (40 channels) was launched on September 2009. These