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1

Palmer Automatic Weather Station  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Palmer Automatic Weather Station Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : December 06 ... Environmental Action Memorandum (Palmer Automatic Weather Station) To: Files (S.7 - Environment ...

2

Equating minimalist snowmelt and runoff generation models via validation with a wireless weather station network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wireless network of 12 weather stations in the Val Ferret watershed (approximately 21 km2) in the Swiss Alps was used to validate snowmelt models with distributed temperature and radiation data. Using this extensive dataset, an improved yet simplistic degree-day method was compared with a radiation-based method proposed by Hock et al., 1999. The original degree-day approach is a widely used snowmelt model, relating snowmelt directly to air temperature. Numerous hydrological models use this minimalist approach due to its equivalent simplicity. Modifications of this simple method have been proposed in the past which typically incorporate local radiation conditions. However, these modifications generally require more data and/or a finer hydrological grid resolution. Results herein as well as theoretical considerations illustrate that the Hock point or grid-scale method is not always a robust method when combined with spatially explicit rainfall-runoff transformation models. This generalized hydrological application suggests that a simple diurnal cycle of the degree-day melt parameter has the potential to outperform the Hock local radiation-based approach for sub-daily melt simulations. We therefore suggest that the improved degree-day method enables a flexible melt modeling approach, which can be easily adapted into spatially-explicit hydrological models of varying complexity. Furthermore, as this new degree-day method is based upon solely daily temperature extremes, this approach is capable of being adapted for climate change predictions.

Tobin, C. C.; Schaefli, B.; Nicotina, L.; Simoni, S.; Barrenetxea, G.; Parlange, M. B.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

3

Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

4

Future Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students build dioramas of futuristic weather stations to demonstrate their knowledge of weather forecasting. They will work in groups to research modern forecasting equipment and techniques, and then build a weather station that will do something we cannot do at present (such as stopping tornadoes). They will present their dioramas and then discuss the pros and cons of controlling the weather.

5

Backyard Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use their senses to describe what the weather is doing and predict what it might do next. After gaining a basic understanding of weather patterns, students act as state park engineers and design/build "backyard weather stations" to gather data to make actual weather forecasts.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

6

Backyard Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to build your own backyard weather station with complete directions provided by FamilyEducation.com's Web site, Backyard Weather Stations. The site shows exactly what you'll need and how to build the necessary components (e.g., rain gauge and barometer), as well as how to keep records of the data collected. Parents and teachers will enjoy watching the kids "learn the basics of scientific observation and record-keeping while satisfying their natural curiosity about weather."

Randall, Dennis.

7

Weather Station Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson instructs students on how to read station models, the symbols used on weather maps to show data (temperature, wind speed and direction, barometeric pressure, etc.) for a given reporting station. It includes a diagram of a station model, an explanation of the data conveyed by the numbers and symbols, and a table of definitions for the graphic symbols used with models. There is also a set of interactive station models students can use for practice at interpretation, and an interactive exercise in which students use real-time weather data to interpret models.

8

WeatherHawk Weather Station Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a WeatherHawk weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

9

Micro Weather Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved in situ meteorological measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are needed for studies of weather and climate, both as a primary data source and as validation for remote sensing instruments. Following the initial development and successful flight validation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) hygrometer, the micro weather station program was directed toward the development of an integrated instrument, capable of accurate, in situ profiling of the troposphere, and small enough to fly on a radiosonde balloon for direct comparison with standard radiosondes. On April 23, 1998, working with Frank Schmidlin and Bob Olson of Wallops Island Flight Facility, we flew our instrument in a dual payload experiment, for validation and direct comparison with a Vaisala radiosonde. During that flight, the SAW dewpoint hygrometer measured frostpoint down to -76T at 44,000 feet. Using a laptop computer in radio contact with the balloon, we monitored data in real time, issued the cutdown command, and recovered the payload less than an hour after landing in White Sands Missile Range, 50 miles from the launch site in Hatch, New Mexico. Future flights will extend the intercomparison, and attempt to obtain in situ meteorological profiles from the surface through the tropopause. The SAW hygrometer was successfully deployed on the NASA DC8 as part of NASA's Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) during August and September, 1998. This field campaign was devoted to the study of hurricane tracking and intensification using NASA-funded aircraft. In situ humidity data from the SAW hygrometer are currently being analyzed and compared with data from other instruments on the DC8 and ER2 aircraft. Additional information is contained in the original.

Hoenk, Michael E.

1999-01-01

10

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three-part activity shows learners how to build three meteorology tools: a wind vane, a rain gauge, and a barometer. Then, they can use their tools to build their own weather station to record data about the weather, study the data to detect patterns, and use the patterns to predict the weather. This lesson also includes information about the difference between weather and climate.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

11

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this OLogy activity, kids learn about climate and atmospheric conditions by making their own weather station. The activity begins with an overview that explains that weather happens in the atmosphere, where conditions are always changing. Students are given step-by-step, illustrated directions to make a wind vane, a rain gauge and a barometer. The activity includes a printable Weather Chart and wind vane cutouts.

12

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. Older students can independently follow instructions on how to build five different instruments (barometer, hygrometer, rain gauge, weather vane, and compass). Younger students will need adult supervision with hammer and nails.

13

Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

14

Micro Weather Stations for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A global network of weather stations will be needed to characterize the near-surface environment on Mars. Here, we review the scientific and measurement objectives of this network. We also show how these objectives can be met within the cost-constrained Mars Surveyor Program by augmenting the Mars Pathfinder-derived landers with large numbers of very small (less than 5 liter), low-mass (less than 5 kg), low-power, low-cost Mini-meteorological stations. Each station would include instruments for measuring atmospheric. pressures, temperatures, wind velocities, humidity, and airborne dust abundance. They would also include a data handling, telemetry, power, atmospheric entry, and deployment systems in a rugged package capable of direct entry and a high-impact landing. In this paper, we describe these systems and summarize the data-taking strategies and data volumes needed to achieve the surface meteorology objectives for Mars.

Crisp, David; Kaiser, William J.; VanZandt, Thomas R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Tillman, James E.

1995-01-01

15

Build Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 9-12. This lesson focuses on weather instruments, and has students build a rain gauge, barometer, wind vane, anemometer, and a psychrometer. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

16

78 FR 6344 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components...complaint entitled Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components...importation of certain wireless communications base stations and...

2013-01-30

17

RainWise Weather Station Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a Rainwise weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

18

Application of geostatistics to evaluate partial weather station networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic data are an essential input for the determination of crop water requirements. The density and location of weather stations are the important design variables for obtaining the required degree of accuracy of weather data. The planning of weather station networks should include economic considerations, and a mixture of full and partial weather stations could be a cost-effective alternative. A

Muhammad Ashraf; Jim C. Loftis; K. G. Hubbard

1997-01-01

19

Research on the Web: Antarctic Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help students see the link between wind speeds and geographical features. Students begin by gathering wind-speed measurements for 10 weather stations in Antarctica, converting the data, as needed, to allow comparisons. Next, they record wind data for five consecutive days and calculate the average wind speed for each station. They then examine elevation data for the stations and end by developing an hypothesis for the different patterns they have observed. In Antarctica, scientists often have trouble measuring katabatic winds, which are so strong they can knock down the instruments. Students discover for themselves why Antarctica is the windiest place on Earth.

20

Standardisation of Temperature Observed by Automatic Weather Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily mean, maximum and minimum surface airtemperature data were gathered from a network ofautomatic weather stations (AWS) within the Moor HouseNational Nature Reserve in northern England. Five AWSwere installed next to the official EnvironmentalChange Network weather station at Moor House. Datawere compared graphically and correction constantswere calculated to adjust data from each AWS to thestandard of the official station by

A. Joyce; J. Adamson; B. Huntley; T. Parr; R. Baxter

2001-01-01

21

78 FR 13895 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-871] Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components...importation of certain wireless communications base stations and components...importation of certain wireless communications base stations and...

2013-03-01

22

Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

23

Analysis of station locations in a road weather information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many northern countries use a road weather information system (RWIS) with a network of stations to monitor winter road conditions. Present station locations were selected after field investigations of micro- and local-climate conditions (e.g. using thermal mapping). This paper describes an approach to optimally locate and equip the stations in order to best identify conditions hazardous to road transport. This

M. Eriksson; J. Norrman

2001-01-01

24

A Computerized Weather Station for the Apple IIe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predicting weather conditions is a topic of interest for students who want to make plans for outside activities. This paper discusses the development of an inexpensive computer-interfaced classroom weather station using an Apple IIe computer that provides the viewer with up to the minute digital readings of inside and outside temperature,…

Lorson, Mark V.

25

Development and Evaluation of a City-Wide Wireless Weather Sensor Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project analyzed the effectiveness of a city-wide wireless weather sensor network, the Taipei Weather Science Learning Network (TWIN), in facilitating elementary and junior high students' study of weather science. The network, composed of sixty school-based weather sensor nodes and a centralized weather data archive server, provides students…

Chang, Ben; Wang, Hsue-Yie; Peng, Tian-Yin; Hsu, Ying-Shao

2010-01-01

26

Use of radar and automatic weather stations in avalanche forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following sources of information have been investigated and their data evaluated in order to issue avalanche warnings in case of catastrophic situations such as in February 1984 in the Swiss Alps: -Daily measurement of snow depth -Data of automatic weather stations. They transmit every 10 minutes precipitation, wind, temperature etc. -Images of 2 radars. Every 10 minutes the user

G. KAPPENBERGER; J. JOSS

27

Antarctic meteorology: a study with automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis chiefly addresses a) the use of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) in determining the near-surface climate and heat budget of Antarctica and, specifically, Dronning Maud Land (DML), and b) the determination of source regions of Antarctic moisture with the aid of a trajectory model and an atmospheric model. The primary motivation behind this interest is the drilling of two

C. Reijmer

2001-01-01

28

Opportunistic Resource Scheduling for a Wireless Network with Relay Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study an opportunistic scheduling scheme for the TDMA wireless network with relay stations. We model the time-varying channel condition of a wireless link as a stochastic process. Based on this model, we formulate an optimization problem for the opportunistic scheduling scheme that maximizes the expected system throughput while satisfying the QoS constraint of each user. In the opportunistic scheduling scheme for the system without relay stations, each user has only one communication path between the base station and itself, and thus only user selection is considered. However, in our opportunistic scheduling scheme for the system with relay stations, since there may exist multiple paths between the base station and a user, not only user selection but also path selection for the scheduled user is considered. In addition, we also propose an opportunistic time-sharing method for time-slot sharing between base station and relay stations. With the opportunistic time-sharing method, our opportunistic scheduling provides opportunistic resource sharing in three places in the system: user selection in a time-slot, path selection for the selected user, and time-slot sharing between base station and relay stations. Simulation results show that as the number of places that opportunistic resource sharing is applied to increases, the performance improvement also increases.

Kwon, Jeong-Ahn; Lee, Jang-Won

29

Wireless Sensor Networks and Fusion of Contextual Information for Weather Outlier Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather stations are often expensive hence it may be difficult to obtain data with a high spatial coverage. A low cost alternative is wireless sensor network (WSN), which can be deployed as weather stations and address the aforementioned shortcoming. Due to imperfect sensors in WSNs context, provided raw data may be drawn in from of a low quality and reliability level, expectedly that is an emergence of applying outlier detection methods. Outliers may include errors or potentially useful information called events. In this research, forecast values as contextual information are utilized for weather outlier detection. In this paper, outliers are identified by comparing the patterns of WSN and forecasts. With that approach, temporal outliers are detected with respect to slopes of the WSNs and forecasts in the presence of pre-defined tolerance. The experimental results from the real data-set validate the applicability of using contextual information in the context of WSNs for outlier detection in terms of accuracy and energy efficiency.

Amidi, A.; Hamm, N. A. S.; Meratnia, N.

2013-09-01

30

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

31

47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations...Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations...need a license to operate this wireless microphone system. Nevertheless, operating...

2010-10-01

32

Wireless Remote Weather Monitoring System Based on MEMS Technologies  

PubMed Central

This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC). Experimental results show that the resistance of the micro temperature sensor increases linearly with input temperature, with an average TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance) value of 8.2 × 10?4 (°C?1). The resistance of the pressure sensor also increases linearly with air pressure, with an average sensitivity value of 3.5 × 10?2 (?/kPa). The sensitivity to humidity increases with ambient temperature due to the effect of temperature on the dielectric constant, which was determined to be 16.9, 21.4, 27.0, and 38.2 (pF/%RH) at 27 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The velocity of airflow is obtained by summing the variations in resistor response as airflow passed over the sensors providing sensitivity of 4.2 × 10?2, 9.2 × 10?2, 9.7 × 10?2 (?/ms?1) with power consumption by the heating resistor of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 W, respectively. The passage of air across the surface of the flow sensors prompts variations in temperature among each of the sensing resistors. Evaluating these variations in resistance caused by the temperature change enables the measurement of wind direction.

Ma, Rong-Hua; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chia-Yen

2011-01-01

33

Weather satellite picture receiving stations, APT digital scan converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The automatic picture transmission digital scan converter is used at ground stations to convert signals received from scanning radiometers to data compatible with ground equipment designed to receive signals from vidicons aboard operational meteorological satellites. Information necessary to understand the circuit theory, functional operation, general construction and calibration of the converter is provided. Brief and detailed descriptions of each of the individual circuits are included, accompanied by a schematic diagram contained at the end of each circuit description. Listings of integral parts and testing equipment required as well as an overall wiring diagram are included. This unit will enable the user to readily accept and process weather photographs from the operational meteorological satellites.

Vermillion, C. H.; Kamowski, J. C.

1975-01-01

34

Representativeness of arctic weather station data for the computation of snowmelt in a small area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determines how representative the snowmelt values computed using arctic weather station data are of the melt in its surrounding area. Simultaneous measurements of meteorological variables were made at several sites to permit comparisons of their calculated snowmelt with the weather station at Resolute, Northwest Territories, Canada. Like most other stations, the Resolute site is located near the coast,

Ming-Ko Woo; Daqing Yang; Kathy L. Young

1999-01-01

35

Modelling Glacier Surface Temperature Using Weather Station Data and Synoptic Weather Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier temperature can be directly measured at selected locations, but extrapolation is often required as data at high elevations are sparse and glacier-wide temperatures are needed for distributed melt models. A new model to extrapolate summer temperatures (May - August) is developed from data collected at Haig Glacier to address this need. Air temperatures are computed using the new model at Haig and Kwadacha Glaciers. The model accounts for solar radiation, albedo, synoptic weather systems, valley walls and elevation. It is driven by readily available weather station and synoptic data. While developing the model, an albedo model is created, the most effective way to include solar radiation is determined and the heating effects of valley walls are analyzed. The new model does not improve upon the constant lapse rate model. However, results suggest that month-specific multivariate models that have a greater emphasis on elevation may improve model performance.

Schaffer, Nicole

36

47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators...wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...or offers for sale or lease, low power auxiliary...

2013-10-01

37

A NOVEL HUMIDITY SENSOR DESIGNED FOR ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS IN WEATHER STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for accurate surface weather measurements has become increasingly important. The quality of the measurements is to a large extent go verned by how well the instruments work in the periods between the calibrations. Automated weather stations can be situated in remote areas or in other hard to reach locations. Some areas have larg e weather measurement networks, each

Simo Ikonen; Lars Stormbom; Timo Ranta-aho

38

Undergraduate Earth System Science Education: Project-Based Learning, Land-Atmosphere Interaction, and a Newly Established Student Weather Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate students conducted a semester-long research project as part of a special topics course that launched the Austin College Weather Station in spring 2001. The weather station is located on restored prairie roughly 100 km north of Dallas, Texas. In addition to standard meteorological observations, the Austin College Weather Station measures surface quantities such as soil moisture, soil temperature, solar

D. Baker

2004-01-01

39

Collocated Flight Service Station/Air Route Traffic Control Center Aviation Weather Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive study and analysis was performed to determine optimum weather and aeronautical data collection, forecasting, and dissemination methodologies for a collocated Flight Service Station and Air Route Traffic Control Center environment. Special ...

L. J. Wuebker E. Spring E. Mandel J. Langston F. Blake

1976-01-01

40

Method of scanning neighbor base station in a broadband wireless access system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a broadband wireless access system, and more particularly, to a method for a mobile station to efficiently scan a neighbor base station and apparatus therefor. According to one embodiment of the present invention, in a broadband wireless access system, a method of performing a scan, which is performed by a mobile station to scan a neighbor base station, includes the steps of receiving a scan response (AAI_SCN-RSP) message including a first interval information indicating an interval for the mobile station to receive a preamble of the neighbor base station from a serving base station and receiving the preamble from the neighbor base station in the first interval. Preferably, the first interval is set by a subframe unit.

2014-01-21

41

Building and Operating Weather Satellite Ground Stations for High School Science. Teachers Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) images are real-time weather pictures transmitted from satellites on a radio frequency in a video format. Amateur radio enthusiasts and electronic experimenters have for a number of years designed, built, and operated direct readout stations capable of receiving APT photographs. The equipment to receive weather

Summers, R. Joe; Gotwald, Timothy

42

Wind speed distribution changes with height at selected weather stations. [USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten-year records of hourly wind speed observations at 15 selected weather stations have been smoothed to correct for observer bias. Records were adjusted to a constant, final anemometer height over level airfield terrain at nine stations where the anemometer was moved during the period of record. The anemometer adjustment scheme is described for each location, since the anemometer exposure change

Reed

1978-01-01

43

HIGH-ELEVATION WEATHER STATIONS ON GLACIERS IN THE TROPICS AND THE HIGH ARCTIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our climate research employing automatic weather stations (AWS) focuses on high-elevation glaciers at low latitudes, and on an ice cap at 81°N. Each AWS is designed to operate autonomously and continuously, for a multiyear period. The first of these was deployed in 1996, and two continue to operate in 2004. Design considerations, instrumentation and the performance of each station are

DOUGLAS R. HARDY; CARSTEN BRAUN; MATHIAS VUILLE

44

Evidence of Subarctic Water Mass Intrusions at Ocean Weather Station November  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monthly horizontal thermal advection in the upper 250 m of the water column at ocean weather station (OWS) November was calculated by means of a divergent heat budget equation. This station is located on the southern boundary of the transition zone separating the subarctic and subtropic water masses. Bathythermograph data from 1962 to 1970 indicate that thermal advection occurs

R. H. Bourke; J. F. Pfeiffer

1978-01-01

45

Severe Weather Tool using 1500 UTC Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Soundings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

Bauman, William H., III

2013-01-01

46

Evaluation of pan evaporation modeling with two different neural networks and weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates neural networks models for estimating daily pan evaporation for inland and coastal stations in Republic of Korea. A multilayer perceptron neural networks model (MLP-NNM) and a cascade correlation neural networks model (CCNNM) are developed for local implementation. Five-input models (MLP 5 and CCNNM 5) are generally found to be the best for local implementation. The optimal neural networks models, including MLP 4, MLP 5, CCNNM 4, and CCNNM 5, perform well for homogeneous (cross-stations 1 and 2) and nonhomogeneous (cross-stations 3 and 4) weather stations. Statistical results of CCNNM are better than those of MLP-NNM during the test period for homogeneous and nonhomogeneous weather stations except for MLP 4 being better in BUS-DAE and POH-DAE, and MLP 5 being better in POH-DAE. Applying the conventional models for the test period, it is found that neural networks models perform better than the conventional models for local, homogeneous, and nonhomogeneous weather stations.

Kim, Sungwon; Singh, Vijay P.; Seo, Youngmin

2013-08-01

47

Bringing More Meaning to Weather Predicting: The Weather Station and Reading the Sky Help Put it All Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter provides teachers with instructions to install a school weather station, and to build simple instruments to monitor weather conditions. Materials need to create a homemade weathervane include a two-liter soft drink bottle, a shallow metal pie pan, a plastic drinking straw, and a compass. Building an anemometer requires plastic cups, soda straws, a pencil with an unused new eraser on the end, a paper punch, and a thumbtack. Thermometers and a rain gauge must be purchased. A data table is included for estimating windspeed using the anemometer. The chapter includes research ideas that allow students to validate their instruments and test the predictive capability of resources such as the Farmer's Almanac. This resource is chapter 15 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The resource includes background information, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 15 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

48

Assessment of wind energy potential locations in Oman using data from existing weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes five years hourly wind data from twenty-nine weather stations to identify the potential location for wind energy applications in Oman. Different criteria including theoretical wind power output, vertical profile, turbulence and peak demand fitness were considered to identify the potential locations. Air density and roughness length, which play an important role in the calculation of the wind

Sultan AL-Yahyai; Yassine Charabi; Adel Gastli; Saleh Al-Alawi

2010-01-01

49

Low-Frequency Pycnocline Depth Variability at Ocean Weather Station P in the Northeast Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-frequency variability of the depth of the main pycnocline at Ocean Weather Station P and over the northeast Pacific is examined in terms of the one-dimensional response to local Ekman pumping according to the Hasselmann stochastic climate model. The model is forced with monthly wind stress curl anomalies derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis for the period

Patrick F. Cummins; Gary S. E. Lagerloef

2002-01-01

50

Energy balance of a glacier surface: Analysis of automatic weather station data from the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and analyze a complete 1-yr data set from an automatic weather station (AWS) located on the snout of the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. The AWS stands freely on the glacier surface and measures pressure, windspeed, wind direction, air temperature and humidity, incoming and reflected solar radiation, incoming and outgoing longwave radiation, snow temperature, and change in surface height (giving melt

J. Oerlemans; E. J. Klok

2002-01-01

51

Positioning of Base Stations in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have attracted much attention in recent years due to their potential use in many applications such as border protection and combat field surveillance. Given the criticality of such applications, maintaining a dependable operation of the network is a fundamental objective. However, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes and the ad hoc formation of the network, often

Kemal Akkaya; Mohamed Younis; Waleed Youssef

2007-01-01

52

Optimal Base-Station Locations in Two-Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider generic two-tiered Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consisting of sensor clusters deployed around strategic locations, and base-stations (BSs) whose locations are relatively flexible. Within a sensor cluster, there are many small sensor nodes (SNs) that capture, encode, and transmit relevant information from a designated area, and there is at least one application node (AN) that receives raw data from

Jianping Pan; Lin Cai; Yiwei Thomas Hou; Yi Shi; Sherman X. Shen

2005-01-01

53

Recent Wireless Power Transmission technologies in Japan for space solar power station\\/satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless power transmission technology via microwave (microwave power transmission ; MPT) was advanced from 1960's and many researchers which had a dream to realize the space solar power satellite\\/station (SPS). In Japan, many kinds of the SPS were proposed and designed in recent ten years. We will show the newest Japanese SPS and its characteristics. We also show some results

Naoki Shinohara; Shigeo Kawasaki

2009-01-01

54

A relational database for automatic weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archiving measuring data requires accessibility, security and simplicity. When many users are working with the same data sets, these requirements may be violated due to separation of data and meta data, redundancy (same or different versions of data in several locations) and/or different file formats of raw data files. Such a suboptimal data archiving system might not be comprehensible by a new and even an old user. When deploying a relational database, many of the above problems can be addressed: (1) Data, meta data and documentation of data format are stored in a central place, (2) all users are working with the same data set, which is the one with the highest quality level, (3) data format, units and date conventions, and thus program code for importing is identical for all data, (4) linkage of all types of information makes it easy for old and new users to manipulate and interpret data. By using a common SQL database the development effort can be kept at a low level. For maximum usability a simple database design with three tables was created: (a) station site details and meta data, (b) measuring data and quality flags, (c) attached files (site photos, logger programs, etc.). Web tools are provided for maintaining and looking up meta data. For inserting, selecting and updating data values example Matlab code is provided, which can be extended by users or ported to other languages.

Großhauser, Martin

2010-05-01

55

Extracting fair-weather data from atmospheric electric-field observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Syowa Station (69.0°S, 39.6°E), located on East Ongul Island near the continent of Antarctica, atmospheric electric-field observations started in 1968 and had been carried out intermittently. An improved electric-field mill at Syowa Station had and obtained better-quality atmospheric electric-field data from February 2005 to January 2006. After a 1-year interruption, the observations resumed in January 2007. The atmospheric electric-field data from Syowa Station are often contaminated due to local disturbances caused by near-ground meteorological phenomena. We examined correlations between the atmospheric electric field and near-ground weather from February 2005 to January 2006 and from February 2007 to January 2008, and proposed a criterion to extract “fair-weather” electric-field data based on wind speed and cloud coverage data. The diurnal variation of fair-weather data in January followed the shape of the so-called Carnegie curve. Fair-weather data obtained during a substorm showed some correspondence between the atmospheric electric field and variations in the geomagnetic field. This newly developed extraction method may enable the use of atmospheric electric-field data for studying the solar terrestrial environment.

Minamoto, Yasuhiro; Kadokura, Akira

2011-09-01

56

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

Stearns, Ms.

2008-10-25

57

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

Williams, Ms.

2005-10-25

58

Meteorological data for water years 1988-94 from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report describes meteorological data collected from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from as early as April 1987 through September 1994. The measurements include solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind vector magnitude, wind direction, wind vector direction, barometric pressure, and precipitation. Measurements were made very 10 seconds and averaged every 15 minutes. The data were collected as part of the geologic and hydrologic site-characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. Precipitation at the site ranged from a low of 12 millimeters total for water year 1989 to a high of 312 millimeters total for water year 1993. Air temperature ranged from a low of 15.1 degrees Celsius in December 1990 (water year 1991) to a high of 41.9 degrees Celsius in July 1989 (water year 1989). The weather station network also provides information on the spatial variability of precipitation and temperature.

Flint, A.L.; Davies, W.J.

1997-11-01

59

Abrupt Seasonal Changes of Surface Climate Observed in Northern Mongolia by an Automatic Weather Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous observations of surface meteorological elements have been carried out since September 30, 1993, to study the roles of land surface processes in seasonal climate variation. The observations were taken by the AANDERA Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at Baruunkharaa (48°55?N, 106°4?E) in northern Mongolia. This location is the center of the source region of the Siberian high, which is a

Shin Miyazaki; Tetsuzo Yasunari; T A

1999-01-01

60

Elevational species shifts in a warmer climate are overestimated when based on weather station data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong topographic variation interacting with low stature alpine vegetation creates a multitude of micro-habitats poorly represented\\u000a by common 2 m above the ground meteorological measurements (weather station data). However, the extent to which the actual\\u000a habitat temperatures in alpine landscapes deviate from meteorological data at different spatial scales has rarely been quantified.\\u000a In this study, we assessed thermal surface and soil

Daniel Scherrer; Samuel Schmid; Christian Körner

2011-01-01

61

Comparison between weather station data in south-eastern Italy and CRU precipitation datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly precipitation data in south-eastern Italy from 1920 to 2005 have been extensively analyzed. Data were collected in almost 200 weather stations located 10-20km apart from each other and almost uniformly distributed in Puglia and Basilicata regions. Apart from few years around world war II, time series are mostly complete and allow a reliable reconstruction of climate variability in the

D. Miglietta

2009-01-01

62

Using Temperature and Precipitation at an Alpine Weather Station (Denali, AK) To Represent Regional Climate Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In anticipation of the development of a 1000-year ice core climate proxy from Denali National Park, Alaska Range, here we evaluate the relationships between weather recorded at a high-elevation (2375 m) automated weather station in Denali National Park (DNP) and National Weather Service station data from throughout Alaska. Our findings indicate that monthly average temperature anomalies from DNP are strongly correlated with temperature anomalies across mainland Alaska (r ? 0.5, p < 0.0007), with decreasing correlations in the southeast panhandle (0.25 ? r ? 0.5, p < 0.065) and especially for stations in the Bering Sea. We used an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to represent average Alaska monthly temperature anomaly since 1950. Initial results indicate that EOF 1, which is highly correlated with station data from central Alaska (r ? 0.6, p < 0.0001), has a significant positive correlation with the Pacific North America pattern (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001) and a weak negative correlation with the Southern Oscillation Index (r = -0.21, p < 0.0001). Additional analyses will further investigate the role of regional climate patterns in central Alaskan weather and climate. Analyses of precipitation relationships are still preliminary, but initial results indicate that, on a monthly scale, local precipitation changes can be interpreted on a regional basis. Analyses of temperature and precipitation seasonality have yet to be completed, but we will investigate the relationships between summertime DNP precipitation (the dominant precipitation season) and wintertime climate patterns. These results will be integrated with remote sensing data to quantify the response of the nearby Ruth and Kahiltna Glaciers to Alaskan climate variability.

Shapiro, H.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Campbell, S. W.

2012-12-01

63

Wind Climate Analyses for National Weather Service Stations in the Southeast  

SciTech Connect

Wind speed and direction data have been collected by National Weather Service (NWS) Stations in the U.S. for a number of years and presented in various forms to help depict the climate for different regions. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is particularly interested in the Southeast since mesoscale models using NWS wind observations are run on a daily basis for emergency response and other operational purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Historically, wind roses have been a convenient method to depict the predominant wind speeds and directions at measurement sites. Some typical applications of wind rose data are for climate and risk assessment; air pollution exposure and dose calculations; siting industrial plants, wind turbine generators, businesses, and homes; city planning; and air stagnation and high ozone concentration studies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the overall relationships of wind patterns for NWS stations in the Southeast. Since organized collection of wind data records in the NWS developed rapidly in conjunction with the expansion of commercial aviation after World War II there are now about 50 years of wind speed and direction data available for a large number of NWS stations in this area. In this study we used wind roses for relatively short time scales to show the progression of winds diurnally and monthly to span a typical year. The date used here consist of wind records from 13 National Weather Service Stations in the Southeastern U.S. for approximately 50-year periods.

Weber, A.H.

2003-02-10

64

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

65

Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

2013-12-01

66

Modelling Glacier Surface Temperature Using Weather Station Data and Historical Climate Reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of glacier response to climate change and snow/ice melt require knowledge of air temperatures at the glacier surface. This can be directly measured at selected locations, but distributed models of glacier melt require temperature information over an entire surface. Furthermore, in many practical applications, temperature must be estimated for locations where no data is available. A new and more accurate model to extrapolate temperature has been developed at the Haig Glacier in Alberta to meet this need. Air temperature measurements collected at an array of sites since 2001, including an expanded station network in the summer of 2008 to examine the effects of proximity to a south-facing valley wall, are used to create the model. Air temperatures 1.5 m above the surface of the Haig Glacier are then computed using the new model from data collected at a weather station located at the foot of the glacier. Temperature and precipitation data collected from this station is supplemented with digital elevation models and synoptic reanalysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction. The new temperature model accounts for differences in the effect of elevation, incoming solar radiation, albedo, regional weather systems, and valley walls on temperature between the weather station and a point on the glacier surface. This model yields hourly air temperature values across the glacier to a 25 m horizontal resolution. The new method of temperature extrapolation shows a considerable improvement over the constant lapse rate model in terms of accuracy and increased spatial variability. This model can be applied to simulations of summer melt and runoff from the Haig Glacier and from neighbouring ice masses, providing a tool for estimating catchment-scale melt water discharge and the sensitivity of glacier runoff to climate warming.

Schaffer, N.; Marshall, S. J.

2009-05-01

67

Modelling Glacier Surface Temperature Using Weather Station Data and Historical Climate Reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of glacier response to climate change and snow/ice melt require knowledge of air temperatures at the glacier surface. This can be directly measured at selected locations, but distributed models of glacier melt require temperature information over an entire surface. Furthermore, in many practical applications, temperature must be estimated for locations where no data is available. A new and more accurate model to extrapolate temperature has been developed at the Haig Glacier in Alberta to meet this need. Air temperature measurements collected at an array of sites since 2001, including an expanded station network in the summer of 2008 to examine the effects of proximity to a south-facing valley wall, are used to create the model. Air temperatures 1.5 m above the surface of the Haig Glacier are then computed using the new model from data collected at a weather station located at the foot of the glacier. Temperature and precipitation data collected from this station is supplemented with digital elevation models and synoptic reanalysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction. The new temperature model accounts for differences in the effect of elevation, incoming solar radiation, albedo, regional weather systems, and valley walls on temperature between the weather station and a point on the glacier surface. This model yields hourly air temperature values across the glacier to a 25 m horizontal resolution. The new method of temperature extrapolation shows a considerable improvement over the constant lapse rate model in terms of accuracy and increased spatial variability. This model can be applied to simulations of summer melt and runoff from the Haig Glacier and from neighbouring ice masses, providing a tool for estimating catchment-scale melt water discharge and the sensitivity of glacier runoff to climate warming.

Schaffer, N.; Marshall, S. J.

2009-12-01

68

Relationship Between Land Cover Ratio and Urban Heat Island from Remote Sensing and Automatic Weather Stations Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban heat island (UHI) effect has a close relation to land covers type. This paper investigates the relationship between\\u000a land cover ratio and UHI in Guangzhou, south of China using remote sensing and automatic weather stations data. The temperature\\u000a data were obtained by Automatic weather stations (AWS) of Guangzhou in October, 2004, at the same time with the CBERS remote

Xingping Wen; Xiaofeng Yang; Guangdao Hu

69

Micro weather stations for in situ measurements in the Martian planetary boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking Lander meteorology measurements show that the Martian planetary boundary layer (PBL) has large diurnal and seasonal variations in pressure, wind velocity, relative humidity, and airborne dust loading. An even larger range of conditions was inferred from remote sensing observations acquired by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters. Numerical models indicate that these changes may be accompanied by dramatic vertical and horizontal wind shears (100 m/s/km) and rapid changes in the static stability. In-situ measurements from a relatively small number surface stations could yield global constraints on the Martian climate and atmospheric general circulation by providing ground truth for remote sensing instruments on orbiters. A more complete understanding of the meteorology of the PBL is an essential precursor to manned missions to Mars because this will be their working environment. In-situ measurements are needed for these studies because the spatial and temporal scales that characterize the important meteorological processes near the surface cannot be resolved from orbit. The Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Program will provide the first opportunity to deploy a network of surface weather stations for a comprehensive investigation of the Martian PBL. The feasibility and utility of a network of micro-weather stations for making in-situ meteorological measurements in the Martian PBL are assessed.

Crisp, D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Kenny, T. W.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Tillman, J. E.

1992-01-01

70

Weather and Dispersion Modeling of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface deposition of radioactive material from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was investigated for 11 March to 17 March 2011. A coupled weather and dispersion modeling system was developed and simulations of the accident performed using two independent source terms that differed in emission rate and height and in the total amount of radioactive material released. Observations in Japan during the first week of the accident revealed a natural grouping between periods of dry (12-14 March) and wet (15-17 March) weather. The distinct weather regimes served as convenient validation periods for the model predictions. Results show significant differences in the distribution of cumulative surface deposition of 137Cs due to wet and dry removal processes. A comparison of 137Cs deposition predicted by the model with aircraft observations of surface-deposited gamma radiation showed reasonable agreement in surface contamination patterns during the dry phase of the accident for both source terms. It is suggested that this agreement is because of the weather model's ability to simulate the extent and timing of onshore flow associated with a sea breeze circulation that developed around the time of the first reactor explosion. During the wet phase of the accident the pattern is not as well predicted. It is suggested that this discrepancy is because of differences between model predicted and observed precipitation distributions.

Dunn, Thomas; Businger, Steven

2014-05-01

71

STATISTICAL CORRELATIONS OF SURFACE WIND DATA: A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE STATION AND A NEARBY AEROMETRIC MONITORING NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a statistical analysis of wind data collected at a network of stations in the Southeast Ohio River Valley. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which wind measurements made by the National Weather Service (NWS) station at the Tri-State Airp...

72

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATION IN THE PERPETUAL FROST CLIMATE OF EAST ANTARCTICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the year 2006-07, India Meteorological Department (IMD) expanded and upgraded its network of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) by induction of 125 satellite linked AWS. A central receiving earth station in complete redundancy mode is also established at INSAT AWS Laboratory, IMD, Pune for reception of data through KALPANA1 (74 °E) satellite in near real time. IMD has planned to

Manish Ranalkar; B. Amudha; N. T. Niyas; R. D. Vashistha

73

Distributed Clustering and Closest-Match Motion Planning Algorithms for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks with Movable Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper algorithms for modelling dy- namic reconfiguration of ad-hoc wireless networks with movable base stations in presence of obstacles are pro- posed. This problem is considerably harder than the one treated in (1) where base stations were organized in a starred network and no obstacles were present. In these models nodes communicate through a clusterehead gateway switching routing

Giuseppe Pigola; Alfredo Pulvirenti; Viale A. Dori

74

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides these two Websites on weather. The first site serves as a major hub for information related to weather, with links to primary data sources, forecasts, maps, images (such as the latest satellite imagery for North America), and a wealth of other data, including space weather. Researchers will also find links to national weather research centers and other related agencies.

75

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

Jennie, Miss

2009-10-22

76

WiFi Weather Station and Snow Depth Monitoring System for Snow Research at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PI, Dr. Rob Hellstrom, has been studying snow cover at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (HFR) station over the past three years (Hellstrom, 2008). This research has applied leading-edge sensor technology to measure the impact of various types of forest cover on winter and spring season snow accumulation and the newly installed wireless network at HFR provides

Robert Hellström

2010-01-01

77

Wireless Video System for Extra Vehicular Activity in the International Space Station and Space Shuttle Orbiter Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wireless Video System (WVS) provides real-time video coverage of astronaut extra vehicular activities during International Space Station (ISS) assembly. The ISS wireless environment is unique due to the nature of the ISS structure and multiple RF interference sources. This paper describes how the system was developed to combat multipath, blockage, and interference using an automatic antenna switching system. Critical to system performance is the selection of receiver antenna installation locations determined using Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) techniques.

Loh, Yin C.; Boster, John; Hwu, Shian; Watson, John C.; deSilva, Kanishka; Piatek, Irene (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

78

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will learn how to describe and observe changes in weather patterns by completing the following activities. The students will record and report changes in weather on their data sheet. The Process: Read the information on How Air Pressure Affects You. In this article you will see the term barometer. Write its definition. Now look over Weather Facts. Now go to Investigate Climate Conditions and use the weather maker to observe the effects of certain changes. Answer the questions: How much of a change in temperature is needed to make it ...

Lauren, Ms.

2010-11-17

79

Workgroup Report: Base Stations and Wireless Networks--Radiofrequency (RF) Exposures and Health Consequences  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves—wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephonic systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephony and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health.

Valberg, Peter A.; van Deventer, T. Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H.

2007-01-01

80

Spatial interpolation of atmospheric pressure observations from automatic weather stations in complex alpine terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARPA Lombardia is the environmental protection agency for the administrative region Lombardia and manages a high resolution meteorological network composed by hundreds of automatic weather stations. Among these, about one hundred are equipped with barometers. The historical barometric dataset is however affected by many large systematic errors. Thus, an effort is done to recover information from such observations. A bias estimation technique is applied, based on a statistical comparison with the pressure vertical profiles measured by the Milan Linate soundings. Furthermore, pressure observations undergo several quality checks to ensure coherence in the data entering the analysis procedure. The interpolation method is a model-independent implementation of Optimal Interpolation where background information is obtained by data detrending. A spatial consistency test based on the interpolation algorithm is performed to discard observations affected by occasional gross errors. The outputs of all quality tests are integrated in the ARPA Lombardia data quality control system.

Lussana, C.; Uboldi, F.; Salvati, M. R.; Ranci, M.

2010-09-01

81

Gallium Nitride -based Microwave Power Varactors for Wireless Base Station Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of wireless communication systems, the demand for providing tunability in the wireless communication circuits becomes more and more intense. Among the technologies, semiconductor varactor is the critical component that is capable of implementing tunable and adaptive characteristics, particularly for the frond-end components of the wireless communication systems. For base station applications, high voltage handling capability, typically of 100 V or greater, high quality factor (Q), typically of above 100 at operation frequency, and high linearity, OIP3 > 65 dBm, are required. This work will mainly discuss in detail the design, fabrication and characterization to achieve the high-voltage high-Q and high-linearity microwave power varactors for wireless base station applications. Some preliminary varactor applications in the test tunable circuits will be demonstrated too. In this dissertation, we first introduce the physics of the semiconductor varactors and the motivation for choosing GaN as the candidate material for this microwave power varactor. Then we elucidate the critical design considerations for achieving high breakdown voltage, high quality factor and high linearity. The novel Schottky barrier engineered design using a thin InGaN surface layer on top of GaN to enhance the breakdown voltage of GaN-based Schottky diodes is therefore introduced. We then show the theoretical and experimental studies on the suppression mechanisms for electron tunneling in the InGaN/GaN Schottky barriers. The detailed material characterization for the InGaN/GaN material system and its application for the enhancement-mode HEMTs are also presented. Next, we discuss the initial device fabrication procedure and the improving methods based on the initial DC and RF measurement results. Thereafter, we report the detailed characterizations of the fabricated devices including the high-voltage I-V and C-V, S-parameters for 1-port and 2-port devices, linearity and application in the tunable resonant circuits. Finally, we summarize the dissertation and outline the future work. In this work, we achieved a high-performance GaN-based microwave power varactors with breakdown voltage > 100 V, quality factor > 100 and OIP3 > 71 dBm. It meets the initial goal of this project as well as the specifications in some practical applications. To the best of our knowledge, this combination of breakdown voltage, Q and OIP3 represents remarkable advancement from any other reported varactors.

Lu, Wei

82

Snow on the Ross Ice Shelf: comparison of reanalyses and observations from automatic weather stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow accumulation measurements from automatic weather stations (AWS) around the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), Antarctica, are used to provide a new set of ground-based observations which are compared to precipitation from the ECMWF ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis-2 datasets. The high temporal resolution of the AWS snow accumulation measurements allow for an event-based comparison of reanalyses precipitation to the in situ observations. Snow accumulation records from nine AWS provide multiple years of accumulation data between 2008 and 2012 over a relatively large, homogeneous region of Antarctica, and also provide the basis for a statistical evaluation of accumulation and precipitation events. The complex effects of wind on snow accumulation (which can both limit and enhance accumulation) complicate the use of the accumulation measurements, but this analysis shows that they can provide a valuable source of ground-based observations for comparisons to modelled precipitation on synoptic timescales. The analysis shows that ERA-Interim reproduces more precipitation events than NCEP-2, and these events correspond to an average 8.2% more precipitation. Significant correlations between reanalyses and AWS event sizes are seen at several stations and show that ERA-Interim consistently produces larger precipitation events than NCEP-2.

Cohen, L.; Dean, S.

2013-09-01

83

Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This subject guide to weather resources includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources. Related disciplines are indicated, age levels are specified, and a student activity is included. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

84

Weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the natural environment, weathering and breakdown of stone is an accepted part of long-term landscape development but the\\u000a same acceptance of change and deterioration is not extended to stone used in construction especially when such deterioration\\u000a affects historically and\\/or culturally important structures. The value of an integrative approach to improve understanding\\u000a of weathering and failure of building stone is

P. A. Warke; J. McKinley; B. J. Smith

85

Mass-balance measurements from a network of automatic weather stations in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most accurate way to record continuous mass balance variations for a specific location is by placing an automatic weather station (AWS). In spite of this, the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet had a poor spatial coverage of these measurement systems, as changing ice surfaces, strong winds, etc. may call for frequent visits, and therewith high logistical expenses.

D. van As; A. P. Ahlstrom

2008-01-01

86

An estimation of snow accumulation on Svalbard glaciers on the basis of standard weather-station observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter precipitation in the form of snow is the major factor determining accumulation on Arctic glaciers. In this paper, I present a simple method to assess snow accumulation on the glaciers of Svalbard. I deduce snow accumulation from the sum of winter precipitation and the fraction of precipitation of different types at a reference weather station. The accumulation is then

Mariusz Grabiec

2005-01-01

87

A Dozen Years of Temperature Observations at the Summit: Central Greenland Automatic Weather Stations 1987-99  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 4 May 1987, the first automatic weather station (AWS) near the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet began transmitting data. Air temperature records from this site, AWS Cathy, as well as nearby AWS at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project II (GISP2, now Summit) camp have been combined with Special Sensor Microwave Imager brightness temperature data to create a composite

Christopher A. Shuman; Konrad Steffen; Jason E. Box; Charles R. Stearns

2001-01-01

88

Boreal Atmospheric circulation patterns on the basis of the world network weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the recent developments of various methods of data representation in meteorology, the image of the globe-scale atmospheric circulation system has appeared. Basically, the circulation assessment is based on the indirect teleconnection method and rotated principal component analysis of the sea level pressure or geopotential height fields. These methods have several constraints because of the integration of intermittent and frontal atmospheric synoptic variability.As follows from the work of prof. B.L. Dzerdzeevskii, due to the existing of Arctic blocking processes, simplified geostrophic wind concept on the basis of the low-frequency baric patterns of the permanent centers of action, should be reconsidered in more details. For this purpose, weather station direct in-situ data with the use of progressive vector diagrams for wind speed and direction time series visualization are appropriate. Wind diagrams incorporate various fluctuations with time scales from synoptic to climatic, which can be considered without any filtration applied. The subject of work is to study the long-term wind regimes in the Northern Hemisphere, with the aim to obtain atmospheric circulation patterns in the regions of interest, in particular induced by the NAO(North Atlantic oscillation), EAWR(East Atlantic-West Russia) and SH(Siberian High) centers of action at different time and space scales. The analysis is based on the standard meteorological data (including wind direction and speed) of WMO network weather stations in the period since 1998 up to the present. For intercalibration and validation, NCEP-NCAR and QuickSCAT sea winds databases were considered, as well. Basic features of the wind variability are governed by the relevant types of the large-scale synoptic atmospheric processes, which depend upon the state of the global atmospheric circulation, their large-scale gyres and separate smaller vorticity cells. All the individual wind diagrams appear as having rather simple low-frequency structure. Long-term wind variations were splitted to winter and summer seasons. Schematic view of the troposhere circulation in NCP(North-Caspian Pattern) or EAWR baric permanent structure was not confirmed by the data in hand. According to the weather stations around the Black Sea, the climatic winds have cyclonic vorticity, the center of rotation being located approximately over Turkey. The evolution of fields from small to large time scales is carried out by the "universal" set of wind vector variations, which due to their crucial role deserves a special name "Elementary cycle" (EC). Typical EC variations are described by a cyclic wind change from one persistent direction to another. The similarity of EC variations at different time scales is considered as wind fractality. It is shown, that the fractality is due to recurrence of basic regional baric synoptic fields. Fractal dimensions on the basis of wavelet decomposition and statistical significance using Monte Carlo technique were estimated.

Melnikov, V. A.; Moskalenko, L. V.; Golenko, N. N.; Golenko, M. N.

2012-04-01

89

Characteristics of intense space weather events as observed from a low latitude station during solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a dual-frequency high-resolution software-based GPS receiver, TEC and phase have been monitored from Calcutta, India situated near the northern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly for studying some Space Weather events during 2008-2010. Data from a dual-frequency Ionospheric TEC and Scintillation Monitor operational at this station under the international SCINDA program of the U.S. Air Force have also been used. This paper presents two cases of intense Space Weather events occurring in the equatorial latitudes under magnetically quiet conditions during the abnormally prolonged minimum of solar cycle 24. High values of S4 with maximum ˜0.8 were noted on GPS links located almost due south of Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; magnetic dip: 32°N) when the look angles of the satellites are more-or-less aligned with the axis of the anisotropic field-aligned irregularities over the magnetic equator. Associated bite-outs in TEC of amplitude 40 units were recorded in the local post-sunset hours. Well-defined patches of phase scintillations and associated cycle slips were identified. On these days, higher values of ambient ionization were noted and the diurnal maximum of the electrojet strength was found to be delayed followed by a significant rise of the F region with a high upward drift velocity over the magnetic equator around sunset indicated by ionosonde. Measurements of in situ ion density using LEO DMSP corroborate the F region height rise. Presence of irregularities in ionization density distributions around 450km was found from C/NOFS measurements.

Paul, A.; Roy, B.; Ray, S.; Das, A.; Dasgupta, A.

2011-10-01

90

Effect of non-wooden radiation shield on measurements of air temperature and humidity in Automatic Weather Stations at climatologically different Indian stations Pune and Mumbai  

Microsoft Academic Search

India Meteorological Department(IMD) has upgraded during 2006-07 its network of Automatic Weather Stations with 100 Sutron-make, USA and 25 of indigenous Astra-make AWS. The earlier network had 15 AWS of Sutron- make with measurements of temperature and humidity sensors done with sensors housed in conventional wooden Stevenson screens. For the first time in the upgraded network of 100 AWS a

Rudra Pratap

91

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

Caitlin, Ms.

2009-10-21

92

Wireless  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless Networking Mini-Tutorial (WKMN) [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.wkmn.com/newsite/wireless.html#whatWi-Fi Alliancehttp://www.wi-fi.org/OpenSection/index.asp3Com: 802.11b Wireless LANs [pdf]http://www.3com.com/other/pdfs/infra/corpinfo/en_US/50307201.pdfInformation on BlueToothhttp://www.palowireless.com/bluetooth/e-week: WiFi Securityhttp://www.eweek.com/category2/0,1738,1591939,00.aspO'Reilly Network: Wireless Surveyinghttp://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/wireless/2004/05/27/wirelessonPocketPC.htmlBitpipe: Wireless LAN White Papers [pdf]http://www.bitpipe.com/data/rlist?t=sys_10_34_4_2_np&sort_by=status&src=googleThe first website from WKMN (1) identifies the major types of wireless used today as Local Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs) and Mobile Wireless, and Personal Area Networks. The WiFi Alliance, which certifies interoperability of IEEE 802.11 products in order "to promote them as the global, wireless LAN standard across all market segments" also gives an overview of WiFi, or Wireless Fidelity, on this second website (2). The IEEE 802.11 is the common standard used for LANs and is described more in this white paper from 3Com (3). The Bluetooth infrastructure, more common in Personal Area Networks, is described on this website (4 ). The current hot issue in the Wi-Fi world is security, which is discussed in this article from e-Week (5). Legal issues are also being raised, especially since the boundaries for wireless are unclear, which means people can survey for wireless networks without paying for access. This process is described in an article from the O'Reilly Network website (6). Finally, this last website (7) offers a number of white papers on wireless LAN.

93

Comparative Analysis of Thunderstorm Activity in the West Caucasus According to the Instrumental Measurements and Weather Stations Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of thunderstorms days is one of the main characteristics of thunderstorms. In most cases, the number of days with different meteorological phenomena are the climate characteristic of the area. This characteristic is a common climate indicator. The comparative analysis of thunderstorms days quantity, received with lightning detector LS 8000 by Vaisala and weather stations of Krasnodar District (Russia), is presented. For this purpose the Krasnodar region was divided into 19 sites. The thunderstorm days amount and their comparison were conducted for each site according to the data of weather stations and LS 8000 lightning detectors. Totally 29 weather stations are located in this area. The number of thunderstorm days per year for the period of 2009-2012 was determined according to data, received from stations. It was received that average annual number of thunderstorm days for this area was from 33 to 39 days. The majority of thunderstorm days per year (up to 77) was registered in the south of Krasnodar region and on the Black Sea coast. The lowest thunderstorm activity (about 20 days) was observed in the North of the region. To compare visual and voice data for calculating thunderstorm days quantity of the Krasnodar region, the day was considered thundery if at least one weather station registered a storm. These instrumental observations of thunderstorms allow to obtain the basic characteristics and features of the distribution of thunderstorm activity over a large territory for a relatively short period of time. However, some characteristics such as thunderstorms intensity, damages from lightning flashes and others could be obtained only with instrumental observations. The territory of gathering thunderstorm discharges data by system LS8000 is limited by perimeter of 2250 km and square of 400 000 km2. According to the instrumental observations, the majority of storm activity also takes place on the Black Sea coast, near the cities of Sochi and Tuapse. Thus the number of thunderstorm days data characterized by the values from 49 to 158. To compare instrumental and visual-voice observations the difference between thunderstorms days quantity, obtained with visual-voice and instrumental methods, was selected as an indicator of thunderstorm activity. Total number of thunderstorm days in the Krasnodar region during 4 years is 565 according to the lightning detectors and 519 according to the weather stations. The presence of significant differences was revealed to compare number of thunderstorm days between instrumental observations and weather stations data. Thus the value of the average number of thunderstorms days on 29 meteorological stations of the Krasnodar region is reached 33-39 days. At the same time, 49-138 thunderstorm days were recorded according to the LS8000 system. This difference is caused by two factors: 1) limitations of visual-audio thunderstorms detection method at weather stations; 2) development of thunderstorms in a limited areas of the Krasnodar region, which is not the whole territory.

Knyazeva, Zalina; Gergokova, Zainaf; Gyatov, Ruslan; Boldyreff, Anton

2014-05-01

94

Evaluation of Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Climate in the HIRHAM Regional Climate Model Using Automatic Weather Station Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1998 annual cycle and 1991-98 summer simulations of Greenland ice sheet surface climate are made with the 0.5°-horizontal resolution HIRHAM regional climate model of the Arctic. The model output is compared with meteorological and energy balance observations from 15 Greenland Climate Network automatic weather stations. The model reproduces the monthly average surface climate parameters, to a large extent within

Jason E. Box; Annette Rinke

2003-01-01

95

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during February 1999. Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method. Soil samples were collected at 0.6-m (2-ft)

D. S. Tobiason

2000-01-01

96

Predictability of PV power grid performance on insular sites without weather stations: use of artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The official meteorological network is poor on the island of Corsica: only three sites being about 50 km apart are equipped with pyranometers which enable measurements by hourly and daily step. These sites are Ajaccio (41°55'N and 8°48'E, seaside), Bastia (42°33'N, 9°29'E, seaside) and Corte (42°30'N, 9°15'E average altitude of 486 meters). This lack of weather station makes difficult the

Cyril Voyant; Marc Muselli; Christophe Paoli; Marie-laure Nivet; Philippe Poggi

2009-01-01

97

National Scale Rainfall Map Based on Linearly Interpolated Data from Automated Weather Stations and Rain Gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the slew of disasters that devastates the Philippines on a regular basis, the national government put in place a program to address this problem. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards, or Project NOAH, consolidates the diverse scientific research being done and pushes the knowledge gained to the forefront of disaster risk reduction and management. Current activities of the project include installing rain gauges and water level sensors, conducting LIDAR surveys of critical river basins, geo-hazard mapping, and running information education campaigns. Approximately 700 automated weather stations and rain gauges installed in strategic locations in the Philippines hold the groundwork for the rainfall visualization system in the Project NOAH web portal at http://noah.dost.gov.ph. The system uses near real-time data from these stations installed in critical river basins. The sensors record the amount of rainfall in a particular area as point data updated every 10 to 15 minutes. The sensor sends the data to a central server either via GSM network or satellite data transfer for redundancy. The web portal displays the sensors as a placemarks layer on a map. When a placemark is clicked, it displays a graph of the rainfall data for the past 24 hours. The rainfall data is harvested by batch determined by a one-hour time frame. The program uses linear interpolation as the methodology implemented to visually represent a near real-time rainfall map. The algorithm allows very fast processing which is essential in near real-time systems. As more sensors are installed, precision is improved. This visualized dataset enables users to quickly discern where heavy rainfall is concentrated. It has proven invaluable on numerous occasions, such as last August 2013 when intense to torrential rains brought about by the enhanced Southwest Monsoon caused massive flooding in Metro Manila. Coupled with observations from Doppler imagery and water level sensors along the Marikina River, the local officials used this information and determined that the river would overflow in a few hours. It gave them a critical lead time to evacuate residents along the floodplain and no casualties were reported after the event.

Alconis, Jenalyn; Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Lester Saddi, Ivan; Mongaya, Candeze; Figueroa, Kathleen Gay

2014-05-01

98

Multi-decadal Estimation of Evapotranspiration from Weather Station Data using a New Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we apply a new approach to estimating evapotranspiration from weather station data. The approach is described and validated at field sites elsewhere ("Variability of Relative Humidity Reveals and Estimates Land Surface Controls on Evapotranspiration" , Salvucci and Gentine, 2012, AGU Fall Meeting]). The approach is built around the idea that the key, rate-limiting, parameter of typical ET models, the land-surface resistance to water vapor transport, can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and ET. The emergent relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than what would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. This relation was found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid to humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). Using this relation, daily estimates of ET can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which are available as far back as the early 1900s, without measurements of surface limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, canopy conductance). Required measurements include diurnal air temperature, specific humidity, wind speed, net shortwave radiation, and incoming long wave radiation. Using relatively simple models for the less commonly measured radiation terms (net shortwave radiation, dependent on latitude, cloudiness, albedo, and optical depth; and incoming long wave radiation, dependent on screen height air temperature and humidity), multi-decadal estimates of daily ET can be made and evaluated in the context of climate change. Examples will be presented along with assessments of uncertainty due to unknown historical variations in required radiation parameters such as albedo and optical depth.

Salvucci, G.; Rigden, A. J.; Gentine, P.

2012-12-01

99

Modelling the seasonal cycle of dissolved oxygen in the upper ocean at ocean weather station P  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three main processes regulate the variations of dissolved O 2 concentrations in the surface waters: gas exchange at the air-sea interface, vertical mixing and biological activity of marine organisms. A one-dimensional integral mixed layer model ( GASPAR, 1988) is used to study the temporal evolution of monthly averaged dissolved O 2 content of surface waters at Ocean Weather Station P, and to assess the relative importance of the various contributing mechanisms during 1969-1972. Production and consumption due to biological activity are taken into account as an input function of the model. A large part of the seasonal signal of dissolved O 2 in surface waters can be reproduced by the physical model without biological activity. However, kinetics of gas exchange, biological production and entrainment of sub-mixed layer water all contribute by the same order of magnitude to supersaturation during warming periods and undersaturation during cooling periods. Various shapes (over depth and time) of production-consumption function have been tested for the year 1970. Most of the evolution of monthly average dissolved O 2 in the surface waters can be obtained (1) with a total annual production rate of the order of 5 mol O 2 m -2 y -1, (2) with a constant production throughout the year and in the 0-50 m layer, and (3) with logarithmic decrease in consumption between 50 and 300 m. The relative influence of various parameters on the three processes supplying O 2 to the surface waters is investigated. Total annual production P seems to be the most influential. Vertical mixing and depth of photic zone, z 0, affect the gas exchange flux during the cooling season. Episodic events, like storms, modify the supersaturation of the mixed layer O 2 content by up to 4 mmol m -3, but gas exchange later draws back this content towards a smooth evolution curve. Finally, the sensitivity of the net annual gas exchange to various parameters is too large for the model to provide a reliable value.

Thomas, F.; Garcon, V.; Minster, J.-F.

1990-03-01

100

Long-Range Wireless Mesh Network for Weather Monitoring in Unfriendly Geographic Conditions  

PubMed Central

In this paper a long-range wireless mesh network system is presented. It consists of three main parts: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Base Terminal Units (BTUs) and a Central Server (CS). The RTUs share a wireless network transmitting in the industrial, scientific and medical applications ISM band, which reaches up to 64 Km in a single point-to-point communication. A BTU controls the traffic within the network and has as its main task interconnecting it to a Ku-band satellite link using an embedded microcontroller-based gateway. Collected data is stored in a CS and presented to the final user in a numerical and a graphical form in a web portal.

Toledano-Ayala, Manuel; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Soto-Zarazua, Genaro M.; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Bazan Trujillo, Rey D.; Porras-Trejo, Rafael E.

2011-01-01

101

Wireless Acoustic Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server can control the operations of the field stations for calibration and for recording of measurement data. A test engineer positions and activates the WAMS. The WAMS automatically establishes the wireless network. Next, the engineer performs pretest calibrations. Then the engineer executes the test and measurement procedures. After the test, the raw measurement files are copied and transferred, through the wireless network, to a hard disk in the control server. Subsequently, the data are processed into 1/3-octave spectrograms.

Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

2005-01-01

102

Modeling the variability of solar radiation data among weather stations by means of principal components analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of global terrestrial solar radiation (Rs) are commonly recorded in meteorological stations. Daily variability of Rs has to be taken into account for the design of photovoltaic systems and energy efficient buildings. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to Rs data recorded at 30 stations in the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Due to equipment failures and site operation problems,

Manuel Zarzo; Pau Martí

2011-01-01

103

One-Dimensional Coupled Ecosystem-Carbon Flux Model for the Simulation of Biogeochemical Parameters at Ocean Weather Station P  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Technical Publication, we describe the model functionality and analyze its application to the seasonal and interannual variations of phytoplankton, nutrients, pCO2 and CO2 concentrations in the eastern subarctic Pacific at Ocean Weather Station P (OWSP, 50 deg. N 145 deg. W). We use a verified one-dimensional ecosystem model, coupled with newly incorporated carbon flux and carbon chemistry components, to simulate 22 years (1958-1980) of pCO2 and CO2 variability at Ocean Weather Station P (OWS P). This relatively long period of simulation verifies and extends the findings of previous studies using an explicit approach for the biological component and realistic coupling with the carbon flux dynamics. The slow currents and the horizontally homogeneous ocean in the subarctic Pacific make OWS P one of the best available candidates for modeling the chemistry of the upper ocean in one dimension. The chlorophyll and ocean currents composite for 1998 illustrates this premise. The chlorophyll concentration map was derived from SeaWiFS data and the currents are from an OGCM simulation (from R. Murtugudde).

Signorini, S.; McClain, C.; Christian, J.; Wong, C. S.

2000-01-01

104

Generalized Potential Temperature in a Diagnostic Study of High Impact Weather over an Urban Station of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropospheric atmosphere is neither absolutely dry nor completely saturated. It is, in general, moist. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the role of generalized potential temperature (GPT) in describing the humid state of the real moist atmosphere pertaining to understanding the prevalence of high impact weather systems over an urban station, Kolkata (22°32'N; 88°20'E), of India. A comparative study among GPT, equivalent potential temperature (EPT), potential temperature and relative humidity to reveal the significance of GPT in a precise understanding of the high impact weather of Kolkata is carried out. To attain the objectives, 50 cases of thunderstorms, 15 cases of tropical cyclones and 15 heavy rainfall days are selected during the pre-monsoon season (April-May) over Kolkata (22°32'N; 88°20'E), India. The condition—decision support system of rough set theory is adopted as the methodology. The result of the study reveals that GPT is the most pertinent convective parameter in estimating the prevalence of the high impact weather of Kolkata during the pre-monsoon season and is observed to be better than RH. The results, thus, show that the moist air is capable of describing the distribution of water vapour and thermodynamic properties of the real atmosphere more precisely than an absolutely dry and completely saturated state of the atmosphere.

Chaudhuri, Sutapa; Dutta, Debashree

2013-07-01

105

Proposal of robust wireless overlay P2P information share system based on wireless base stations and ad hoc devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positional estimate system which is represented in GPS is applied from the convenience to various fields, and to be used as a navigation system for pedestrians in recent years. However, GPS has a weak point that it is not possible to use in indoors such as underground stations, buildings, etc. This is because GPS needs a radio wave from

K. Hattori; N. Nakajima; T. Fujii; Y. Kado; Bing Zhang; T. Hazugawa; K. Takadama

2009-01-01

106

Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global K(sub T) for 248 National Weather Service stations and Direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations. Addendum to the Insolation data manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature val...

1990-01-01

107

Changes of water temperature near Ocean Weather Station T before and after passage of a typhoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature field in the vicinal area of station T (29‡N, 135‡E) before and after Typhoon 6411 in summer 1964 is analysed from measurements with BT. At a location 68 km distant from the path of the typhoon, temperature at each depth became lower in the upper layer from surface to 50 m deep and became higher in the lower layer

Akio Maeda

1971-01-01

108

A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

2014-01-01

109

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 321 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 22, and consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This CAS contains a fuel storage area approximately 325 by 540 feet, which was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historical Camp Desert Rock facility, which was operational from 1951 to 1958. The corrective action investigation conducted in February 1999 found the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels to be total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics at two sample locations. During this investigation, the two corrective action objectives identified were (1) to prevent or mitigate exposure to near-surface soil containing contaminants of concern, and (2) to prevent spread of contaminants of concern beyond the corrective action unit. Based on the corrective action objectives, the two corrective action alternatives developed for consideration were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. The two alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors, and the preferred corrective action alternative chosen on technical merit, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety was Alternative 2. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Weather Station Fuel Storage site.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

1999-07-22

110

A sub-regional climate cluster analysis over Italy from regional climate model simulation and weather station observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are a key tools in producing downscaled and calibrated outputs for impact studies where local scale climate information are needed. Recent studies suggest that in the processing chain that goes from the global scale climate projection to the local scale information, the use of an intermediate scale RCM increases the quality of the climate information produced at the local scale. We propose a direct assessment of the type of improvements achieved by using RCMs for producing the intermediate scale climate information required for example in impact studies. We use relatively long (50 years) daily climate records of 64 weather stations in Italy the evaluate how the ENEA-PROTHEUS system reconstruct the sub-regional climate clusters emerging from observation at a spatial scale finer than the one of the global driver. Specifically, on one side we tested the capability of ENEA-PROTHEUS regional coupled model, run in a 'perfect boundaries' mode using ERA-40, to capture the pattern of sub-regional climate spatial clusters relative to maximum/minimum temperature and rainfall. On the other hand, we considered the spatial averages of these parameters on the sub-regional climate spatial clusters. We compare the model output and the weather station data in terms of their representation of the mean seasonal cycle, the corresponding interannual variability and large deviations. We find a close agreement between model and observations. In particular, although biases in the modelled seasonal cycle are present, the model is able to reproduce the frequency and the seasonality of intense events for all seasons, including hot and cold spells and intense rainfalls, especially for alpine regions.

Calmanti, Sandro; Maimone, Filippo; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro; Ciciulla, Fabrizio

2013-04-01

111

Securing Localization in Wireless Networks (using Verifiable Multilateration and Covert Base Stations)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, researchers have proposed a number of localization and ranging techniques for wireless networks [2,5,12,26,39,40].\\u000a The use of these techniques is broad and ranges from enabling networking functions (i.e., location-based routing) to enabling\\u000a location-related applications (e.g., access control, data harvesting).

Srdjan ?apkun

112

Composite Temperature Record from the Greenland Summit, 1987-1994: Synthesis of Multiple Automatic Weather Station Records and SSM\\/I Brightness Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air temperature (TA) records from automatic weather stations (AWS) in central Greenland and associated Special Sensor Microwave\\/Imager (SSM\\/I) brightness temperature (TB) data (37 GHz, vertical polarization) have been used to create a composite, daily, monthly, and annual average temperature record of the Greenland summit for the period 1987-1994. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperatures from a single station;

C. A. Shuman; M. A. Fahnestock; R. A. Bindschadler; R. B. Alley; C. R. Stearns

1996-01-01

113

Climatology of the East Antarctic ice sheet (100[degrees]E to 140[degrees]E) derived from automatic weather stations  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a climate picture of a large share of eastern Antarctica, arrived at from records obtained from automatic weather stations. These stations have permitted sampling of such data over extended periods of time, which have not been possible before. Data from remote sensing units has been sampled by the ARGOS data collection system on the NOAA series satellites since the late 1970's. Data is presented on temperature, pressure, and wind speed and direction.

Allison, I. (Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart (Australia)); Wendler, G. (Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia)); Radok, U. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1993-05-20

114

Energy efficient schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple mobile base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main design issues for a sensor network is conservation of the energy available at each sensor node. We propose to deploy multiple, mobile base stations to prolong the lifetime of the sensor network. We split the lifetime of the sensor network into equal periods of time known as rounds. Base stations are relocated at the start of

Shashidhar Rao Gandham; Milind Dawande; Ravi Prakash; S. Venkatesan

2003-01-01

115

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF A MODEL TO ADAPT MEASURED DATA AT A STANDARD WEATHER STATION TO REPRESENT SITE-SPECIFIC AIR TEMPERATURE IN AN URBAN STREET CANYON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological measurements required for the development of a design scheme that responds to the local environment are generally recorded by the weather service in stations that are assumed to be representative of the surrounding region. However, no account is taken of the changes in conditions caused by urban development, even though differences between meteorological conditions within cities compared with adjacent

E. ERELL; T. WILLIAMSON

116

Instruments and Methods Monitoring ice-capped active Volc´ an Villarrica, southern Chile, using terrestrial photography combined with automatic weather stations and global positioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcan Villarrica (39 ? 25? 12?? S, 71 ? 56? 27?? W; 2847 m a.s.l.) is an active ice-capped volcano located in the Chilean lake district. The surface energy balance and glacier frontal variations have been monitored for several years, using automatic weather stations and satellite imagery. In recent field campaigns, surface topography was measured using Javad GPS receivers. Daily

Javier G. CORRIPIO; Ben BROCK; Jorge CLAVERO; Jens WENDT

117

Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling

C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel; S. D. Whitaker

1980-01-01

118

Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K\\/sub T\\/ for 248 national weather service stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling

C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel; S. D. Whitaker

1980-01-01

119

Mobile Direction Assisted Predictive Base Station Switching for Broadband Wireless Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many broadband wireless access (BWA) systems, such as IEEE 802.16e, support high-mobility users traveling at vehicular speeds. BWA systems capable of high data rates and low bit-error rates typically require micro-cell or pico- cell deployments. High-mobility users usually need to perform frequent handovers in smaller cell structures, which could drastically increase system overhead and thus degrade the overall network performance.

O. Can Ozdural; Huaping Liu

2007-01-01

120

Concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Ocean Weather Station P from 1969 to 1981  

SciTech Connect

From May 1959 to June 1981 the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide was measured in 2419 samples of air collected on a weather ship situated at 50/sup 0/N and 145/sup 0/W in the North Pacific Ocean. Three principal characteristics of the variation in concentration of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ are revealed by these data: an annual variation that repeats with nearly the same pattern each year, an interannual variation that correlates with the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere, and a long-term increase that is nearly proportional to the global input of CO/sub 2/ from the combustion of fossil fuels. The peak-to-trough amplitude of the smoothed annual signal increased from 13.3 ppM in 1969 to 14.5 ppM in 1981. The phasing of the annual CO/sub 2/ cycle suggests a close relation to the activity of land plants in the broad region of the northern hemisphere where plants grow mainly during the summer. The increasing amplitude suggests a heightening plant activity. The interannual variation and its first derivative correlate with the Southern Oscillation. A lag of 6 months in the derivative suggests a distant oceanic or terrestrial source-sink in the tropics or southern hemisphere. The seasonally adjusted CO/sub 2/ concentration increased from 324.9 ppM in May 1969 to 340.8 ppM in June 1981. This increase is 60% of the increase that would have occurred if all the CO/sub 2/ from fossil fuel combustion had remained in the atmosphere and had been uniformly distributed there. The seasonally adjusted concentration, when averaged from 1975 to 1981, is 0.8 ppM lower than that found at Point Barrow, Alaska, at 71/sup 0/N and 0.9 ppM higher than that found at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, at 19/sup 0/N, suggesting a steadily decreasing concentration in CO/sub 2/ from north to south in the broad band from 70/sup 0/N to 20/sup 0/N.

Keeling, C.D.; Whorf, T.P.; Wong, C.S.; Bellagay, R.D.

1985-10-20

121

Weather Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

122

Phenology model from weather station meteorology does not predict satellite-based onset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal temperature changes in temperate forests are known to trigger the start of spring growth, and both interannual and spatial variations in spring growth have been tied to climatic variability. Satellite data are finding increased use in regional and global phenological studies, but to date there have been few efforts to rigorously tie remotely sensed phenology to surface climate records. Where satellite records have been compared to broad-scale climate patterns, broadleaf deciduous forests have typically been characterized as a single functional type and differences between communities ignored. We used a simple two-parameter spring warming model to explore the relationship between interannual climate variability and satellite-based phenology in New England broadleaf temperate forests. We employed daily air temperature records between 2000 and 2005 from 171 NOAA meteorological stations to parameterize a simple spring warming model predicting the date of MODIS half-maximum greenness (spring onset). We find that the best model starts accumulating heating degree days (HDD) after March 20th and when average daily temperatures exceed 5°C. Critical heat sums to reach onset range from 150 to 300 degree-days, with increasing requirements southward and in coastal regions. In our findings, the spring warming model offers little improvement on the photoperiod null model (i.e. the average date of onset). However, differences between the relative goodness-of-fit of the spring warming model compared to the null (coined the 'climate sensitivity ratio', or CSR) displayed unexpected spatial coherency. The spatial variation in CSR appears to be related to differences in forest composition, with clear differences between northern (beech-maple-birch) and central (oak-hickory) hardwood forests. The two forest types may respond to climate differently, with disparate sensitivities to the minimum temperature initiating spring growth (3 and 6°C, respectively). We conclude that spatial location and species composition are critical factors which regulate the phenological response to climate. Regardless of model choice, satellite observations of temperate phenology cannot be effectively tied to climate without regard to community composition.

Fisher, J. I.; Richardson, A. D.; Mustard, J. F.

2006-12-01

123

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during February 1999. Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method. Soil samples were collected at 0.6-m (2-ft) intervals from the surface to 1.8 m (6 ft) below ground surface. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE, 1999b). Soil sample results indicated that two locations in the bermed area contain total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel at concentrations of 124 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 377 mg/kg. This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). The TPH-impacted soil will be removed and disposed as part of the corrective action.

D. S. Tobiason

2000-06-01

124

Near field in the vicinity of wireless base-station antennas: an exposure compliance approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great social concern has risen about the potential health hazard of living near a cellular telephony base-station antenna, and certain technical questions have been posed on the appropriate way to measure exposure in its vicinity. In this paper, a standard spherical near-near field transformation is proposed to obtain the electromagnetic field close to the antenna in free space conditions. The

Sebastián Blanch; Jordi Romeu; Angel Cardama

2002-01-01

125

A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations\\u000a (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP,\\u000a IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a

T. H. Szymanski

2008-01-01

126

Seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton, nutrients, TCO 2 , p CO 2 , and O 2 in the eastern subarctic Pacific (ocean weather station Papa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled, one-dimensional ecosystem\\/carbon flux model is used to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton, nutrients, TCO2 ,O 2, and pCO2 at ocean weather station Papa (OWS P at 50N, 145W). The 23-year interannual simulation (1958 -1980) is validated with available data and analyzed to extend seasonal and interannual variations beyond the limited observational records. The seasonal cycles

Sergio R. Signorini; Charles R. McClain; James R. Christian; C. S. Wong

2001-01-01

127

Direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations. Addendum to the Insolation Data Manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average monthly data are presented that depict the long-term geographic distribution of direct normal solar radiation in the US. Some terms are defined, the model for estimating hourly direct normal insolation is described, and its validation is discussed. Direct normal radiation is then tabulated for 235 National Weather Service Stations, given as monthly and annual averages in units of kJ\\/m(2)-day,

C. L. Knapp; T. L. Stoffel

1982-01-01

128

Seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton, nutrients, TCO2, pCO2, and O2 in the eastern subarctic Pacific (ocean weather station Papa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled, one-dimensional ecosystem\\/carbon flux model is used to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton, nutrients, TCO2, O2, and pCO2 at ocean weather station Papa (OWS P at 50°N, 145°W). The 23-year interannual simulation (1958-1980) is validated with available data and analyzed to extend seasonal and interannual variations beyond the limited observational records. The seasonal cycles of pCO2

Sergio R. Signorini; Charles R. McClain; James R. Christian; C. S. Wong

2001-01-01

129

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

DOE /NV

1999-01-28

130

Analysis of daily rainfall of the Sahelian weather-station Linguère (Senegal) - Trends and its impacts on the local population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 20th century, the West African Sahel has been a hot-spot of climatic changes. After severe drought-events in the 1970s and 1980s which were followed by a significant drop in annual precipitation, rainfall seems to increase again during the past years. Most studies are based on monthly or yearly datasets. However, many processes and events which are important for the local population depending on rainfall are not related to monthly or annual precipitation but are related to intra-annual, often daily scales. During this study, interviews with farmers and herders were conducted in the Senegalese Sahel. The results show, that wet months with unsuitably distributed precipitation can cause more harm than bringing benefits - depending on the phenological stage of the plants. Agricultural crops for example need rainfall breaks. On the other hand, natural herbaceous vegetation tolerates longer wet periods. So, a wet season can still hide dry spells that alter crops and vegetation development. Based on the results of these interviews, this study developed two indexes, one for local farmers and one for herders separately, showing if the year was favorable for them or not. The indexes integrate the length of rainy seasons, intensity and frequency of rainfall events, breaks between events and also the previous year. This way, each year is assigned to one of 5 classes. Using daily rainfall data of the Linguère weather-station (from the Senegal Meteorological Service, ANACIM), trends of the indexes from 1945 to 2002 are detected and compared to results of the interviews. Statistically relating the indexes to yearly and monthly data demonstrates, how much information can be gathered by those datasets. Furthermore, changes in intensity and frequency are related with yearly and monthly sums showing relations between daily data and annual sums. For example, a high correlation (r=0.73) between the amount of rain days (> 1 mm) and the annual rainfall is observed in Linguère.

Strommer, Gabriel; Brandt, Martin; Diongue-Niang, Aida; Samimi, Cyrus

2013-04-01

131

Automatic Weather Stations  

NSF Publications Database

... gel-cell batteries that are charged by photovoltaic panels during the austral summer. Early AWS ... batteries that are charged by solar photovoltaic panels. They release no pollutants, therefore, to ...

132

Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following James Van Allen's discovery of Earth's radiation belts (1958), it was immediately recognized that the space environment would be hostile to the communications satellites that had been envision by Arthur Clark (1945) and John Pierce (1955). Van Allen's discovery set off a burst of "space weather" research and engineering that continues to today, paralleling "space weather" research that had, prior to 1958, been directed toward understanding environment effects on cable and early wireless communications, electric power distribution, and pipelines. Van Allen's discovery also meant that the flight of humans above the sensible atmosphere would be fraught with more peril than mere weightlessness. This Van Allen lecture will discuss the space weather considerations that arose from Van Allen's discovery as well as space weather effects that occur from numerous other physical processes in the complex sun-heliosphere-magnetosphere environmental system.

Lanzerotti, L. J.

2005-05-01

133

Weather in Antarctica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homepage includes information about the weather in Antarctica and links to pages on the climate, wind chill, clouds, snow and ice, and pressure and storms of Antarctica. The current weather conditions updated automatically at various stations are also provided.

Hutchings, Thomas

1998-01-01

134

Analysis of Preflight Weather Briefings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather is often cited as a factor in general aviation (GA) accidents and mishaps. The type of weather information requested from, or provided by, automated flight service station (AFSS) specialists is dependent on weather conditions at the time the prefl...

A. M. Hendrix O. V. Prinzo R. Hendrix

2007-01-01

135

Thermal, pressure and wind fields at ground level in the area of the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica, as observed by a network of automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground temperature, pressure and wind speed monthly averages in the area of the Italian Station at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, were analyzed for the period 1987—1991 by means of a network of nine AWS (auto- matic weather stations). Spatial configurations of temper- ature show a well-defined, relatively warm island in the area of Terra Nova Bay, between Drygalsky and Campbell

E. Cogliani; G. Abbate; S. Racalbuto

1996-01-01

136

Thermal, pressure and wind fields at ground level in the area of the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica, as observed by a network of automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground temperature, pressure and wind speed monthly averages in the area of the Italian Station at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, were analyzed for the period 1987–1991 by means of a network of nine AWS (automatic weather stations). Spatial configurations of temperature show a well-defined, relatively warm island in the area of Terra Nova Bay, between Drygalsky and Campbell ice tongues,

E. Cogliani; G. Abbate; S. Racalbuto

1997-01-01

137

Linking the Annual Variation of Snow Radar-derived Accumulation in West Antarctica to Long-term Automatic Weather Station Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the snow accumulation rate on polar ice sheets is important in assessing mass balance and ice sheet contribution to sea level rise. Measuring annual accumulation on a regional scale and extending back in time several decades has been accomplished using the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Snow Radar on the NASA DC-8 that is part of NASA's Ice-Bridge project. The Snow Radar detects and maps near-surface internal layers in polar firn, operating from 2- 6 GHz and providing a depth resolution of ~4 cm. During November 2011, Snow Radar data were obtained for large areas of West Antarctica, including a flight segment that passed within ~70 km of Byrd Station (80°S, 119°W). Byrd Station has a very long automatic weather station (AWS) record, extending from present to 1980, with 3 relatively brief gaps in the record. The AWS data for Byrd Station were obtained from the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC) at the University of Wisconsin. The L1B Snow Radar data products, available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), were analyzed using layer picking software to obtain the depth of reflectors in the firn that are detected by the radar. These reflectors correspond to annual markers in the firn, and allow annual accumulation to be determined. Using the distance between the reflectors and available density profiles from ice cores, water equivalent accumulation for each annual layer back to 1980 is obtained. We are analyzing spatial variations of accumulation along flight lines, as well as variations in the time series of annual accumulation. We are also analyzing links between annual accumulation and surface weather observations from the Byrd Station AWS. Our analyses of surface weather observations have focused on annual temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind extremes (e.g. 5th and 95th percentiles) and links to annual snow accumulation. We are also examining satellite-derived sea ice extent records for the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas sector (60°W-120°W) over the same 31-year time period and comparing results to annual snow accumulation. Results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

Feng, B.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P.; Paden, J. D.; Leuschen, C.; Purdon, K.

2013-12-01

138

OpenWeather: a peer-to-peer weather data transmission protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the weather is performed using instruments termed weather stations. These weather stations are distributed around the world, collecting the data from the different phenomena. Several weather organizations have been deploying thousands of these instruments, creating big networks to collect weather data. These instruments are collecting the weather data and delivering it for later processing in the collections

Adrian Yanes

2011-01-01

139

A proposal for a unified process to improve probabilistic ground snow loads in the United States using SNODAS modeled weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow loads govern roof design in many parts of the United States. These loads are largely prescribed by the American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE 7 Standard for minimum design loads. Where ASCE 7 does not specify snow loads due to extreme local variability, such as in the West, many state jurisdictions have developed individual roof snow load documents and maps. However, among the western states border discrepancies and a general lack of uniformity in the methodology for developing such loads indicates a need for a unified approach. This paper proposes a methodology to develop ground snow loads for the western United States, the application of which is illustrated for the state of Colorado. An innovative approach is taken which utilizes a hydrological snowpack model, Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS), developed by NOAA. This model provides estimates of ground snow depth and snow water content, easily convertible into loads, at 588 SNODAS weather stations in Colorado. The methodology proposed here then incorporates statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate cluster analyses to regionalize the SNODAS stations by key shared properties. Several types of cluster analyses are evaluated including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), k-means, and a PCA-based method. Using various statistical and practical measures of quality, a step-wise hybrid method combining both AHC and k-means techniques is found to be the most statistically sound and robust clustering method. A relationship is then developed between ground snow depths and ground snow loads for each cluster of SNODAS weather stations. This paper proposes the following additional steps. A database of National Weather Service CO-OP stations with snow depth only measurements is gathered for the state of interest. The 50-year ground snow depths are extrapolated by testing the goodness-of-fit of several probability distributions. The ground snow depth-load relationships for each cluster produced by the hybrid method are then coupled with these 50-year ground snow depths to produce 50-year ground snow loads. Finally, these ground snow loads are mapped in GIS software using a Kriging geostatistical interpolation method to create continuous snow load isolines.

DePaolo, Michael Robert

140

Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (less than 24 h) forecasts of winds, clouds, and hazardous weather such as thunderstorms. Short-range forecasting is a challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze. For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers. MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

Manobianco, John; Zack, John W.; Taylor, Gregory E.

1996-01-01

141

Weather Maps in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

Burrows, Charles

142

Lessons Learned JSC Micro-Wireless Instrumentation Systems on Space Shuttle and International Space Station CANEUS 2006  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on lessons learned from NASA Johnson Space Center's micro-wireless instrumentation is shown. The topics include: 1) Background, Rationale and Vision; 2) NASA JSC/Structural Engineering Approach & History; 3) Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System; 4) WLEIDS Confidence and Micro-WIS Lessons Learned; and 5) Current Projects and Recommendations.

Studor, George

2007-01-01

143

Development of a System to Generate Near Real Time Tropospheric Delay and Precipitable Water Vapor in situ at Geodetic GPS Stations, to Improve Forecasting of Severe Weather Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a system under development for generating ultra-low latency tropospheric delay and precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimates in situ at a prototype network of geodetic GPS sites in southern California, and demonstrating their utility in forecasting severe storms commonly associated with flooding and debris flow events along the west coast of North America through infusion of this meteorological data at NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Forecast Offices and the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL). The first continuous geodetic GPS network was established in southern California in the early 1990s and much of it was converted to real-time (latency <1s) high-rate (1Hz) mode over the following decades. GPS stations are multi-purpose and can also provide estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV using collocated pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology (Bevis et al. 1992, 1994; Duan et al. 1996) as implemented by NOAA with a nationwide distribution of about 300 GPS-Met stations providing PW estimates at subhourly resolution currently used in operational weather forecasting in the U.S. We improve upon the current paradigm of transmitting large quantities of raw data back to a central facility for processing into higher-order products. By operating semi-autonomously, each station will provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of the narrow communications bandwidth that often occurs in the aftermath of natural disasters. The onsite ambiguity-resolved precise point positioning solutions are enabled by a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS and a low-cost MEMS meteorological sensor package. The decreased latency (~5 minutes) PW estimates will provide the detailed knowledge of the distribution and magnitude of PW that NWS forecasters require to monitor and predict severe winter storms, landfalling atmospheric rivers, and summer thunderstorms associated with the North American monsoon. On the national level, the ESRL will evaluate the utility of ultra-low resolution GNSS observations to improve NOAA's warning and forecast capabilities. The overall objective is to better forecast, assess, and mitigate natural hazards through the flow of information from multiple geodetic stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders.

Moore, A. W.; Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Laber, J. L.; Morris, T.; Offield, D. G.; Small, I.; Squibb, M. B.

2012-12-01

144

75 FR 3639 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Stations, Including Wireless Microphones...AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...this order, Wireless Telecommunications...Milkman, Chief, Wireless Telecommunications...Bureau, Federal Communications...

2010-01-22

145

Security Aspects of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) are increasing in number in both home and business uses due to the convenience, mobility and affordable prices for wireless devices. Wireless technology allows the mobile stations to freely move within the range of Acce...

T. Jaiaree

2003-01-01

146

Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and also highlights a cross-disciplinary need in both measurement and modeling to study the regional environmental, weather and climate problems in East China.

Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

2013-12-01

147

A novel single base station location technique for microcellular wireless networks: description and validation by a deterministic propagation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positioning algorithms in cellular networks has become increasingly important as a means of supporting emerging services that require a sufficiently precise estimation of the position of the mobile terminal (MT) associated with a given base station (BS). Currently, even the most sophisticated positioning algorithms require at least three BSs to achieve satisfactory precision. This paper presents a novel algorithm that

Marco Porretta; Paolo Nepa; Giuliano Manara; Filippo Giannetti; Mischa Dohler; Ben Allen; A. Hamid Aghvami

2004-01-01

148

Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, November 2000)  

SciTech Connect

This addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to determine the extent of contamination existing at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321. This addendum was required when the extent of contamination exceeded the estimate in the original Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Located in Area 22 on the Nevada Test Site, Corrective Action Unit 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, consists of Corrective Action Site 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area, was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility. This facility was operational from 1951 to 1958 and dismantled after 1958. Based on site history and earlier investigation activities at CAU 321, the contaminant of potential concern (COPC) was previously identified as total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics). The scope of this corrective action investigation for the Fuel Storage Area will include the selection of biased sample locations to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, collection of soil samples using rotary sonic drilling techniques, and the utilization of field-screening methods to accurately determine the extent of COPC contamination. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives and be included in the revised CADD.

DOE /NV

2000-11-03

149

[Research on impact of dust event frequency on atmosphere visibility variance: a case study of typical weather stations locating in the dust route to Beijing].  

PubMed

Relationship between dust event frequency and atmosphere visibility deviation is analyzed by using the data of daily visibility and various dust events in Beijing and other 13 typical weather stations locating in the dust events route to Beijing from 1971 to 2000. Results show that the visibility variance increases a standard deviation in the response to the dust event frequency decrease once. The influence of dust event to visibility comes from the high-frequency change of wind velocity. The change of wind velocity in one standard deviation can result in dust event frequency increasing by 30%. The high-frequency changes of near-surface wind influence the occurrence of dust event, and also the fluctuation of daily visibility deviation. The relationship between abnormal low visibility event and visibility deviation is in significant positive correlation. The increase of wind average distance leads to the enhance frequency of dust event and consequently the abnormal low visibility event. There are different relationships between abnormal low visibility event and floating dust, sandstorm and flying-dust respectively. PMID:16921932

Qiu, Yu-jun; Zou, Xue-yong; Zhang, Chun-lai

2006-06-01

150

Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods  

DOEpatents

An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

Deaton, Juan D. (Menan, ID); Schmitt, Michael J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Warren F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-12-13

151

Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations and direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data, generally from 1952 to 1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/sq m per day, Btu/sq ft per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global KT (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global KT is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

1990-07-01

152

Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind direction indicated the model error increased with the forecast period all four parameters. The hypothesis testing uses statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis is true. The goal of using the hypothesis test was to determine if the model bias of any of the parameters assessed throughout the model forecast period was statistically zero. For th is dataset, if this test produced a value >= -1 .96 or <= 1.96 for a data point, then the bias at that point was effectively zero and the model forecast for that point was considered to have no error. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed so the 45 WS would have an operational tool at their disposal that would be easy to navigate among the multiple stratifications of information to include tower locations, month, model initialization times, sensor heights and onshore/offshore flow. The AMU developed the GUI using HyperText Markup Language (HTML) so the tool could be used in most popular web browsers with computers running different operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and Linux.

Bauman, William H., III

2010-01-01

153

Challenges for Environmental Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many challenges posed to researchers looking to collect eco-hydrological information with monitoring systems exposed to the natural environment due, in part, to the unpredictable interactions between the environment and the wireless hardware and the scale of the deployment. While wireless sensor network technology has introduced autonomy and pervasiveness to studying the environment, it is not a panacea for outdoor monitoring systems. Despite the fact that each outdoor deployment will encounter its own unique set of challenges, it is often a benefit to researchers to know what problems were faced during other deployments and how these problems were mitigated or solved. This work examines a long-term (i.e., multi-year) environmental wireless sensor network which was deployed in a forested hill-sloped region of western Pennsylvania, USA and the main challenges that were encountered. These include: (1) the startup and maintenance costs of the wireless network; (2) the data collection system and remote access to the network; (3) the security of the network hardware and software; and (4) the reliability of wireless network connectivity. Based on our field study, it was found that while wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have less expensive startup costs compared to similarly sized wired systems (such as data logging), the WSN has relatively high maintenance costs as it requires frequent site visits (mean of 38 days per wireless node). One possible way to reduce the maintenance costs is by adjusting the sampling and/or collection frequency of the wireless nodes. In addition to the high maintenance costs, wireless communications, especially over complex networks, have low success rates of data capture from the field (approximately 50%). Environmental conditions, such as background noise, interference and weather conditions, may significantly influence the wireless communications. Technological advancements (such as smart sampling and data compression) are being developed to improve the data success rates within WSNs. Furthermore, a complex network of monitoring devices depends on the reliability of base station and gateway system for collecting, storing, and analyzing data from the field. Limitations and vulnerabilities in base station designs can lead to network outages and loss of data. In addition to addressing the above concerns, this project also examines both the reliability and security of a networked base station.

Liang, X.; Davis, T. W.

2013-12-01

154

Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground based, autonomous, low power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We report on the design and anticipated performance of the proposed instrument and show data from two prototype lidar instruments previously deployed to Antarctica.

Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Campbell, James; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

155

Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman

2011-01-01

156

Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

157

Soil climate and decomposer activity in Sub-Saharan Africa estimated from standard weather station data: a simple climate index for soil carbon balance calculations.  

PubMed

Soil biological activity was calculated on a daily basis, using standard meteorological data from African weather stations, a simple soil water model, and commonly used assumptions regarding the relations between temperature, soil water content, and biological activity. The activity factor r(e_clim) is calculated from daily soil moisture and temperature, thereby taking the daily interaction between temperature and moisture into account. Annual mean r(e_clim) was normalized to 1 in Central Sweden (clay loam soil, no crop), where the original calibration took place. Since soils vary in water storage capacity and plant cover will affect transpiration, we used this soil under no crop for all sites, thereby only including climate differences. The Swedish r(e_clim) value, 1, corresponds to ca. 50% annual mass loss of, e.g., cereal straw incorporated into the topsoil. African mean annual r(e_clim) values varied between 1.1 at a hot and dry site (Faya, Chad) and 4.7 at a warm and moist site (Brazzaville, Congo). Sites in Kenya ranged between r(e_clim) = 2.1 at high altitude (Matanya) and 4.1 in western Kenya (Ahero). This means that 4.1 times the Swedish C input to soil is necessary to maintain Swedish soil carbon levels in Ahero, if soil type and management are equal. Diagrams showing daily r(e_clim) dynamics are presented for all sites, and differences in within-year dynamics are discussed. A model experiment indicated that a Swedish soil in balance with respect to soil carbon would lose 41% of its soil carbon during 30 y, if moved to Ahero, Kenya. If the soil was in balance in Ahero with respect to soil carbon, and then moved to Sweden, soil carbon mass would increase by 64% in 30 y. The validity of the methodology and results is discussed, and r(e_clim) is compared with other climate indices. A simple method to produce a rough estimate of r(e_clim) is suggested. PMID:17847802

Andrén, Olof; Kihara, Job; Bationo, André; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Kätterer, Thomas

2007-07-01

158

A numerical study of the dependence of long-range transport of CO to a mountain station in Taiwan on synoptic weather patterns during the Southeast Asia biomass-burning season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is conducted to identify the synoptic weather patterns that are prone to cause high carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations observed at a mountain site, Lulin atmospheric background station (LABS), in Taiwan due to the biomass-burning activity in Southeast (SE) Asia. LABS is recognized as a clean background station. The study period targets the biomass-burning season (February to May) from 2007 to 2010. The synoptic weather patterns were classified using a two-stage clustering method with inputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological model simulation result in a 27-km spatial grid. A 9-km resolution WRF modeling was performed additionally for 13 to 26 March 2007, when a high CO concentration reaching 500 ppb was observed at LABS. The simulation result indicates that not only the existence of the thermal forcing induced low pressure system formed in Indochina, but also the presence of the high terrain located in the northern part of SE Asia that further forced the uplift of the biomass-burning emissions. On the other hand, when the northeasterly monsoonal flow is strong enough and intruding into Indochina, this would hinder the development of the thermal low and weaken the upward movements, in turn preventing the transport of biomass-burning emissions from Indochina to the area of Taiwan. The simulation results also demonstrate that the location of the SE Asia high pressure system has a moderate effect on the particle dispersion path in the upper level.

Cheng, Fang-Yi; Yang, Zhih-Min; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Ngan, Fong

2013-10-01

159

Review of the use of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Models for wind energy assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy resource assessment applications require accurate wind measurements. Most of the published studies used data from existing weather station network operated by meteorological departments. Due to relatively high cost of weather stations the resolution of the weather station network is coarse for wind energy applications. Typically, meteorological departments install weather stations at specific locations such as airports, ports and

Sultan Al-Yahyai; Yassine Charabi; Adel Gastli

2010-01-01

160

Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air St...

J. Manobianco J. W. Zack G. E. Taylor

1996-01-01

161

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to give students an understanding of how to forecast weather and how to use weather reports for their personal benefit. They will be able to tell what weather is, read weather instruments, understand basic cloud formations in relation to the weather, and make forecasts for two days in advance.

162

SWAN: an indoor wireless ATM network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SWAN (seamless wireless ATM network) project investigates architectural aspects of networks containing mobile hosts. The network model includes base stations connected via a wired, ATM infrastructure and a wireless, ATM last hop to a number of mobile hosts, ranging in computational and functional abilities from personal digital assistants to notebook computers. The FAWN (flexible adaptor for wireless networking) network

E. Hyden; J. Trotter; P. Krzyzanowski; M. Srivastava; P. Agrawal

1995-01-01

163

Tracking Mobile Users in Wireless Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking strategies for mobile wireless networks are studied. We assume a cellulararchitecture where base stations that are interconnected by a wired network communicatewith mobile units via wireless links. Previous works focused on the cost of utilizing thewired links for management of directories. In this paper, the issue considered is thecost of utilizing the wireless links for the actual tracking of

Amotz Bar-noy; Ilan Kessler

1993-01-01

164

Cross-layer design for wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the cellular and PCS world collides with wireless LANs and Internet-based packet data, new networking approaches will support the integration of voice and data on the composite infrastructure of cellular base stations and Ethernet-based wireless access points. This article highlights some of the past accomplishments and promising research avenues for an important topic in the creation of future wireless

Sanjay Shakkottai; Theodore S. Rappaport; Peter C. Karlsson

2003-01-01

165

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

166

Method for Performing Handoff in Wireless Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for minimizing handoff latencies when a handoff is performed in a wireless network. An access point (AP) or base station associated to a current wireless station (STA) allows information required for a reassociation to the STA to be propagated to...

A. Mishra I. S. Lee K. H. Jang M. H. Shin W. A. Arbaugh

2004-01-01

167

RBSP Space Weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

2012-12-01

168

Thermal, pressure and wind fields at ground level in the area of the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica, as observed by a network of automatic weather stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground temperature, pressure and wind speed monthly averages in the area of the Italian Station at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, were analyzed for the period 1987-1991 by means of a network of nine AWS (automatic weather stations). Spatial configurations of temperature show a well-defined, relatively warm island in the area of Terra Nova Bay, between Drygalsky and Campbell ice tongues, throughout the year. A second warm island is present to the north along the coast, between Aviator and Mariner ice tongues, for most of the year. From February to March a rapid drop in temperature is observed at all stations. A strong thermal gradient develops during February, March, April and October, November, December, between the coastal region and inner highlands. The baric configuration follows the elevation of the area. Annual average pressure and temperature as functions of stations altitude show linear trends. Severe katabatic wind episodes are recorded at all stations, with wind speed exceeding 25 m s-1 and direction following the orographic features of the inner areas. Co-occurrences of these episodes were observed for stations located along stream lines of cold air drainage. The autocorrelation function of maximum wind speed time series shows wind persistence of 2-3 days and wind periodicity of about one week. Acknowledgements. We gratefully appreciate the on-line DMSP database facility at APL (Newell et al., 1991) from which this study has benefited greatly. We wish to thank E. Friis-Christensen for his encouragement and useful discussions. A. Y. would like to thank the Danish Meteorological Institute, where this work was done, for its hospitality during his stay there and the Nordic Baltic Scholarship Scheme for its financial support of this stay. Topical Editor K.-H. Glassmeier thanks M. J. Engebretson and H. Lühr for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: A. Yahnin-->

Cogliani, E.; Abbate, G.; Racalbuto, S.

1996-10-01

169

47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...station call sign, its location, its assigned FAA...aeronautical enroute station which is part of a...be identified by the location of its control point. (c) Survival craft station. Identify by...call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio...

2013-10-01

170

47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...station call sign, its location, its assigned FAA...aeronautical enroute station which is part of a...be identified by the location of its control point. (c) Survival craft station. Identify by...call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio...

2010-10-01

171

47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...station call sign, its location, its assigned FAA...aeronautical enroute station which is part of a...be identified by the location of its control point. (c) Survival craft station. Identify by...call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio...

2009-10-01

172

Sky Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While satellites are the current backbone of telecommunications and wireless infrastructure, the company that maintains this Web site envisions a completely new technology. The Stratospheric Telecommunications Service (STS) relies on "lighter-than-air platforms which are held in a geo-stationary position in the stratosphere (approximately 21Km) over a major metropolitan area." The Sky Station company documents much of the STS theory online, as well as maintaining news and information articles about the progress of the system's development. US and international organizations have already reserved some of the radio frequency spectrum for stratospheric platforms, and it seems to have considerable support from important agencies.

1997-01-01

173

Reviews Book: Marie Curie and Her Daughters Resource: Cumulus Equipment: Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Equipment: 3D Magnetic Tube Equipment: National Grid Transmission Model Book: Einstein's Physics Equipment: Barton's Pendulums Equipment: Weather Station Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND Marie Curie and Her Daughters An insightful study of a resilient and ingenious family and their achievements Cumulus Simple to install and operate and with obvious teaching applications, this weather station 'donationware' is as easy to recommend as it is to use Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Good design and construction make for good results National Grid Transmission Model Despite its expense, this resource offers excellent value Einstein's Physics A vivid, accurate, compelling and rigorous treatment, but requiring an investment of time and thought WORTH A LOOK 3D Magnetic Tube Magnetic fields in three dimensions at a low cost Barton's Pendulums A neat, well-made and handy variant, but not a replacement for the more traditional version Weather Station Though not as robust or substantial as hoped for, this can be put to good use with the right software WEB WATCH An online experiment and worksheet are useful for teaching motor efficiency, a glance at CERN, and NASA's interesting information on the alpha-magnetic spectrometer and climate change

2013-09-01

174

Embedded system for monitoring atmospheric weather conditions using weather balloon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this project, embedded system is used for measuring pressure, temperature and humidity in the atmosphere for up to date weather monitoring- Weather is monitored at different levels of the atmosphere, by using an hydrogen balloon in which pressure, temperature and humidity sensors are embedded .These measured values are then transmitted to the ground station for display. Radio frequency signals

P. Sankar; S. R. Norman

2009-01-01

175

Regional chemical weather forecasting system CFORS: Model descriptions and analysis of surface observations at Japanese island stations during the ACE-Asia experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Weather Forecast System (CFORS) is designed to aid in the design of field experiments and in the interpretation\\/postanalysis of observed data. The system integrates a regional chemical transport model with a multitracer, online system built within the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. CFORS was deployed in forecast and postanalysis modes during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment

I. Uno; G. R. Carmichael; D. G. Streets; Y. Tang; J. J. Yienger; S. Satake; Z. Wang; Jung-Hun Woo; S. Guttikunda; M. Uematsu; K. Matsumoto; H. Tanimoto; K. Yoshioka; T. Iida

2003-01-01

176

High Altitude Weather Balloons to Support Rayleigh and Sodium Lidar Studies of the Troposphere, Stratosphere and Mesosphere at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This proposal funded 100 high altitude weather balloons costing $15,500 to support the deployment of a Rayleigh/Raman/Na lidar at the South Pole. One year of measurements have been completed and it is estimated that the balloons will provide another 1-2 years of data.

Papen, George

1995-01-01

177

Weather Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the basics of the Earth's weather. Concepts include fundamental causes of common weather phenomena such as temperature changes, wind, clouds, rain and snow. The different factors that affect the weather and the instruments that measure weather data are also addressed.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

178

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting â from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment â and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

179

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes, flash floods, lightning, and tornadoes.

Forde, Evan B.

2004-04-01

180

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

181

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

182

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meteorologists disagree as to what constitutes severe weather. However, most concur that thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, all considered to be "convective" weather, fit the definition of severe weather, which is a weather condition likely to cause hardship. This science guide will explore each of the three weather phenomena. By virtue of their locations, most students are familiar with at least one of the three severe weather events. Students who tour the web sites will have an opportunity to make connections between the familiar and the perhaps less understood weather events.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

183

Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather affects our everyday lives. Some days it's sunny and some days its not. The years weather is split up into seasons. 1. What are the four seasons? 2. What kind of weather do you see in the summer? 3. What kind of weather is unique to winter? 4. ...

Bellows, Mrs.

2009-09-28

184

Weathering Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.

2002-01-01

185

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather. Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Once you have a firm grasp on the science of weather forecasting, be sure to check out the other sections of this site, which include: "ice and snow," "our changing climate," "the water cycle," and "powerful storms."

2008-03-27

186

Weather Talk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Talk is a primer on weather and naval meteorology. It provides a brief overview of major weather elements and is presented in a non-mathematical way, so that the reader will have a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of weather and use it to their advantage and safety in planning and carrying out their own activities. The site explains temperature, wind, pressure, atmospheric moisture, air masses and fronts, thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and climatology.

187

Wireless Headset Communication System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

1995-01-01

188

Antarctic Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

189

Shoring pumping station excavation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m³\\/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m³\\/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping

J. B. Glover; D. J. Reardon

1991-01-01

190

World Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

Elias, Jaume S.

2014-02-20

191

Weather Watcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As spring progresses, weather conditions can continue to fluctuate dramatically, something that may foil vacation plans or other outings. Keeping that in mind, visitors may do well to download the Weather Watcher application created by Mike Singer. With this application, users may automatically retrieve the current weather conditions, look through hourly forecasts, keep abreast of severe weather alerts, and take a look at weather maps for almost any city world-wide. This application is compatible with all systems running Windows 98 and above.

Singer, Mike

192

Wireless traffic service communication platform for cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing weather conditions, especially in winter, have caused numerous disastrous traffic accidents in Northern Europe and in the Alpine region during recent years. Information about hazardous weather and road conditions is often potentially available but difficult or sometimes even impossible to deliver to drivers. This paper presents the international CARLINK (wireless platform for linking cars) project of the Celtic

Djamel Khadraoui; T. Sukuvaara

2009-01-01

193

Wireless sensor network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current and future requirements of aerospace sensors and transducers demand the design and development of a new family of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors and transducers will possess a certain degree of intelligence in order to provide the end user with critical data in a more efficient manner. Communication between networks of traditional or next-generation sensors can be accomplished by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) developed by NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC Aerospace Corporation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), consisting of at least one central station and several remote stations and their associated software. The central station is application-dependent and can be implemented on different computer hardware, including industrial, handheld, or PC-104 single-board computers, on a variety of operating systems: embedded Windows, Linux, VxWorks, etc. The central stations and remote stations share a similar radio frequency (RF) core module hardware that is modular in design. The main components of the remote stations are an RF core module, a sensor interface module, batteries, and a power management module. These modules are stackable, and a common bus provides the flexibility to stack other modules for additional memory, increased processing, etc. WSN can automatically reconfigure to an alternate frequency if interference is encountered during operation. In addition, the base station will autonomously search for a remote station that was perceived to be lost, using relay stations and alternate frequencies. Several wireless remote-station types were developed and tested in the laboratory to support different sensing technologies, such as resistive temperature devices, silicon diodes, strain gauges, pressure transducers, and hydrogen leak detectors.

Perotti, Jose M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.; Mata, Carlos T.

2006-06-01

194

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

195

Predicting Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

2008-03-28

196

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

197

Space weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather is caused by conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can affect human life or health. It affects man-made systems such as satellite electronics, terrestrial power grids and radio communications. This paper provides an overview of how space weather arises in the solar terrestrial system and how physical processes are able to cause space weather effects. We also discuss European perspectives and activities geared towards the possible initiation of a European Space Weather programme.

Glover, Alexi; Daly, Eamonn; Hilgers, Alain; Berghmans, David

2002-05-01

198

Kazakhstan Space Weather Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kazakhstan experimental complex is a center of experimental study of space weather. This complex is situated near Almaty, Kazakhstan and includes experimental setup for registration of cosmic ray intensity (neutron monitor) at altitude of 3340 m above sea level, geomagnetic observatory and setup for registration of solar flux density with frequency of 1 and 3 GHz with 1 second time resolution. Results of space environment monitoring in real time are accessible via Internet. This experimental information is used for space weather investigations and different cosmic ray effects. Almaty mountain cosmic ray station is one of the most suitable and sensitive stations for investigation and forecasting of the dangerous situations for satellites; for this reason Almaty cosmic ray station is included in the world-wide neutron monitor network for the real-time monitoring of the space weather conditions and European Database NMDB (www.nmdb.eu). All data are represented on the web-site of the Institute of Ionosphere (www.ionos.kz) in real time. Since July, 2006 the space environment prediction laboratory represents the forecast of geomagnetic activity every day on the same site (www.ionos.kz/?q=en/node/21).

Kryakunova, Olga

2012-07-01

199

The State of Wireless London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides the results from a survey, sponsored by the International Chamber of Commerce, which reports on the growth of wireless usage in the greater London area and compares networks built by "freenetwork" groups to those built by commercial providers. The results show that London has more than 5,000 wireless networks that are being used in offices, government buildings, prisons, police stations and government offices. The data is displayed clearly with impressive maps and detailed documentation. The reference list offers numerous links for more information about wireless networks.

200

FAWN: Florida Automated Weather Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) provides up-to-date weather information through a system of automated weather stations distributed throughout the State of Florida. Research scientists at the University of Florida work closely with extension agents to monitor the FAWN system and make sure it provides fast, reliable, and convenient access. Overall, there are four parts to the FAWN system: collecting data, transmitting it to the collection site, processing the data, and redistributing it to the end user. FAWN database servers maintained by IFAS Information Technologies receive weather data about the date and time of collection, the air temperature, soil temperature, relative humidity, dewpoint, rainfall, wind direction, wind speed, and radiation from remote stations every 15 minutes. The information is processed and made available almost instantaneously through several different search methods accessible through FAWN web server, as well as an interactive voice-response system.

201

Accuracy assessment of land surface temperature retrievals from Landsat 7 ETM + in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using iButton temperature loggers and weather station data.  

PubMed

The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are the largest snow/ice-free regions on this vast continent, comprising 1% of the land mass. Due to harsh environmental conditions, the valleys are bereft of any vegetation. Land surface temperature is a key determinate of microclimate and a driver for sensible and latent heat fluxes of the surface. The Dry Valleys have been the focus of ecological studies as they arguably provide the simplest trophic structure suitable for modelling. In this paper, we employ a validation method for land surface temperatures obtained from Landsat 7 ETM + imagery and compared with in situ land surface temperature data collected from four transects totalling 45 iButtons. A single meteorological station was used to obtain a better understanding of daily and seasonal cycles in land surface temperatures. Results show a good agreement between the iButton and the Landsat 7 ETM + product for clear sky cases. We conclude that Landsat 7 ETM + derived land surface temperatures can be used at broad spatial scales for ecological and meteorological research. PMID:24366817

Brabyn, Lars; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Stichbury, Glen; Cary, Craig; Storey, Bryan; Laughlin, Daniel C; Katurji, Marwan

2014-04-01

202

Forecast skill of a high-resolution real-time mesoscale model designed for weather support of operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA funded Mesoscale Environmental Simulations and Operations (MESO), Inc. to develop a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). The model has been modified specifically for short-range forecasting in the vicinity of KSC/CCAS. To accomplish this, the model domain has been limited to increase the number of horizontal grid points (and therefore grid resolution) and the model' s treatment of precipitation, radiation, and surface hydrology physics has been enhanced to predict convection forced by local variations in surface heat, moisture fluxes, and cloud shading. The objective of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of MASS including the real-time initialization and configuration for running the data pre-processor and model, and (2) to summarize the preliminary evaluation of the model's forecasts of temperature, moisture, and wind at selected rawinsonde station locations during February 1994 and July 1994. MASS is a hydrostatic, three-dimensional modeling system which includes schemes to represent planetary boundary layer processes, surface energy and moisture budgets, free atmospheric long and short wave radiation, cloud microphysics, and sub-grid scale moist convection.

Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.; Manobianco, John

1994-01-01

203

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

204

Space Weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video provides a narrated exploration of the history and affects of space weather. It includes information the earth's magnetic field, solar radiation, magnetic storms, and how solar winds affect electronics on earth, with specific information on how space weather affects space exploration in the future.

Gallagher, Dennis L.

2010-01-01

205

Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

Robinson, W. J., Jr.

1968-01-01

206

Simultaneous Web-based real-time temperature monitoring using multiple wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline a system that allows simultaneous temperature monitoring on two or more fishing vessels using multiple wireless sensor networks. The distribution of wireless temperature data loggers across a boat with an associated base station results in the fishing vessel being in effect an individual wireless sensor network. The existence of this wireless sensor network allows for real-time temperature monitoring

Jer Hayes; Karl Crowley; Dermot Diamond

2005-01-01

207

Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new technique for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Water vapour plays a crucial part in a variety of atmospheric processes. As the most influential of greenhouse gases, it absorbs long-wave terrestrial radiation. The water vapour cycle of evaporation and recondensation is a major energy redistributing mechanism transferring heat energy from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere. Additionally, humidity has an important role in weather forecasting as a key variable required for initialization of atmospheric models and hazard warning techniques. However, current methods of monitoring humidity suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or a lack of precision when measuring near ground levels. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, the proposed method can provide moisture observations at high temporal and spatial resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used is already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which include absence of rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. We present results from real-data measurements taken from microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show very good agreement with surface station humidity measurements.

David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

2009-04-01

208

A highly miniaturized, battery operated, commandable, digital wireless camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the design, development, testing, and demonstration of a highly miniaturized battery operated, digital wireless camera. The miniature wireless camera receives commands transmitted from a remote base station requesting it to take one or more frames of data, and broadcasts the digital image data to the base station receiver for display. The camera uses a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)

M. J. Agan; B. H. Olson; C. R. Pasqualino; G. L. Stevens

1998-01-01

209

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-09-01

210

Weather and mass balance in the ablation zone of the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model that predicts ablation from weather station measurements on the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica is presented along with ablation measurements at about 250 ablation stakes. The model output matches the ablation measurements at the weather station locations. Via extrapolation of the weather station measurements to the rest of the glacier, the model also makes predictions for the rest of

A. K. Bliss; K. M. Cuffey; J. Kavanaugh; D. Morse

2005-01-01

211

Planetary Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

212

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

2013-05-29

213

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

Friend, Duane

214

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month-long interdisciplinary project students collect weather data, determine the best visual representation for displaying it, and discuss the patterns and implications of their findings. This resource includes extension and assessment suggestions and guiding questions.

2014-01-01

215

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

216

Weatherizing America  

SciTech Connect

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

2009-01-01

217

Wireless autonomous device data transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

2013-01-01

218

Weathering Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

Stelling, Pete

219

Weather Creator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

Kshumway

2009-09-28

220

Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades K-5. It focuses on basic information about the weather and how different weather maps depict conditions. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

221

Weather and Climate on the Planets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automatic interplanetary station observations and theoretical investigations of weather conditions and climate on Venus, Mars and Jupiter are discussed, which are opening up good prospects for the development of the comparative meteorology of the planets....

K. Y. Kondratyev

1975-01-01

222

Implementing wireless sensor networks for architectural heritage conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preventive conservation in architectural heritage is one of the most important aims for the development and implementation of new techniques to assess decay, lending to reduce damage before it has occurred and reducing costs in the long term. For that purpose, it is necessary to know all aspects influencing in decay evolution depending on the material under study and its internal and external conditions. Wireless sensor networks are an emerging technology and a minimally invasive technique. The use of these networks facilitates data acquisition and monitoring of a large number of variables that could provoke material damages, such as presence of harmful compounds like salts, dampness, etc. The current project presents different wireless sensors networks (WSN) and sensors used to fulfill the requirements for a complete analysis of main decay agents in a Renaissance church of the 16th century in Madrid (Spain). Current typologies and wireless technologies are studied establishing the most suitable system and the convenience of each one. Firstly, it is very important to consider that microclimate is in close correlation with material deterioration. Therefore a temperature(T) and relative humidity (RH)/moisture network has been developed, using ZigBee wireless communications protocols, and monitoring different points along the church surface. These points are recording RH/T differences depending on the height and the sensor location (inside the material or on the surface). On the other hand, T/RH button sensors have been used, minimizing aesthetical interferences, and concluding which is the most advisable way for monitoring these specific parameters. Due to the fact that microclimate is a complex phenomenon, it is necessary to examine spatial distribution and time evolution at the same time. This work shows both studies since the development expects a long term monitoring. A different wireless network has been deployed to study the effects of pollution caused by other active systems such as a forced-air heating system, the parishioners presence or feasts and other ventilation conditions. Finally weather conditions are registered through a weather station. Outside and inside conditions are compared to incorporate data to the network for a later decay modeling.

Martínez-Garrido, M. I.; Aparicio, S.; Fort, R.; Izquierdo, M. A. G.; Anaya, J. J.

2012-04-01

223

Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Applied Meteorology Unit developed a forecast tool that provides an assessment of the likelihood of local convective severe weather for the day in order to enhance protection of personnel and material assets of the 45th Space Wing Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark

2005-01-01

224

Interannual variability of Martian weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure, temperature, imaging, and wind data from the Mutch Memorial Station, the Viking lander located in Mars' subtropics, are used to demonstrate the existence of two disctinct regimes of northern hemisphere winter weather on Mars. One of these regime is characterized by one or more intense global dust storms in which the optical depth reaches about 5 over most of

C. B. Leovy; J. E. Tillman; W. R. Guest; J. Barnes

1985-01-01

225

Integration of WirelessHART networks in Distributed Control Systems using PROFINET IO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a method to integrate WirelessHART networks in Distributed Control Systems (DCS) using PROFINET IO. By modeling the WirelessHART network in the Generic Station Description file, that describes a PROFINET IO device, the WirelessHART related configuration can be distributed from the central engineering stations. In this way, both process controller configuration and WirelessHART network configuration is

J. Akerberg; M. Gidlund; T. Lennvall; J. Neander; M. Bjorkman

2010-01-01

226

Station Model Plot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet provides a test of decoding station model plots. From the plot, the user must determine the temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, pressure and pressure change, and current weather. Values can be checked and attempted again.

Ackerman, Steve; Whittaker, Tom

227

Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume provides a comprehensive overview of our current observational knowledge, theoretical understanding, and numerical capability with regard to the phenomena known as space weather. Space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems, and can endanger human life or health. The rapid advance in these technologies has provided us with unprecedented capability and convenience, and we have come to rely on them more and more. Technology has reduced society's risk to many kinds of natural disasters, but through its own vulnerability, it has actually increased society's risk to space weather. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socioeconomic losses.

Song, Paul; Singer, Howard J.; Siscoe, George L.

228

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

229

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

2010-01-01

230

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Illinois Extension comes the Weather One instructional Web site for kids. The lesson consists of six pages that cover various weather related topics including seasons, clouds, the atmosphere, wind, global warming, and storms. Each page describes the particular subject, provides related photographs, and contains several activities that reinforce the learning. For example, the clouds page shows how kids can make a cloud and create a collage out of simple material found around the house. The effective organization and clean look of the site will surely make it easy for students to follow and enjoy.

1969-12-31

231

Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

2004-02-06

232

Weather Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. Why does the wind blow? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What happens when the temperature is the same? 4. What happens when there is high relative humidity? 5. What ...

missy.jones@gmail.com

2009-09-28

233

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0. UPDATED WITH RECORD OF TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

U.S. DOE /NV

1999-02-08

234

Asymptotic Throughput in Wireless Multicast OFDM Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of wireless multimedia appli- cations, multicast\\/broadcast has been recognized as an efficient technique to transmit a large volume of data to multiple mobile stations at the same time. In most multicast systems, the trans- mitter (e.g., base station) adapts its data rate to the worst channel among all users in the multicast group, so as to guarantee

Juan Liu; Wei Chen; Zhigang Cao; Ying Jun Zhang; Soung Chang Liew

2008-01-01

235

Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/~lenny/WeatherRisk

Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.

2001-12-01

236

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

237

Today's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

238

Weather Wordsearch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find the 12 weather related words in this word search brought to you by the Southeast Regional Climate Center (SERCC). When you finish finding all 12 words, hit the restart button to re-scramble the letters and start all over again!

2007-01-01

239

The Weather Doctor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

Heidorn, Keith.

2002-01-01

240

Stepwise Onset of Monsoon Weather Observed in the Nepal Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain weather changes in the Nepal Himalaya were intensively examined during the 2003 monsoon onset using in situ datasets, observed by multiple automatic weather stations (AWS) distributed across the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Himalaya reference site at locations with significant differences in altitude. Onset of monsoon rainfall characterized as nighttime precipitation was initiated simultaneously at all stations with the

K. Ueno; K. Toyotsu; L. Bertolani; G. Tartari

2008-01-01

241

Evaluation of Reliable Multicast Delivery in Base Station Diversity Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a multicast delivery system using base station diversity for cellular systems. Conventional works utilize single wireless link communication to achieve reliable multicast. In cellular systems, received signal intensity declines in cell edge areas. Therefore, wireless terminals in cell edge areas suffer from many transmission errors due to low received signal intensity. Additionally, multi-path fading also causes dynamic fluctuation of received signal intensity. Wireless terminals also suffer from transmission errors due to the multi-path fading. The proposed system utilizes multiple wireless link communication to improve transmission performance. Each wireless terminal communicates with some neighbor base stations, and combines frame information which arrives from different base stations. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve multicast data delivery with a short transmission period and can reduce consumed wireless resource due to retransmission.

Naito, Katsuhiro; Mori, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Hideo

242

Wireless Traffic Service Communication Platform for Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing weather conditions, especially in winter, have caused numerous disastrous traffic accidents in Northern Europe\\u000a and in the Alpine region during recent years. Information about hazardous weather and road conditions is often potentially\\u000a available but difficult or sometimes even impossible to deliver to drivers. This paper presents the international CARLINK\\u000a (Wireless Platform for Linking Cars) project [1] of the

Timo Sukuvaara; Pertti Nurmi; Daria Stepanova; Sami Suopajärvi; Marjo Hippi; Pekka Eloranta; Esa Suutari; Kimmo Ylisiurunen

2008-01-01

243

Predicting the magnetospheric plasma of weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of the plasma environment in time, the plasma weather, is discussed. It is important to be able to predict when large magnetic storms will produce auroras, which will affect the space station operating in low orbit, and what precautions to take both for personnel and sensitive control (computer) equipment onboard. It is also important to start to establish a set of plasma weather records and a record of the ability to predict this weather. A successful forecasting system requires a set of satellite weather stations to provide data from which predictions can be made and a set of plasma weather codes capable of accurately forecasting the status of the Earth's magnetosphere. A numerical magnetohydrodynamic fluid model which is used to model the flow in the magnetosphere, the currents flowing into and out of the auroral regions, the magnetopause, the bow shock location and the magnetotail of the Earth is discussed.

Dawson, John M.

1986-01-01

244

Wireless Downtowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coming soon to an urban center near you: wireless connectivity for your laptop or PDA, brought to you by City Hall. At least that's the hot trend among U.S. municipalities, 48 of which now offer wireless access, according to a recent report. Most municipal systems are the result of public-private partnerships, and many offer some level of free access. The first website (1) is an overview of the wireless downtown phenomenon which notes the importance of such systems for local economic development. The second link (2) is to a fact sheet about Wireless Philadelphia, which, as one of the first and largest downtown wi-fi projects, helped spark the national trend. The third website is a node map of NYCwireless (3) and the 147 access points where that municipal network currently can be accessed. The fourth link leads to a case study of chaska.net (4) , which provides wireless access to the 7,500 homes and 18,000 residents of that Minneapolis suburb. The fifth website is a pdf (5) of a slick brochure produced by the city of Gainesville, Fla., to promote its Digital Downtown project. The sixth link is to a Sacramento Bee editorial (6) making the case for downtown wireless. The seventh website is a free database listing 10,840 wireless access points in 767 locations worldwide (7) , organized by geographic region.

245

NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

Miller, Robert D.

2007-01-01

246

NOAA Weather Radio Hourly Weather Roundup Formatter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Weather Service (NWS) is planning to replace the aging National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather Radio (NWR) as part of its modernization program. The Office of Meteorology (OM) selected the Hourly Weather Roundup (HWR) t...

G. F. Battel G. A. Kokolis J. E. Calkins

1994-01-01

247

High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce hybrid free-space optical and RF wireless links as potential technology for designing next-generation broadband wireless networks. We present various design challenges and potential solutions for real-time link performance characterization and adaptation for enhanced performance during adverse weather conditions. First, we introduce the hybrid wireless architecture and emphasize its significant role in achieving ubiquitous carrier-grade wireless connectivity. Second, we

HOSSEIN IZADPANAH; TAMER ELBATT; VIKAS KUKSHYA; FRANK DOLEZAL; BO K. RYU

2003-01-01

248

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

249

Weather Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

Mitchell, Mrs.

2010-09-23

250

Weathering Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Could bad weather be responsible for U.S. corruption? Natural disasters create resource windfalls in the states they strike by triggering federally provided natural-disaster relief. By increasing the benefit of fraudulent appropriation and creating new opportunities for such theft, disaster-relief windfalls may also increase corruption. We investigate this hypothesis by exploring the effect of disaster relief provided by the Federal Emergency

2008-01-01

251

Earth Observation Services Weather Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microprocessor-based systems for processing satellite data offer mariners real-time images of weather systems, day and night, of large areas or allow them to zoom in on a few square miles. Systems West markets these commercial image processing systems, which have significantly decreased the cost of satellite weather stations. The company was assisted by the EOCAP program, which provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

1992-01-01

252

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

Najman, M.

2009-09-01

253

Wireless vibration sensor using frequency modulation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, wireless strain sensors have received attention as an efficient method to measure response of a structure in a remote location. Wireless sensors developed for remote measurement include RF wireless sensor modules and microstrip antenna-based sensors. In this paper, a simple wireless vibration sensor based on a piezoelectric sensor and the Frequency Modulation (FM) technique is developed for remote measurement of vibrating structures. The piezoelectric sensor can generate a voltage signal proportional to dynamic strain of the host structure. The voltage signal is then frequency modulated and transmitted wirelessly to a remote station by a simple FM transmitter circuit. Finally, the received signal is demodulated by a conventional FM radio circuit, and the vibration measurement data can be recovered. Since this type of wireless sensor employs a simple FM circuit, they do not require any wireless data transmission protocols allowing a low-cost wireless sensor in compact format. The proposed concept of the wireless vibration measurement is experimentally verified by measuring vibration of an aluminum cantilever beam. The proposed sensor could potentially be an efficient and cost effective method for measuring vibration of remote structures for dynamic testing or structural health monitoring.

Kim, Minhyuck; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Kim, Sehun; Kim, Joo-Hyung

2012-03-01

254

Wireless Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quicktime animation examines the basics in wireless communication. Wireless communication has become pervasive in everyday life, providing convenience, piece of mind as well as emergency preparedness for its users through instant accessibility. The cell phone antenna is the link to the outside world. Designed to transmit as well as receive the RF signals, it efficiently couples the electromagnetic waves to the transmitter and receiver.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart J.

2012-08-08

255

A CSI Estimation Method for Wireless Relay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter proposes a method for channel state information (CSI) estimation in a wireless relay network, which consists of a base station (BS), a relay station (RS), and a mobile station (MS). The proposed method exploits the fact that the link condition between fixed BS and fixed RS tends to be stable, and the frequent CSI update is not necessary

Hiroyuki Yomo; Elisabeth de Carvalho

2007-01-01

256

Weather Science Hotlist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Franklin Institute Online offers the metadata Web site Weather Science Hotlist. The page contains dozens of links organized into ten topics that include Online Exhibits, Weather Right Now, Background Information, Severe Weather, El Nino/ La Nina, Historical Weather, Career Connections, Activities, Atmosphere, and Weather Forecasting. A great source for anyone looking for online weather information.

2008-04-11

257

Fiber-Wireless Networks and Subsystem Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid fiber-wireless networks incorporating WDM technology for fixed wireless access operating in the sub-millimeter-wave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency regions are being actively pursued to provide untethered connectivity for ultrahigh bandwidth communications. The architecture of such radio networks requires a large number of antenna base-stations with high throughput to be deployed to maximize the geographical coverage with the main switching and

Christina Lim; Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas; Masuduzzaman Bakaul; Prasanna Gamage; Ka-Lun Lee; Yizhuo Yang; Dalma Novak; Rod Waterhouse

2010-01-01

258

Wireless Instrumentation System and Power Management Scheme Therefore  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wireless instrumentation system enables a plurality of low power wireless transceivers to transmit measurement data from a plurality of remote station sensors to a central data station accurately and reliably. The system employs a relay based communications scheme where remote stations that cannot communicate directly with the central station due to interference, poor signal strength, etc., are instructed to communicate with other of the remote stations that act as relays to the central station. A unique power management scheme is also employed to minimize power usage at each remote station and thereby maximize battery life. Each of the remote stations prefembly employs a modular design to facilitate easy reconfiguration of the stations as required.

Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Blalock, Norman N. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

259

Weather Tamers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem-based learning experiences that extend at least two weeks provide an opportunity for students to investigate a real-world problem while learning science content and skills in an exciting way. Meteorology provides a wealth of problems students can investigate while learning specific science concepts and skills found frequently in middle level national and state curricula standards. The hands-on activity described in this article helps students learn about the science behind weather events by planning, constructing, and testing models of cities exposed to a series of simulated hurricanes and tornado conditions.

Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

2007-03-01

260

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

261

Weather Photography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ph.D. student Harald Edens describes himself as a "photographer of lightning, clouds, atmospheric optical phenomena and astronomy". His Web site entitled Weather Photography proves this by providing a stunning collection of photographs and movies of atmospheric optics, lightning, clouds, and astronomy. The author describes how the photographs were taken, what equipment was used, and even discusses many of the phenomenon being observed such as mirages and halos. An added bonus of this very interesting site is that the author generously allows free personal use of the photographs.

2000-01-01

262

Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This entertaining, interactive website is the perfect tool to educate users about the basics of weather forecasting and reporting. The two educational modules, created by EdHeads, each contain three levels and are designed for grades four through nine. While discovering how to predict a three-day forecast, students learn about warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, high and low pressure systems, isobars, and humidity. Teachers can find a helpful guide discussing how best to use the site as well as providing an overview of science standards, lesson plans, and pre- and post-tests for students.

263

Destructive Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

Alizabethirwin

2010-11-03

264

Wireless Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless communications is an industry that is growing at an incredible rate. Cellular phones are the most obvious example of this trend; it is hard to go anywhere without seeing someone using one. Rapidly advancing technologies and lower prices are making this all possible. At the current pace, there seems to be no limit to what is possible in the wireless industry.To learn about the events that led up to present day wireless communications, this site offers a very informative history of telecommunications (1) that goes all the way back to the time of carrier pigeons. A good introduction to wireless networking can be found in this mini-tutorial (2). The best parts of this tutorial are the discussions of many recent wireless developments and technologies. There are a few interactive games and activities that are supposed to be instructive and entertaining, but some of them can be annoying. For the more technically savvy user, the third site (3) starts by describing many of the principles that drive current wireless systems. The second part examines the technologies that will be used in future generations of services. To build on this material, the third generation mobile communications systems (3G) is the central topic at 3G Newsroom (4), providing breaking news about the development of 3G technology. Additionally, the site has an excellent introduction to 3G, including its applications and specifications. One of the advancements that is paving the way toward 3G is Bluetooth, which is explained in great detail here (5). This technology is capable of very high data transfer rates, but there are some limitations, which are all discussed in the articles on the site. Although Bluetooth is raising plenty of interest, this recent news story (6) is creating more than its share of debate. It outlines a very controversial move by the FCC to allow the use of ultrawideband technology in commercial wireless applications. The author explains in simple terms why there are so many concerns about something that could revolutionize wireless systems. The evolution of the global system for mobile communications (GSM) is traced at GSM World (7). Here users can learn about the roots of the wireless industry as well as what is in store for the future. A special section addresses health concerns associated with mobile phone use. Radio was one of the earliest form of wireless communication, and the Invention of Radio (8) documents the people and events that made it what it is today. The stories of such famous scientists and inventors as Marconi, DeForest, and Armstrong are told in brief accounts, and there is even a link to the well known War of the Worlds radio broadcast.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

265

WIRELESS SUBSCRIBER LOCATION TRACKING FOR ADAPTIVE MOBILITY MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

OF THE THESISWireless Subscriber Location Tracking forAdaptive Mobility Managementby Zhuyu LeiThesis Director: Professor Christopher RoseMobility Management is one of the key issues in wireless communicationsnetworks. To deliver an incoming call to a wireless subscriber, the system mustkeep track of the subscriber by locating the base station that covers the subscriber.As current wireless networks evolve toward personal communications systems(PCS), the fast-growing

ZHUYU LEI

1996-01-01

266

Cochannel interference avoidance MAC in wireless cellular networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe cochannel interference in wireless cellular networks significantly affects users at cell edges. We propose a cost-effective cochannel interference avoidance (CIA) medium access control (MAC) scheme to improve network performance. For CIA-MAC, base stations judged as severe interferers trans- mit randomly and the transmission is controlled by wireless channel states to optimize the overall network performance while maintaining proportional fairness

Guowang Miao; Ye Li; Nageen Himayat; Shilpa Talwar

2009-01-01

267

Wireless Phone Threat Assessment for Aircraft Communication And Navigation Radios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station s...

T. X. Nguyen S. V. Koppen L. J. Smith R. A. Williams M. T. Salud

2005-01-01

268

NOAA/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a prototype debris flow early warning system for Southern California. The system uses USGS-defined rainfall rate thresholds for debris flows and burn area hazard maps to protect interests in and near burn areas of damaging and potentially deadly debris flows. Although common throughout Southern California, as witnessed by the December 25, 2003 storm in which sixteen people were swept to their deaths by debris flows generated from a recent burn area near Devore, debris flows are commonly misunderstood by the public. They are often perceived as rare events, are difficult to warn for with sufficient lead time, and present unique challenges when communicating proper calls to action to best save lives and property. Many improvements to the system have been realized since the project’s inception in 2005, including using more refined rainfall rate thresholds, use of burn area hazard maps, and the establishment of a tiered system to categorize the potential severity of flash floods and debris flows. These efforts have collectively resulted in a reduction of warning false alarms. However, the massive 400,000 hectare 2009 Station burn area in the Angeles National Forest of Los Angeles County has created numerous challenges to the early warning system. The geology of the area burned is highly susceptible to debris flows, due in part to the burn severity, soil types and steep slopes. Most importantly, the burn area is adjacent to and uphill of the highly populated lower foothills of the San Fernando Valley. NOAA/NWS and the USGS have thus worked closely with local response and preparedness agencies to analyze and communicate the threat and assist in developing a unified command response plan in preparation for flash flood and debris flows from this burn area. The early warning system was put to the ultimate test on February 6, 2010 when intense rainfall over the burn area produced very damaging but fortunately nonfatal flash flooding and debris flows. Unfortunately public and local agency response to NWS forecasts, watches, and warnings issued for this event was minimal. Possible causes of, and actions needed to improve upon, this minimal response are examined, including 1) complacency due to previous watch and warning false alarms, 2) underestimating the hazard threat due to local residents having not personally experienced a severe debris flow event in recent history if ever, 3) misinterpretation of NWS point precipitation forecasts and current limits of predictability related to forecasting specific locations and amounts of intense rainfall beyond 12-24 hours, 4) the challenges of ensuring NWS information is consistently received and interpreted among the multiple agencies and jurisdictions of the unified command, and 5) the likelihood that most people did not hear NWS warnings due to the event taking place late at night. Also examined are proper calls to action to protect life and property at a time when evacuations may put people in harm's way.

Jackson, M.; Laber, J. L.; Boldt, E.

2010-12-01

269

The Weather Dude  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

Walker, Nick.

2002-01-01

270

Wireless Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

1991-01-01

271

Honeybees: combining replication and evasion for mitigating base-station jamming in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

By violating MAC-layer protocols, the jamming at- tack aims at blocking successful communication among wireless nodes. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are highly vulnerable to jamming because of reliance on shared wireless medium, constrained per-sensor re- sources, and high risk of sensor compromise. More- over, base stations of WSNs are single points of fail- ure and, thus, attractive jamming targets. To

Sherif M. Khattab; Daniel Mossé; Rami G. Melhem

2006-01-01

272

Adaptive Call Admission Control for Multimedia Wireless Networks with QoS Provisioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel Quality of Service Adaptive Call Admission Control (QoS-AdCAC) framework for next generation broadband wireless cellular networks supporting wireless multimedia services with different classes of traffic and diverse bandwidth requirements. In this work, each base station locally, independently of other base stations in the network, differentiates between new and handoff calls for each class of traffic

Nidal Nasser; Hossam S. Hassanein

2004-01-01

273

Wireless Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses wireless access-control equipment in the school and university setting, particularly the integrated reader lock at the door with a panel interface module at the control panel. Describes its benefits, how it works, and its reliability and security. (EV)

Conforti, Fred

2003-01-01

274

Cockpit Weather Information Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weat...

C. H. Scanlon

1992-01-01

275

Forecasting the Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a computer program which predicts the weather based on student input of such weather data as wind direction and barometric pressure. Also provides procedures for several hands-on, weather-related activities. (JN)

Bollinger, Richard

1984-01-01

276

External Resource: Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A student activity with teacher's sheet, to give the students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedroc

1900-01-01

277

National Weather Service  

MedlinePLUS

HOME FORECAST Local Graphical Aviation Marine Rivers and Lakes Hurricanes Severe Weather Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long ... LOADING... Menu ? ACTIVE ALERTS ? FORECAST MAPS ? RADAR ? RIVERS, LAKES, RAINFALL ? AIR QUALITY ? SATELLITE ? PAST WEATHER ? Local forecast ...

278

Predicting Weather and Understanding Weather Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The assignment requires students to observe the weather map in the newspaper for four consecutive days. On the first day they are instructed to choose a location somewhere in the country. The will record the weather conditions there and observe any weather systems that exist elsewhere in the country. They then make predictions of how they expect weather in their location to change over the subsequent three days.

Grandy, Carla

279

Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

2007-01-01

280

Topology control for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a two-tiered Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consisting of sensor clusters deployed around strategic locations and base-stations (BSs) whose locations are relatively flexible. Within a sensor cluster, there are many small sensor nodes (SNs) that capture, encode and transmit relevant information from the designated area, and there is at least one application node (AN) that receives raw data from

Jianping Pan; Yiwei Thomas Hou; Lin Cai; Yi Shi; Sherman X. Shen

2003-01-01

281

WeatherNet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WeatherNet, brought to us by The Weather Underground at University of Michigan, aims to be the premier site of weather links on the Internet. Besides the topical tropical storm page, you can view Accu-Weathers graphics including Nexrad imagery, satellite photos, surface maps, and forecast maps.

1998-01-01

282

Teaching Weather Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten exercises based on the weather map provided in the national newspaper "U.S.A. Today" are used to teach intermediate grade students about weather. An overview describes the history of "U.S.A. Today," the format of the newspaper's weather map, and the map's suitability for teaching weather concepts. Specific exercises, which are briefly…

Sebastian, Glenn R.

283

Weather in Your Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

284

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

285

What's the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. They will also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives. They should understand that weather can change daily and weather patterns change over the seasons, and that it has characteristics that can be measured and predicted. Suggestions for an optional field trip are also provided.

2005-01-01

286

Distributed decision for medical alerts using wireless sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study how to detect anomalies in a distributed manner by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We focus on a medical context, where existing works generally provide large environments to monitor patients using sensors as simple transducers. Those devices forward sensed health parameters to a main base station. This station collects received data and may perform some

N. Dessart; Hacène Fouchal; Philippe Hunel; Harry Gros-Desormeaux; Nicolas Vidot

2009-01-01

287

Runtime Optimization of IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

case, a station cannot have exact knowledge of the network contention level (i.e., number of active stations and length of the message transmitted on the channel), but it, at most, can estimate it. This paper presents and evaluates a distributed mechanism for contention control in IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs. Our mechanism, named Asymptotically Optimal Backoff (AOB), dynamically adapts the backoff

Luciano Bononi; Marco Conti; Enrico Gregori

2004-01-01

288

Design aspects of hybrid RF\\/free space optical wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate various design challenges that arise in emerging optical wireless networks. Due to the high sensitivity of optical wireless links to severe weather conditions, several methods have been introduced in the literature to improve their availability figures. We investigate the merits of two potential technologies for enhancing link and network availability, namely hybrid link protection and multi-hop routing. We

Tamer ElBatt; Hossein Izadpanah

2001-01-01

289

Gravity waves in severe weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a view to determining the role of severe weather in producing gravity waves, two tests were made. In the first, the wind speed measured at two nearby radiosonde stations, Peoria and Salem, was correlated with the stratosphere gravity-wave intensity at Urbana. Although the gravity-wave intensity fluctuated greatly from day to day, these is little if any correlation with the stratospheric wind speed. This suggests that orographic forcing is not a factor in generating gravity waves in Urbana. On the other hand, a clear correlation is found between cloud to heights exceeding 20,000 ft and an increased gravity-wave amplitude in the stratosphere.

Bowhill, S. A.; Gnanalingam, S.

1986-01-01

290

Wireless Power Transfer  

ScienceCinema

Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

None

2013-11-19

291

Wireless Power Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

None

2013-07-22

292

Space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

1989-01-01

293

A HIERARCHIAL STOCHASTIC MODEL OF LARGE SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND MULTIPLE STATION DAILY PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A stochastic model of weather states and concurrent daily precipitation at multiple precipitation stations is described. our algorithms are invested for classification of daily weather states; k means, fuzzy clustering, principal components, and principal components coupled with ...

294

The Impact of Weather on Air Traffic Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the National Airspace System (NAS) and how weather affects it. It describes the various components of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), how that organization manages air traffic, and how CWSU and WFO forecasts help the FAA's decision-making process. The module also provides tips on establishing a good professional relationship with this important partner (FAA), understanding their language, and preparing weather briefings that will give them the information they need. This module is part of a larger exercise to develop a station Weather Impacts Playbook, a supplement to the Station Duty Manual.

Spangler, Tim

2005-05-31

295

The Impact of Weather on Air Traffic Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the National Airspace System (NAS) and how weather affects it. It describes the various components of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), how that organization manages air traffic, and how CWSU and WFO forecasts help the FAA's decision-making process. The module also provides tips on establishing a good professional relationship with this important partner (FAA), understanding their language, and preparing weather briefings that will give them the information they need. This module is part of a larger exercise to develop a station Weather Impacts Playbook, a supplement to the Station Duty Manual.

2008-07-31

296

Interactive Weather Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.

2002-01-01

297

Edheads: Weather Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.

2010-01-01

298

Pilot weather advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

1992-01-01

299

Weather and Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are different types of weather common in our everyday life? How can we use what we know about weather to go about everyday activities? First, use the Weather Chart to write down what you learn from each website. Then, go to Weather Information Website #1 and click on "What's the Weather?" to dress the bear for the day. Make sure you write it down on your graphic organizer. Next, go to Weather Information Website #3 and explore at least 5(clouds, thunderstorms, winter storms, etc.) of ...

Jones, Ms.

2012-04-12

300

The Weather Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

Grasser, Mrs. E.

2012-09-27

301

Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

Devereaux, A. S.

1999-01-01

302

NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

2007-01-01

303

A single base station position location approach for enhanced-911  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FCC issued Docket No. 94-102 and 1996-97 rulemaking orders which will require wireless providers to locate emergency 911 calls to 125 meter accuracy by late 2001. Current first and second generation cellular networks are designed to maximize quality of service at the base station servicing a user. Most position location approaches require measurements at multiple receiving stations. This requirement

Don R. Van Rheeden; S. C. Gupta

1998-01-01

304

Broadcast media and the dissemination of weather information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although television is the public's most preferred source of weather information, it fails to provide weather reports to those groups who seek the information early in the day and during the day. The result is that many people most often use radio as a source of information, yet preferring the medium of television. The public actively seeks weather information from both radio and TV stations, usually seeking information on current conditions and short range forecasts. forecasts. Nearly all broadcast stations surveyed were eager to air severe weather bulletins quickly and often. Interest in Nowcasting was high among radio and TV broadcasters, with a significant portion indicating a willingness to pay something for the service. However, interest among TV stations in increasing the number of daily reports was small.

Byrnes, J.

1973-01-01

305

A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic.

Pan, Guobing; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Jiaoliao

2011-06-01

306

On Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

Crane, Peter

2004-05-01

307

Weather and Stroke Risk  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Weather and Stroke Risk HealthDay February 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Stroke Transcript Weather changes may significantly affect stroke risk, a new ...

308

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

309

In Depth Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Winter Weather is an In-Depth Special Report form the National Center for Atmospheric Research. It contains articles, images, activities, video clips, and interactive graphs to inform learners about meteorology and weather in the colder seasons.

2012-01-01

310

Multipurpose Weather Roundup Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Program RWR9 reads Surface Airways Observations (SAO's) from the local AFOS database and reformats them into plain language collectives for Hourly, State, and Regional Weather Roundups. Output is suitable for direct transmission on the state weather wire....

W. E. Sunkel

1983-01-01

311

Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

Francek, Mark

2002-10-01

312

AGT Guideway and Station Technology. Volume 7: Guideway and Station Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the project is to develop guideway, station and weather protection concepts which will reduce the cost and implementation time associated with AGT systems. The purpose of this report is to present concepts for AGT guideways and stations w...

R. D. Stevens

1979-01-01

313

First look at RBSP Space Weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations are being identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. When RBSP launches in August 2012, the RBSP instruments will be generating and broadcasting real-time space weather data. These data are used for space weather forecasting. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Data Portal at http://rbspsdp.jhuapl.edu/data.php and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

Weiss, M.; Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Sotirelis, T.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.

2011-12-01

314

Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a significant enhancement to the agronomic decision-support process. Direct benefits to growers can take the form of increased yield and grade potential, as well as savings in money and time. Pest management strategies become more efficient due to timely and localized disease and pest modelling, and increased efficacy of pest and weed control. Examples from the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) WeatherFarm weather network will be utilized to illustrate the processes, decision tools and benefits to producers and farmers.

Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

2010-09-01

315

Stormfax Weather Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

2002-06-10

316

An intelligent environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, information technology is becoming more and more important to improve the productivity of agriculture, especially for real time environment monitoring. However, the traditional method of environmental data collection is unable to provide real-time and highly accurate data of the monitored region to meet the requirements of precision agriculture. As wireless sensor networks(WSNs) has profound impacts on many fields due to its promising capability, in this paper, a WSN-based environment monitoring system is proposed. A prototype of the system that utilizes GAINSJ nodes based on Zigbee communication protocol has been implemented, and its packet error rate in different conditions was evaluated. Based on the proposed system architecture and technologies, the real time data can be measured, transmitted and stored in high accuracy. Moreover, the system was applied in upland grassland in Yushu, Qinghai province, and compared the results with the data acquired by local weather station. The system evaluation and experimental results show the effectiveness and reliability of the system in measuring the variations of temperature and humidity data within monitored region.

Cao, Minghua; Wang, Huiqin; Peng, Duo; Jia, Kejun

2009-07-01

317

Aviation weather services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

Sprinkle, C. H.

1983-01-01

318

Pinpointing the weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately predicting weather in regions like the west, which have a variety of climates in high mountain, coastal, and desert sites, can be tricky. Now the National Weather Service (NWS) is testing an experimental computer model that will help forecasters predict weather conditions with greater detail. The Eta-10 model allows forecasters in 24 western NWS offices to monitor the development

Elaine Friebele

1997-01-01

319

Hot Weather Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and those ... conditions such as vascular disease or diabetes, the weather does not have to hit 100 degrees to ...

320

Predicting Seasonal Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is about a new method of predicting seasonal weather. The site describes the effects of El Nino on global weather and the accuracy of the new model. It includes links to classroom resources for a variety of weather-based units.

Dybas, Cheryl

2008-12-07

321

What will be the weather like tomorrow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since June 2010, our school is part of the network '"météo à l'école'": it hosts an autonomous weather station, approved by Météo France , which measures continuously the temperature and precipitation. The data is transmitted by a GSM module to a computer server. After its validation by Météo France, it is send online every day on a public accessible website : http://www.edumeteo.org/ The MPS Education ( Scientific Methods and Practices) in junior high school classes (one hour and half per week throughout the school year ) makes full use of data from the networks '"météo à l'école'" data and Météo France. Three scientific disciplines :; Mathematics, Life and Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Chemistry are part of a schedule defined after consultation and educational coherence to enable students to: - Discovering and understanding the operation of the sensors station, weather satellites ... - Operating satellite images, studying of the atmosphere and weather phenomena (formation of a storm, for example) - Operating collected data (networks 'météo à l'école' and Météo France) to identify climatic differences between regions, seasons, and their effects on living beings (study of the greenhouse effect and climate warming among others). The ultimate goal is to discover used tools and data to produce a weather forecast. We work for these purposes with the Cité de l'Espace in Toulouse (weather Pole) and the head forecaster Meteo France Merignac.

Christelle, Guilloux

2014-05-01

322

Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

2009-01-01

323

Fabulous Weather Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. After studying weather for three months, we celebrate what we have learned and stretch our thinking further into the weather world around us! Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in their understanding of how the weather works and how it can affect their lives. Our unit focused on guiding students to formulate explanations about animals based on scientific evidence.

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. M.

2007-01-01

324

External Resource: Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes background information about weathering, as well as simple demonstrations/activities to model how weather conditions contribute to weathering and erosion. Topics include: chemical weathering, dunes, erosion, floods, glaciers, physi

1900-01-01

325

A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.  

PubMed

Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

2012-01-01

326

A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power  

PubMed Central

Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

2012-01-01

327

Wireless Ad Hoc Multicast Routing with Mobility Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The Wireless Token Ring Protocol (WTRP) isa medium access control protocol for wireless networks inIntelligent Transportation Systems. It supports quality ofservice in terms of bounded latency and reserved bandwidth.WTRP is e#cient in the sense that it reduces the number ofretransmissions due to collisions. It is fair in the sense thateach station takes a turn to transmit and is forced

Sung-ju Lee; William Su; Mario Gerla

2001-01-01

328

Wireless phone threat assessment for aircraft communication and navigation radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM\\/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station simulator is used to control the phones. The measurements are conducted using reverberation chambers, and the results are compared against FCC and aircraft installed

T. X. Nguyen; S. V. Koppen; L. J. Smith; R. A. Williams; M. T. Salud

2005-01-01

329

Comparison of Wireless Optical Communication Availability Data and Traffic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical Wireless link provides high bandwidth solution to the last mile access bottleneck. However, an appreciable availability of the link is always a concern. Free Space Optics (FSO) links are highly weather dependent and fog is the major attenuating factor reducing the link availability. However the traffic requirement of a LAN may not require 99.999% availability of FSO at all

Farukh Nadeem; B. Geiger; M. Henkel; Erich Leitgeb; Muhammad Saleem Awan; S. Hranilovic; Michael Gebhart; Gorazd Kandus

2009-01-01

330

Wireless Sensor Networks for Early Detection of Forest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and evaluation of a wireless sensor network for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires. We do this by analyzing the Fire Weather Index (FWI) System, and show how its different components can be used in designing efficient fire detection systems. The FWI System is one of the

Mohamed Hefeeda; Majid Bagheri

2007-01-01

331

Distributed Wireless Optical Communications for Humanitarian Assistance in Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an optical wireless communication network architecture employing an all-optical central communication unit and optical transceiver units. The network can easily be installed when communication network facilities are partially damaged by a disaster. The network performance is simulated at 1Gbit\\/s, over 1km under different weather conditions.

Muhsen Aljada; Kamal Alameh; Khalid Al-begain

2006-01-01

332

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center provides a variety of weather information, including a tropical weather menu with current and archived data on tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans. An interactive Weather Product Generator allows students to make their own surface data maps and meteograms (24-hour summaries of weather at a specific location), and view satellite imagery. There are also interactive weather maps for the U.S., Canada, and Alaska that display the latest observations, and text servers which provide current written observations for New England and North America. A set of past and current weather data products provides information on minimum and maximum temperatures, wind chill, and heat index. In addition, there are collections of satellite loops/movies, radar/lightning images, loops, and movies, and a set of tutorials on clouds, the sun and its effects on the environment, and balanced atmospheric flows.

333

Avalanche Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.

Linder, Dave

2011-01-01

334

Advancing profiling sensors with a wireless approach.  

PubMed

The notion of a profiling sensor was first realized by a Near-Infrared (N-IR) retro-reflective prototype consisting of a vertical column of wired sparse detectors. This paper extends that prior work and presents a wireless version of a profiling sensor as a collection of sensor nodes. The sensor incorporates wireless sensing elements, a distributed data collection and aggregation scheme, and an enhanced classification technique. In this novel approach, a base station pre-processes the data collected from the sensor nodes and performs data re-alignment. A back-propagation neural network was also developed for the wireless version of the N-IR profiling sensor that classifies objects into the broad categories of human, animal or vehicle with an accuracy of approximately 94%. These enhancements improve deployment options as compared with the first generation of wired profiling sensors, possibly increasing the application scenarios for such sensors, including intelligent fence applications. PMID:23443371

Galvis, Alex; Russomanno, David J

2012-01-01

335

Wireless LAN Extension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proliferation of laptop computers within organizations combined with an increasing need to mobilize the labor force have fueled the demand for wireless networks. Until recently, wireless technology was a patchwork of incompatible systems from a variet...

C. B. Tay

2003-01-01

336

The Wireless War Dance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of wireless technology on college campuses. Explores why colleges may want to use the technology, when they should begin to take it seriously, the culture pushing the change, and how schools should approach wireless technology. (EV)

Moriarty, Laura Joyce

2001-01-01

337

Next Generation Wireless Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the commercial success of wireless technologies that has already taken place over the last couple of decades, with a\\u000a global mobile communication penetration beyond 3 billion subscribers as well as the enormous success of wireless data communication\\u000a through IEEE 802.11x and Bluetooth, people could think the wireless revolution is over. However, future connectivity will\\u000a be wireless and ubiquitous. Therefore

Thomas Skjødeberg Toftegaard

2010-01-01

338

A resampling procedure for generating conditioned daily weather sequences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] A method is introduced to generate conditioned daily precipitation and temperature time series at multiple stations. The method resamples data from the historical record "nens" times for the period of interest (nens = number of ensemble members) and reorders the ensemble members to reconstruct the observed spatial (intersite) and temporal correlation statistics. The weather generator model is applied to 2307 stations in the contiguous United States and is shown to reproduce the observed spatial correlation between neighboring stations, the observed correlation between variables (e.g., between precipitation and temperature), and the observed temporal correlation between subsequent days in the generated weather sequence. The weather generator model is extended to produce sequences of weather that are conditioned on climate indices (in this case the Nin??o 3.4 index). Example illustrations of conditioned weather sequences are provided for a station in Arizona (Petrified Forest, 34.8??N, 109.9??W), where El Nin??o and La Nin??a conditions have a strong effect on winter precipitation. The conditioned weather sequences generated using the methods described in this paper are appropriate for use as input to hydrologic models to produce multiseason forecasts of streamflow.

Clark, M. P.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Brandon, D.; Werner, K.; Hay, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Yates, D.

2004-01-01

339

Weather and Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

340

Community Wireless Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…

Feld, Harold

2005-01-01

341

Space Weathering of Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

Noble, Sarah

2011-01-01

342

Polling-based MAC protocols for improving real-time performance in a wireless PROFIBUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of having a wireless PROFIBUS is appealing, since this can bring benefits like reduced cabling need and mobile stations to the factory floor. However, unfortunately, wireless transmission is error prone, which affects the timeliness and reliability behavior users expect from a fieldbus system (hard real time). In this paper, we compare two different approaches for the medium access

Andreas Willig

2003-01-01

343

Web: A Wireless Experiment Box for the Dextre Pointing Package ELC Payload.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wireless Experiment Box (WEB) was proposed to work with the International Space Station (ISS) External Wireless Communication (EWC) system to support high-definition video from the Dextre Pointing Package (DPP). DPP/WEB was a NASA GSFC proposed ExPRES...

J. W. Mitchell L. Z. Bleier M. C. Moreau P. A. Sparacino V. J. Marrero-Fontanez

2012-01-01

344

Searching for a lion in the desert: optics-based acquisition algorithms for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the task of locating and mapping sensor nodes equipped with passive optical transmitters deployed within a wireless sensor network. The passive transmitter is in the form of a modulatable corner cube retro-reflector (CCR) and is interrogated by a base station equipped with a variable sized laser beam prior to data harvesting using optical wireless communication.

Shlomi Arnon; Shlomi Dolev; Ronen I. Kat; Debbie Kedar

2008-01-01

345

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

346

Wireless Local Area Networks with Multiple-Packet Reception Capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to its simplicity and cost efficiency, wireless local area network\\u000a(WLAN) enjoys unique advantages in providing high-speed and low-cost wireless\\u000aservices in hot spots and indoor environments. Traditional WLAN\\u000amedium-access-control (MAC) protocols assume that only one station can transmit\\u000aat a time: simultaneous transmissions of more than one station causes the\\u000adestruction of all packets involved. By exploiting recent

Ying Jun Zhang; Peng Xuan Zheng; Soung Chang Liew

2007-01-01

347

The space-weather enterprise: past, present, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-weather impacts society in diverse ways. Societies' responses have been correspondingly diverse. Taken together these responses constitute a space weather ``enterprise'', which has developed over time and continues to develop. Technological systems that space-weather affects have grown from isolated telegraph systems in the 1840s to ocean and continent-spanning cable communications systems, from a generator electrifying a few city blocks in the 1880s to continent-spanning networks of high-tension lines, from wireless telegraphy in the 1890s to globe-spanning communication by radio and satellites. To have a name for the global totality of technological systems that are vulnerable to space weather, I suggest calling it the cyberelectrosphere. When the cyberelectrosphere was young, scientists who study space weather, engineers who design systems that space weather affects, and operators of such systems - the personnel behind the space-weather enterprise - were relatively isolated. The space-weather enterprise was correspondingly incoherent. Now that the cyberelectrosphere has become pervasive and indispensable to most segments of society, the space weather enterprise has become systematic and coherent. At present it has achieved considerable momentum, but it has barely begun to realize the level of effectiveness to which it can aspire, as evidenced by achievements of a corresponding but more mature enterprise in meteorology, a field which provides useful lessons. The space-weather enterprise will enter a new phase after it matures roughly to where the tropospheric weather enterprise is now. Then it will become indispensable for humankind's further global networking through technology and for humankind's further utilization of and expansion into space.

Siscoe, G.

2000-09-01

348

Weather and Climate Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather and Climate Data site for the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) contains analyses of current conditions and the state of the atmosphere; weather forecasts; metropolitan quick-look weather summaries and meteograms; short-term climate outlooks for temperature, precipitation and soil moisture; El Nino forecasts for understanding the ocean-atmosphere system; and maximum potential hurricane intensity maps showing potential minimum pressure and potential maximum winds for the oceans.

349

Space Weather: Welcome, SEC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video presentation welcomes the Space Environment Center (SEC) to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SEC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.

Spangler, Tim

2005-01-11

350

WWW - Wonderful Web Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a web quest for students to research weather forecasting using the Internet. Students work in groups to study how accurate weather forecasts are by tracking the weather for 3 days in several locations. Using graphs students then compare how each location scored in accuracy and present their findings to the class. This site contains links for students to use for more background information, a process for the students to follow, and evaluation rubrics for the student-produced graphs and presentation.

Parrish, Jason

351

National Weather Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.

352

Winter weather activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

353

Everything Weather- Archived Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

2001-01-01

354

Weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

1975-01-01

355

High-altitude platforms for wireless communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for high-capacity wireless services is bringing increasing challenges, especially for delivery of the'last mile'. Terrestrially, the need for line-of-sight propagation paths represents a constraint unless very large numbers of base-station masts are deployed, while satellite systems have capacity limitations. An emerging solution is offered by high-altitude platforms (HAPs) operating in the stratosphere at altitudes of up to 22

T. C. Tozer; D. Grace

2001-01-01

356

Downlink Wireless Packet Scheduling with Deadlines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation cellular wireless communication networks aim to provide a variety of quality-of-service (QoS) sensitive packet based services to downlink users. Included amongst these are real-time multimedia services, which have stringent delay requirements. Downlink packet scheduling at the base station plays a key role in efficiently allocating system res ources to meet the desired level of QoS for various users.

Aditya Dua; Nicholas Bambos

2007-01-01

357

Evaporation over a Heterogeneous Mixed Savanna-Agricultural Catchment using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale rain fed agriculture is the primary livelihood for a large part of the population of Burkina Faso. Regional climate change means that this population is becoming increasingly vulnerable. Additionally, as natural savanna is converted for agriculture, hydrological systems are observed to become less stable as infiltration is decreased and rapid runoff is increased to the detriment of crop productivity, downstream populations and local water sources. The majority of the Singou River Basin, located in South East Burkina Faso is managed by hunting reserves, geared to maintaining high populations of wild game; however, residents surrounding the protected areas have been forced to intensify agriculture that has resulted in soil degradation as well as increases in the frequency and severity of flooding and droughts. Agroforestry, or planting trees in cultivated fields, has been proposed as a solution to help buffer these negative consequences, however the specific hydrologic behavior of the watershed land cover is unknown. We have installed a distributed sensor network of 17 Sensorscope wireless meteorological stations. These stations are dispersed across cultivated rice and millet fields, natural savanna, fallow fields, and around agroforestry fields. Sensorscope routes data through the network of stations to be delivered by a GPRS connection to a main server. This multi hop network allows data to be gathered over a large area and quickly adapts to changes in station performance. Data are available in real time via a website that can be accessed by a mobile phone. The stations are powered autonomously by small photovoltaic panels. This deployment is the first time that these meteorological stations have been used on the African continent. Initial calibration with measures from 2 eddy covariance stations allows us to calculate the energy balance at each of the Sensorscope stations. Thus, we can observe variation in evaporation over the various land cover in the watershed. This research will both contribute to scientific understanding of West African vegetation and inform local reforestation and agricultural management. Concurrent to this scientific research, the community is improving natural resource management efforts including reforestation, a botanical garden and environmental education. Our hope is that the results of our evaporation modeling will inform local farmers and thus help improve their adaption to changing weather patterns and land cover.

Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Barrenetxea, G.; Vetterli, M.; Yacouba, H.; Repetti, A.; Parlange, M. B.

2010-12-01

358

Wireless adiabatic power transfer  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. > The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. > Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

Rangelov, A.A., E-mail: rangelov@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y. [Department of Physics of Complex System, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Vitanov, N.V. [Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2011-03-15

359

Highly spectrum efficient OFDM\\/PDM wireless networks by using optical SSB modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless access network using optical single-sideband modulation is proposed, which allows to deliver different wireless signals from a central station to each base station over an optical fiber network. The optical single-sideband (SSB) OFDM can achieve the highest spectrum efficiency of 0.25 b\\/s\\/Hz. A 0.25 b\\/s\\/Hz has been experimentally verified by the error-free transport of

Ken-Ichi Kitayama

1998-01-01

360

Weather or Not?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather or Not? is part of an online series of modules entitled Exploring the Environment. Emphasizing an integrated approach to environmental Earth Science education through problem-based learning, this module asks students to monitor the current weather and make predictions for up to a week. Using satellite imagery and monitoring resources, students predict the weather for an up-coming event of their choice (such as a sporting event). After the predictions are made, students track the actual weather that occurred during the event. There are links and resources for further information and research, as well as a reference on problem-based learning.

361

Weather assessment and forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data management program activities centered around the analyses of selected far-term Office of Applications (OA) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and if so what alternative solutions would be possible. Three far-term (1985 and beyond) OA objectives selected for analyses as having potential significant data problems were large-scale weather forecasting, local weather and severe storms forecasting, and global marine weather forecasting. An overview of general weather forecasting activities and their implications upon the ground based data system is provided. Selected topics were specifically oriented to the use of satellites.

1977-01-01

362

Washington Post Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

1997-01-01

363

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

364

UIUC DAS Google Earth Weather Bundle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Google Earth package gives the user a suite of automatically updating weather products that can be overlaid in any fashion they desire, as well as the ability to "fly" through the data in any manner. As an example, one can overlay automatically updating severe weather warnings on animated radar data as if they worked at the local weather service station and zoom in on their house to see if they are included within the warning area or how close the storms may be to their home. Although this weather bundle is meant for current and forecast data, some significant historical data is included like hurricane tracks from the Atlantic Basin from 1851-2007, imagery from Hurricane Katrina's landfall, satellite views of the Great Mississippi River Flood of 1993, or sea-surface temperature anomalies from the 1997-1998 El Nino. For users interested in Global Climate Change, there is historical temperature data for all locations on Earth that keep records from surface stations.

2008-01-01

365

75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wireless Communications System Server Software, Wireless Handheld Devices and Battery...wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices and battery...wireless communications system server software, wireless handheld devices or...

2010-02-24

366

Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 13. For Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Presented are the data accumulated during June at the intermediate photovoltaic project at Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

Not Available

1982-09-01

367

Value of global weather sensors  

SciTech Connect

Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.

Canavan, G.H.

1998-12-23

368

Mild and Wild Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

369

People and Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

370

Basics of Weather Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Without using mathematics, this memo summarizes the important information weather forecasters need to know to apply numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts. We've had to make some tough choices regarding what material to include. We've put the more t...

W. D. Meyer

1993-01-01

371

Home Weatherization Visit  

ScienceCinema

Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

372

Home Weatherization Visit  

ScienceCinema

Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29

373

Northwest Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

Palewicz, Sue; Scurlock, Marianne; Edmon, Harry

374

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

375

Weathering Database Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

Snyder, Robert

2005-01-01

376

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

377

Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

1998

378

Weather Vane and Anemometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this meteorology activity, learners construct simple devices to measure the direction and speed of wind. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes and generators work to analyze weather patterns. Note: a drill and other specialty tools are required for this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

379

Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering and erosion work together as natural forces, removing and transporting material. Sediments, the by-products of these processes, are subsequently deposited to produce characteristic landforms such as dunes, deltas, and glacial moraines. This slide show presents images of landforms that result from erosion and weathering, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects.

380

Aviation Weather Program (AWP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aviation Weather Program (AWP) combines additional weather observations, improved forecast technology, and more efficient distribution of information to pilots, controllers, and automated systems to improve the weather information provided to the air traffic control system, pilots, and other users of aviation weather information. Specific objectives include the needs to: improve airport and en-route capacity by accurate, high resolution, timely forecasts of changing weather conditions affecting airport and en-route operations; improve analyses and forecasts of upper-level winds for efficient flight planning and traffic management; and increase flight safety through improved aviation weather hazard forecasting (e.g. icing, turbulence, severe storms, microbursts, or strong winds). The AWP would benefit from participation in a cooperative multiscale experiment by obtaining data for: evaluation of aviation weather forecast products, analysis of four dimensional data assimilation schemes, and experimental techniques for retrieving aerosol and other visibility parameters. A multiscale experiment would also be helpful to AWP by making it possible to evaluate the added benefit of enhanced data sets collected during the experiment on those forecast and analysis products. The goals of the Coperative Multiscale Experiment (CME) are an essential step in attaining the long-term AWP objective of providing two-to-four hour location-specific forecasts of significant weather. Although the possibility of a funding role for the AWP in the CME is presently unclear, modest involvement of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/AWP personnel could be expected.

Foote, Brant

1993-01-01

381

Weathering of Serpentine Aggregates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the rapid weathering of serpentine aggregates in an autoclave-type device. Samples of serpentine aggregate from three sources were subjected to ten weathering cycles each and the results were compared with the resistance to rapid we...

1965-01-01

382

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the United States (US) military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly nonexistent. This...

B. B. Coble

1997-01-01

383

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the U.S. military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly non-existent. This study examin...

B. E. Coble

1996-01-01

384

Systems Study of an Automated Fire Weather Data System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor system applicable to an automated weather station was developed. The sensor provides automated fire weather data which correlates with manual readings. The equipment and methods are applied as an aid to the surveillance and protection of wildlands from fire damage. The continuous readings provided by the sensor system make it possible to determine the periods of time that the wilderness areas should be closed to the public to minimize the possibilities of fire.

Nishioka, K.

1974-01-01

385

Fair weather atmospheric electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

Harrison, R. G.

2011-06-01

386

Scholastic: Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

387

Wireless mesh networks.  

PubMed

Wireless telemedicine using GSM and GPRS technologies can only provide low bandwidth connections, which makes it difficult to transmit images and video. Satellite or 3G wireless transmission provides greater bandwidth, but the running costs are high. Wireless networks (WLANs) appear promising, since they can supply high bandwidth at low cost. However, the WLAN technology has limitations, such as coverage. A new wireless networking technology named the wireless mesh network (WMN) overcomes some of the limitations of the WLAN. A WMN combines the characteristics of both a WLAN and ad hoc networks, thus forming an intelligent, large scale and broadband wireless network. These features are attractive for telemedicine and telecare because of the ability to provide data, voice and video communications over a large area. One successful wireless telemedicine project which uses wireless mesh technology is the Emergency Room Link (ER-LINK) in Tucson, Arizona, USA. There are three key characteristics of a WMN: self-organization, including self-management and self-healing; dynamic changes in network topology; and scalability. What we may now see is a shift from mobile communication and satellite systems for wireless telemedicine to the use of wireless networks based on mesh technology, since the latter are very attractive in terms of cost, reliability and speed. PMID:19047448

Wang, Xinheng

2008-01-01

388

Predicting the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the science behind predicting the weather. First, the United States Search and Rescue Task Force describe the basic tools and knowledge used to create weather forecasts (1). Students can find concise, clear explanations of weather, fronts and air masses, high and low pressure, precipitation, and water vapor and humidity as well. By performing the activities presented in the second website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection (2). This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Third, Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps (3 ). Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. The fourth website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather (4). Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Next, NOAA provides graphics for five forecast models: the ETA, the Global Forecast System (GFS), the Wave Watch III (WW3), the Nested Grid model (NGM), and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) (5). Outputs are available for North America, North Pacific, Western North Atlantic, and the Polar Ice Drift. Users can find links to detailed descriptions of the inputs and history of each model. Sixth, the British government's Met Office describes numerical modeling and its components (6). Students and educators can learn about the future in forecasting as well as educational opportunities with the Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET).

389

GPS Estimates of Integrated Precipitable Water Aid Weather Forecasters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology provides enhanced density, low-latency (30-min resolution), integrated precipitable water (IPW) estimates to NOAA NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis tration Nat ional Weather Service) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to provide improved model and satellite data verification capability and more accurate forecasts of extreme weather such as flooding. An early activity of this project was to increase the number of stations contributing to the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) GPS meteorology observing network in Southern California by about 27 stations. Following this, the Los Angeles/Oxnard and San Diego WFOs began using the enhanced GPS-based IPW measurements provided by ESRL in the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons. Forecasters found GPS IPW to be an effective tool in evaluating model performance, and in monitoring monsoon development between weather model runs for improved flood forecasting. GPS stations are multi-purpose, and routine processing for position solutions also yields estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV (precipitable water vapor) using in situ pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology. NOAA ESRL has implemented this concept with a nationwide distribution of more than 300 "GPSMet" stations providing IPW estimates at sub-hourly resolution currently used in operational weather models in the U.S.

Moore, Angelyn W.; Gutman, Seth I.; Holub, Kirk; Bock, Yehuda; Danielson, David; Laber, Jayme; Small, Ivory

2013-01-01

390

Designing wireless radio access networks for third generation cellular networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In third generation (3G) cellular networks, base stations are connected to base station controllers by point- to-point (usually T1\\/E1) links. However, today's T1\\/E1 bas ed backhaul network is not a good match for next generation wireless networks because symmetric T1s is not an efficient w ay to carry bursty and asymmetric data traffic. In this paper, we propose designing an

Tian Bu; Mun Choon Chan; Ramachandran Ramjee

2005-01-01

391

Wireless communications for a multiple robot system. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

A multi-disciplinary research project is being undertaken at NPS to develop a semi-autonomous robotic system to detect and clear land mines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO). The robotic system under development consists of a land vehicle, an aerial vehicle, and a ground-based control station. Reliable communication between these three stations is needed. A traditional wire-based network requires that the vehicles be tethered and severely limits the mobility of the vehicles. A wireless Local Area Network (LAN) is proposed to provide communications between the control station and the vehicles. The objective of this thesis is to develop the physical (hardware) and logical (software) architecture of a wireless LAN that accommodates the needs of the mine/UXO project. Through an analysis of wireless modulation techniques, a market survey of wireless devices, and a field testing of wireless devices, a wireless LAN is designed to meet the technological, performance, regulation, interference, and mobility requirements of the mine/UXO project. Finally, the wireless communication protocols and the development of an error-free application protocol (specified by a FSM model and implemented in ANSI C code using Windows socket network programming) completes the wireless LAN implementation.

Bekas, A.J.

1997-03-01

392

Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard  

MedlinePLUS

... cold air. But, not everyone knows that cold weather can also lower the temperature inside your body. ... cold it is where you are. Check the weather forecasts for windy and cold weather. Try to ...

393

Space Weather CD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a software package about space weather: what it is and what it does in space and here on Earth. The disc includes software that displays movies and images of the aurora and of the Sun in various wavelengths from the ground and from orbiting NASA spacecraft; a tutorial about what space weather is and how the aurora is formed; and more. Users will also find real-time space weather conditions from current satellite missions and can download the latest data without leaving the Space Weather application. A TicTacToe game is also included that tests space weather knowledge. The disc contains many other Space Weather resources, programs, sounds, and games for use at home or school, and there are several educational websites included in full on the disc for offline viewing. In addition there is an exhaustive list of links to a variety of space weather resources available online. The disc is available for free from a number of sites if downloaded.

394

An algorithm on convective weather potential in the early rainy season over the Pearl River Delta in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the procedure and methodology to formulate the convective weather potential (CWP) algorithm. The data\\u000a used in the development of the algorithm are the radar echoes at 0.5 elevation from Guangzhou Doppler Radar Station, surface\\u000a observations from automatic weather stations (AWS) and outputs of numeric weather prediction (NWP) models. The procedure to\\u000a develop the CWP algorithm consists of

Yerong Feng; Ying Wang; Taoyong Peng; Jinghua Yan

2007-01-01

395

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses weather conditions and their contribution to weathering and erosion. Students learn to explain the process of physical and chemical weathering. They also learn to compare and contrast erosion resulting from wind, ice and water. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

396

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based Real Time Data Module was created by the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) for use by students in the elementary grades to allow them to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The site features a Teacher Area containing lesson plans, curriculum standards, guidelines for data collection, and a list of children's books with weather-related themes.

397

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features visual resources and supporting data that illustrate the relationship between weather and climate. Resources are divided by topic including climate resources, weather forecasting, warnings and data, and evidence for global warming. Visualizations and data sets include GIS-based animated maps, static maps, simple animations, and links to real-time stream gauge data. This site provides an array of visual resources that help demonstrate the difference between weather and climate and may be incorporated into lectures, labs, or other activities.

2007-04-11

398

Extreme Weather Sourcebook 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally reviewed in the February 26, 1999 Scout Report, the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Extreme Weather Sourcebook offers easy access to updated data on the economic damage from hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes in the United States and its territories. Time spans for each type of extreme weather vary, with hurricane data covering 1900-99, tornadoes 1950-99, floods 1955-1999, and lightning 1959-1994; however, all damage data are reported in constant 1999 dollars to simplify comparisons. The data are offered by weather event and state by rank or alphabetically.

2001-01-01

399

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website uses real time data for many activities for learning about the weather. It can be modified to fit virtually any grade level. The project is broken up into 3 sets of lessons; Introductory Activities, Real Time Data Activities, and Language Arts Activities. Each lesson gives a recommended time for completion, to help keep students and teachers on track. There is a helpful teachers guide section with background information about real time data, curriculum standards, and assessment suggestions. Th students gallery has many examples of real projects other students have already created. There is also a helpful reference guide, with information on real time weather, projects, and weather lesson plans.

2006-01-01

400

Lifting Scheme DWT Implementation in a Wireless Vision Sensor Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the practical implementation of a Wireless Visual Sensor Network (WVSN) with DWT processing on the visual nodes. WVSN consists of visual nodes that capture video and transmit to the base-station without processing. Limitation of network bandwidth restrains the implementation of real time video streaming from remote visual nodes through wireless communication. Three layers of DWT filters are implemented to process the captured image from the camera. With having all the wavelet coefficients produced, it is possible just to transmit the low frequency band coefficients and obtain an approximate image at the base-station. This will reduce the amount of power required in transmission. When necessary, transmitting all the wavelet coefficients will produce the full detail of image, which is similar to the image captured at the visual nodes. The visual node combines the CMOS camera, Xilinx Spartan-3L FPGA and wireless ZigBee® network that uses the Ember EM250 chip.

Ong, Jia Jan; Ang, L.-M.; Seng, K. P.

401

Solar structure and terrestrial weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that solar activity has discernible effects on terrestrial weather is considered. Research involving correlation of weather conditions with solar and geomagnetic activity is discussed.

Wilcox, J. M.

1976-01-01

402

An adaptive algorithm for call admission control in wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we develop an adaptive algorithm for call admission control in wireless networks. The algorithm is built upon the concept of guard channels and it uses an adaptation algorithm to search automatically the optimal number of guard channels to be reserved at each base station. The quality of service parameters used in our study are the new

Yi Zhang; Derong Liu

2001-01-01

403

Large Group Musical Interaction using Disposable Wireless Motion Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a set of low-cost, wireless motion sensors that enable a large group of dancers to participate concurrently in a real-time, interactive musical perform- ance. These sensors are either worn or held by partici- pants and transmit a short RF pulse at the extremes of limb motion. The RF pulses are received by a base station and analyzed

Mark Christopher Feldmeier; Mateusz Malinowski; Joseph A. Paradiso

2002-01-01

404

Energy-efficient DSPs for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many new challenges to be faced in implementing signal processing algorithms and designing energy-efficient DSPs for microsensor networks. We study system partitioning of computation to improve the energy efficiency of a wireless sensor networking application. We explore system partitioning between the sensor cluster and the base station, employing computation-communication tradeoffs to reduce energy dissipation. Also we show that

Alice Wang; Anantha Chandrakasan

2002-01-01

405

Research challenges in wireless networks of biomedical sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implanted biomedical devices have the potential to revolutionize medicine. Smart sensors, which are created by combining sensing materials with integrated circuitry, are being considered for several biomedical applications such as a glucose level monitor or a retina prosthesis. These devices require the capability to communicate with an external computer system (base station) via a wireless interface. The limited power and

Loren Schwiebert; Sandeep K. S. Gupta; Jennifer Weinmann

2001-01-01

406

Networked Wireless Sensor Data Collection: Issues, Challenges, and Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been applied to many applications since emerging. Among them, one of the most important applications is Sensor Data Collections ,w here sensed data are collected at all or some of the sensor nodes and forwarded to a central base station for further processing. In this paper, we present a survey on recent advances in this

Feng Wang; Jiangchuan Liu

2011-01-01

407

Efficient Rendezvous Algorithms for Mobility-Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research shows that significant energy saving can be achieved in mobility-enabled wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that visit sensor nodes and collect data from them via short-range communications. However, a major performance bottleneck of such WSNs is the significantly increased latency in data collection due to the low movement speed of mobile base stations. To address this issue, we propose

Guoliang Xing; Minming Li; Tian Wang; Weijia Jia; Jun Huang

2012-01-01

408

Radio resource allocation in fixed broadband wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider use of fixed broadband wireless networks to provide packet services for telecommuting and Internet access. Each cell is divided into multiple sectors, each of them served by a sector antenna colocated with the base station (BS), and user terminals also use directional antennas mounted on the rooftops of homes or small offices and pointed to their respective BS

Thomas K. Fong; Paul S. Henry; Kin K. Leung; Xiaoxin Qiu; N. K. Shankaranarayanan

1998-01-01

409

Energy Efficient Video Compression for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless video sensor networks are anticipated to be deployed to monitor remote geographical areas. To save energy in bit transmissions\\/receptions over a video sensor network, the captured video content needs to be encoded before its transmission to the base station. However, video encoding is an inherently complex operation that can cause a major energy drain at battery-constrained sensors. Thus a

Junaid Jameel Ahmad; Hassan Aqeel Khan; Syed Ali Khayam

2009-01-01

410

Deployment Control of Wireless Multi-Hop-Relay Mobile Robots Based on Voronoi Partition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new method for the deployment of wireless relay nodes. When using rescue robots in a building or underground city, the wireless radio signal is attenuated significantly, and therefore, multi-hop extension involving wireless communication relays is required. The goal of this research is to deploy wireless relay nodes to maintain connectivity between the base station and the leader robot that explores around the front line. To move the relay robot autonomously, a distributed algorithm is required. The proposed method is suitable when it is applied for wireless relay purposes. In the method, a virtual force drives a node to the centroid of Voronoi neighbors, and it maintains the connectivity of wireless communication. The proposed method is evaluated by conducting numerical simulations and experiments. In the simulation, one or two leader robots are assumed. In the experiment, a mobile robot equipped with omni-wheels is used.

Imaizumi, Takaaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Uchimura, Yutaka

411

Tombstone Weathering Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in groups in a cemetery to collect a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the extent of weathering of tombstones and their ages. The data are shared between all students, graphed as scatter plots, and the rate of weathering is estimated. Students write about and then discuss the results, the difference between the quantitative and qualitative measures, and speculate on factors in addition to time that may be important for weathering rate. The exercise ends with each students writing a hypothesis about a factor that influences weathering rate and describing a research project that could test that hypothesis. This activity is aimed at developing an understanding of the scatter in "real data", allowing for practice of team work, and hypothesis generation and testing. Designed for a geomorphology course Has minimal/no quantitative component

Anders, Alison

412

Wasatch Weather Modification Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the Wasatch Weather Modification Project is to 'assess the relative effectiveness and the practicability of selected procedures for increasing the water supply, from precipitation in the Wasatch Mountains, by cloud seeding.' A loc...

G. W. Reynolds

1969-01-01

413

Cold-Weather Sports  

MedlinePLUS

Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular fitness, and strengthen muscles. Activities that are ...

414

Weather and Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human lo...

1975-01-01

415

Garments, Outer (Wet Weather).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a method for evaluation of wet weather clothing operational and functional performance characteristics. Identifies supporting tests, facilities, and equipment required. Provides procedures for preoperational inspection, physical chara...

R. Rush

1972-01-01

416

Cold Weather Aerostat Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerostats are being considered for application in cold weather regions. A review of aerostat flight experience to date was made to determine the limitations of the current technology. Areas for improvements and modifications to extend the aerostat system ...

R. L. Ashford

1982-01-01

417

Accelerated Weathering of Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project concerns correlation between weathering indices obtained from samples of one type of sedimentary rock (graywacke) and those obtained after laboratory agency tests of the same rocks. Study is made of the process of natural alteration in three s...

L. Aires-Barros

1977-01-01

418

Physical and chemical weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering processes that might be important on Mars are reviewed, and the limited observations, including relevant Viking results and laboratory simulations, are summarized. Physical weathering may have included rock splitting through growth of ice, salt or secondary silicate crystals in voids. Chemical weathering probably involved reactions of minerals with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, although predicted products vary sensitively with the abundance and physical form postulated for the water. On the basis of kinetics data for hydration of rock glass on earth, the fate of weathering-rind formation on glass-bearing Martian volcanic rocks is tentatively estimated to have been on the order of 0.1 to 4.5 cm/Gyr; lower rates would be expected for crystalline rocks.

Gooding, James L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Zolotov, Mikhail Iu.

419

Weather Here and There  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Education Project of the Resource for Science Education Program offers the Weather Here and There educational unit. The Web site consists of six lessons geared for students in grades four through six that cover everything from characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere to forecasting the weather. Each lesson contains the objectives, materials, background information, vocabulary, evaluation, etc. needed to easily prepare and complete each.

1995-01-01

420

Windows on the Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Windows on the Weather is a web-based teaching tool designed to engage middle school students in the analysis and understanding of Earth's atmosphere by combining current weather satellite imagery with live webcams from across the United States. This project lends itself to inquiry-based studies in a variety of Earth science disciplines, including meteorology, climatology, and geography. This paper describes the project as it currently stands, along with features to be implemented in the future.

Alena, T. R.

2010-08-01

421

NOAA Weather Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOAA offers links to a variety of educational materials on meteorology, hydrology, climatology, and other weather-related fields for children, teens, and young adults at this website. Students can find websites where they can learn about hurricanes, storms, tornadoes, and floods through interactive games. Teachers can find lightning safety presentations, satellite images, lightning photos, and glossaries. The website offers materials on weather related careers, degree programs, distance learning courses, and additional opportunities.

422

Weathering of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

Van Norden, Wendy

423

TypoWeather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The TypoWeather application is a great way to stay on top of the latest weather conditions. This handy device presents users with a five day outlook and an hourly breakdown that is updated based on data from the National Meteorological Service. Visitors can customize their layout to include alerts about certain meteorological conditions, such as wind patterns, humidity, and more. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-03-13

424

Extreme Weather Sourcebook: Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Extreme Weather Sourcebook is a database maintained by the Societal Impacts Program (SIP) at NCAR of statistics on extreme weather events. The Sourcebook is intended as a resource for researchers, policy makers, the media, and the general public, among other users. This page from the Sourcebook showcases data on tornado damages as total losses for the years 1950-2009 in the United States.

University Consortium for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

425

Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated. PMID:24031193

Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirôllo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

2008-01-01

426

Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils  

PubMed Central

This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated.

Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirollo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

2008-01-01

427

Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields.  

PubMed

Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26-72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12-19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2013-12-01

428

A new framework for call admission control in wireless cellular network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing the limited amount of the radio spectrum is an important issue with increasing demand of the same. In recent work, we have introduced MAS (Multi-agent System) for channel assignment problem in wireless cellular networks. Iinstead of using a base station directly for negotiation, a multi- agent system comprising of software agents was designed to work at base station. The

Megha Kamble; Roopam Gupta

2011-01-01

429

Joint mobility and routing for lifetime elongation in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many energy efficient\\/conserving routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks, the concentration of data traffic towards a small number of base stations remains a major threat to the network lifetime. The main reason is that the sensor nodes located near a base station have to relay data for a large part of the network and thus deplete

Jun Luo; Jean-pierre Hubaux

2005-01-01

430

Utility-Based User Grouping and Bandwidth Allocation for Wireless Multicast Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of wireless multimedia appli- cations, multicast\\/broadcast has been recognized as an efficient technique to transmit a large volume of data to multiple mo- bile stations at the same time. In most multicast systems, the transmitter (e.g. base station) adapts its data rate to the furthest located users, so as to guarantee service quality to as many users

Juan Liu; Wei Chen; Zhigang Cao; Ying Jun Zhang; Soung Chang Liew

2009-01-01

431

Wireless LAN design alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have discussed several alternatives in wireless LAN design: media choice, operating frequency, operating mode, network topology, and access method. Although each technical choice presents both advantages and disadvantages, they argue that there is a design point that provides the best fit with present and future wireless LAN user needs. Considering all factors-including robustness, regulatory considerations, and interference avoidance-using

Ddd F. Bantz; Frederic J. Bauchot

1994-01-01

432

Wireless data communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless data services and systems represent a rapidly growing and increasingly important segment of the communications industry. In the paper the authors present an overview of this field, emphasizing three major elements: (1) technologies utilized in existing and currently planned wireless data services, (2) issues related to the performance of these systems, and (3) discernible trends in the continuing development

K. Pahlavan; ALLEN H. LEVESQUE

1994-01-01

433

Digital wireless control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Digital Wireless Control System (DWCS) is designed to initiate high explosives safely while using a wireless remote control system. Numerous safety features have been designed into the fire control system to mitigate the hazards associated with remote initiation of high explosives. These safety features range from a telemetry (TM) fire control status system to mechanical timers and keyed power

R. Smith

1993-01-01

434

Emerging wireless broadband networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid evolution of mobile wireless access networks toward multimedia support with QoS provision forces the development of advanced wireless broadband systems with high reliability and high data rate. To achieve this goal, new system design concepts with increased system capacity will be required. In that context, ATM is becoming a major infrastructure, receiving a lot of attention for telecommunication

Jouni Mikkonen; C. Corrado; C. Evci; M. Progler

1998-01-01

435

Warming Up to Wireless  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In districts big and small across the U.S., students, teachers, and administrators alike have come to appreciate the benefits of wireless technology. Because the technology delivers Internet signals on airborne radio frequencies, wireless networking allows users of all portable devices to move freely on a school's campus and stay connected to the…

Milner, Jacob

2005-01-01

436

Federal Plan for Weather Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan for weather radars describes the use of national weather radar resources in providing warnings and forecasts of severe weather for all walks of life within the U.S. Information is given on disaster warnings, general weather forecasting special De...

1973-01-01

437

Social Aspects of Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the social context and citizen response to three weather modification projects provides an introduction to the discussion of a variety of social and economic issues related to planned weather modification. Various interest groups have markedly different perspectives on weather modification. Most persons subject to the consequences of weather modification have no opportunity to participate in the associated

J. Eugene Haas

1973-01-01

438

Collaborative Learning through Wireless Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe wireless grids, an emerging technology that enables ad hoc sharing of resources (such as screen, services and microphone) on edge devices (such as mobile Internet devices, laptops and mobile phones). As wireless devices have become common, and “smart,” wireless grids have become practical. To highlight the capabilities of wireless grids to support collaborative learning, projects

Angela Usha Ramnarine-Rieks; Lee W. McKnight; Ruth V. Small

2011-01-01

439

Wireless communication with chaos.  

PubMed

The modern world fully relies on wireless communication. Because of intrinsic physical constraints of the wireless physical media (multipath, damping, and filtering), signals carrying information are strongly modified, preventing information from being transmitted with a high bit rate. We show that, though a chaotic signal is strongly modified by the wireless physical media, its Lyapunov exponents remain unaltered, suggesting that the information transmitted is not modified by the channel. For some particular chaotic signals, we have indeed proved that the dynamic description of both the transmitted and the received signals is identical and shown that the capacity of the chaos-based wireless channel is unaffected by the multipath propagation of the physical media. These physical properties of chaotic signals warrant an effective chaos-based wireless communication system. PMID:23683198

Ren, Hai-Peng; Baptista, Murilo S; Grebogi, Celso

2013-05-01

440

Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

2012-01-01

441

Standardizing orbit planning, satellite operations, and communication activities that are affected by space weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision satellite orbit determination, constellation station-keeping, debris avoidance, reentry timing, satellite subsystem performance and safety, and communication link enhancement are among the major technological activities that are affected by space weather. There are numerous applications being developed to mitigate space weather affects on these domains. However, the common language for information exchange still needs community attention. We report on progress

W. Tobiska

2007-01-01

442

Interplanetary sources of space weather disturbances in 1997 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-five disturbed intervals from 1997 through 2000 were analyzed and selected on the basis of space weather effect occurrences such as significant compression of the dayside magnetosphere, strong magnetic storms, ionospheric perturbations, relativistic electron enhancements, and increases in the rate of data failures and radiation doses on board the Mir station. Solar wind disturbances were considered as the main factor

A. V. Dmitriev; N. B. Crosby; J.-K. Chao

2005-01-01

443

Calendar Year 1985 Solar and Weather Data for Austin, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Center for Energy Studies at the University of Texas at Austin maintain a monitoring station on the roof of the Engineering Teaching Center that provides measured solar and weather data for Austin, Texas. T...

C. M. Sloan G. C. Vliet B. D. Hunn

1987-01-01

444

Wireless physiological monitoring system for psychiatric patients.  

PubMed

Patients in psychiatric hospitals that are sedated or secluded are at risk of death or injury if they are not continuously monitored. Some psychiatric patients are restless and aggressive, and hence the monitoring device should be robust and must transmit the data wirelessly. Two devices, a glove that measures oxygen saturation and a dorsally-mounted device that measures heart rate, skin temperature and respiratory rate were designed and tested. Both devices connect to one central monitoring station using two separate Bluetooth connections, ensuring a completely wireless setup. A Matlab graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for signal processing and monitoring of the vital signs of the psychiatric patient. Detection algorithms were implemented to detect ECG arrhythmias such as premature ventricular contraction and atrial fibrillation. The prototypes were manufactured and tested in a laboratory setting on healthy volunteers. PMID:19965038

Rademeyer, A J; Blanckenberg, M M; Scheffer, C

2009-01-01

445

Using automatic weather station data to quantify snowmelt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowmelt constitutes an important part of the surface energy and mass\\u000abalance of the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. In Greenland, the\\u000aentire ice sheet experiences occasional melt, as indicated by thin, isolated\\u000aice lenses in firn cores drilled at the highest part of the ice sheet and supported\\u000aby regional atmospheric climate models (Ettema et al., 2010). In

M. R. van den Broeke; C. J. P. P. Smeets; C. Reijmer; W. Boot

2011-01-01

446

A relational database for automatic weather station data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archiving measuring data requires accessibility, security and simplicity. When many users are working with the same data sets, these requirements may be violated due to separation of data and meta data, redundancy (same or different versions of data in several locations) and\\/or different file formats of raw data files. Such a suboptimal data archiving system might not be comprehensible by

Martin Großhauser

2010-01-01

447

The heat budget at ocean weather station Bravo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monthly surface heat budget and wind stress are calculated from three?hourly meteorological data obtained at OWS B from 1946 to 1974 using formulae based on the best available measurements, and are then compared with earlier estimates. The surface heating is compared with the monthly heat storage in the water column calculated from hydrographic casts from 1964 to 1973. In

Stuart D. Smith; Fred W. Dobson

1984-01-01

448

MetLink: Weather and Climate Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MetLink is a public resource created by the Royal Meteorological Society to assist educators seeking to edify their students about meteorology and climatology. The well-designed website has six primary sections, including Observations and Data, Teachers, and Resource of the Week. This last area is a fine place to start, as it brings together a range of well-considered resources that might include anything from a cloud identification key to a set of interactive graphics demonstrating the formation of thunderstorms. In the Observations and Data area, visitors can learn about weather stations in Britain, meteorology fieldwork, and over a dozen different weather experiments. The Teachers area contains links to curricular materials, including guides for in-class demonstrations, quizzes, and fact sheets. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive email updates about the work of the Royal Meteorological Society.

449

Secure Localization with Hidden and Mobile Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, the problem of localization in wireless networks has been mainly studied in a non-adversarial setting. Only recently, a number of solutions have been proposed that aim to detect and prevent attacks on localization systems. In this work, we propose a new approach to secure localization based on hidden and mobile base stations. Our approach enables secure localization with

Srdjan Capkun; Mario Cagalj; Mani B. Srivastava

2006-01-01

450

Secure Location Verification with Hidden and Mobile Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose and analyse a new approach for securing localization and location ver- ification in wireless networks based on hidden and mo- bile base stations. Our approach enables secure localiza- tion with a broad spectrum of localization techniques: ultrasonic or radio, based on received signal strength or signal time of flight. Through several examples we show how

Srdjan Capkun; Kasper Bonne Rasmussen; Mario Cagalj; Mani B. Srivastava

2008-01-01

451

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-01-01

452

Oceans, Climate, and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-10-01

453

Wireless quantified reflex device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep tendon reflex is a fundamental aspect of a neurological examination. The two major parameters of the tendon reflex are response and latency, which are presently evaluated qualitatively during a neurological examination. The reflex loop is capable of providing insight for the status and therapy response of both upper and lower motor neuron syndromes. Attempts have been made to ascertain reflex response and latency, however these systems are relatively complex, resource intensive, with issues of consistent and reliable accuracy. The solution presented is a wireless quantified reflex device using tandem three dimensional wireless accelerometers to obtain response based on acceleration waveform amplitude and latency derived from temporal acceleration waveform disparity. Three specific aims have been established for the proposed wireless quantified reflex device: 1. Demonstrate the wireless quantified reflex device is reliably capable of ascertaining quantified reflex response and latency using a quantified input. 2. Evaluate the precision of the device using an artificial reflex system. 3.Conduct a longitudinal study respective of subjects with healthy patellar tendon reflexes, using the wireless quantified reflex evaluation device to obtain quantified reflex response and latency. Aim 1 has led to the steady evolution of the wireless quantified reflex device from a singular two dimensional wireless accelerometer capable of measuring reflex response to a tandem three dimensional wireless accelerometer capable of reliably measuring reflex response and latency. The hypothesis for aim 1 is that a reflex quantification device can be established for reliably measuring reflex response and latency for the patellar tendon reflex, comprised of an integrated system of wireless three dimensional MEMS accelerometers. Aim 2 further emphasized the reliability of the wireless quantified reflex device by evaluating an artificial reflex system. The hypothesis for aim 2 is that the wireless quantified reflex device can obtain reliable reflex parameters (response and latency) from an artificial reflex device. Aim 3 synthesizes the findings relevant to aim 1 and 2, while applying the wireless accelerometer reflex quantification device to a longitudinal study of healthy patellar tendon reflexes. The hypothesis for aim 3 is that during a longitudinal evaluation of the deep tendon reflex the parameters for reflex response and latency can be measured with a considerable degree of accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility. Enclosed is a detailed description of a wireless quantified reflex device with research findings and potential utility of the system, inclusive of a comprehensive description of tendon reflexes, prior reflex quantification systems, and correlated applications.

Lemoyne, Robert Charles

454

Delicious Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

Gorte, Mary

455

Extreme Weather Sourcebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents a summary of damage caused by hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, lightning, hail, thunderstorms, and windstorms in the United States and its territories. Information was collected from as far back as 1900 (for hurricanes) and as recently as 1999 (for most categories). For each weather category, there is statistical information on monetary damages (in millions of dollars), sorted by rank and by alphabetic listing. There is also a summary table for composite damage from tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods; tables and graphs for damage and casualties caused by lightning; and summary information for other types of extreme weather (hail, thunderstorms, winter storms). Links are provided to information on data sources and methodology and on the societal impacts of weather.

456

Planetary Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invited Talk - Space weather at other planets While discussion of space weather effects has so far largely been confined to the near-Earth environment, there are significant present and future applications to the locations beyond, and to other planets. Most obviously, perhaps, are the radiation hazards experienced by astronauts on the way to, and on the surface of, the Moon and Mars. Indeed, the environment experienced by planetary spacecraft in transit and at their destinations is of course critical to their design and successful operation. The case of forthcoming missions to Jupiter and Europa is an exreme example. Moreover, such craft can provide information which in turn increases our understanding of geospace. Indeed, space weather may be a significant factor in the habitability of other solar system and extrasolar planets, and the ability of life to travel between them.

Grande, M.

2012-04-01

457

Large-Scale Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the previous chapter, we dealt with how the properties of air and water affected small-scale weather such as the formation of clouds, the formation of fog, and how comfortable you feel at different times of the year. In this chapter, we're going to go global, talking about major interactions between the Sun and Earth, the resulting effects on large air masses, and how these major interactions help us figure out what the weather's going to be tomorrow. As discussed earlier in the book, when science concepts are applied to the real world, things don't always work out exactly as expected. However, it is possible to get an overall picture of what's happening in large-scale weather.

Robertson, William C.

2005-01-01

458

Linking Weather and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation provides an overview major phenomena and mechanisms linking weather and climate variations, with a focus on a subset of major, recurrent phenomena that impact extratropical wintertime weather and climate variations over the Pacific-North American region. While progress in advancing understanding has been impressive, research has also illuminated areas where significant future gains are possible. Emerging thrusts in international and national research priorities suggest that over time artificial distinctions will be removed between "weather" and "climate", as we begin to achieve a more unified understanding of phenomena and processes that bridge time scales. We discuss these research thrusts, which are likely to serve as increasingly vital components of an overall research strategy in earth system science.

Dole, R.

2006-05-01

459

A Comparison of Wind Records from Two Neighbouring Stations in Northern Ellesmere Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wind records from two stations in northern Ellesmere Island are compared for 52 days in April and May 1971. One station was on the sea ice in Robeson Channel and the other was the weather station at Alert which is only 55 km away. It is shown that the...

H. E. Sadler D. Finlayson

1975-01-01

460

Mobility- Aware Cache Management in Wireless Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In infrastructure wireless environments, a base station provides communication links between mobile client and remote servers. Placing a proxy cache at the base station is an effective way of managing the wireless Internet bandwidth efficiently. However, in the situation of non-uniform heavy traffic, requests of all the mobile clients in the service area of the base station may cause overload in the cache. If the proxy cache has to release some cache space for the new mobile client in the environment, overload occurs. In this paper, we propose a novel cache management strategy to decrease the penalty of overloaded traffic on the proxy and to reduce the number of remote accesses by increasing the cache hit ratio. We predict the number of overload ahead of time based on its history and adapt the cache for the heavy traffic to be able to provide continuous and fair service to the current mobile clients and incoming ones. We have tested the algorithms over a real implementation of the cache management system in presence of fault tolerance and security. In our cache replacement algorithm, mobility of the clients, predicted overload number, size of the cached packets and their access frequencies are considered altogether. Performance results show that our cache management strategy outperforms the existing policies with less number of overloads and higher cache hit ratio.

Kaur, Gagandeep; Saini, J. S.

2010-11-01

461

A unscented particle filtering approach to estimating competing stations in IEEE 802.11 WLANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of competing stations has great impact on the network performance of wireless LANs. It is therefore of great interest to obtain accurate estimation of the number of competing stations so that adaptive control mechanisms can be carried out accordingly. Based on the observation that this estimation problem is nonlinear\\/non-Gaussian in nature, we propose to use a sequential Monte

Dong Zheng; Junshan Zhang

2005-01-01

462

A wide-area bird monitoring system using geographically distributed base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the proposed bird monitoring system, a bird-tag, equipped with GPS, is attached on the bird body. Base stations are geographically distributed in a wide interest area to receive the GPS data sets from bird-tags using low power wireless transmission system. A data center collects the GPS data from the base stations to track the position of each bird. Simple

Kenichi Mase; Takehiro Kajita; Yunzhe Zhang

2011-01-01

463

Adaptive antennas at the mobile and base stations in an OFDM\\/TDMA system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several smart antenna systems have been proposed and demonstrated at the base station (BS) of wireless communications systems, and these have shown that significant system performance improvement is possible. We consider the use of adaptive antennas at the BS and mobile stations (MS), operating jointly, in combination with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. The advantages of the proposed system includes reductions in

Kai-Kit Wong; Roger S.-K. Cheng; Khaled Ben Letaief; Ross D. Murch

2001-01-01

464

Weather Scope: An Investigative Study of Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the course of this project, students will learn how to build instruments to measure weather, access online weather observations, collect weather data for an extended period, analyze weather data to reveal trends, and make predictions. They will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The module contains five lessons relating to weather, five relating to climate, and three enrichment activities. Project information, a teacher guide, reference materials, and an "ask an expert" feature are also provided.

465

The Quest for the Perfect Weather Forecaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just how accurate are weather forecasters, anyway? How can a meteorologist from one television channel predict a completely different forecast for the same area on a different station? To answer these queries, this article describes two projects for middle level students to investigate these issues in a hands-on, active-learning environment. These three-week projects take the form of webquests?inquiry-oriented exercises focusing on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, for which the Internet is the primary information source (Dodge 1995).

Berg, Craig; Kahl, Jonathan; Horwitz, Kevin; Gruhl, Mary

2004-01-01

466

Wisconsin Weather Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Wisconsin meteorologists and folklorists along with Wisconsin teachers created this website to offer classroom materials "that integrate earth science, social studies, language arts, and math." Students can learn about severe weather and the importance of forecasting by listening to and reading people's accounts. Each lesson contains benchmarks and standards for grades four, eight, and twelve; as well as many fun activities. The website features a concise glossary and many links where teachers can discover more resources. Visitors who remember the weather discussed, such as the Ice Bowl of 1967, can find out how to submit their accounts to the website.

467

Reading Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Department of Atmospheric Sciences comes the Reading Weather Maps Web site. Visitors learn how to convert their local time to the standard used by all meteorologists; to tell the difference between Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit temperatures; and how to read maps with weather data collected on and above the Earth's surface. For example, wind bards, which are flag-like symbols that indicate wind direction and wind speed, always point in the direction the wind is blowing "from." Other interesting facts, descriptions, and illustrations are available on the site.

1969-12-31

468

Weather and The Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will allow students to see the different weather conditions that are apart of the different seasons. It will also help students to identify the characterisitics that go along with each of the different seasons, For example, what weather conditions are present in each season and how we dress for each season. With a partner watch the video: Observing Clouds On piece of paper write your answers to the following questions: 1). What types of changes in the clouds did you observe? 2). What do you think caused the changes in the clouds? (Ex: teperature, morning to night, etc) Next, with your partner, please watch the second video: Observing Precipitation On ...

Maxwell, Ms.

2012-02-07

469

Testing is done on the GOES-L weather satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a specially built clean room at Astrotech, Titusville, Fla., Loral technician Roberto Caballero checks the position of the GOES-L weather satellite before beginning deployment of the sounder instrument's cooler cover door. The sounder, one of two meteorological instruments on the satellite, measures temperature and moisture in a vertical column of air from the satellite to Earth. Its findings will help forecast weather. GOES-L, which is to be launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station aboard an Atlas II rocket in late March, is the fourth of a new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It is a three- axis inertially stabilized spacecraft that will provide pictures as well as perform the atmospheric sounding. Once launched, the satellite, to be designated GOES-11, will undergo checkout and provide backup capabilities for the existing, aging GOES East weather satellite.

1999-01-01

470

Wavelet entropy based damage identification using wireless smart sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a wavelet entropy based damage identification method is experimentally validated using wireless smart sensor units (Imote2) with TinyOS-based firmware. Recently, the wireless smart sensor network has drawn significant attention for applications in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Wavelet entropy is considered to be a damagesensitive signature that can be obtained both at different spatial locations and time stations to indicate changes in dynamic responses of structures. Compared to metrics based on the Fourier Transform, metrics based on wavelets require much simpler mathematics, with no complex numbers. Thus wavelet-based SHM methods would be easier to embed on motes. Wavelets can have other (mathematical) advantages when the structures are complex and the dynamic signals are non-stationary. Particularly, use of the relative wavelet entropy (RWE) has been extensively explored for use in damage detection using wireless smart sensors. First, sensor validation tests have been conducted using wireless and wired sensors. To verify an off-line time synchronization technique and the feasibility of using acceleration data from wireless sensors, modal identifications have been conducted using the ERA technique. Finally, the wavelet entropy based damage detection method has been demonstrated using Imote2 wireless smart sensors.

Yun, Gun-Jin; Lee, Soon-Gie; Carletta, Joan; Nagayama, Tomonori

2009-03-01

471

Wireless Phone Threat Assessment for Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station simulator is used to control the phones. The measurements are conducted using reverberation chambers, and the results are compared against FCC and aircraft installed equipment emission limits. The results are also compared against baseline emissions from laptop computers and personal digital assistant devices that are currently allowed to operate on aircraft.

Nguyens, T. X.; Koppen, S. V.; Smith, L. J.; Williams, R. A.; Salud, M. T.

2005-01-01

472

Activities of NICT space weather project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region