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1

Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

2

Future Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students build dioramas of futuristic weather stations to demonstrate their knowledge of weather forecasting. They will work in groups to research modern forecasting equipment and techniques, and then build a weather station that will do something we cannot do at present (such as stopping tornadoes). They will present their dioramas and then discuss the pros and cons of controlling the weather.

3

Backyard Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to build your own backyard weather station with complete directions provided by FamilyEducation.com's Web site, Backyard Weather Stations. The site shows exactly what you'll need and how to build the necessary components (e.g., rain gauge and barometer), as well as how to keep records of the data collected. Parents and teachers will enjoy watching the kids "learn the basics of scientific observation and record-keeping while satisfying their natural curiosity about weather."

Randall, Dennis.

4

Weather Station Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson instructs students on how to read station models, the symbols used on weather maps to show data (temperature, wind speed and direction, barometeric pressure, etc.) for a given reporting station. It includes a diagram of a station model, an explanation of the data conveyed by the numbers and symbols, and a table of definitions for the graphic symbols used with models. There is also a set of interactive station models students can use for practice at interpretation, and an interactive exercise in which students use real-time weather data to interpret models.

5

Designing a Weather Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

6

Weather Stations: Storms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners test how cornstarch and glitter in water move when disturbed. Learners compare their observations with videos of Jupiter's and Earth's storm movements. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

Institute, Lunar A.; Nasa

2011-01-01

7

Weather Stations: Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a toaster to generate wind and compare the appliance's heat source to Jupiter's own hot interior. Learners discover that convection drives wind on Jupiter and on Earth. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth. For safety reasons, this activity should be facilitated by an adult or used as a demonstration only.

Institute, Lunar A.; Nasa

2011-01-01

8

Weather Stations: Phase Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe the water cycle in action! Water vapor in a tumbler condenses on chilled aluminum foil — producing the liquid form of water familiar to us as rain and dew. Learners discuss how Jupiter's lack of a surface simplifies its water cycle. Learners then consider the roles ammonia and ammonia compounds play in Jupiter's more complicated atmosphere. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

2014-07-11

9

Micro Weather Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved in situ meteorological measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are needed for studies of weather and climate, both as a primary data source and as validation for remote sensing instruments. Following the initial development and successful flight validation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) hygrometer, the micro weather station program was directed toward the development of an integrated instrument, capable of accurate, in situ profiling of the troposphere, and small enough to fly on a radiosonde balloon for direct comparison with standard radiosondes. On April 23, 1998, working with Frank Schmidlin and Bob Olson of Wallops Island Flight Facility, we flew our instrument in a dual payload experiment, for validation and direct comparison with a Vaisala radiosonde. During that flight, the SAW dewpoint hygrometer measured frostpoint down to -76T at 44,000 feet. Using a laptop computer in radio contact with the balloon, we monitored data in real time, issued the cutdown command, and recovered the payload less than an hour after landing in White Sands Missile Range, 50 miles from the launch site in Hatch, New Mexico. Future flights will extend the intercomparison, and attempt to obtain in situ meteorological profiles from the surface through the tropopause. The SAW hygrometer was successfully deployed on the NASA DC8 as part of NASA's Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) during August and September, 1998. This field campaign was devoted to the study of hurricane tracking and intensification using NASA-funded aircraft. In situ humidity data from the SAW hygrometer are currently being analyzed and compared with data from other instruments on the DC8 and ER2 aircraft. Additional information is contained in the original.

Hoenk, Michael E.

1999-01-01

10

Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park.  It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

11

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. Older students can independently follow instructions on how to build five different instruments (barometer, hygrometer, rain gauge, weather vane, and compass). Younger students will need adult supervision with hammer and nails.

12

Make Your Own Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this OLogy activity, kids learn about climate and atmospheric conditions by making their own weather station. The activity begins with an overview that explains that weather happens in the atmosphere, where conditions are always changing. Students are given step-by-step, illustrated directions to make a wind vane, a rain gauge and a barometer. The activity includes a printable Weather Chart and wind vane cutouts.

13

Weather Stations: Temperature and Pressure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover the relationship between temperature and pressure in the lower atmospheres of Jupiter and Earth. Learners chart the increasing temperature as they add pressure to a 2-L soda bottle with a Fizz-Keeper Pump. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

2014-07-11

14

Garden Wall Weather Station, MT  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Garden Wall Weather Station is situated below the Garden Wall and adjacent to the Haystack Creek avalanche path in Glacier National Park. It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiat...

15

Micro Weather Stations for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A global network of weather stations will be needed to characterize the near-surface environment on Mars. Here, we review the scientific and measurement objectives of this network. We also show how these objectives can be met within the cost-constrained Mars Surveyor Program by augmenting the Mars Pathfinder-derived landers with large numbers of very small (less than 5 liter), low-mass (less than 5 kg), low-power, low-cost Mini-meteorological stations. Each station would include instruments for measuring atmospheric. pressures, temperatures, wind velocities, humidity, and airborne dust abundance. They would also include a data handling, telemetry, power, atmospheric entry, and deployment systems in a rugged package capable of direct entry and a high-impact landing. In this paper, we describe these systems and summarize the data-taking strategies and data volumes needed to achieve the surface meteorology objectives for Mars.

Crisp, David; Kaiser, William J.; VanZandt, Thomas R.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Tillman, James E.

1995-01-01

16

PV powering a weather station for severe weather  

SciTech Connect

A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Schmidt, J. [Joe Schmidt, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

1997-12-31

17

Research on the Web: Antarctic Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web research activity helps students see the link between wind speeds and geographical features. All directions are included in a printable handout. Students begin by gathering wind-speed measurements for 10 weather stations in Antarctica, converting the data, as needed, to allow comparisons. Next, they record wind data for five consecutive days and calculate the average wind speed for each station. They then examine elevation data for the 10 weather stations. They end by developing a hypothesis for the different patterns they've observed.

18

Fort Collins CSU Campus Weather Station Commemoration and Open House  

E-print Network

Fort Collins CSU Campus Weather Station Commemoration and Open House Please join us in celebrating University, the City of Fort Collins, the State of Colorado and our nation over the past 125 years. Monday Climatologist and long-time Director of the Campus Weather Station will present "The History of the Fort Collins

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

19

Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

20

The Lizard Wireless Station of Guglielmo Marconi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the vacation with my wife in Cornwall, we by chance were walking by the Lizard wireless station, originally installed by Guglielmo Marconi and recently refurbished by The National Trust/UK. Fortunately the shed was open for public visitors and a student was present telling stories about the station and its history. The historic equipment was demonstrated by sending some Morse codes. The high voltage sparks and its sound were quite impressive while in the background the Morse code receiver punched dots and dashes onto the strip chart.

Montstein, Christian

2014-08-01

21

Types of weather at selected meteorological stations in Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper aims to present the structure of weather types at two meteorological stations Galle and Nuwara Eliya (Sri Lanka). The weather type is determined as a generalized characteristic of the weather by features and gradation of selected meteorological elements. All available data on daily average, maximum and minimum air temperature, the average daily total cloud amount and the daily precipitation amount come from OGIMET database and have been used to designate weather types. The analysis was performed for the period April 2002 - March 2012. The weather types were designated based on the modified A. Wo? (2010) classification of weather types. The frequency of groups, subgroups, classes, and types of weather were determined. Additionally, determined frequency of sequences of days with the same weather type. The analysis allows to conclude, that the structure of weather types at both stations was poorly differentiated. There were very stable weather conditions. In Galle, the most frequent was very warm, partly cloudy weather, without precipitation (920) and in Nuwara Eliya warm, partly cloudy weather without precipitation (820).

Dobrowolska, Ksenia

2014-09-01

22

The New Weather Station for the VLA Bryan Butler, Wayne Koski  

E-print Network

The New Weather Station for the VLA Bryan Butler, Wayne Koski EVLA Memo 179 May 13, 2014 1.0 Introduction The weather station of the VLA (see e the location of the new weather station, its tower and instrumentation, some

Groppi, Christopher

23

Distributed Weather Net: Wireless Sensor Network Supported Inquiry-Based Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, a city-wide weather wireless sensor network, Taipei Weather Inquiry- Based Learning Network, composed of sixty school-based weather sensor nodes and a centralized weather archive server was established to facilitate students having weather science inquiry-based learning. The network covers the whole Taipei City, collects the city's weather status, and opens the weather data to the general public. A series

Ben Chang; Hsue-Yie Wang; Chin-Shueh Chen; Jen-Kai Liang

24

Wireless Sensor Networks and Fusion of Contextual Information for Weather Outlier Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather stations are often expensive hence it may be difficult to obtain data with a high spatial coverage. A low cost alternative is wireless sensor network (WSN), which can be deployed as weather stations and address the aforementioned shortcoming. Due to imperfect sensors in WSNs context, provided raw data may be drawn in from of a low quality and reliability level, expectedly that is an emergence of applying outlier detection methods. Outliers may include errors or potentially useful information called events. In this research, forecast values as contextual information are utilized for weather outlier detection. In this paper, outliers are identified by comparing the patterns of WSN and forecasts. With that approach, temporal outliers are detected with respect to slopes of the WSNs and forecasts in the presence of pre-defined tolerance. The experimental results from the real data-set validate the applicability of using contextual information in the context of WSNs for outlier detection in terms of accuracy and energy efficiency.

Amidi, A.; Hamm, N. A. S.; Meratnia, N.

2013-09-01

25

Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

2005-01-01

26

Design and Operation of Infrasound Stations for Hazardous Weather Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year tornadoes cause property damage and death, some of which could be avoided with increased warning lead time. The year 2011 was particularly severe, with more than 1600 tornadoes causing in excess of 500 deaths in the U.S. It is known that tornadoes and their precursors generate infrasound in the 0.5Hz to 10Hz frequency band, with precursors occurring some 30-60 minutes prior to tornado touch down, which is some 15-45 minutes earlier than the average tornado warning lead time in the U.S. Given the potential of infrasound to improve tornado early warning and emergency response, the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), in conjunction with its research on small, boundary-layer observing X-band weather radars, has begun a research project whose goal is to combine the passive detection of tornado infrasound with active tracking of the parent storms that carry the tornadoes with its weather radars. In the spring of 2011 CASA conducted an infrasound field-test in Oklahoma, in the heart of the so-called "tornado-alley" where statistically the majority of springtime tornadoes in the U.S. occur. This being CASA's first infrasound experiment, the goal of the field-test was to gain an understanding of the issues involved in the design and operation of infrasound stations for severe weather monitoring and early warning. In this application, it is not so much the ability of infrasound to travel long distances that is of importance, but rather the fact that there can be precursor signals that unlike radar do not require line-of-sight to detect. In fact, for early warning, detection distance would generally need to be less than 100 km, since a propagation delay of much more than 5 minutes would be too late. Challenges encountered included persistent infrasound "clutter" from a nearby large windfarm, accurate bearing detection over a wide bandwidth with a fixed four sensor aperture, and the need to operate in the the high winds that surround the supercell storms that spawn tornadoes. This paper details our solutions to these signal processing and wind noise reduction challenges and how they will be applied to a redesign of the CASA infrasound monitoring stations for a 2012 re-deployment.

Pepyne, D.

2012-04-01

27

Comparison of weather station snowfall with winter snow accumulation in high arctic basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most water balance studies in the High Arctic indicate that the weather stations underestimate annual precipitation, but the magnitude of such error is unknown. Based on up to seven years of field measurements, this study provides a comparison of snowfall at weather stations with the winter snow accumulation in their nearby drainage basins.Snowfall is the major form of precipitation in

Richard Heron; Peter Steer

1983-01-01

28

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report  

E-print Network

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report Month: July Year 2012. A time series of temperatures for Fort Collins, CO is shown in Figure 1 below. #12;Figure 1: July of Fort Collins Weather Station instruments (atmometer and class A pan) and nearby FTC01 CoAgMet (ccc

29

Waves and the equilibrium range at Ocean Weather Station P J. Thomson,1  

E-print Network

Waves and the equilibrium range at Ocean Weather Station P J. Thomson,1 E. A. D'Asaro,1 M. F at Ocean Weather Station P (OWS-P, 50 N 145 W) are used to evaluate the equilibrium range of surface wave. Introduction [2] Ocean surface waves are the result of wind blowing along a fetch distance for a duration

30

Laser-free inter-networking hybrid base stations towards convergence of wireless  

E-print Network

- communication among neighbouring base stations to provide simulta- neous access to wireless and wired services direction, the uplink electrical signals from wireless and wired customers are electrically combinedLaser-free inter-networking hybrid base stations towards convergence of wireless and wired access

Bakaul, Masuduzzaman

31

Weather risk management in Mozambique: Technical note on current and planned weather stations and their potential  

E-print Network

and their potential viability for designing and monitoring agricultural weather risk insurance Mark Tadross1 and Alex 2008 the Africa Agriculture and Rural Development (AFTAR) department of the World Bank undertook) establishing the pre-requisites for using weather data to develop weather index insurance products

Tadross, Mark

32

Remote sensing of precipitation by weather radar system at space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A space station is considered as the ideal vehicle for a spaceborne weather radar, in virtue of its ability to accomodate an exceptionally large aperture X-band antenna and supply the power levels required for adequate operation. The space station envisioned will orbit at an altitude of 500 km, and can be developed in two distinct stages. The first stage will

K. Okamoto

1983-01-01

33

Predicting Weather by Connecting the Basic Cloud Types with Information Collected from the Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are challenged to predict the next day's weather based on cloud observations, prevailing winds, and barometric measurements over a period of several days. The activity can be done as guided or open-ended inquiry and serves as an authentic assessment to conclude a unit on weather. Resources needed to conduct this activity include weather instruments, some of which can be constructed from household materials. The resource includes background information, a pre-activity inquiry exploration for students, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 16 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

34

A Weather-Condition Prediction Algorithm for Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) begin to use the solar energy. But the energy from the environment is usually unstable, An efficient solar prediction algorithm should be studied. In this paper, a novel solar energy prediction algorithm, namely Weather-Conditioned Selective Moving Average (WCSMA), is proposed by using the trend similarity of energy harvesting and the classification of sunny and cloudy

Zhaoting Jiang; Xinyu Jin; Yu Zhang

2010-01-01

35

Severe Weather Tool using 1500 UTC Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Soundings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

Bauman, William H., III

2013-01-01

36

Evaluation of pan evaporation modeling with two different neural networks and weather station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates neural networks models for estimating daily pan evaporation for inland and coastal stations in Republic of Korea. A multilayer perceptron neural networks model (MLP-NNM) and a cascade correlation neural networks model (CCNNM) are developed for local implementation. Five-input models (MLP 5 and CCNNM 5) are generally found to be the best for local implementation. The optimal neural networks models, including MLP 4, MLP 5, CCNNM 4, and CCNNM 5, perform well for homogeneous (cross-stations 1 and 2) and nonhomogeneous (cross-stations 3 and 4) weather stations. Statistical results of CCNNM are better than those of MLP-NNM during the test period for homogeneous and nonhomogeneous weather stations except for MLP 4 being better in BUS-DAE and POH-DAE, and MLP 5 being better in POH-DAE. Applying the conventional models for the test period, it is found that neural networks models perform better than the conventional models for local, homogeneous, and nonhomogeneous weather stations.

Kim, Sungwon; Singh, Vijay P.; Seo, Youngmin

2014-07-01

37

Bringing More Meaning to Weather Predicting: The Weather Station and Reading the Sky Help Put it All Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter provides teachers with instructions to install a school weather station, and to build simple instruments to monitor weather conditions. Materials need to create a homemade weathervane include a two-liter soft drink bottle, a shallow metal pie pan, a plastic drinking straw, and a compass. Building an anemometer requires plastic cups, soda straws, a pencil with an unused new eraser on the end, a paper punch, and a thumbtack. Thermometers and a rain gauge must be purchased. A data table is included for estimating windspeed using the anemometer. The chapter includes research ideas that allow students to validate their instruments and test the predictive capability of resources such as the Farmer's Almanac. This resource is chapter 15 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The resource includes background information, teaching tips and questions to guide student discussion. This is chapter 15 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

38

Automatic weather station and river level measurements telemetered by data collection platform via Meteosat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Hydrology (IH) developed its first automatic weather station (AWS) in 1965 and a network has since been installed worldwide. In 1982 an AWS was linked to a data collection platform (DCP) transmitting via Meteosat I to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of satellite telemetry. This evaluation is described and the advantages of DCP telemetry are compared with

I. C. STRANGEWAYS

39

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report  

E-print Network

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station Monthly Summary Report Month: June Year and occurred on 1, 12 and 13 June 2012. #12;A time series of June temperatures for Fort Collins, CO is shown for Fort Collins. The last time we hit 100 or greater was July 15, 2006 when we hit 100 degrees

40

University of Waterloo Weather Station Summary May 2013 A warm month with average precipitation  

E-print Network

University of Waterloo Weather Station Summary ­ May 2013 A warm month with average precipitation January. Most of the precipitation for the month happened during just 3 days (the 10th , 28th and 29th). Even with this average month, we are still about 100 mm over the precipitation we expect at this time

Waterloo, University of

41

Assessment of wind energy potential locations in Oman using data from existing weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes five years hourly wind data from twenty-nine weather stations to identify the potential location for wind energy applications in Oman. Different criteria including theoretical wind power output, vertical profile, turbulence and peak demand fitness were considered to identify the potential locations. Air density and roughness length, which play an important role in the calculation of the wind

Sultan AL-Yahyai; Yassine Charabi; Adel Gastli; Saleh Al-Alawi

2010-01-01

42

The NASA-Lewis terrestrial photovoltaics program. [solar cell power system for weather station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and technology efforts on solar cells and arrays having relevance to terrestrial uses are outline. These include raising cell efficiency, developing the FEP-covered module concept, and exploring low cost cell concepts. Solar cell-battery power systems for remote weather stations have been built to demonstrate the capabilities of solar cells for terrestrial applications.

Bernatowicz, D. T.

1973-01-01

43

Challenges and Opportunities for Compound Semiconductor Devices in Next Generation Wireless Base Station Power Amplifiers  

E-print Network

Station Power Amplifiers Lawrence Larson, Peter Asbeck, and Donald Kimball Center for Wireless Communications, Dept of ECE, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 Abstract -- Power Amplifiers for cellular base stations amplifiers will grow to well over $2B/year. These amplifiers typically produce 20- 80W of RF power, have

Asbeck, Peter M.

44

Meteorological data for water years 1988-94 from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report describes meteorological data collected from five weather stations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from as early as April 1987 through September 1994. The measurements include solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind vector magnitude, wind direction, wind vector direction, barometric pressure, and precipitation. Measurements were made very 10 seconds and averaged every 15 minutes. The data were collected as part of the geologic and hydrologic site-characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. Precipitation at the site ranged from a low of 12 millimeters total for water year 1989 to a high of 312 millimeters total for water year 1993. Air temperature ranged from a low of 15.1 degrees Celsius in December 1990 (water year 1991) to a high of 41.9 degrees Celsius in July 1989 (water year 1989). The weather station network also provides information on the spatial variability of precipitation and temperature.

Flint, A.L.; Davies, W.J.

1997-11-01

45

Snow temperature profiles and heat fluxes measured on the Greenland crest by an automatic weather station  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1989 three automatic weather station (AWS) units were installed on the Greenland crest at the GISP2 (78.58 N, 38.46 W, 3265 m) and GRIP (78.57 N, 37.62 W, 3230 m) ice coring sites and at Kenton (72.28 N, 38.80 W, 3185 m), the air sampling site. The purpose of the AWS units is to measure the local meteorological

C. R. Stearns; G A. Weidner

1992-01-01

46

Wind Climate Analyses for National Weather Service Stations in the Southeast  

SciTech Connect

Wind speed and direction data have been collected by National Weather Service (NWS) Stations in the U.S. for a number of years and presented in various forms to help depict the climate for different regions. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is particularly interested in the Southeast since mesoscale models using NWS wind observations are run on a daily basis for emergency response and other operational purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Historically, wind roses have been a convenient method to depict the predominant wind speeds and directions at measurement sites. Some typical applications of wind rose data are for climate and risk assessment; air pollution exposure and dose calculations; siting industrial plants, wind turbine generators, businesses, and homes; city planning; and air stagnation and high ozone concentration studies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the overall relationships of wind patterns for NWS stations in the Southeast. Since organized collection of wind data records in the NWS developed rapidly in conjunction with the expansion of commercial aviation after World War II there are now about 50 years of wind speed and direction data available for a large number of NWS stations in this area. In this study we used wind roses for relatively short time scales to show the progression of winds diurnally and monthly to span a typical year. The date used here consist of wind records from 13 National Weather Service Stations in the Southeastern U.S. for approximately 50-year periods.

Weber, A.H.

2003-02-10

47

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Pamela Gore

1995-08-29

48

Two-year record of the climate on the Greenland crest from an automatic weather station  

SciTech Connect

An automatic weather station (AWS) was installed on the Greenland Summit (72.30 N, 38.00 W, 3210 m) in May 1987. The AWS unit operated for two years until May 1989 when it was moved to Fresh Air Site (72.82 N, 38.82 W, 3185 m), an air sampling site, where it is still operating. The AWS data were transmitted to the ARGOS data collection system on the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. The AWS unit measures wind speed and direction, air temperature, and the relative humidity at a nominal height of 3 m, air pressure at the height of the electronics enclosure, and the vertical air temperature difference between 3.0 and 0.5 m. The latent and sensible heat from the snow surface to the air were estimated using the wind speed, vertical air temperature difference, and the relative humidity. The data are compared with those from two earlier stations, Eismitte (70.90 N, 40.70 W, 3000 m) from September 1930 through August 1931 (Wegener's expedition) and Station Centrale (70.92 N, 40.64 W, 2993 m) from September 1949 through August 1951 (Victor's expedition). The winds observed at Cathy Site were quite similar to those observed at the two previous stations. Also, the large fluctuations in temperature observed during the winter months at the two historic stations were observed at Cathy Site. The transition from positive to negative values for the sensible and latent heat flux occurred in October.

Weidner, G.A.; Stearns, C.R.

1992-03-01

49

Weather and Dispersion Modeling of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface deposition of radioactive material from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was investigated for 11 March to 17 March 2011. A coupled weather and dispersion modeling system was developed and simulations of the accident performed using two independent source terms that differed in emission rate and height and in the total amount of radioactive material released. Observations in Japan during the first week of the accident revealed a natural grouping between periods of dry (12-14 March) and wet (15-17 March) weather. The distinct weather regimes served as convenient validation periods for the model predictions. Results show significant differences in the distribution of cumulative surface deposition of 137Cs due to wet and dry removal processes. A comparison of 137Cs deposition predicted by the model with aircraft observations of surface-deposited gamma radiation showed reasonable agreement in surface contamination patterns during the dry phase of the accident for both source terms. It is suggested that this agreement is because of the weather model's ability to simulate the extent and timing of onshore flow associated with a sea breeze circulation that developed around the time of the first reactor explosion. During the wet phase of the accident the pattern is not as well predicted. It is suggested that this discrepancy is because of differences between model predicted and observed precipitation distributions.

Dunn, Thomas; Businger, Steven

2014-05-01

50

Estimation of Exclusion Zones for Base Station Antennas in Wireless Communications Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the estimation of exclusion zones around base station antennas in wireless communication systems, taking the actual surrounding environment into account, is presented. Numerical methods are applied to a GSM900 antenna installed in five common scenarios. Results show that the exclusion zone calculated in free space conditions must be redefined, due to the presence of surrounding objects, as

Carla Oliveira; Carlos C. Fernandes; Luis M. Correia

2007-01-01

51

Insurance against weather risk: Use of heating degree-days from non-local stations for weather derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?Weather derivatives enable policy-holders to safeguard themselves against extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness and\\u000a the efficiency of the risk transfer is determined by the spatial risk basis, which is the stochastic dependency of the local\\u000a weather outcome being insured and the outcome of the weather underlying the insurance instrument. The lower this risk basis\\u000a the higher the effectiveness and the

2003-01-01

52

Data assimilation of dead fuel moisture observations from remote automated weather stations  

E-print Network

Fuel moisture has a major influence on the behavior of wildland fires and is an important underlying factor in fire risk assessment. We propose a method to assimilate dead fuel moisture content observations from remote automated weather stations (RAWS) into a time-lag fuel moisture model. RAWS are spatially sparse and a mechanism is needed to estimate fuel moisture content at locations potentially distant from observational stations. This is arranged using a trend surface model (TSM), which allows us to account for the effects of topography and atmospheric state on the spatial variability of fuel moisture content. At each location of interest, the TSM provides a pseudo-observation, which is assimilated via Kalman filtering. The method is tested with the time-lag fuel moisture model in the coupled weather-fire code WRF-SFIRE on 10-hr fuel moisture content observations from Colorado RAWS in 2013. We show using leave-one-out testing that the TSM compares favorably with inverse squared distance interpolation as u...

Vejmelka, Martin; Mandel, Jan

2014-01-01

53

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

Jennie, Miss

2009-10-22

54

Optimal base station placement for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation.  

PubMed

We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC. PMID:25594600

Shi, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Shi, Yi; Ding, Xu; Wei, Zhenchun

2015-01-01

55

AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and AWS.it, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the AWS.it readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the AWS.it readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with AWS.it is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an AWS.it quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from AWS.it was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is, based on the latest evaluation, limited by the amount of attitude control gas on the EOS Aqua spacecraft, which is expected to last through 2015.

Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

2006-01-01

56

Comparison between weather station data in south-eastern Italy and CRU precipitation datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly precipitation data in south-eastern Italy from 1920 to 2005 have been extensively analyzed. Data were collected in almost 200 weather stations located 10-20km apart from each other and almost uniformly distributed in Puglia and Basilicata regions. Apart from few years around world war II, time series are mostly complete and allow a reliable reconstruction of climate variability in the considered region. Statistically significant trends have been studied by applying the Mann-Kendall test to annual, seasonal and monthly values. A comparison has been made between observations and precipitation data given by the Climate Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia, with both low (30') and high (10') space resolution grid. In particular, rainfall records, time series behaviors and annual cycles at each station have been compared to the corresponding CRU data. CRU time series show a large negative trend for winter since 1970. Trend is not significant if the whole 20th century is considered (both for the whole year and for winter only). This might be considered as an evidence of recent acceleration towards increasingly dry conditions. However correlation between CRU data and observations is not very high and large percent errors are present mainly in the mountains regions, where observations show a large annual cycle, with intense precipitation in winter, which is not present in CRU data. To identify trends, therefore observed data are needed, even at monthly scale. In particular observations confirm the overall trend, but also indicate large spatial variability, with locations where precipitation has even increased since 1970. Daily precipitation data coming from a subset of weather stations have also been studied for the same time period. The distributions of maximum annual rainfalls, wet spells and dry spells were analyzed for each station, together with their time series. The tools of statistical analysis of extremes have been used in order to evaluate return values and their space distribution over the considered region. A procedure for data quality control and homogeneity test on monthly rainfall records is also being applied, while kriging techniques are being developed in order to fully understand rainfall climatology in south-eastern Italy.

Miglietta, D.

2009-04-01

57

Simple Random Sampling-Based Probe Station Selection for Fault Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Fault detection for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied intensively in recent years. Most existing works statically choose the manager nodes as probe stations and probe the network at a fixed frequency. This straightforward solution leads however to several deficiencies. Firstly, by only assigning the fault detection task to the manager node the whole network is out of balance, and this quickly overloads the already heavily burdened manager node, which in turn ultimately shortens the lifetime of the whole network. Secondly, probing with a fixed frequency often generates too much useless network traffic, which results in a waste of the limited network energy. Thirdly, the traditional algorithm for choosing a probing node is too complicated to be used in energy-critical wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we study the distribution characters of the fault nodes in wireless sensor networks, validate the Pareto principle that a small number of clusters contain most of the faults. We then present a Simple Random Sampling-based algorithm to dynamic choose sensor nodes as probe stations. A dynamic adjusting rule for probing frequency is also proposed to reduce the number of useless probing packets. The simulation experiments demonstrate that the algorithm and adjusting rule we present can effectively prolong the lifetime of a wireless sensor network without decreasing the fault detected rate. PMID:22163789

Huang, Rimao; Qiu, Xuesong; Rui, Lanlan

2011-01-01

58

Multi-decadal Estimation of Trends in Evapotranspiration from Weather Station Data using a New Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a new method of estimating evapotranspiration using historical weather station data and analyze the associated trends in evapotranspiration in the context of climate change. The method used to estimate ET is described and validated at field sites elsewhere (Salvucci and Gentine (2013), PNAS, 110(16): 6287-6291). The approach is built around the idea that the key, rate-limiting, parameter of typical ET models, the land-surface resistance to water vapor transport, can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and ET. The emergent relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than what would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. This relation was found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid to humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). Using this relation, daily estimates of ET are obtained across the United States for the second half of the twentieth century using meteorological data measured at common weather stations, without requiring measurements of surface limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, canopy conductance). Required measurements include diurnal air temperature, specific humidity, wind speed, and net shortwave radiation. Using relatively simple models for the less commonly measured radiation terms (incoming long wave radiation, dependent on screen height air temperature and humidity, and ground heat flux, dependent on surface temperature), estimates of daily ET are made and compared with a water budget estimate of ET using UNH GRDC runoff dataset across the United States. The estimated ET trends (both annual and seasonal) are regional and the variability of the ET trends can be attributed to three terms: radiation (longwave down + net shortwave), surface resistance, and atmospheric resistance. An analysis of ET trends and the associated drivers of these trends will be presented.

Rigden, A. J.; Salvucci, G.; Gentine, P.

2013-12-01

59

An estimation of snow accumulation on Svalbard glaciers on the basis of standard weather-station observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter precipitation in the form of snow is the major factor determining accumulation on Arctic glaciers. In this paper, I present a simple method to assess snow accumulation on the glaciers of Svalbard. I deduce snow accumulation from the sum of winter precipitation and the fraction of precipitation of different types at a reference weather station. The accumulation is then

Mariusz Grabiec

2005-01-01

60

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

61

Energy balance of a glacier surface: Analysis of automatic weather station data from the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and analyze a complete 1-yr data set from an automatic weather station (AWS) located on the snout of the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. The AWS stands freely on the glacier surface and measures pressure, windspeed, wind direction, air temperature and humidity, incoming and reflected solar radiation, incoming and outgoing longwave radiation, snow temperature, and change in surface height (giving melt rates and snow accumulation). The wind is downglacier most of the time. As expected for a flow of katabatic origin, for air temperatures above the melting point we find a correlation between windspeed and temperature. We evaluate all significant components of the surface energy flux. For a (constant) turbulent exchange coefficient of 0.00153 (reference height 3.5 m) we obtain a perfect match between calculated and measured ice melt. The sensible heat flux is positive (towards the glacier surface) all the time with the largest values on fine summer days (daily mean values are typically 100 W m(-2) on the warmest days). The latent heat flux is small and negative in winter. In summer it is mainly positive (condensation), but negative values also occur. Altogether about 75% of the melt energy is supplied by radiation (shortwave and longwave) and 25% by the turbulent fluxes.

Oerlemans, J.; Klok, E. J.

2002-11-01

62

Wireless Video System for Extra Vehicular Activity in the International Space Station and Space Shuttle Orbiter Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wireless Video System (WVS) provides real-time video coverage of astronaut extra vehicular activities during International Space Station (ISS) assembly. The ISS wireless environment is unique due to the nature of the ISS structure and multiple RF interference sources. This paper describes how the system was developed to combat multipath, blockage, and interference using an automatic antenna switching system. Critical to system performance is the selection of receiver antenna installation locations determined using Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) techniques.

Loh, Yin C.; Boster, John; Hwu, Shian; Watson, John C.; deSilva, Kanishka; Piatek, Irene (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

63

Comparative Analysis of Thunderstorm Activity in the West Caucasus According to the Instrumental Measurements and Weather Stations Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of thunderstorms days is one of the main characteristics of thunderstorms. In most cases, the number of days with different meteorological phenomena are the climate characteristic of the area. This characteristic is a common climate indicator. The comparative analysis of thunderstorms days quantity, received with lightning detector LS 8000 by Vaisala and weather stations of Krasnodar District (Russia), is presented. For this purpose the Krasnodar region was divided into 19 sites. The thunderstorm days amount and their comparison were conducted for each site according to the data of weather stations and LS 8000 lightning detectors. Totally 29 weather stations are located in this area. The number of thunderstorm days per year for the period of 2009-2012 was determined according to data, received from stations. It was received that average annual number of thunderstorm days for this area was from 33 to 39 days. The majority of thunderstorm days per year (up to 77) was registered in the south of Krasnodar region and on the Black Sea coast. The lowest thunderstorm activity (about 20 days) was observed in the North of the region. To compare visual and voice data for calculating thunderstorm days quantity of the Krasnodar region, the day was considered thundery if at least one weather station registered a storm. These instrumental observations of thunderstorms allow to obtain the basic characteristics and features of the distribution of thunderstorm activity over a large territory for a relatively short period of time. However, some characteristics such as thunderstorms intensity, damages from lightning flashes and others could be obtained only with instrumental observations. The territory of gathering thunderstorm discharges data by system LS8000 is limited by perimeter of 2250 km and square of 400 000 km2. According to the instrumental observations, the majority of storm activity also takes place on the Black Sea coast, near the cities of Sochi and Tuapse. Thus the number of thunderstorm days data characterized by the values from 49 to 158. To compare instrumental and visual-voice observations the difference between thunderstorms days quantity, obtained with visual-voice and instrumental methods, was selected as an indicator of thunderstorm activity. Total number of thunderstorm days in the Krasnodar region during 4 years is 565 according to the lightning detectors and 519 according to the weather stations. The presence of significant differences was revealed to compare number of thunderstorm days between instrumental observations and weather stations data. Thus the value of the average number of thunderstorms days on 29 meteorological stations of the Krasnodar region is reached 33-39 days. At the same time, 49-138 thunderstorm days were recorded according to the LS8000 system. This difference is caused by two factors: 1) limitations of visual-audio thunderstorms detection method at weather stations; 2) development of thunderstorms in a limited areas of the Krasnodar region, which is not the whole territory.

Knyazeva, Zalina; Gergokova, Zainaf; Gyatov, Ruslan; Boldyreff, Anton

2014-05-01

64

Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

Ham, J. M.

2013-12-01

65

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

Caitlin, Ms.

2009-10-21

66

Municipal hotlines and automated weather stations as a tool for monitoring bad odour dispersion: the northern Negev case.  

PubMed

Bad odours are often dispersed from chemical industries, waste dumps, sewer plants, and other facilities. They are indicative of pollution emissions from these sites and cause discomfort, apprehension, and sometimes signal the presence of health hazards. Monitoring the pollution by direct means, such as chemical analysis of ambient air, is obviously the most reliable mechanism to acquire data regarding pollution. However, this is not always possible. In this paper we report on the value of local government hotlines that record information provided by the public regarding bad odours. These data can alert the authorities to the existence of pollution and should be regarded as potentially useful when collected in conjunction with information from automated weather stations. An analysis of data from the Be'er Sheva municipality and the Ramat Negev regional council hotlines is provided. Complaints recorded by these systems were correlated with weather data from local automatic weather stations to indicate the sources of the bad odours. Wind direction was found to be highly correlated with bad odour and pollution sources, revealing consistent patterns in terms of the time of day and weather conditions. PMID:11591026

Blumberg, D G; Sasson, A

2001-09-01

67

The International Space Station as a Launch Platform for CubeSats to Study Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere (ITM) region (80 to 250 km) is the boundary between the sensible atmosphere of the Earth and space. This region receives energy and momentum contributions from the sun in the form of solar ultra-violet light and electromagnetic energy coupled via the earth's magnetosphere. The ITM region also receives energy and momentum from the lower atmosphere via waves that break and terminate turbulently in this beach-like region. The various processes, acting both as system drivers and feedback elements in the ITM region, are still poorly understood and the weather of the ITM region cannot be predicted. It is also the area where satellite drag ensures a quick end to satellite lifetimes and it has thus become known as the "inaccessible region." As the terrestrial populations wrestle with the question of "change" (global, climate, etc), our need to continue making long-term measurements is crucial, but is hampered by cost and launch opportunities for even smaller dedicated satellites. The ITM region itself has been identified as a region where almost un-measurable atmospheric changes have very measurable consequences. The International Space Station (ISS), orbiting just above this "inaccessible region", is an ideal platform from which CubeSats can be launched to study the region below. It could become a permanent launch platform for regular or responsive deployment of the small satellite fleet. For example, a group of satellites could be launched in response to a storm or an important lower atmospheric event that has been identified as occurring. Such satellites would last approximately one year before re-entering the upper atmosphere. It is an ideal location from which to routinely launch probes into the inaccessible region below to maintain a long term climate observational capability. The advantage of the ISS is that deployments of these small satellites is not contingent on finding a suitable ground based launch opportunity, whose scheduling could never be triggered by a storm type scenario. The relatively high the ISS orbit inclination also provides complete mid-latitude and equatorial coverage; during storms, the regions of interest are exactly these. We propose that 100 to 200 CubeSats could be stationed on the ISS as an Exposed Facility on the Japanese Experiment Module. Many of these spacecraft would be identical copies for space weather purposes but several different types of CubeSats could be accommodated. Small constellations would be deployed from the ISS over time by ground command. The CubeSat dispenser would eject spacecraft in the down and aft direction consistent with the ISS jettison policy to insure safety for the ISS. The dispenser would also provide the ability to communicate and recharge the hosted CubeSats through the ISS systems to maintain the CubeSats over an extended stay at the ISS. This ability would require modifications to the existing CubeSat standard. Within this paper we describe the conceptual design of such a CubeSat deplorer system for the ISS and the systems level study conducted at Utah State University - Space Dynamics Laboratory for the National Science Foundation on these concepts.

Fish, C. S.; Swenson, C.; Sojka, J. J.

2011-12-01

68

Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks-radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

Valberg, Peter A; van Deventer, T Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H

2007-03-01

69

Workgroup Report: Base Stations and Wireless Networks—Radiofrequency (RF) Exposures and Health Consequences  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves—wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephonic systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephony and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health. PMID:17431492

Valberg, Peter A.; van Deventer, T. Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H.

2007-01-01

70

Analysis of fog occurrence on E11-A75 Motorway, with weather station data in relation to satellite observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport is often disturbed in wintertime by fog occurrence causing delay. Fog may also be responsible for dramatic accidents causing injuries and fatalities. For meteorological weather services, fog is defined as when visibility is less than 1000 m. However, for road traffic, when visibility becomes less than 200 m, fog is considered a traffic hazard for road transport. Fog forecast remains a difficult task. Satellite observation combined with surface measurements by a network of road weather stations can provide short-term information that could be useful to assist traffic authorities in taking decisions relating to traffic control measures or drivers information. Satellite images allow to identify cloud types and to establish a map of the risk of fog occurrence. The surface measurements help to discriminate between low clouds and fog. The analysis method has already been tested last winter on some case studies on the motorway E11-A75 in Auvergne region in France, thanks to a network of 15 weather stations along the 300 km of motorway. In the highest area that is between 580 and 1100 m, the value of the relative humidity has been analysed in relation to the visibility measured by a diffusiometer and the observations of road maintenance staff. The main results will be presented and connected to the traditional synoptic network of Météo-France. In order to improve the map of fog risks, the requirement to have relevant data has been pointed out, especially for the relative humidity near the ground surface (i.e. 2 m above the ground). To go further in this investigation, one weather station, at the Col de la Fageole, has been identified as having the greatest occurrence of dense fog, i.e. less than 200 m. Then it has been decided to enrich the instrumentation at this observation point later on with a present weather sensor and with a camera. This paper will focus on the physical data of the weather station. It will be examined how the additional data of the new sensor, the meteorological visibility and the discrimination of the nature of precipitation will help to improve the analysis.

Colomb, M.; Bernardin, F.; Favier, B.; Mallet, E.; Laurantin, O.

2010-07-01

71

Gallium Nitride -based Microwave Power Varactors for Wireless Base Station Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of wireless communication systems, the demand for providing tunability in the wireless communication circuits becomes more and more intense. Among the technologies, semiconductor varactor is the critical component that is capable of implementing tunable and adaptive characteristics, particularly for the frond-end components of the wireless communication systems. For base station applications, high voltage handling capability, typically of 100 V or greater, high quality factor (Q), typically of above 100 at operation frequency, and high linearity, OIP3 > 65 dBm, are required. This work will mainly discuss in detail the design, fabrication and characterization to achieve the high-voltage high-Q and high-linearity microwave power varactors for wireless base station applications. Some preliminary varactor applications in the test tunable circuits will be demonstrated too. In this dissertation, we first introduce the physics of the semiconductor varactors and the motivation for choosing GaN as the candidate material for this microwave power varactor. Then we elucidate the critical design considerations for achieving high breakdown voltage, high quality factor and high linearity. The novel Schottky barrier engineered design using a thin InGaN surface layer on top of GaN to enhance the breakdown voltage of GaN-based Schottky diodes is therefore introduced. We then show the theoretical and experimental studies on the suppression mechanisms for electron tunneling in the InGaN/GaN Schottky barriers. The detailed material characterization for the InGaN/GaN material system and its application for the enhancement-mode HEMTs are also presented. Next, we discuss the initial device fabrication procedure and the improving methods based on the initial DC and RF measurement results. Thereafter, we report the detailed characterizations of the fabricated devices including the high-voltage I-V and C-V, S-parameters for 1-port and 2-port devices, linearity and application in the tunable resonant circuits. Finally, we summarize the dissertation and outline the future work. In this work, we achieved a high-performance GaN-based microwave power varactors with breakdown voltage > 100 V, quality factor > 100 and OIP3 > 71 dBm. It meets the initial goal of this project as well as the specifications in some practical applications. To the best of our knowledge, this combination of breakdown voltage, Q and OIP3 represents remarkable advancement from any other reported varactors.

Lu, Wei

72

Wavelength reuse in the WDM optical interface of a millimeter-wave fiber-wireless antenna base station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique for wavelength reuse has been proposed to simplify the upstream optical interface of an antenna base station in a millimeter-wave fiber-wireless system incorporating wavelength division multiplexing. This technique is based on recovering the optical carrier used in downstream signal transmission and reusing the same wavelength for upstream signal transmission. Two novel configurations for optical carrier recovery and

Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas; Dalma Novak; Christina Lim; Rodney B. Waterhouse

2001-01-01

73

Observations and simulations of physical and biological processes at ocean weather station P, 1951-1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and biological processes in the mixed layer at ocean weather station (OWS) P (50°N, 145°W) over a 30-year period (1951-1980) were investigated using observations and model simulations. The observations include 30 years of surface meteorological and sea surface temperature data collected at OWS P and Ekman upwelling velocities derived from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, 14 years (1953-1966) of daily temperature profiles, nearly 150 chlorophyll a profiles spanning all months of the year, monthly climatological solar irradiances, and 0- to 50-m integrated nitrate concentrations. The simulations incorporated models for the estimation of surface solar downwelling irradiance, surface heat fluxes, subsurface diffuse attenuation, mixed layer dynamics, and biological processes. The time-dependent model inputs were the surface observations of cloud cover, air temperature, dew point temperature, and wind speed. The atmospheric irradiance, marine diffuse attenuation, and mixed layer models were adapted from existing models developed by others. The biological model, developed by the authors, has four components (nitrate, ammonium, phytoplankton nitrogen, and zooplankton nitrogen) and computes a variety of additional quantities, including chlorophyll a concentration and gross and new production. Model comparisons with in situ time series showed that predictions of sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth were reasonably accurate. Climatological monthly profiles of chlorophyll a and temperature were within 1 standard deviation of the observed values at nearly all depths. Also, the climatological annual cycles of solar irradiance and 0- to 50-m integrated nitrate accurately reproduced observed values. Annual primary production was estimated to be ˜190 g C m-2 yr-1 and varied by no more than ±5% in any year. This estimate is consistent with recent observations but is much greater than earlier estimates, indicating that carbon cycling in the North Pacific is much more important to the global carbon budget than previously thought. Significant interannual variability in sea surface temperature, Ekman upwelling, mixed layer depth, and surface nitrate concentration had little impact on productivity. The model also indicates that the nitrate supply to the euphotic zone is very sensitive to Ekman upwelling and that amplification of the wind stress curl can result in complete nitrate depletion when the winds are persistently downwelling favorable.

McClain, Charles R.; Arrigo, Kevin; Tai, King-Sheng; Turk, Daniella

1996-02-01

74

50 years return period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design purpose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or on long-term applications with positive results. New standards like CENELEC EN 50341-1 (2012) take into account for the overhead line design characteristic loads, i.e. 50 years return period loads. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model as described in ISO 12494 annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a POT (Peak Over Threshold) method.

Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

2014-08-01

75

Comparison of parallel temperature measurements from conventional and automatic weather stations at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabra Observatory , located in a promontory at 411 meters above sea level in the outskirts of Barcelona, hosts a continuous climate record since 1913. Additionally, it has been recording since 1996 simultaneous temperature and precipitation data with conventional instruments and automated systems. The automatization of recording sites employed with climatological purposes is happening elsewhere in the country and across the globe. Unfortunately, in most cases long lasting parallel measurements, are not kept. Thereafter, this site offers an excellent opportunity to study the impact of the introduction of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The conventional station (CON) equips a liquid in glass thermometer, located inside a standard Stevenson screen. The automatic measurements (AWS) have been taken using MCV-STA sensors sheltered in a MCV small plate-like ventilated screen between 1996 and the end of July 2007. For our analysis, this MCV period is split in two (T1, T2) due to an obvious jump in the differences AWS-CON in October 2002, produced by unknown reasons. From August 2007 to the present (T3), a Vaisala HMP45AL sensor was placed inside a Stevenson Screen and used for automatic measurements. For daily maximum temperatures, the median differences reach 3.2°C in T1, 1.1°C in T2 and merely -0.1°C in T3. In this later period, 94% of the differences are comprised in a ±0.5°C range, compared to 23% in T2 and only 6% in T1. It is interesting to note how the overheating of the MCV screen dominates the difference series, as 85% of the AWS values taken in T1 and T2 are warmer than the conventional measurements, contrasting with only 27% of cases during T3, when the automated measurements were taken inside a Stevenson screen. These differences are highly temperature dependent: low (high) AWS temperatures are associated with small (large) differences with the CON series. This effect is also evident if temperatures are analyzed by seasons: summer differences are much higher than winter differences in T1 (median value of 3.6°C vs 2.6°C) and T2 (1.7°C vs. 1.0 °C). In T3, the effect of sheltering makes winter AWS temperatures slightly cooler (-0.2°C), meanwhile summer median difference is 0.0°C. This effect is also noticed when looking at other elements such as the sunshine hours. Days with very short sunshine periods (<=3 hours) are characterized by lower median differences in T1 and T2 (1.6°C/0.4°C) compared to those days with more than 10 hours of sunshine (3.8°C/1.6°C). For T3, in days with low sunshine duration, the AWS tends to be cooler by -0.2°C, meanwhile the median difference for days with more than 10 hours of sunshine is 0.0°C. Also, windy, rainless and high pressure days are linked to high temperature differences in T1 and T2. The AWS-CON differences for daily minimum temperatures are smaller and more uniform in all cases. In T1 and T2 (0.4°C for both periods) compared to those found in the daily maximum values. Also, the percentage of differences in a ±0.5° range approaches 50% in T1 and T2. In contrast, T3 median difference doubles to -0.2°C, compared to daily maximum temperature, although the percentage of differences inside the ±0.5 range remains at 94%. As can be seen, the sheltering differences become less important during nighttime. Not surprisingly, about 80% of the values in T1 and T2 and 93% in T3 are cooler in the AWS. Seasonally, in winter, the 3 periods show a median difference of -0.3°. During summer, nighttime values recorded at the MCV screen (T1, T2) differ by -0.5°C to the conventional thermometer readings, meanwhile the Vaisala sensor sheltered inside a Stevenson screen, has a median difference of -0.1°C with the conventional data. Also, although there is a relation with other climate elements such as sunshine duration, pressure, wind or precipitation, it is less remarkable than in the daytime values. In the framework of the Spanish project CGL2012-32193, "Determination and evaluation of the bias introduced by the automatation of meteorological stations in climate time

Aguilar, Enric; Gilabert, Alba; Prohom, Marc

2013-04-01

76

One-Dimensional Coupled Ecosystem-Carbon Flux Model for the Simulation of Biogeochemical Parameters at Ocean Weather Station P  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Technical Publication, we describe the model functionality and analyze its application to the seasonal and interannual variations of phytoplankton, nutrients, pCO2 and CO2 concentrations in the eastern subarctic Pacific at Ocean Weather Station P (OWSP, 50 deg. N 145 deg. W). We use a verified one-dimensional ecosystem model, coupled with newly incorporated carbon flux and carbon chemistry components, to simulate 22 years (1958-1980) of pCO2 and CO2 variability at Ocean Weather Station P (OWS P). This relatively long period of simulation verifies and extends the findings of previous studies using an explicit approach for the biological component and realistic coupling with the carbon flux dynamics. The slow currents and the horizontally homogeneous ocean in the subarctic Pacific make OWS P one of the best available candidates for modeling the chemistry of the upper ocean in one dimension. The chlorophyll and ocean currents composite for 1998 illustrates this premise. The chlorophyll concentration map was derived from SeaWiFS data and the currents are from an OGCM simulation (from R. Murtugudde).

Signorini, S.; McClain, C.; Christian, J.; Wong, C. S.

2000-01-01

77

Generalized Potential Temperature in a Diagnostic Study of High Impact Weather over an Urban Station of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropospheric atmosphere is neither absolutely dry nor completely saturated. It is, in general, moist. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the role of generalized potential temperature (GPT) in describing the humid state of the real moist atmosphere pertaining to understanding the prevalence of high impact weather systems over an urban station, Kolkata (22°32'N; 88°20'E), of India. A comparative study among GPT, equivalent potential temperature (EPT), potential temperature and relative humidity to reveal the significance of GPT in a precise understanding of the high impact weather of Kolkata is carried out. To attain the objectives, 50 cases of thunderstorms, 15 cases of tropical cyclones and 15 heavy rainfall days are selected during the pre-monsoon season (April-May) over Kolkata (22°32'N; 88°20'E), India. The condition—decision support system of rough set theory is adopted as the methodology. The result of the study reveals that GPT is the most pertinent convective parameter in estimating the prevalence of the high impact weather of Kolkata during the pre-monsoon season and is observed to be better than RH. The results, thus, show that the moist air is capable of describing the distribution of water vapour and thermodynamic properties of the real atmosphere more precisely than an absolutely dry and completely saturated state of the atmosphere.

Chaudhuri, Sutapa; Dutta, Debashree

2014-08-01

78

Presented at the IEEE Topical Workshop on Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications, San Diego, CA, September 2002. Broadband linear high power amplifier for base station  

E-print Network

Presented at the IEEE Topical Workshop on Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications, San Diego, CA, September 2002. Broadband linear high power amplifier for base station Pengcheng Jia, Lee broadband wireless and satellite communication systems call for linear, broadband and high power amplifier

79

Real-time algorithms and architectures for multiuser channel estimation and detection in wireless base-station receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents algorithms and architecture designs that can meet real-time requirements of multiuser channel estimation and detection in future code-division multiple-access-based wireless base-station receivers. Sophisticated algorithms proposed to implement multiuser channel estimation and detection make their real-time implementation difficult on current digital signal processor-based receivers. A maximum-likelihood based multiuser channel estimation scheme requiring matrix inversions is redesigned from an

Sridhar Rajagopal; Srikrishna Bhashyam; Joseph R. Cavallaro; Behnaam Aazhang

2002-01-01

80

Total Lightning Flashrate and Severe Weather at Ground in a Thunderstorm at a Tropical Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many experimental and theoretical studies in the past have used the lightning characteristics to categorize the thunderstorms and predict the severity of thunderstorms, because many times severe weather is found to associate with unique lightning characteristics. However, the robust relationship between storm dynamics, severe weather, and lightning activity have not been clearly established. The north-eastern part of India is known to experience very severe thunderstorms during the pre-monsoon season, locally known as ‘Nor-wester’. Measurements of electric field made below such severe thunderstorm at Guwahati, India are reported here. Lightning flash rate increases drastically to about 84 flashes per minute during the active stage of the thunderstorm from about 15 flashes per minute during the initial phase, which lasted for about 7 minutes. Sudden increase in lightning flash rate ( ‘lightning jump’) of about 65 fpm/min is also observed in the beginning of active stage. The dissipating stage is marked by the slow and steady decrease in lightning frequency. Despite very high flash rate during the active stage, no severe weather conditions are observed at the ground. Skew-t graph at Guwahati shows large Convectively Available Potential Energy (CAPE) in the temperature range between -5 degC to - 20 degC. It is proposed that the short duration of the active stage may be the reason for the non-observance of severe weather conditions at the ground. It is also concluded that the vertical distribution of CAPE also may play some role in the non-observance of severe weather at ground during this thunderstorm. Further, electric field changes and recovery curves suggest that the thundercloud with normal positive dipole charge structure during initial phase. However, active and dissipation stages of thunderstorm indicate presence of strong Lower Positive Charge Centers (LPCC). During active and dissipation stages, all electric field change after a lightning discharge are bipolar, negative one immediately follows the first one, which is always positive. This behavior of electric field changes in the active and dissipation stages suggests that either in these stages all the lightning discharges are initiated from LPCC or removal of LPCC by a lightning discharge that had triggered another discharge from main negative charge region. Variation of lightning flash rate during different stages of the storm.

Pawar, S. D.; Murugavel, P.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

2009-12-01

81

Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Information Series 02-2 Weather Data Compiled for  

E-print Network

of scientific data in a less formal structure. To simplify terminology, trade names of products or equipment may of a commercial product is stated or implied. Please credit the researchers involved and the Virginia Agricultural Agricultural Experiment Station Information Series 02

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

82

The Whole Mars Catalog About Us Advertising Comments Tuesday, October 18, 2005 Select a Site Go Home | Calendar -News -Gallery -Space Directory -Station Guide -Space Weather  

E-print Network

The Whole Mars Catalog · About Us · Advertising · Comments Tuesday, October 18, 2005 Select a Site Go Home | Calendar - News - Gallery - Space Directory - Station Guide - Space Weather Mars News | SpaceRef - Astrobiology Web - Saturn Today - SpaceRef Europe PRESS RELEASE Date Released: Monday

Arizona, University of

83

Long-Range Wireless Mesh Network for Weather Monitoring in Unfriendly Geographic Conditions  

PubMed Central

In this paper a long-range wireless mesh network system is presented. It consists of three main parts: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Base Terminal Units (BTUs) and a Central Server (CS). The RTUs share a wireless network transmitting in the industrial, scientific and medical applications ISM band, which reaches up to 64 Km in a single point-to-point communication. A BTU controls the traffic within the network and has as its main task interconnecting it to a Ku-band satellite link using an embedded microcontroller-based gateway. Collected data is stored in a CS and presented to the final user in a numerical and a graphical form in a web portal. PMID:22164008

Toledano-Ayala, Manuel; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Soto-Zarazúa, Genaro M.; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Bazán Trujillo, Rey D.; Porrás-Trejo, Rafael E.

2011-01-01

84

Teachers guide for building and operating weather satellite ground stations for high school science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of colleges and universities are operating APT direct readout stations. However, high school science teachers have often failed to realize the potential of meteorological satellites and their products as unique instructional tools. The ability to receive daily pictures from these satellites offers exciting opportunities for secondary school teachers and students to assemble the electronic hardware and to view real time pictures of Earth from outer space. The station and pictures can be used in the classroom to develop an approach to science teaching that could span many scientific disciplines and offer many opportunities for student research and participation in scientific processes. This can be accomplished with relatively small expenditures of funds for equipment. In most schools some of the equipment may already be available. Others can be constructed by teachers and/or students. Yet another source might be the purchase of used equipment from industry or through the government surplus channels. The information necessary for individuals unfamiliar with these systems to construct a direct readout for receiving real time APT photographs on a daily basis in the classroom is presented.

Summers, R. J.; Gotwald, T.

1981-01-01

85

Comparison between AVHRR surface temperature data and in-situ weather station temperatures over the Greenland Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images have been exhaustively used to measure surface temperature time series of the Greenland Ice sheet. The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of monthly average ice sheet surface temperatures, derived from thermal infrared AVHRR satellite imagery on a 6.25 km grid. In-situ temperature data sets are from the Greenland Collection Network (GC-Net). GC-Net stations comprise sensors monitoring air temperature at 1 and 2 meter above the snow surface, gathered at every 60 seconds and monthly averaged to match the AVHRR temporal resolution. Our preliminary results confirm the good agreement between satellite and in-situ temperature measurements reported by previous studies. However, some large discrepancies still exist. While AVHRR provides ice surface temperature, in-situ stations measure air temperatures at different elevations above the snow surface. Since most in-situ data on ice sheets are collected by Automatic Weather Station (AWS) instruments, it is important to characterize the difference between surface and air temperatures. Therefore, we compared and analyzed average monthly AVHRR ice surface temperatures using data collected in 2002. Differences between these temperatures correlate with in-situ temperatures and GC-Net station elevations, with increasing differences at lower elevations and higher temperatures. The Summit Station (3199 m above sea level) and the Swiss Camp (1176 m above sea level) results were compared as high altitude and low altitude stations for 2002, respectively. Our results show that AVHRR derived temperatures were 0.5°K warmer than AWS temperature at the Summit Station, while this difference was 2.8°K in the opposite direction for the Swiss Camp with surface temperatures being lower than air temperatures. The positive bias of 0.5°K at the high altitude Summit Station (surface warmer than air) is within the retrieval error of AVHRR temperatures and might be in part due to atmospheric inversion. The large negative bias of 2.8°K at the low altitude Swiss Camp (surface colder than the air) could be caused by a combination of different factors including local effects such as more windy circumstances above the snow surface and biases introduced by the cloud-masking applied on the AVHRR images. Usually only satellite images acquired in clear-sky conditions are used for deriving monthly AVHRR average temperatures. Since cloud-free days are usually warmer, satellite derived temperatures tend to underestimate the real average temperatures, especially regions with frequent cloud cover, such as Swiss Camp. Therefore, cautions must be exercised while using ice surface temperatures derived from satellite imagery for glaciological applications. Eliminating the cloudy day's' temperature from the in-situ data prior to the comparison with AVHRR derived temperatures will provide a better assessment of AVHRR surface temperature measurement accuracy.

Rezvanbehbahani, S.; Csatho, B. M.; Comiso, J. C.; Babonis, G. S.

2011-12-01

86

Information in motion: road vehicles as wireless relay stations for an ad hoc communications network  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest among automobile engineers and wireless communications researchers in the concept of a Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET). Each motor vehicle on the road today provides a natural platform for mobile communications. When equipped with suitable on-board device, the population of vehicles in a busy area becomes a wireless network capable of relaying signals across considerable distances, without

Penina Orenstein; Chris Wright

2008-01-01

87

Wireless Acoustic Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server can control the operations of the field stations for calibration and for recording of measurement data. A test engineer positions and activates the WAMS. The WAMS automatically establishes the wireless network. Next, the engineer performs pretest calibrations. Then the engineer executes the test and measurement procedures. After the test, the raw measurement files are copied and transferred, through the wireless network, to a hard disk in the control server. Subsequently, the data are processed into 1.3-octave spectrograms.

Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

2007-01-01

88

Wireless Acoustic Measurement System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server can control the operations of the field stations for calibration and for recording of measurement data. A test engineer positions and activates the WAMS. The WAMS automatically establishes the wireless network. Next, the engineer performs pretest calibrations. Then the engineer executes the test and measurement procedures. After the test, the raw measurement files are copied and transferred, through the wireless network, to a hard disk in the control server. Subsequently, the data are processed into 1/3-octave spectrograms.

Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

2005-01-01

89

Station Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will allow users to become acquainted with station models that are found on weather maps. Students will study the various atmospheric variables that are depicted on a station model and then practice on an interactive station model program. Part 1 - Being able to read and interpret weather maps is a very important skill in meteorology. One of the most basic skills of predicting the weather is being able to interpret a station model of a given location. A station model is a bundle of information that ...

Ertl, Mr.

2007-11-03

90

A Dozen Years of Temperature Observations at the Summit: Central Greenland Automatic Weather Stations 1987-99.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 4 May 1987, the first automatic weather station (AWS) near the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet began transmitting data. Air temperature records from this site, AWS Cathy, as well as nearby AWS at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project II (GISP2, now Summit) camp have been combined with Special Sensor Microwave Imager brightness temperature data to create a composite temperature history of the Greenland summit. This decadal-plus-length (4536 days) record covers the period from May 1987 to October 1999 and continues currently. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperature data from AWS Cathy (May 1987-May 1989), AWS GISP2 (June 1989-November 1996), and AWS Summit (May 1996 and continuing). Despite the 35-km distance between them, the AWS Cathy data have been converted to the equivalent basis of temperatures from the AWS GISP2 and AWS Summit locations. The now completed `Summit' temperature time series represents a unique record that documents a multiyear temperature recovery after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 and that initiates a baseline needed for climate change detection.

Shuman, Christopher A.; Steffen, Konrad; Box, Jason E.; Stearns, Charles R.

2001-04-01

91

An estimation of snow accumulation on Svalbard glaciers on the basis of standard weather-station observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter precipitation in the form of snow is the major factor determining accumulation on Arctic glaciers. In this paper, I present a simple method to assess snow accumulation on the glaciers of Svalbard. I deduce snow accumulation from the sum of winter precipitation and the fraction of precipitation of different types at a reference weather station. The accumulation is then converted to a relevant point on the glacier, using an accumulation gradient and a location coefficient. I apply this algorithm of accumulation assessment to eight glaciers of southern and central Spitsbergen using data from 23 seasons. On the basis of measured accumulation data, the mean error of the calculated accumulation, with no distinction of precipitation types, amounted to 23%. When the distinction between precipitation types is used for glaciers of southern Spitsbergen, the average error of estimation was 19%. Errors result from factors influencing accumulation distribution over the glacier elevation profile (e.g. glacier topography, orography of its surroundings, precipitation inversion). Application of this accumulation algorithm may provide a crucial method of estimating mass balance for glaciers not included in permanent monitoring.

Grabiec, Mariusz

92

Wireless  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless Networking Mini-Tutorial (WKMN) [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.wkmn.com/newsite/wireless.html#whatWi-Fi Alliancehttp://www.wi-fi.org/OpenSection/index.asp3Com: 802.11b Wireless LANs [pdf]http://www.3com.com/other/pdfs/infra/corpinfo/en_US/50307201.pdfInformation on BlueToothhttp://www.palowireless.com/bluetooth/e-week: WiFi Securityhttp://www.eweek.com/category2/0,1738,1591939,00.aspO'Reilly Network: Wireless Surveyinghttp://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/wireless/2004/05/27/wirelessonPocketPC.htmlBitpipe: Wireless LAN White Papers [pdf]http://www.bitpipe.com/data/rlist?t=sys_10_34_4_2_np&sort_by=status&src=googleThe first website from WKMN (1) identifies the major types of wireless used today as Local Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs) and Mobile Wireless, and Personal Area Networks. The WiFi Alliance, which certifies interoperability of IEEE 802.11 products in order "to promote them as the global, wireless LAN standard across all market segments" also gives an overview of WiFi, or Wireless Fidelity, on this second website (2). The IEEE 802.11 is the common standard used for LANs and is described more in this white paper from 3Com (3). The Bluetooth infrastructure, more common in Personal Area Networks, is described on this website (4 ). The current hot issue in the Wi-Fi world is security, which is discussed in this article from e-Week (5). Legal issues are also being raised, especially since the boundaries for wireless are unclear, which means people can survey for wireless networks without paying for access. This process is described in an article from the O'Reilly Network website (6). Finally, this last website (7) offers a number of white papers on wireless LAN.

93

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

DOE /NV

1999-01-28

94

Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides  

E-print Network

Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides Clay Creech Phil Barbour #12;HMSC Weather Station #12;Temp-Humidity Sensor at Library #12;http://weather.hmsc.oregonstate.edu #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Archived Data is Available every 15 mins. #12;#12;A pyranometer measures solar radiation #12;#12;National Weather Service

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

95

Energy efficient schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple mobile base stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main design issues for a sensor network is conservation of the energy available at each sensor node. We propose to deploy multiple, mobile base stations to prolong the lifetime of the sensor network. We split the lifetime of the sensor network into equal periods of time known as rounds. Base stations are relocated at the start of

Shashidhar Rao Gandham; Milind Dawande; Ravi Prakash; S. Venkatesan

2003-01-01

96

Smart antennas in wireless communications: base-station diversity and handset beamforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review diversity and smart antenna research applied to both base-stations and terminals. To illustrate the performance gains possible, the paper describes research being conducted by the Smart Antenna Group at Virginia Tech, in both smart base-stations and smart handheld terminals.

W. L. Stutzman; Byung-Ki Kim; K. Dietze

2000-01-01

97

Prioritized Access for Emergency Stations in Next Generation Broadband Wireless Networks  

E-print Network

strategies and some simulated results. 1. Introduction Historically, wireless communications for emergency in 1933 [10]. Since this time, dedicated emergency communication systems have been developed separate from bodies [3, 6] define the four fol- lowing kinds of emergency communications. Citizen to au- thority

Kranakis, Evangelos

98

Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser  

E-print Network

Green Bank Weather Dana S. Balser #12;Weather Resources 1. Weather Stations 2. Weather Forecasts (NOAA/Maddalena) 3. Pyrgeometer 4. 86 GHz Tipping Radiometer 5. 12 GHz Interferometer #12;Weather Parameters 1 May 2004 to 1 March 2007 speedwindousInstantaneV :Hz)(12StationWeather e

Balser, Dana S.

99

Optimal Base-Station Locations in Two-Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

the composite bit-stream toward a BS. This paper focuses on the topology control process for ANs and BSs, which constitute the upper tier of two-tiered WSNs. Since heterogeneous ANs are battery-powered and energy-specific correlations among these data and forwarding the composite bit-stream toward a base-station (BS). The BS, which

Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

100

Weather Maps in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

Charles Burrows

101

WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which MapServer is used to import spatial data by its database interface and to generate images of static geographic formats. However, a Java applet is additionally needed to display these images on the users local host. Furthermore, station data are visualized as time series by the scripting language PHP. Since February 2010, the visualization of gridded data products is a first step to a new data portal based on OpenLayers. In this GIS framework, all geographic information (e.g., OpenStreetMap) is displayed with MapServer. Furthermore, the visualization of all meteorological parameters are generated on the fly by a Python CGI script and transparently overlayed on the maps. Hence, station data and gridded data are visualized and further prepared for download in common data formats (csv, NetCDF). In conclusion, measured data and generated data products are provided with a data latency less than 1-2 hours in standard operation (near real time). Following an introduction of the processing system along the lines above, resulting data products are presented online at the WegenerNet data portal.

Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

2010-12-01

102

Diurnal variation of the global fair weather current from measurements at a Negev desert station in Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global electrical circuit (GEC) postulates a constant downward flowing current (Jz) equal to ~2 pA m-2 (Williams, 2009). We have been measuring the vertical fair-weather atmospheric electrical current from May 2011 continuously at the Wise astronomical observatory in the Negev desert, Israel. The instrument used is a modified version of the GDACCS design described by Bennet and Harrison (2008) which is capable of measuring the fair-weather current density with an accuracy of 0.4 pA m-2. The sensors are placed on a flat 1.5m x 1.5m concrete surface 150m away from the observatory. The signal is passed in a differential mode to the computer at the observatory, sampled at 250Hz by the data acquisition program (LabView) and saved to 1 minute files with a GPS time stamp every 1 second. The results show a clear daily pattern in the fluctuation of the fair weather vertical current Jz measured at the surface. The presence of airborne dust should reduce the conductivity (due to the attachment of small ions to aerosol particles). When analyzing the data with larger temporal resolution we note a strong correlation between the wind speed at the surface, the relative humidity and the Jz, suggesting the movement of space charge and rapid changes in the atmospheric conductivity. Additionally, we report initial indications for a response in Jz to the external forcing of geomagnetic conditions such as storms induced by solar flares, as evident from the correlation we find between Jz and Kp in solar quiescent and storm conditions. Bennett, A.J., Harrison, R.G. (2009), Evidence for global circuit current flow through water droplet layers. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr Phys. 71 (12), 1219-1221, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2009.04.011. Williams, E. R. (2009), The global electrical circuit, Atmos. Res., 91, 2-4, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.05.018

Elhalel, G.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.; Halatzi, S.; Reuveni, Y.; Shtibelman, D.

2012-04-01

103

Composite Temperature Record from the Greenland Summit, 1987-1994: Synthesis of Multiple Automatic Weather Station Records and SSM/I Brightness Temperatures.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air temperature (TA) records from automatic weather stations (AWS) in central Greenland and associated Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature (TB) data (37 GHz, vertical polarization) have been used to create a composite, daily, monthly, and annual average temperature record of the Greenland summit for the period 1987-1994. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperatures from a single station; AWS Cathy (May 1987 to May 1989), which was moved 28 km and became AWS Kenton (starting in June 1989 and continuing). The Cathy daily average TA record has been converted to the equivalent basis of Kenton by a technique based on the ratio of the contemporaneous daily average TB data from the two locations. The accuracy of this technique has been statistically tested using 16 months of contemporaneous TA and TB data from the GISP2 and Kenton AWS. The resulting composite temperature record provides a multiyear dataset for comparison to other climate records from the Greenland summit.

Shuman, C. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Bindschadler, R. A.; Alley, R. B.; Stearns, C. R.

1996-06-01

104

Weather monitor station and 225 GHz radiometer system installed at Sierra Negra: the Large Millimeter Telescope site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a 50-m dish antenna designed to observe in the wavelength range of 0.85 to 4 mm at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra Puebla, Mexico. The telescope has a new atmospheric monitoring system that allows technical staff and astronomers to evaluate the conditions at the site and have enough information to operate the antenna in safe conditions, atmospheric data is also useful to schedule maintenance activities and conduct scientific observations, opacity data is used to calibrate the astronomical data and evaluate the quality of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. In this paper we describe the integration of a weather atmospheric monitoring system and a 225 GHz radiometer to the facilities around the telescope and also describe the hardware integration of these systems and the software methodology used to save and process the data and then make it available in real time to the astronomers and outside world through an internet connection. Finally we present a first set of atmospheric measurements and statistics taken with this new equipment during the wet and dry seasons of 2013/2014.

Ferrusca, D.; Contreras R., J.

2014-07-01

105

Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, November 2000)  

SciTech Connect

This addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to determine the extent of contamination existing at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321. This addendum was required when the extent of contamination exceeded the estimate in the original Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Located in Area 22 on the Nevada Test Site, Corrective Action Unit 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, consists of Corrective Action Site 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area, was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility. This facility was operational from 1951 to 1958 and dismantled after 1958. Based on site history and earlier investigation activities at CAU 321, the contaminant of potential concern (COPC) was previously identified as total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics). The scope of this corrective action investigation for the Fuel Storage Area will include the selection of biased sample locations to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, collection of soil samples using rotary sonic drilling techniques, and the utilization of field-screening methods to accurately determine the extent of COPC contamination. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives and be included in the revised CADD.

DOE /NV

2000-11-03

106

Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind direction indicated the model error increased with the forecast period all four parameters. The hypothesis testing uses statistics to determine the probability that a given hypothesis is true. The goal of using the hypothesis test was to determine if the model bias of any of the parameters assessed throughout the model forecast period was statistically zero. For th is dataset, if this test produced a value >= -1 .96 or <= 1.96 for a data point, then the bias at that point was effectively zero and the model forecast for that point was considered to have no error. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed so the 45 WS would have an operational tool at their disposal that would be easy to navigate among the multiple stratifications of information to include tower locations, month, model initialization times, sensor heights and onshore/offshore flow. The AMU developed the GUI using HyperText Markup Language (HTML) so the tool could be used in most popular web browsers with computers running different operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and Linux.

Bauman, William H., III

2010-01-01

107

47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other device. Purchasers should also be aware that the FCC is currently evaluating use of wireless microphone...subject to change. For more information, call the FCC at 1-888-CALL-FCC (TTY: 1-888-TELL-FCC) or visit the...

2012-10-01

108

47 CFR 15.216 - Disclosure requirements for wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary stations capable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...other device. Purchasers should also be aware that the FCC is currently evaluating use of wireless microphone...subject to change. For more information, call the FCC at 1-888-CALL-FCC (TTY: 1-888-TELL-FCC) or visit the...

2014-10-01

109

Pilot Weather Advisor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

2006-01-01

110

Satellite Based Mapping of Land Surface ET using MODIS and Alternate Surface Meteorological Inputs from AMSR-E, Reanalysis, and Surface Weather Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and soil evaporation, is essential to understanding interactions between land-atmosphere surface energy and water balances. Vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and surface air temperature are key variables for stomatal conductance and ET estimation. We developed an algorithm to estimate ET using a modified Penman-Monteith approach driven by MODIS derived vegetation data and daily surface meteorological inputs including net incoming solar radiation, air temperature and VPD. The model was applied using alternate daily meteorological inputs, including: 1) site level weather station observations, 2) VPD and air temperature derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on the EOS Aqua satellite, and 3) Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) reanalysis based surface temperature, humidity and solar radiation data. Model performance was assessed across a North American boreal-Arctic transect (>50o N) of six eddy covariance flux towers representing boreal grassland, boreal forest and tundra biomes. Model results derived from the three meteorology data sets agree well with observed tower fluxes (r>0.6; P<0.00001; RMSE<30W/m2) and capture spatial patterns and seasonal variability in ET. The MODIS-AMSR-E derived ET results also show comparable accuracy to ET results derived from the reanalysis meteorology, while ET estimation error was generally more a function of algorithm parameterization than differences in meteorology drivers. Our results indicate significant potential for regional mapping and monitoring daily land surface evaporation using synergistic information from satellite optical-IR and microwave remote sensing.

Mu, Q.; Jones, L. A.; Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.

2007-12-01

111

An automated fire detection and alerting application based on satellite and wireless communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, implementation and demonstration results from the ongoing ESA ARTES project “SFEDONA”. The SFEDONA project deals with a complete end-to-end fire detection and alerting application which employs state-of-the-art satellite and wireless communications air interfaces as well as advanced technologies in fire detection, alerting and propagation estimation based on terrestrial optical cameras, weather meteorological stations and environmental

Konstantinos Liolis; Spiros Pantazis; Vassilis Gennatos; Socrates Costicoglou; Ilias Andrikopoulos

2010-01-01

112

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

Whitfield, Lise

2010-01-01

113

North Station North Station  

E-print Network

North Station North Station North Station East Station ... ... North Station Water Tower Elysian, and so on. She then hides the renamed map and the permutation table in a safe. Next, Virgil tosses a coin

Chazelle, Bernard

114

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

115

RBSP Space Weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

2012-12-01

116

How to Use the Weather Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial introduces The Weather Program, available from NCAR (the National Center for Atmospheric Research). The Weather program obtains weather data for requested stations and times. This tutorial provides students with experience with the interfaces, Netscape and a shell window. Students learn to access surface observations both decoded and raw and National Weather Service forecasts, watches and warnings. They learn to determine where warnings are active and to find specific requested weather information.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-01-01

117

911 Wireless Services  

MedlinePLUS

... and certain Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) licensees. Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) providers, however, are currently excluded. The ... wireless 911 call and the location of the cell site or base station transmitting the call. Phase ...

118

A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP, IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a fixed transmission rate. A protocol such as IntServ is used to provision resources along an end-to-end path of BSs for GR sessions. The Guaranteed Rates between the BSs are then specified in a doubly stochastic traffic rate matrix, which is recursively decomposed to yield a low-jitter GR frame transmission schedule. In the resulting schedule, the end-to-end delay and jitter are small and bounded, and the cell loss rate due to primary scheduling conflicts is zero. For dual-channel WMNs, the MAC protocol can achieve 100% utilization, as well as near-minimal queueing delays and near minimal delay jitter. The scheduling time complexity is O(NFlogNF), where N is the number of BSs. Extensive simulation results are presented.

Szymanski, T. H.

119

Array processing for wireless communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

By equipping the base stations of a wireless network with antenna arrays, it is possible to more fully exploit the spatial dimension in a wireless communication system. Multiple antennas can provide a processing gain to increase the base station range and improve coverage. Also, by exploiting the spatial selectivity of an antenna array, interference may be reduced which in turn

Björn Ottersten

1996-01-01

120

Reviews Book: Marie Curie and Her Daughters Resource: Cumulus Equipment: Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Equipment: 3D Magnetic Tube Equipment: National Grid Transmission Model Book: Einstein's Physics Equipment: Barton's Pendulums Equipment: Weather Station Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND Marie Curie and Her Daughters An insightful study of a resilient and ingenious family and their achievements Cumulus Simple to install and operate and with obvious teaching applications, this weather station 'donationware' is as easy to recommend as it is to use Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Good design and construction make for good results National Grid Transmission Model Despite its expense, this resource offers excellent value Einstein's Physics A vivid, accurate, compelling and rigorous treatment, but requiring an investment of time and thought WORTH A LOOK 3D Magnetic Tube Magnetic fields in three dimensions at a low cost Barton's Pendulums A neat, well-made and handy variant, but not a replacement for the more traditional version Weather Station Though not as robust or substantial as hoped for, this can be put to good use with the right software WEB WATCH An online experiment and worksheet are useful for teaching motor efficiency, a glance at CERN, and NASA's interesting information on the alpha-magnetic spectrometer and climate change

2013-09-01

121

STANDARDIZED ASCE PENMAN-MONTEITH: IMPACT OF SUM-OF-HOURLY VS. 24-HOUR TIMESTEP COMPUTATIONS AT REFERENCE WEATHER STATION SITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The standardized ASCE Penman-Monteith (ASCE-PM) model was used to estimate grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) over a range of climates at seven locations based on hourly and 24 h weather data. Hourly ETo computations were summed over 24 h periods and reported as sum-of-hourly (SOH). The SOH AS...

122

Challenges for Environmental Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many challenges posed to researchers looking to collect eco-hydrological information with monitoring systems exposed to the natural environment due, in part, to the unpredictable interactions between the environment and the wireless hardware and the scale of the deployment. While wireless sensor network technology has introduced autonomy and pervasiveness to studying the environment, it is not a panacea for outdoor monitoring systems. Despite the fact that each outdoor deployment will encounter its own unique set of challenges, it is often a benefit to researchers to know what problems were faced during other deployments and how these problems were mitigated or solved. This work examines a long-term (i.e., multi-year) environmental wireless sensor network which was deployed in a forested hill-sloped region of western Pennsylvania, USA and the main challenges that were encountered. These include: (1) the startup and maintenance costs of the wireless network; (2) the data collection system and remote access to the network; (3) the security of the network hardware and software; and (4) the reliability of wireless network connectivity. Based on our field study, it was found that while wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have less expensive startup costs compared to similarly sized wired systems (such as data logging), the WSN has relatively high maintenance costs as it requires frequent site visits (mean of 38 days per wireless node). One possible way to reduce the maintenance costs is by adjusting the sampling and/or collection frequency of the wireless nodes. In addition to the high maintenance costs, wireless communications, especially over complex networks, have low success rates of data capture from the field (approximately 50%). Environmental conditions, such as background noise, interference and weather conditions, may significantly influence the wireless communications. Technological advancements (such as smart sampling and data compression) are being developed to improve the data success rates within WSNs. Furthermore, a complex network of monitoring devices depends on the reliability of base station and gateway system for collecting, storing, and analyzing data from the field. Limitations and vulnerabilities in base station designs can lead to network outages and loss of data. In addition to addressing the above concerns, this project also examines both the reliability and security of a networked base station.

Liang, X.; Davis, T. W.

2013-12-01

123

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting — from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment — and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

124

UM Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

125

Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather affects our everyday lives. Some days it's sunny and some days its not. The years weather is split up into seasons. 1. What are the four seasons? 2. What kind of weather do you see in the summer? 3. What kind of weather is unique to winter? 4. ...

Mrs. Bellows

2009-09-28

126

Sky Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While satellites are the current backbone of telecommunications and wireless infrastructure, the company that maintains this Web site envisions a completely new technology. The Stratospheric Telecommunications Service (STS) relies on "lighter-than-air platforms which are held in a geo-stationary position in the stratosphere (approximately 21Km) over a major metropolitan area." The Sky Station company documents much of the STS theory online, as well as maintaining news and information articles about the progress of the system's development. US and international organizations have already reserved some of the radio frequency spectrum for stratospheric platforms, and it seems to have considerable support from important agencies.

1997-01-01

127

Eolian sand transport at three stations on a dune backed coastline in northern Indiana and their relationships to weather-related and site-specific controls  

SciTech Connect

Continuous measurements of eolian sand transport (using Automated Sand Traps) and wind speed/direction at 1.5 m above the surface were achieved on a dune backed coastline near Gary, Indiana. Data were collected on an hourly basis for a 6 month period during which 55 major sand movement events were observed. The sandstorms lasted from 1 to 16 hours with an average length of 4 hours and produced total transport quantities of up to 227 kg/m. the largest sand movement totals occurred when the wind was northerly; indeed 75% of the total sand captured at the authors station in a small blowout occurred during periods when the wind was from north. Northerly winds also dominated overall sand movement at their station on the crest of a vegetated foredune, but the total amount of transported sand was only 6.5% of that in the blowout. Hourly sand transport efficiency, expressed as the ratio of measured transport to theoretical transport (based on Bagnold's equation), averaged 0.34 at the blowout station during the spring of 1992, whereas averages for the dune crest station and a station on the backshore were 0.04 and 0.15, respectively, during the same period. Efficiencies were highly variable, even during individual storms, and exhibited no obvious systematic trend. However, storm-wind direction, topography, and sand surface character (e.g. vegetation and surface moisture conditions) were all observed to have an influence on the efficiency of sand transport at the study site.

Bennett, S.W.; Olyphant, G.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

128

Weathering trials of Amulet cue-lure and Amulet methyl eugenol "attract-and-kill" stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Amulet C-L (cue-lure) and Amulet ME (methyl eugenol) molded paper fiber "attract-and-kill" dispensers containing fipronil were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (melon fly) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), respectively. In paired tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers were effective for at least 77 d, whereas ME dispensers were effective for at least 21 d. Thus, C-L dispensers exceeded, whereas ME dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendation of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of ME to 56-d-old ME dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 21 d. This result suggested the fipronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering ME dispensers inside small plastic bucket traps, longevity of ME dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Fipronil ME and C-L dispensers also were compared, inside bucket traps, to other toxicants: spinosad, naled, DDVP, malathion, and permethrin. Against B. dorsalis, fipronil ME dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against B. cucurbitae, fipronil C-L dispensers compared favorably for at least 15 wk. Our results suggest that fipronil C-L dispensers can potentially be used in Hawaii; however, fipronil ME dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet C-L and ME dispensers are novel prepackaged formulations containing C-L or ME and fipronil that are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. PMID:16334323

Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Mackey, Bruce; Bull, Richard

2005-10-01

129

Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed to give students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Students discover that mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedrock into smaller fragments by physical as opposed to chemical means and that rock weathering, although it seems to occur slowly in human terms, is an extremely significant part of the rock cycle. They will learn that weathered rock materials are called sediments and are the structural basis for soils and can also be compacted into sedimentary rock. Students will realize that rock weathering rates vary widely depending on mineral content, texture, rock type, and climate and that differential weathering (varying weathering rates for two or more rock types in physical contact with each other) has given rise to some of the world's most breathtaking scenery.

130

Weathering Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.

2002-01-01

131

Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

132

Weather Odds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Odds site helps users learn about the odds of various weather happening at monthly and daily levels. The site relies on past climate data from thousands of locations and it's a fine resource. In the Quick Weather Data area, visitors can check out popular United States locations or use the search engine to breeze along to their preferred habitat. This version of Weather Odds is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-05-08

133

Countermeasures Against Traffic Analysis Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks are highly vulnerable to the failure of base stations. An adversary can render a wireless sensor network useless by launching remote, softwarebased attacks or physical attacks on the base stations. This paper addresses the problem of defending a base station against physical attacks by concealing the geographic location of a base station. Typical packet traffic in a

Jing Deng; Richard Han; Shivakant Mishra

2005-01-01

134

Fiber wireless networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband wireless networks based on a number of new frequency windows at higher microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies have been actively pursued to provide ultra-high bandwidth services over a wireless networks. These networks will have a large number of antenna base-stations with high throughput. Significant reductions in antenna base-station complexity can be achieved if most of the signal routing and switching functions centralized at a central office in the network. In such a network, fiber feed networks can be effectively deployed to provide high bandwidth interconnections between multiple antenna base-stations and the central office. With wavelength division multiplexing, efficient optical fiber feed network architectures could be realised to provide interconnection to a large number of antenna base-stations. In this paper, we present an over view of our recent research into system technologies for fiber wireless networks.

Nirmalathas, A.; Bakaul, M.; Lim, C.; Novak, D.; Waterhouse, R.

2005-11-01

135

World Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

Elias, Jaume S.

2014-02-20

136

47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter, air traffic control transponder, distance measuring equipment, collision avoidance equipment, racon, radio relay, radionavigation land test station (MTF), and automatically controlled...

2010-10-01

137

Kazakhstan Space Weather Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kazakhstan experimental complex is a center of experimental study of space weather. This complex is situated near Almaty, Kazakhstan and includes experimental setup for registration of cosmic ray intensity (neutron monitor) at altitude of 3340 m above sea level, geomagnetic observatory and setup for registration of solar flux density with frequency of 1 and 3 GHz with 1 second time resolution. Results of space environment monitoring in real time are accessible via Internet. This experimental information is used for space weather investigations and different cosmic ray effects. Almaty mountain cosmic ray station is one of the most suitable and sensitive stations for investigation and forecasting of the dangerous situations for satellites; for this reason Almaty cosmic ray station is included in the world-wide neutron monitor network for the real-time monitoring of the space weather conditions and European Database NMDB (www.nmdb.eu). All data are represented on the web-site of the Institute of Ionosphere (www.ionos.kz) in real time. Since July, 2006 the space environment prediction laboratory represents the forecast of geomagnetic activity every day on the same site (www.ionos.kz/?q=en/node/21).

Kryakunova, Olga

2012-07-01

138

FAWN: Florida Automated Weather Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) provides up-to-date weather information through a system of automated weather stations distributed throughout the State of Florida. Research scientists at the University of Florida work closely with extension agents to monitor the FAWN system and make sure it provides fast, reliable, and convenient access. Overall, there are four parts to the FAWN system: collecting data, transmitting it to the collection site, processing the data, and redistributing it to the end user. FAWN database servers maintained by IFAS Information Technologies receive weather data about the date and time of collection, the air temperature, soil temperature, relative humidity, dewpoint, rainfall, wind direction, wind speed, and radiation from remote stations every 15 minutes. The information is processed and made available almost instantaneously through several different search methods accessible through FAWN web server, as well as an interactive voice-response system.

139

Predicting Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

2008-03-28

140

Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The weather watch activity is designed to provide instruction on how to collect weather data from on-line databases. Following completion of this activity the user will be able to look up weather conditions for any city in North America, know what radar maps are used for and how to access them, and know how to access satellite images and make estimated guesses on cloud conditions for their area from them.

Hopson, R.

141

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

142

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

143

Cross-layer design for wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the cellular and PCS world collides with wireless LANs and Internet-based packet data, new networking approaches will support the integration of voice and data on the composite infrastructure of cellular base stations and Ethernet-based wireless access points. This article highlights some of the past accomplishments and promising research avenues for an important topic in the creation of future wireless

Sanjay Shakkottai; Theodore S. Rappaport; Peter C. Karlsson

2003-01-01

144

Forecast skill of a high-resolution real-time mesoscale model designed for weather support of operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA funded Mesoscale Environmental Simulations and Operations (MESO), Inc. to develop a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). The model has been modified specifically for short-range forecasting in the vicinity of KSC/CCAS. To accomplish this, the model domain has been limited to increase the number of horizontal grid points (and therefore grid resolution) and the model' s treatment of precipitation, radiation, and surface hydrology physics has been enhanced to predict convection forced by local variations in surface heat, moisture fluxes, and cloud shading. The objective of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of MASS including the real-time initialization and configuration for running the data pre-processor and model, and (2) to summarize the preliminary evaluation of the model's forecasts of temperature, moisture, and wind at selected rawinsonde station locations during February 1994 and July 1994. MASS is a hydrostatic, three-dimensional modeling system which includes schemes to represent planetary boundary layer processes, surface energy and moisture budgets, free atmospheric long and short wave radiation, cloud microphysics, and sub-grid scale moist convection.

Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.; Manobianco, John

1994-01-01

145

Accuracy assessment of land surface temperature retrievals from Landsat 7 ETM + in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using iButton temperature loggers and weather station data.  

PubMed

The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are the largest snow/ice-free regions on this vast continent, comprising 1% of the land mass. Due to harsh environmental conditions, the valleys are bereft of any vegetation. Land surface temperature is a key determinate of microclimate and a driver for sensible and latent heat fluxes of the surface. The Dry Valleys have been the focus of ecological studies as they arguably provide the simplest trophic structure suitable for modelling. In this paper, we employ a validation method for land surface temperatures obtained from Landsat 7 ETM + imagery and compared with in situ land surface temperature data collected from four transects totalling 45 iButtons. A single meteorological station was used to obtain a better understanding of daily and seasonal cycles in land surface temperatures. Results show a good agreement between the iButton and the Landsat 7 ETM + product for clear sky cases. We conclude that Landsat 7 ETM + derived land surface temperatures can be used at broad spatial scales for ecological and meteorological research. PMID:24366817

Brabyn, Lars; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Stichbury, Glen; Cary, Craig; Storey, Bryan; Laughlin, Daniel C; Katurji, Marwan

2014-04-01

146

Wacky Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

147

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

2012-06-26

148

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-09-01

149

Integrated All-silicon Thin-film Power Electronics on Flexible Sheets For Ubiquitous Wireless Charging Stations based on Solar-energy Harvesting  

E-print Network

-inverter efficiency. Fig. 2: Power inverter using two solar modules to provide alternating current via only NMOS power from the solar modules to AC power for wireless device charging through patterned capacitive antennas. With 0.5-2nF transfer antennas and solar modules of 100cm2 , the system provides 47-120W of power at 11

150

Wireless environmental data acquisition for the international space station (for mission flights 3A, 4A, 5A and 7A.1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invocon, Inc. has developed a next generation data acquisition and communications network to be deployed in, on, and around space structures under construction. This Wireless Instrumentation System (WIS) is a highly integrated remote data acquisition system for use in a wide variety of distributed sensor applications. Typical applications include modal analysis, condition-based maintenance, structural monitoring and manufacturing process control. Designed

Karl Kiefer; Kevin Champaigne

1999-01-01

151

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

2013-05-29

152

Weatherizing America  

SciTech Connect

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

2009-01-01

153

Weather Creator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

Kshumway

2009-09-28

154

Weathering Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

Stelling, Pete

155

Exploring Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

Miss Emily

2010-01-29

156

Gravestone Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

Wiberg, Leanne; History, National M.

2000-01-01

157

Interannual variability of Martian weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure, temperature, imaging, and wind data from the Mutch Memorial Station, the Viking lander located in Mars' subtropics, are used to demonstrate the existence of two disctinct regimes of northern hemisphere winter weather on Mars. One of these regime is characterized by one or more intense global dust storms in which the optical depth reaches about 5 over most of

C. B. Leovy; J. E. Tillman; W. R. Guest; J. Barnes

1985-01-01

158

Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Applied Meteorology Unit developed a forecast tool that provides an assessment of the likelihood of local convective severe weather for the day in order to enhance protection of personnel and material assets of the 45th Space Wing Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark

2005-01-01

159

Space Weather Action Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space Weather Action Center is a computer-based activity that allows students to track, from their classroom, the development and progress of solar storms. The activity incorporates online NASA data and addresses national education standards in science, technology and math. Students rotate through four space weather learning stations and are challenged to answer the following questions: Do sunspot regions exist today that could be a source of solar storms?; Have radio signals been recorded today from a flare or coronal mass ejection that could affect Earth?; Has there been a measurable disturbance in the Earth's magnetic field?; and Have auroras been seen within the last 24 hours because of a solar storm? A setup guide is provided to show how to create a Space Weather Action Center in the classroom, including recommendations, diagrams, and the necessary list of materials. The instructional guide features background and evaluation materials, alignments to national standards, extension activities, and instructions on how to read, analyze and record space weather data.

160

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0. UPDATED WITH RECORD OF TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

U.S. DOE /NV

1999-02-08

161

Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

2004-02-06

162

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

163

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

2010-01-01

164

Wireless Headset Communication System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System combines features of pagers, walkie-talkies, and cordless telephones. Wireless headset communication system uses digital modulation on spread spectrum to avoid interference among units. Consists of base station, 4 radio/antenna modules, and as many as 16 remote units with headsets. Base station serves as network controller, audio-mixing network, and interface to such outside services as computers, telephone networks, and other base stations. Developed for use at Kennedy Space Center, system also useful in industrial maintenance, emergency operations, construction, and airport operations. Also, digital capabilities exploited; by adding bar-code readers for use in taking inventories.

Lau, Wilfred K.; Swanson, Richard; Christensen, Kurt K.

1995-01-01

165

Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/~lenny/WeatherRisk

Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.

2001-12-01

166

The development of an objective weather typing scheme  

E-print Network

. Driscoll An attempt has been made to develop a better objective daily weather typing scheme than currently exists. Conventional typing schemes were examined and their deficiences noted. Four objective typing methods were applied to station-month data... sets to produce between 5 and 15 synoptically reasonable, statistically significantly different weather types. Three of the four methods used the Root Mean Square Difference of the weather elements between one day and all others in the station...

LaFebre, Robert Donald

2012-06-07

167

Each new car a weather station  

E-print Network

, skin allergies, research vessels, tapestries and basic natural sciences. Our Faculty boasts strong firmly established. ALLErGIES ANd SkIN CANCEr are on the rise in so- ciety, and research has presented

Johannesson, Henrik

168

Fuzzy logic based handoff in wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In indoor wireless communication networks, mobile computing devices need to be handed off to different base stations based on certain criteria. In this paper, a fuzzy logic based scheme for selection of base station at the time of handoff is presented. The scheme considers three criteria, namely, received power levels, user population and used bandwidth of each base station to

Manpreet Singh Dang; Amol Prakash; D. K. Anvekar; D. Kapoor; Rajeev Shorey

2000-01-01

169

Wacky Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 5-lesson unit gives students practice in using calculating, graphing and modeling skills to analyze varoius aspects of weather. Students calculate fractions of a set of rainfall data, graph damage costs of selected hurricanes, and make Venn diagrams to compare droughts and hurricanes. Visuals and student handouts are provided.

Barbara Chichetti

2002-01-01

170

Today's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

171

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

Mission Science Workshop

2013-01-01

172

Tacoma Power Weatherization  

E-print Network

Tacoma Power Weatherization Specifications August 2009 KnowYourPower.com | #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition Page 2 #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition

173

Weather and Climate Monitoring Protocol, Channel Islands National Park, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weather and climate are strong drivers of population dynamics, plant and animal spatial distributions, community interactions, and ecosystem states. Information on local weather and climate is crucial in interpreting trends and patterns in the natural environment for resource management, research, and visitor enjoyment. This document describes the weather and climate monitoring program at the Channel Islands National Park (fig. 1), initiated in the 1990s. Manual and automated stations, which continue to evolve as technology changes, are being used for this program. The document reviews the history of weather data collection on each of the five Channel Islands National Park islands, presents program administrative structure, and provides an overview of procedures for data collection, archival, retrieval, and reporting. This program overview is accompanied by the 'Channel Islands National Park Remote Automated Weather Station Field Handbook' and the 'Channel Islands National Park Ranger Weather Station Field Handbook'. These Handbooks are maintained separately at the Channel Island National Park as 'live documents' that are updated as needed to provide a current working manual of weather and climate monitoring procedures. They are available on request from the Weather Program Manager (Channel Islands National Park, 1901 Spinnaker Dr., Ventura, CA 93001; 805.658.5700). The two Field Handbooks describe in detail protocols for managing the four remote automated weather stations (RAWS) and the seven manual Ranger Weather Stations on the islands, including standard operating procedures for equipment maintenance and calibration; manufacturer operating manuals; data retrieval and archiving; metada collection and archival; and local, agency, and vendor contracts.

McEachern, Kathryn; Power, Paula; Dye, Linda; Rudolph, Rocky

2008-01-01

174

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

Najman, M.

2009-09-01

175

Earth Observation Services Weather Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microprocessor-based systems for processing satellite data offer mariners real-time images of weather systems, day and night, of large areas or allow them to zoom in on a few square miles. Systems West markets these commercial image processing systems, which have significantly decreased the cost of satellite weather stations. The company was assisted by the EOCAP program, which provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

1992-01-01

176

Weather Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

Mitchell, Mrs.

2010-09-23

177

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

178

Wireless sensor network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current and future requirements of aerospace sensors and transducers demand the design and development of a new family of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors and transducers will possess a certain degree of intelligence in order to provide the end user with critical data in a more efficient manner. Communication between networks of traditional or next-generation sensors can be accomplished by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) developed by NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC Aerospace Corporation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), consisting of at least one central station and several remote stations and their associated software. The central station is application-dependent and can be implemented on different computer hardware, including industrial, handheld, or PC-104 single-board computers, on a variety of operating systems: embedded Windows, Linux, VxWorks, etc. The central stations and remote stations share a similar radio frequency (RF) core module hardware that is modular in design. The main components of the remote stations are an RF core module, a sensor interface module, batteries, and a power management module. These modules are stackable, and a common bus provides the flexibility to stack other modules for additional memory, increased processing, etc. WSN can automatically reconfigure to an alternate frequency if interference is encountered during operation. In addition, the base station will autonomously search for a remote station that was perceived to be lost, using relay stations and alternate frequencies. Several wireless remote-station types were developed and tested in the laboratory to support different sensing technologies, such as resistive temperature devices, silicon diodes, strain gauges, pressure transducers, and hydrogen leak detectors.

Perotti, Jose M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.; Mata, Carlos T.

2006-05-01

179

Weather Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will be observing the weather in our enviornment. Post your observations. Take a hike! Tell us what you see! Make sure and note the date/time/season. Take a walk in your neighboorhood- what signs show you the current season? Vacation? Make observations about the place you visited. Make obseravtions every week! Keep a journal about the changes you observe! Winter Storm ImageSeasonal ChangesAround the WorldSeasonsSeasons of the Year ...

sarahnp

2011-07-18

180

Mobile station locating in GSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positioning of a mobile station (MS) will become mandatory in the US to support wireless emergency calls in the near future. Also, lots of other applications are foreseen for the location service, when implemented. In this paper the authors study the feasibility of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and MS location. The TDMA based GSM system offers

Marko Silventoinen; T. Rantalainen

1995-01-01

181

GPS as a Weather Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) stations are not just useful for studying how tectonic plates and glaciers surge or creep or how land deforms as magma runs below it. They also are rapidly becoming important sensors for monitoring the terrestrial water cycle (see "Using GPS to study the terrestrial water cycle," pages 505-506). What is more, they can help study and forecast weather, according to scientists who presented their work at AGU's 2013 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

Kumar, Mohi

2013-12-01

182

THE USDA/AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE RESEARCH WEATHER NETWORK IN LAKE COUNTY, OHIO - 2002 UPDATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Permanent meteorological stations have been installed in Northeast Ohio production nurseries to archive weather data during horticultural experiments. Insect and disease management research require detailed knowledge of weather conditions. Data such as soil moisture and temperature, air temperature...

183

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

184

The State of Wireless London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides the results from a survey, sponsored by the International Chamber of Commerce, which reports on the growth of wireless usage in the greater London area and compares networks built by "freenetwork" groups to those built by commercial providers. The results show that London has more than 5,000 wireless networks that are being used in offices, government buildings, prisons, police stations and government offices. The data is displayed clearly with impressive maps and detailed documentation. The reference list offers numerous links for more information about wireless networks.

185

NOAA/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a prototype debris flow early warning system for Southern California. The system uses USGS-defined rainfall rate thresholds for debris flows and burn area hazard maps to protect interests in and near burn areas of damaging and potentially deadly debris flows. Although common throughout Southern California, as witnessed by the December 25, 2003 storm in which sixteen people were swept to their deaths by debris flows generated from a recent burn area near Devore, debris flows are commonly misunderstood by the public. They are often perceived as rare events, are difficult to warn for with sufficient lead time, and present unique challenges when communicating proper calls to action to best save lives and property. Many improvements to the system have been realized since the project’s inception in 2005, including using more refined rainfall rate thresholds, use of burn area hazard maps, and the establishment of a tiered system to categorize the potential severity of flash floods and debris flows. These efforts have collectively resulted in a reduction of warning false alarms. However, the massive 400,000 hectare 2009 Station burn area in the Angeles National Forest of Los Angeles County has created numerous challenges to the early warning system. The geology of the area burned is highly susceptible to debris flows, due in part to the burn severity, soil types and steep slopes. Most importantly, the burn area is adjacent to and uphill of the highly populated lower foothills of the San Fernando Valley. NOAA/NWS and the USGS have thus worked closely with local response and preparedness agencies to analyze and communicate the threat and assist in developing a unified command response plan in preparation for flash flood and debris flows from this burn area. The early warning system was put to the ultimate test on February 6, 2010 when intense rainfall over the burn area produced very damaging but fortunately nonfatal flash flooding and debris flows. Unfortunately public and local agency response to NWS forecasts, watches, and warnings issued for this event was minimal. Possible causes of, and actions needed to improve upon, this minimal response are examined, including 1) complacency due to previous watch and warning false alarms, 2) underestimating the hazard threat due to local residents having not personally experienced a severe debris flow event in recent history if ever, 3) misinterpretation of NWS point precipitation forecasts and current limits of predictability related to forecasting specific locations and amounts of intense rainfall beyond 12-24 hours, 4) the challenges of ensuring NWS information is consistently received and interpreted among the multiple agencies and jurisdictions of the unified command, and 5) the likelihood that most people did not hear NWS warnings due to the event taking place late at night. Also examined are proper calls to action to protect life and property at a time when evacuations may put people in harm's way.

Jackson, M.; Laber, J. L.; Boldt, E.

2010-12-01

186

The Weather Dude  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

Walker, Nick.

2002-01-01

187

Cross-layer Optimization of Video Streaming in Single-Hop Wireless Cheng-Hsin Hsu and Mohamed Hefeeda  

E-print Network

through a high-speed link, e.g., Fast or Giga bit Ethernet link. Therefore, the server­base station link station through wired high-speed Ethernet switches, while all wireless stations compete with each other

Hefeeda, Mohammed

188

Implementing wireless sensor networks for architectural heritage conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preventive conservation in architectural heritage is one of the most important aims for the development and implementation of new techniques to assess decay, lending to reduce damage before it has occurred and reducing costs in the long term. For that purpose, it is necessary to know all aspects influencing in decay evolution depending on the material under study and its internal and external conditions. Wireless sensor networks are an emerging technology and a minimally invasive technique. The use of these networks facilitates data acquisition and monitoring of a large number of variables that could provoke material damages, such as presence of harmful compounds like salts, dampness, etc. The current project presents different wireless sensors networks (WSN) and sensors used to fulfill the requirements for a complete analysis of main decay agents in a Renaissance church of the 16th century in Madrid (Spain). Current typologies and wireless technologies are studied establishing the most suitable system and the convenience of each one. Firstly, it is very important to consider that microclimate is in close correlation with material deterioration. Therefore a temperature(T) and relative humidity (RH)/moisture network has been developed, using ZigBee wireless communications protocols, and monitoring different points along the church surface. These points are recording RH/T differences depending on the height and the sensor location (inside the material or on the surface). On the other hand, T/RH button sensors have been used, minimizing aesthetical interferences, and concluding which is the most advisable way for monitoring these specific parameters. Due to the fact that microclimate is a complex phenomenon, it is necessary to examine spatial distribution and time evolution at the same time. This work shows both studies since the development expects a long term monitoring. A different wireless network has been deployed to study the effects of pollution caused by other active systems such as a forced-air heating system, the parishioners presence or feasts and other ventilation conditions. Finally weather conditions are registered through a weather station. Outside and inside conditions are compared to incorporate data to the network for a later decay modeling.

Martínez-Garrido, M. I.; Aparicio, S.; Fort, R.; Izquierdo, M. A. G.; Anaya, J. J.

2012-04-01

189

External Resource: Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A student activity with teacher's sheet, to give the students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedroc

1900-01-01

190

Weather data and heating-degree days for Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present monthly-average maximum, minimum and mean temperatures and the medians of extreme temperatures for 24 weather stations in Saudi Arabia. Heating-degree days are also given for these locations.

M. A. I. El-Shaarawi; N. Al-Masri

1996-01-01

191

Controlling The Global Weather.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the weather controller is extremely complex, the existence of the required technology is plausible in the time range of several decades.While the concept of controlling the weather has often appeared in science fiction literature, this statement of the problem provides a scientific basis and a system architecture to actually implement global weather control. Large-scale weather control raises important legal and ethical questions. The nation that controls its own weather will perforce control the weather of other nations. Weather "wars" are conceivable. An international treaty may be required, limiting the use of weather control technology.

Hoffman, Ross N.

2002-02-01

192

WEATHERING TRIALS OF AMULET(TM) C-L AND AMULET(TM) M-E ATTRACT AND KILL STATIONS WITH MALE MELON FLIES AND ORIENTAL FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN HAWAII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Amulet™ C-L and Amulet™ M-E molded paper fiber “attract and kill” dispensers with cue-lure or methyl eugenol and fipronil, were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, and B. dosalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, respectively. In paired tests ...

193

47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. 90.1333 ...SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services...1333 Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. (a)...

2012-10-01

194

47 CFR 90.1333 - Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. 90.1333 ...SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services...1333 Restrictions on the operation of mobile and portable stations. (a)...

2013-10-01

195

Smart antennas for wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we discuss current and future antenna technology for wireless systems and the improvement that smart and adaptive antenna arrays can provide. We describe standard cellular antennas, smart antennas using fixed beams, and adaptive antennas for base stations, as well as antenna technologies for handsets. We show the potential improvement that these antennas can provide, including range extension,

JACK H. WINTERS

1998-01-01

196

Forecast and virtual weather driven plant disease risk modeling system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe a system in use and development that leverages public weather station data, several spatialized weather forecast types, leaf wetness estimation, generic plant disease models, and online statistical evaluation. Convergent technological developments in all these areas allow, with funding f...

197

Daily Weather from Monthly Averages -- Hocus Pocus, or Useful Tool?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Just how much can you legitimately extract from monthly statistics of daily weather parameters? In this paper we present the utility and limitations of a simple weather generator (CLIGEN) which has over 750 registered users, most of whom are international. CLIGEN's 4,000-plus station files of mont...

198

WEATHER OBSERVATIONS - SUMMARY OF THE DAY - FIRST ORDER  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Climatic Data Center makes available daily weather data for approximately 300 currently active National Weather Service stations, with a lag time (after end of data month) of about 8-10 weeks. Coverage includes the contiguous United States, Caribbean Islands, Pacific...

199

Use of NWS Weather Measurements for Cross-checking Local Weather Measurements  

E-print Network

of instruments 6uranged in a tower-like configuration at or near qwrt runways. Generally, the stations consist of a hygrothemometer (a dew point i~d ambient temperature sensor), an anemometer (wind speed and direction sensor), a ceilometer (cloud height... of four main components: individual weather sensors, dm collection packages, acquisition control units, arid peripherals and displays. Each collection of weather sensors contains a cloud height indicator, visibility sensor, precipitation identifier...

Crowley, G. D.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01

200

A HIERARCHIAL STOCHASTIC MODEL OF LARGE SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND MULTIPLE STATION DAILY PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A stochastic model of weather states and concurrent daily precipitation at multiple precipitation stations is described. our algorithms are invested for classification of daily weather states; k means, fuzzy clustering, principal components, and principal components coupled with ...

201

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

202

Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) in Wireless Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the utilization of antenna arrays at the base stations of wirelesscommunication systems. Multiple antennas can provide a processing gain toincrease the base station range and improve coverage. Also, by exploiting theangular selectivity of an antenna array at the base stations of a wireless system,users may be spatially multiplexed to increase system capacity. We address severalaspects of the

Björn Ottersten

1995-01-01

203

Incorporating the Campus Radio Station into Your Emergency Communications Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radio stations have been a mainstay of American life since the 1920s. Broadcasting primarily over AM and FM frequencies, American radio stations have been used to provide entertainment, news, weather, and advertising to the public. Beginning in 1963 and continuing until 1997, local radio stations were part of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)…

Johnson, Thomas C.

2008-01-01

204

High-availability free space optical and RF hybrid wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce hybrid free-space optical and RF wireless links as potential technology for designing next-generation broadband wireless networks. We present various design challenges and potential solutions for real-time link performance characterization and adaptation for enhanced performance during adverse weather conditions. First, we introduce the hybrid wireless architecture and emphasize its significant role in achieving ubiquitous carrier-grade wireless connectivity. Second, we

HOSSEIN IZADPANAH; TAMER ELBATT; VIKAS KUKSHYA; FRANK DOLEZAL; BO K. RYU

2003-01-01

205

Wireless Instrumentation System and Power Management Scheme Therefore  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wireless instrumentation system enables a plurality of low power wireless transceivers to transmit measurement data from a plurality of remote station sensors to a central data station accurately and reliably. The system employs a relay based communications scheme where remote stations that cannot communicate directly with the central station due to interference, poor signal strength, etc., are instructed to communicate with other of the remote stations that act as relays to the central station. A unique power management scheme is also employed to minimize power usage at each remote station and thereby maximize battery life. Each of the remote stations prefembly employs a modular design to facilitate easy reconfiguration of the stations as required.

Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Blalock, Norman N. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

206

Performance Measurement of 802.11a Wireless Links from UAV to Ground Nodes with Various Antenna Orientations  

E-print Network

Performance Measurement of 802.11a Wireless Links from UAV to Ground Nodes with Various Antenna measured performance of 802.11a wireless links from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to ground stations-station elevations. By comparing the performance of 32 simultaneous pairs of UAV and ground station configurations

Kung, H. T.

207

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

208

Development of a Wireless Remote Monitoring System Utilizing Multiple Wireless Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel remote monitoring system for all day outdoor observation using multiple wireless sensors and wireless communication (Handy phone and PHS) is proposed. The whole system consists of three parts: (i) a host station that is PC (Personal Computer), (ii) remote station that contains a camera controlled by CPU and power supply (battery attached by solar cell), and (iii) multiple wireless sensors having each ID signal. The remote station usually works by an event-driven method based on the wireless sensor signals. Because of this event-driven method, various multi-vision systems are easily configurable. This paper describes the details of the system and evaluates the possibility of the application of the system. Since some of the systems are now really running in many places, we can consider that the effectiveness of the system is shown by the fact in a practical sense.

Masuda, Shinichi; Hattori, Tetsuo

209

Space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

1989-01-01

210

LINKING THE WEATHER TO GLACIER HYDROLOGY AND MASS BALANCE AT PEYTO GLACIER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts have been made to link weather variations at Peyto Glacier to mass balance fluctuations. On the larger scale of inquiry, associations have been found between seasonal components of the mass balance and synoptic weather types. Also, there are significant correlations with temperature and precipitation records from regional weather stations. The smaller scale of study features micro-meteorological investigations to document

D. Scott Munro

211

Broadcast media and the dissemination of weather information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although television is the public's most preferred source of weather information, it fails to provide weather reports to those groups who seek the information early in the day and during the day. The result is that many people most often use radio as a source of information, yet preferring the medium of television. The public actively seeks weather information from both radio and TV stations, usually seeking information on current conditions and short range forecasts. forecasts. Nearly all broadcast stations surveyed were eager to air severe weather bulletins quickly and often. Interest in Nowcasting was high among radio and TV broadcasters, with a significant portion indicating a willingness to pay something for the service. However, interest among TV stations in increasing the number of daily reports was small.

Byrnes, J.

1973-01-01

212

Pilot weather advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

1992-01-01

213

The Weather Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

Grasser, Mrs. E.

2012-09-27

214

Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a significant enhancement to the agronomic decision-support process. Direct benefits to growers can take the form of increased yield and grade potential, as well as savings in money and time. Pest management strategies become more efficient due to timely and localized disease and pest modelling, and increased efficacy of pest and weed control. Examples from the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) WeatherFarm weather network will be utilized to illustrate the processes, decision tools and benefits to producers and farmers.

Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

2010-09-01

215

First look at RBSP Space Weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations are being identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. When RBSP launches in August 2012, the RBSP instruments will be generating and broadcasting real-time space weather data. These data are used for space weather forecasting. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Data Portal at http://rbspsdp.jhuapl.edu/data.php and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

Weiss, M.; Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Sotirelis, T.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.

2011-12-01

216

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

217

What will be the weather like tomorrow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since June 2010, our school is part of the network '"météo à l'école'": it hosts an autonomous weather station, approved by Météo France , which measures continuously the temperature and precipitation. The data is transmitted by a GSM module to a computer server. After its validation by Météo France, it is send online every day on a public accessible website : http://www.edumeteo.org/ The MPS Education ( Scientific Methods and Practices) in junior high school classes (one hour and half per week throughout the school year ) makes full use of data from the networks '"météo à l'école'" data and Météo France. Three scientific disciplines :; Mathematics, Life and Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Chemistry are part of a schedule defined after consultation and educational coherence to enable students to: - Discovering and understanding the operation of the sensors station, weather satellites ... - Operating satellite images, studying of the atmosphere and weather phenomena (formation of a storm, for example) - Operating collected data (networks 'météo à l'école' and Météo France) to identify climatic differences between regions, seasons, and their effects on living beings (study of the greenhouse effect and climate warming among others). The ultimate goal is to discover used tools and data to produce a weather forecast. We work for these purposes with the Cité de l'Espace in Toulouse (weather Pole) and the head forecaster Meteo France Merignac.

Christelle, Guilloux

2014-05-01

218

Owlie Skywarn's Weather Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity book from the National Weather Service that teaches about hazardous weather. The site also includes links to kids sites for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA).

Cris Garcia

2001-06-22

219

Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

Francek, Mark

2002-10-01

220

Properties of 1-D Infrastructure-based Wireless Multi-hop Networks  

E-print Network

the data via a local transit network to a remote control base station. In vehicular networks, wirelessProperties of 1-D Infrastructure-based Wireless Multi-hop Networks Seh Chun Ng, Guoqiang Mao@ee.usyd.edu.au, guoqiang@ee.usyd.edu.au, brian.anderson@anu.edu.au Abstract--Many real wireless multi-hop networks

Mao, Guoqiang

221

Cross-layer optimization for streaming scalable video over fading wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a cross-layer design of transmitting scalable video streams from a base station to multiple clients over a shared fading wireless network by jointly considering the application layer information and the wireless channel conditions. We first design a long-term resource allocation algorithm that determines the optimal wireless scheduling policy in order to maximize the weighted sum of average video

Honghai Zhang; Yanyan Zheng; Mohammad Ali Khojastepour; Sampath Rangarajan

2010-01-01

222

Wireless ATM -An Overview Xinri Cong, cong@cis.ohio-state.edu  

E-print Network

segment. In the fixed ATM network, the switches, which communicate directly with wireless station, lots of the design issues have been standardized by ATM Forum. Wireless personal communication networks multimedia applications. Due to the success of ATM on wired networks, wireless ATM (WATM) is a direct

Jain, Raj

223

A Prefetching Protocol for Streaming of Prerecorded Continuous Media in Wireless Environments  

E-print Network

of 64 kbit/sec and typical wireless communication conditions our prefetching protocol achieves client wireless links. We focus on the streaming in the downlink (base station to clients) direction. Our protocolA Prefetching Protocol for Streaming of Prerecorded Continuous Media in Wireless Environments Frank

Reisslein, Martin

224

Wireless Technology in Industrial Networks Andreas Willig, Member, IEEE, Kirsten Matheus, Member, IEEE, Adam Wolisz, Senior  

E-print Network

. In wired environments, timing and reliability are well catered for by fieldbus systems (which are a mature discuss some key issues coming up in wireless fieldbus and wireless industrial communication systems: i systems in which wireless stations are included into existing wired systems. Index Terms Fieldbus systems

Wichmann, Felix

225

Design of a Wireless Sensor Network Based Monitoring System for Home Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and implementation of a wireless monitoring system for building smart room architectures in home environments. The proposed system consists of wireless sensor nodes and actuator nodes which are organized into a monitoring network by ZigBee protocols. A base station and some general wireless nodes have been developed to form a prototype system. Various sensor and

Jun Zhang; Guangming Song; Hui Wang; Tianhua Meng

2011-01-01

226

Weather and Road Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

Comet

2008-07-21

227

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides an introduction for younger students to the concepts of weathering and erosion. Topics include types of weathering (physical versus chemical), rates of weathering, and weathering products (soil). The section on erosion explains the importance of water and gravity in the process, and discusses some of the more important erosional agents such as wind, water and ice, streams and glaciers. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-07

228

Stormfax Weather Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

2002-06-10

229

Web Weather for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of resources for younger students includes activities and information on thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, blizzards and clouds: how they form, and how they impact our lives. There are games about clouds, stories about extreme weather events, and a set of activities in which students create simulations of various weather phenomena such as fog, clouds, tornadoes, and others. The 'Recipe for Weather' segment provides an overview of four atmospheric properties (temperature, pressure, volume, and density) which drive most weather phenomena.

230

Wireless vibration sensor using frequency modulation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, wireless strain sensors have received attention as an efficient method to measure response of a structure in a remote location. Wireless sensors developed for remote measurement include RF wireless sensor modules and microstrip antenna-based sensors. In this paper, a simple wireless vibration sensor based on a piezoelectric sensor and the Frequency Modulation (FM) technique is developed for remote measurement of vibrating structures. The piezoelectric sensor can generate a voltage signal proportional to dynamic strain of the host structure. The voltage signal is then frequency modulated and transmitted wirelessly to a remote station by a simple FM transmitter circuit. Finally, the received signal is demodulated by a conventional FM radio circuit, and the vibration measurement data can be recovered. Since this type of wireless sensor employs a simple FM circuit, they do not require any wireless data transmission protocols allowing a low-cost wireless sensor in compact format. The proposed concept of the wireless vibration measurement is experimentally verified by measuring vibration of an aluminum cantilever beam. The proposed sensor could potentially be an efficient and cost effective method for measuring vibration of remote structures for dynamic testing or structural health monitoring.

Kim, Minhyuck; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Kim, Sehun; Kim, Joo-Hyung

2012-04-01

231

Southern Mildew Problems: Weather and Psychrometrics  

E-print Network

tvm predictor variables because cell sizes becam to srnall when mre variables were included. olaracteristics of the Respondents hst onefifth of the sample (18.3%) were born in Florida, with New York natives accounting for the next largest group... throughout Florida, Table 4 shows the average dew pint temperatures at nine weather stations. The underlined mmSmrs shw the dew pint tenperatures that are 55°F or higher, the break pint for mildew-safe humidity levels. 'Ihe further south the weather...

Peart, V.

1989-01-01

232

Winter Weather Introduction  

E-print Network

Winter Weather Management #12;Introduction · Campus Facilities Staff · Other Campus Organizations #12;Purpose · Organize and coordinate the campus response to winter weather events to maintain campus for use by 7 AM. · Response will be modified depending upon forecast and current weather conditions. #12

Taylor, Jerry

233

Aviation weather services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

Sprinkle, C. H.

1983-01-01

234

Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

1998

235

Severe Weather Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Severe weather is an element of nature that cannot be controlled. Therefore, it is important that the general public be aware of severe weather and know how to react quickly and appropriately in a weather emergency. This study, done in the community surrounding the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, was conducted to compile and analyze…

Abrams, Karol

236

Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

Geographic, National

237

Hot Weather Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... Form - A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

238

Wireless Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless is just another name for radio. And of course, wireless is certainly not new. It was discovered in the late 1800s and quickly developed in the early 1900s by Marconi and others. Radio has many uses which include radio broadcasting (AM, FM, digital and satellite), 2-way radio (public service, aircraft, marine, etc.), personal and hobby (CB, FRS, ham radio, RC, etc.), and telemetry. Cell phones are two way radios as are wireless local area networks. TV, radar, satellites, and navigation systems like GPS are radio. Today radio is mostly taken for granted. However over the past decades, radio has changed our lives. The developments with the greatest impact are cell phones, wireless local area networks (WLANs) for computers, and short range radios for a variety of applications. These applications are today referred to as wireless. This module introduces you to basic radio concepts.

239

UAVNet: A Mobile Wireless Mesh Network Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

and temporarily deployable WMN, using UAVs with attached wireless mesh nodes. The deployed communication network with wireless transceivers can thus be enabled to communicate with ground nodes as well as other UAVs. Several investigate communication during flight and argue that UAVs and ground stations should use omni-directional

Braun, Torsten

240

A Performance of Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad-Hoc networks is a groups of wireless nodes dynamically changing own infrastructure, without using of any fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless nodes, multiple hops may be needed to exchange data between nodes across the network. Nodes are mobile stations, which operate not only as a host but also as a router. Each

M. Krasnovsky; V. Wieser

2007-01-01

241

Throughput multiplication of wireless LANs: spread spectrum with SDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bandwidth allocated for wireless LANs in the IEEE 802.11 standard is limited and the overall throughput is limited for multimedia services because base stations grant each node air time in a sequential manner. With exponentially growing demand for multimedia services, this limitation becomes a bottleneck for expanding wireless network capabilities. In this paper, we exploit another resource, i.e., space,

Garret Okamoto; Guanghan Xu

1996-01-01

242

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK FOR AUTOMATED IRRIGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An in-field sensor-based irrigation system is of benefit to producers in efficient water management. A distributed wireless sensor network eliminates difficulties to wire sensor stations across the field and reduces maintenance cost. Implementing wireless sensor-based irrigation system is challengin...

243

External Resource: Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes background information about weathering, as well as simple demonstrations/activities to model how weather conditions contribute to weathering and erosion. Topics include: chemical weathering, dunes, erosion, floods, glaciers, physi

1900-01-01

244

Optimal Sensor Scheduling for Remote Estimation over Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enable a wealth of new applications where remote estimation is essential. Individual sensors\\u000a simultaneously sense a dynamic process and transmit measured information over a shared lossy channel to a central base station. The base station computes an estimate of the process state. We consider this remote\\u000a estimation problem for wireless single-hop communication with the widely used

Roberto Ambrosino; Bruno Sinopoli; Kameshwar Poolla

2009-01-01

245

Weather affects us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

2nd grade weather unit. The students will learn how weather affects us in our daily lives Read and view the video on meteorologists Kid Meteorologist Learn about clouds - watch S'cool Clouds All About Clouds Do scholastic: weather watch and game Weather Read winter storms Interactive Weather Web Pages Read a reason for the season A Reason for the Season Read about precipitation Precipitation Read and view video on flooding Flood: Farming and Erosion Read about air pressure It's a Breeze: How Air Pressure Affects You Read about Hurricanes Hurricanes Do the activities and read ...

Kimmy

2009-11-09

246

A resampling procedure for generating conditioned daily weather sequences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

[1] A method is introduced to generate conditioned daily precipitation and temperature time series at multiple stations. The method resamples data from the historical record "nens" times for the period of interest (nens = number of ensemble members) and reorders the ensemble members to reconstruct the observed spatial (intersite) and temporal correlation statistics. The weather generator model is applied to 2307 stations in the contiguous United States and is shown to reproduce the observed spatial correlation between neighboring stations, the observed correlation between variables (e.g., between precipitation and temperature), and the observed temporal correlation between subsequent days in the generated weather sequence. The weather generator model is extended to produce sequences of weather that are conditioned on climate indices (in this case the Nin??o 3.4 index). Example illustrations of conditioned weather sequences are provided for a station in Arizona (Petrified Forest, 34.8??N, 109.9??W), where El Nin??o and La Nin??a conditions have a strong effect on winter precipitation. The conditioned weather sequences generated using the methods described in this paper are appropriate for use as input to hydrologic models to produce multiseason forecasts of streamflow.

Clark, M.P.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Brandon, D.; Werner, K.; Hay, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Yates, D.

2004-01-01

247

Wireless Downtowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coming soon to an urban center near you: wireless connectivity for your laptop or PDA, brought to you by City Hall. At least that's the hot trend among U.S. municipalities, 48 of which now offer wireless access, according to a recent report. Most municipal systems are the result of public-private partnerships, and many offer some level of free access. The first website (1) is an overview of the wireless downtown phenomenon which notes the importance of such systems for local economic development. The second link (2) is to a fact sheet about Wireless Philadelphia, which, as one of the first and largest downtown wi-fi projects, helped spark the national trend. The third website is a node map of NYCwireless (3) and the 147 access points where that municipal network currently can be accessed. The fourth link leads to a case study of chaska.net (4) , which provides wireless access to the 7,500 homes and 18,000 residents of that Minneapolis suburb. The fifth website is a pdf (5) of a slick brochure produced by the city of Gainesville, Fla., to promote its Digital Downtown project. The sixth link is to a Sacramento Bee editorial (6) making the case for downtown wireless. The seventh website is a free database listing 10,840 wireless access points in 767 locations worldwide (7) , organized by geographic region.

248

Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

Huffman, Amy Bruno

1996-01-01

249

Severe Weather 101: Winter Weather Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Educators For Students For Everyone Severe Weather 101 Thunderstorms Basics Types Detection Forecasting FAQ Tornadoes Basics Types ... moisture. What we do: NSSL researchers studied winter thunderstorms and found that there is some evidence that ...

250

National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

251

Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 13. For Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Presented are the data accumulated during June at the intermediate photovoltaic project at Newman Power Station, El Paso, Texas. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

Not Available

1982-09-01

252

Time changes in a subtropical cloud and weather system as revealed by meteorological satellite data  

E-print Network

were recorded at NASA 15 l ~ 4diosonde Sg&ions 0 Pi/el Stations' W -wm~* Figure 1. --Radiosonde and Pibal stations 17 readout stations and the copies were obtained from the National Weather Records Center. Rectification - Orientation Procedure...

Randerson, Darryl

1962-01-01

253

Space Weathering of Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

Noble, Sarah

2011-01-01

254

Gongguan Metro Station NTU Hospital Metro Station  

E-print Network

Gongguan Metro Station NTU Hospital Metro Station 3 2 1 2 3 4 SE61 SE1 S71 SE63 SE74 SE73 SE72 SE Railway Station Taipei Railway Station To Shandao Temple Metro Station To Daan Park Sec. 3, Jianguo S. Rd. To Jianguo Expressway Sec. 2, Fuxing S. Rd. To Technology Building Metro Station

Hung, Shih-Hao

255

Wireless Andrew.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the Internet and laptops help Carnegie Mellon University students carry out sophisticated research anywhere on campus. How the university became a wireless community is discussed. (GR)

Fickes, Michael

2000-01-01

256

Wireless Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quicktime animation examines the basics in wireless communication. Wireless communication has become pervasive in everyday life, providing convenience, piece of mind as well as emergency preparedness for its users through instant accessibility. The cell phone antenna is the link to the outside world. Designed to transmit as well as receive the RF signals, it efficiently couples the electromagnetic waves to the transmitter and receiver.

Van Zeghbroeck, Bart Jozef

257

Robust Position-Based Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unstable Transmission Ranges  

E-print Network

or weather conditions. These protocols may fall because in routing either some connections are not consideredRobust Position-Based Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unstable Transmission Ranges Lali

Chaudhuri, Soma

258

Routing Stability in Static Wireless Mesh Networks Krishna Ramachandran, Irfan Sheriff, Elizabeth Belding, Kevin Almeroth  

E-print Network

-path fading effects, external interference and weather conditions. Link quality fluctuations can lead are expected to be unstable. One reason is that wireless links vary widely in their qualities because of multi

Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

259

Robust PositionBased Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unstable Transmission Ranges  

E-print Network

of the mobile hosts vary due to natural or man-made obstacles or weather conditions. These protocol- s may failRobust Position­Based Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unstable Transmission Ranges

Fondements et Applications, Université Paris 7

260

Tales of future weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The traditional approach uses ensembles of climate model simulations, statistical bias correction, downscaling to the spatial and temporal scales relevant to decision-makers, and then translation into quantities of interest. The veracity of this approach cannot be tested, and it faces in-principle challenges. Alternatively, numerical weather prediction models in a hypothetical climate setting can provide tailored narratives for high-resolution simulations of high-impact weather in a future climate. This 'tales of future weather' approach will aid in the interpretation of lower-resolution simulations. Arguably, it potentially provides complementary, more realistic and more physically consistent pictures of what future weather might look like.

Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Petersen, A. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L. A.

2015-02-01

261

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

2011-01-01

262

Winter weather activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

263

Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

COMET

2012-03-21

264

Everything Weather- Archived Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

2001-01-01

265

National Weather Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.

266

Cockpit weather information needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along the route can be accomplished prior to pilot acceptance of the clearance. An ongoing multiphase test series is planned for testing and modifying the graphical weather system. Preliminary data shows that the nine test subjects considered the graphical presentation to be much better than their current weather information source for situation awareness, flight safety, and reroute decision making.

Scanlon, Charles H.

1992-01-01

267

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

268

Systems Study of an Automated Fire Weather Data System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor system applicable to an automated weather station was developed. The sensor provides automated fire weather data which correlates with manual readings. The equipment and methods are applied as an aid to the surveillance and protection of wildlands from fire damage. The continuous readings provided by the sensor system make it possible to determine the periods of time that the wilderness areas should be closed to the public to minimize the possibilities of fire.

Nishioka, K.

1974-01-01

269

Final Report - Promoting Apple IPM Implementation in Eastern New York Orchards by Expansion of the Northeast Weather Association System  

Microsoft Academic Search

B. Nontechnical Summary. To conduct integrated pest management (IPM) for eight major pests, apple growers must use weather-based pest forecast models. The NYS IPM Program's Network for Environment and Weather Awareness (NEWA) provides pest forecast models for free, fostering IPM implementation, environmental conservation, and land stewardship. To expand NEWA into Eastern NY, four growers purchased weather stations, connected to NEWA,

A. Grant; Juliet E. Carroll; Michael J. Fargione; Kevin A. Iungerman; John Gibbons; Apple Grower; Minard Farms; David Fraleigh; Kevin Bowman; Orchard David Sullivan

270

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

271

Observation Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

Rutherford, Heather

2011-01-01

272

Secure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

aggregation framework called Synopsis Diffusion has been proposed for comput- ing aggregates such as COUNTSecure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks Sanjeev SETIA a ,Sankardas ROY b and Sushil individual nodes is aggregated at a base station or host computer. To reduce energy consumption, many systems

Setia, Sanjeev

273

Using XBee transducers for wireless data collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how to use XBee transducers to create small and lightweight wireless sensors, which send data to a base station for collection and analysis. Data collection is limited to 10-bit accuracy by the XBee hardware. Depending on the type of XBee used, up to six data channels can be transmitted over a range of up to 15 miles.

Eric Ayars; Estella Lai

2010-01-01

274

What Is Space Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.

275

People and Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

276

Mild and Wild Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

277

Sedimentary Rocks and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 42 questions on the topic of sedimentary rocks and weathering including clast sizes, depositional environments, and products of weathering. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users select an answer and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

278

Home Weatherization Visit  

ScienceCinema

Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29

279

Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

1998

280

Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

1998

281

Uncertain weather, uncertain climate  

E-print Network

of the Speckled Band" "Good-morning, madam," said Holmes cheerily. "My name is Sherlock Holmes. #12;222b Baker sit on the left-hand side of the driver." #12;Holmes' calculation D. Nychka Uncertain weather Maximize over vehicle #12;D. Nychka Uncertain weather, uncertain climate 8 Holmes' conclusion ­ the highest

Nychka, Douglas

282

Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

Winkler, Erhard M.

1987-06-01

283

Predicting the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the science behind predicting the weather. First, the United States Search and Rescue Task Force describe the basic tools and knowledge used to create weather forecasts (1). Students can find concise, clear explanations of weather, fronts and air masses, high and low pressure, precipitation, and water vapor and humidity as well. By performing the activities presented in the second website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection (2). This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Third, Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps (3 ). Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. The fourth website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather (4). Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Next, NOAA provides graphics for five forecast models: the ETA, the Global Forecast System (GFS), the Wave Watch III (WW3), the Nested Grid model (NGM), and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) (5). Outputs are available for North America, North Pacific, Western North Atlantic, and the Polar Ice Drift. Users can find links to detailed descriptions of the inputs and history of each model. Sixth, the British government's Met Office describes numerical modeling and its components (6). Students and educators can learn about the future in forecasting as well as educational opportunities with the Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET).

284

Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

2007-01-01

285

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

286

The Emergency Email and Wireless Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a free public service, the Emergency Email and Wireless Network provides citizens with email, cell phone, or pager notifications from your local, regional, and national government sources. Users can choose to receive information about severe weather in their area; electric, gas, and water outages; daily weather forecasts; national disaster news; and more. On the registration page, visitors input their email address, home county, zip code, and the type of notification they would like, and can even block the service during certain times of the day.

287

Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications. Agriculture remains the number one industry in North Dakota and its success will always be dependent on the weather.

Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

2010-09-01

288

Coordinated beamforming for the multicell multi-antenna wireless system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a conventional wireless cellular system, signal processing is performed on a per-cell basis; out-of-cell interference is treated as background noise. This paper considers the benefit of coordinating base-stations across multiple cells in a multi-antenna beamforming system, where multiple base-stations may jointly optimize their respective beamformers to improve the overall system performance. Consider a multicell downlink scenario where base-stations are

Hayssam Dahrouj; Wei Yu

2010-01-01

289

Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields.  

PubMed

Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26-72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12-19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2013-12-01

290

Impact of derived global weather data on simulated crop yields  

PubMed Central

Crop simulation models can be used to estimate impact of current and future climates on crop yields and food security, but require long-term historical daily weather data to obtain robust simulations. In many regions where crops are grown, daily weather data are not available. Alternatively, gridded weather databases (GWD) with complete terrestrial coverage are available, typically derived from: (i) global circulation computer models; (ii) interpolated weather station data; or (iii) remotely sensed surface data from satellites. The present study's objective is to evaluate capacity of GWDs to simulate crop yield potential (Yp) or water-limited yield potential (Yw), which can serve as benchmarks to assess impact of climate change scenarios on crop productivity and land use change. Three GWDs (CRU, NCEP/DOE, and NASA POWER data) were evaluated for their ability to simulate Yp and Yw of rice in China, USA maize, and wheat in Germany. Simulations of Yp and Yw based on recorded daily data from well-maintained weather stations were taken as the control weather data (CWD). Agreement between simulations of Yp or Yw based on CWD and those based on GWD was poor with the latter having strong bias and large root mean square errors (RMSEs) that were 26–72% of absolute mean yield across locations and years. In contrast, simulated Yp or Yw using observed daily weather data from stations in the NOAA database combined with solar radiation from the NASA-POWER database were in much better agreement with Yp and Yw simulated with CWD (i.e. little bias and an RMSE of 12–19% of the absolute mean). We conclude that results from studies that rely on GWD to simulate agricultural productivity in current and future climates are highly uncertain. An alternative approach would impose a climate scenario on location-specific observed daily weather databases combined with an appropriate upscaling method. PMID:23801639

van Wart, Justin; Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2013-01-01

291

Space Weather Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NOAA Space Weather Now website provides non-technical information and an assortment of images detailing current space weather. Visitors can find summaries describing auroras, plots of current auroral ovals on the poles, and viewing information for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The Real-Time Solar Wind Pages furnish dynamic plots of data, geomagnetic activity test product information, and resources about the four instruments used to collect data on geomagnetic storms. The website features Space Weather Scales to help the public understand the severity of environmental disturbances due to geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. Visitors can find the latest news, alerts, advisory bulletins, and much more.

292

Weather Observing Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

2014-09-14

293

World Weather Information Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.

294

Weather Map Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I gave this assignment so that students could relate real-time weather changes to mid-latitude cyclones and air mass movement. Basically, by the time I assigned the project, we have discussed all the necessary weather phenomena and this project gives the students a way to apply what we have discussed to "reality" by explaining why the weather occurred the way it did over a short time period. It also provides me with a way to assess how well they are able to tie all the major concepts together, which is one of the goals of the course.

Brueseke, Matt

295

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

296

Extreme Weather Sourcebook 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally reviewed in the February 26, 1999 Scout Report, the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Extreme Weather Sourcebook offers easy access to updated data on the economic damage from hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes in the United States and its territories. Time spans for each type of extreme weather vary, with hurricane data covering 1900-99, tornadoes 1950-99, floods 1955-1999, and lightning 1959-1994; however, all damage data are reported in constant 1999 dollars to simplify comparisons. The data are offered by weather event and state by rank or alphabetically.

2001-01-01

297

WeatherTracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WeatherTracker is the ideal desktop application for anyone who always wants to know what the weather outside is like. The temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, winds, and current conditions can be displayed in three different formats, updated hourly for North American Cities. The local forecasts, climate data and near shore marine forecasts can be displayed in other windows and are available for select North American cities. Other cities are limited to temperature and current conditions. WeatherTracker is shareware with a fee of $20.00.

298

Countermeasures Against Traffic Analysis Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Jing Deng Richard Han Shivakant Mishra  

E-print Network

is introduced in the multi-hop path a packet takes from a sensor node to a base station. Second, random fake, and the ability to guard against heuristic-based techniques to locate a base station. 1 Introduction A wireless environment. Each sensor node communicates this data to a base station via a multi-hop network in which each

Han, Richard Y.

299

Wireless services business plan  

E-print Network

The primary goals of this thesis were to analyze the market for wireless applications/services and create a business plan for a viable wireless application. There has been tremendous hype relating to wireless data services ...

Koh, Bong (Bong Dug)

2005-01-01

300

An intelligent environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, information technology is becoming more and more important to improve the productivity of agriculture, especially for real time environment monitoring. However, the traditional method of environmental data collection is unable to provide real-time and highly accurate data of the monitored region to meet the requirements of precision agriculture. As wireless sensor networks(WSNs) has profound impacts on many fields due to its promising capability, in this paper, a WSN-based environment monitoring system is proposed. A prototype of the system that utilizes GAINSJ nodes based on Zigbee communication protocol has been implemented, and its packet error rate in different conditions was evaluated. Based on the proposed system architecture and technologies, the real time data can be measured, transmitted and stored in high accuracy. Moreover, the system was applied in upland grassland in Yushu, Qinghai province, and compared the results with the data acquired by local weather station. The system evaluation and experimental results show the effectiveness and reliability of the system in measuring the variations of temperature and humidity data within monitored region.

Cao, Minghua; Wang, Huiqin; Peng, Duo; Jia, Kejun

2009-07-01

301

Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils  

PubMed Central

This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated. PMID:24031193

Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirôllo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

2008-01-01

302

Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety  

E-print Network

-Ready Nation Flooding Winter Weather Safety www.weather.gov · Flooding is possible due to snowmelt, ice jams and coastal storms such as Nor'easters. · Ice jams are common during the winter. · As ice moves downstream www.weather.gov · Snow/Ice · Blizzards · Flooding · Cold Temperatures #12;Building a Weather

303

Weathering of Martian Evaporites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporites in martian meteorites contain weathering or alteration features that may provide clues about the martian near-surface environment over time. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Wentworth, S. J.; Velbel, M. A.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Longazo, T. G.; McKay, D. S.

2001-01-01

304

Weathering in a Cup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two easy student activities that demonstrate physical weathering by expansion are described. The first demonstrates ice wedging and the second root wedging. A list of the needed materials, procedure, and observations are included. (KR)

Stadum, Carol J.

1991-01-01

305

Waste glass weathering  

SciTech Connect

The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

1993-12-31

306

Wet Weather Characterization of Selected Rhode Island Baseline Monitoring Principle Investigators  

E-print Network

event and the dry weather monitoring that occurred previously was the increased fecal coliform counts interval. The results do indicate that there may be some FC contamination associated with wet weather that the source of the FC is not close to the baseline station. All other parameters didn't show an appreciable

Rhode Island, University of

307

Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

2012-01-01

308

TypoWeather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The TypoWeather application is a great way to stay on top of the latest weather conditions. This handy device presents users with a five day outlook and an hourly breakdown that is updated based on data from the National Meteorological Service. Visitors can customize their layout to include alerts about certain meteorological conditions, such as wind patterns, humidity, and more. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-03-13

309

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based unit has been created for use by students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, students develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities. The lesson plans have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum, and to allow for flexibility in implementation.

2011-01-01

310

Rates of Chemical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

Passow, Michael

311

Extreme Weather Sourcebook: Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Extreme Weather Sourcebook is a database maintained by the Societal Impacts Program (SIP) at NCAR of statistics on extreme weather events. The Sourcebook is intended as a resource for researchers, policy makers, the media, and the general public, among other users. This page from the Sourcebook showcases data on tornado damages as total losses for the years 1950-2009 in the United States.

University Consortium for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

312

Cockpit weather information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

2000-01-01

313

Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that ba...

314

International Collaboration in Space Weather Situational Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather is a global phenomena so interntional collaboration is necessary to maintain awareness of potentially dangerous conditions. The Regional Warning Centres (RWCs) of the International Space Environment Service were set up during the International Geophysical Year to alert the scientific community to conditions requiring special measurements. The information sharing continues to this day with URSIGRAM messages exchanged between RWCs to help them produce space weather forecasts. Venturing into space, especially with manned missions, created a need to know about the space environment and particularly radiation dangers to man in space. Responding to this need led to the creation of a network of stations around the world to provide continuous monitoring of solar activity. Solar wind monitoring is now provided by the ACE satellite, operated by one country, but involving international collaborators to bring the information down in real time. Disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field are monitored by many magnetic observatories that are collaborating through INTERMAGNET to provide reliable data. Space weather produces effects on the ionosphere that can interfere with a variety of systems: the International GNSS Service provides information about effects on positioning systems, and the International Space Environment Service is providing information about iono-spheric absorption, particularly for trans-polar airline operations. The increasing availability of internet access, even at remote locations, is making it easier to obtain the raw information. The challenge now is how to integrate that information to provide effective international situational awareness of space weather.

Boteler, David; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Danskin, Donald

315

Evaporation over a Heterogeneous Mixed Savanna-Agricultural Catchment using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale rain fed agriculture is the primary livelihood for a large part of the population of Burkina Faso. Regional climate change means that this population is becoming increasingly vulnerable. Additionally, as natural savanna is converted for agriculture, hydrological systems are observed to become less stable as infiltration is decreased and rapid runoff is increased to the detriment of crop productivity, downstream populations and local water sources. The majority of the Singou River Basin, located in South East Burkina Faso is managed by hunting reserves, geared to maintaining high populations of wild game; however, residents surrounding the protected areas have been forced to intensify agriculture that has resulted in soil degradation as well as increases in the frequency and severity of flooding and droughts. Agroforestry, or planting trees in cultivated fields, has been proposed as a solution to help buffer these negative consequences, however the specific hydrologic behavior of the watershed land cover is unknown. We have installed a distributed sensor network of 17 Sensorscope wireless meteorological stations. These stations are dispersed across cultivated rice and millet fields, natural savanna, fallow fields, and around agroforestry fields. Sensorscope routes data through the network of stations to be delivered by a GPRS connection to a main server. This multi hop network allows data to be gathered over a large area and quickly adapts to changes in station performance. Data are available in real time via a website that can be accessed by a mobile phone. The stations are powered autonomously by small photovoltaic panels. This deployment is the first time that these meteorological stations have been used on the African continent. Initial calibration with measures from 2 eddy covariance stations allows us to calculate the energy balance at each of the Sensorscope stations. Thus, we can observe variation in evaporation over the various land cover in the watershed. This research will both contribute to scientific understanding of West African vegetation and inform local reforestation and agricultural management. Concurrent to this scientific research, the community is improving natural resource management efforts including reforestation, a botanical garden and environmental education. Our hope is that the results of our evaporation modeling will inform local farmers and thus help improve their adaption to changing weather patterns and land cover.

Ceperley, N. C.; Mande, T.; Barrenetxea, G.; Vetterli, M.; Yacouba, H.; Repetti, A.; Parlange, M. B.

2010-12-01

316

2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide  

E-print Network

Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

Meyers, Steven D.

317

Space station internal propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned with a wireless communication system in place for the transmission of information between crew members on board. The clarity of transmission is paramount to an effective system of communication. A short overview is presented of the system including the requirements of interest, and a statement of the problem. The theory used to solve the problem is explored. The results given are for the experiments performed on a mockup of the proposed structure at NASA-Marshall. The requirements on the signal level are that there is a 45 dB signal to noise ratio from end to end, and that coverage over 99 pct. of the volume be maintained. The Rice probability distribution function, a simple extension of the Rayleigh distribution, is used to estimate the field strength inside a volume, where a significant line of sight from the transmitter to the receiver exists. For the SSF, this distribution will correspond to the summation of a coherent line of sight path between the transmitter and the receiver and an incoherent portion. The incoherent portion is the sum of reflections from the walls and the equipment inside the SSF. The Rice distribution was found to be the optimal distribution from the results.

Richie, J. E.

1991-01-01

318

Ultrahigh-Bitrate Wireless Data Communications via THz-Links; Possibilities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data rate in the communication networks increases by a two number digit every year. Even today's mobile, wireless devices offer a large number of high-bitrate data services reaching from entertainment over information to communication. However, for the so called last-mile problem, for the connection of the network with remote cellular base stations and for other wireless links ultrahigh-bitrate connections are required. Another important application of ultrahigh-bitrate wireless links is the very fast rebuilding of a network infrastructure after natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and blizzards. Contrary to optical links, carrier waves in the submillimeter-wave, or THz-region of the electromagnetic spectrum offer a high capacity and reliability even under worst weather conditions like a strong rain or dense fog. The THz-range has a large bandwidth so that even with simple modulation formats a quite high bitrate can be transmitted. However, ultrahigh bitrates require spectrally efficient modulation formats and these formats require THz-sources with a very high quality, i.e. low phase noise and narrow linewidth. Here an overview of the possibilities and challenges for ultrahigh bitrate transmission and the generation of high-quality THz-waves is given and a method for the generation of very stable and precise millimeter and THz waves is presented. In first proof of concept experiments a linewidth of < 1 Hz and a phase noise of < -130 dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz from the carrier was measured in the microwave range.

Schneider, Thomas

2014-08-01

319

NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

2007-01-01

320

75 FR 6316 - Revisions to Rules Authorizing the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz Band; Public Interest...Rulemaking Regarding Low Power Auxiliary Stations, Including Wireless Microphones, and...the Operation of Low Power Auxiliary Stations in the 698-806 MHz Band; Public...

2010-02-09

321

Wireless Power Transfer  

ScienceCinema

Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

None

2013-11-19

322

Wireless Power Transfer  

SciTech Connect

Wireless Power Transfer is an innovative approach using magnetic resonance coupling of air core transformers designed for today's growing plug-in electric vehicle market. This technology can provide a convenient, safe and flexible means to charge electric vehicles under stationary and dynamic conditions. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) are burdened by the need for cable and plug charger, galvanic isolation of the on-board electronics, bulk and cost of this charger and the large energy storage system (ESS) packs needed. With a system where you have to physically plug in there are a number of occasions where the owner could very well forget to charge the vehicle. For stationary applications (like charging of a PHEV at home), ORNL's innovative wireless power transfer technology adds a convenience factor compared to actually plugging in which will mean that the vehicle will have a full charge every morning. Electric vehicle charging must be safe, compact and efficient in order to be convenient for customers. By reconfiguring the transformer and altering the resonance frequency, energy is transferred to the battery with lower energy losses and with fewer demands on the primary circuit by the rest of the transformer system. The ORNL discovery shows that sufficient power for the battery can be transferred from the primary to secondary circuits without significant energy losses if the operating frequency is set at 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency of the circuit. The electrical power is then transmitted to the chargeable battery, which is electrically coupled to the secondary circuit through the air core transformer. Some advantages include: Reduced energy losses during transfer of energy to the battery; A charge potential that is relatively unaffected by up to 25% misalignment of vehicle; and Other receiving components draw less power from the primary circuit. These advantages allow wireless power technology applications to expand at the workplace and beyond as the demand for EV rises. For vehicles that operate over a fixed route such as busses and shuttle vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) means that a smaller battery pack can be used. In the traditional system, the battery pack is designed to accommodate the needs of the entire route or shift. With WPT the battery can be downsized because it can be charged when the vehicle stops on its route (a rental car shuttle bus, for example, can charge when it waits in the terminal and again when it waits at the rental car place. Thus the battery only needs enough charge to get to the next stop. This decrease in battery size means significant cost savings to electrify the vehicle. This technology enables efficient "opportunity charging stations" for predefined routes and planned stops reducing down time. Charging can occur in minutes. This improvement also eliminates the harmful emissions that occur in garages while buses are at idle during charging. In larger cities, dynamic charging offers an even greater impact utilizing existing infrastructure. As vehicles travel along busy freeways and interstate systems, wireless charging can occur while the vehicle is in motion. With this technology a vehicle essentially has unlimited electric range while using a relatively small battery pack. In-motion charging stations use vehicle sensors to alert the driver. Traveling at normal speeds, sensors establish in-motion charging. WPT transmit pads sequentially energize to the negotiated power level based on vehicle speed and its requested charging energy. Lower power when vehicle speed is slow and much higher power for faster moving vehicles. Vehicle to Infrastructure communications (V2I) coordinates WPT charging level according to on-board battery pack state-of-charge. V2I activates the roadway transmit pads placing them in standby mode and negotiates charging fee based on prevailing grid rate and vehicle energy demand. Dynamic charging would allow electricity to supply a very large fraction of the energy for the transportation sector and reduce greatly petroleum consump

None

2013-07-22

323

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

temperature of 39 breaks the old record of 38 set in 2009. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly.8% of normal). This ranks as the 54th driest water year in the 123 year record. Total monthly snowfall is 5 record, tied with 1959 and 1960. Seasonal snowfall is 15.2" which is 16.7" below normal (47.6% of normal

324

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 1.55" and was 0.13" above normal (109 (Oct-Feb) in the 122 year record. The total monthly snowfall was 13.1" which is 1.3" above normal (111%). This ranks as the 39th snowiest March in the 122 year record. 2010 seasonal snowfall is 82.7" which is 32

325

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

record. #12;The total monthly snowfall was 6.9" which is 0.4" above normal (106%). This ranks as the 50th snowiest November in the 121 year record (1889- 2009). Water year 2010 snowfall is 32.6" which is 23

326

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

in the 121 year record (1889-2009). The total monthly snowfall was 25.7" which is THE SNOWIEST October in the 121 year record (1889-2009). Year October Snowfall (in) 2009 25.7 1969 18.7 1997 17.5 1906 15.5 1925 snowfall of 3.7" breaks old record of 1.8" set in 1977. 28 October 2009: New maximum daily precipitation

327

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

/below thresholds): None #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly precipitation was 0.70" and was 0.12" below.2% of normal). This ranks as the 57th wettest water year in the 122 year record. Total monthly snowfall is 5. Seasonal snowfall is also 5.0" which is 10.0" below normal (33.3% of normal). This ranks as the 82nd

328

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 0.15" and was 0.27" below normal (36% of normal year record. The total monthly snowfall was 3.7" which is 4.7" below normal (44%). This ranks as the 72) and tied with 1953 and 1964. Water year 2010 snowfall is 56.6" which is 24.7" above normal (177% of normal

329

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

of 67 breaks the old record of 66 set in 1982. Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly precipitation). This ranks as the 58th driest water year in the 122 year record. Total monthly snowfall is 6.4" which is 0, tied with 1967. Seasonal snowfall is 21.6" which is 14.3" below normal (60.2% of normal). This ranks

330

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

The lowest maximum temperature record of 24 tied the record set in 1992. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall.28 1923 27.57 1997 25.23 1951 22.58 1915 22.36 1979 22.13 2009 21.88 The total monthly snowfall was 20-2009) tied with 1978. Year December Snowfall (in) 1913 40.3 2006 29.3 1979 20.7 1988 20.4 1978 20.3 2009 20

331

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

>=60) Frequencyin% Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 0.65" and was 0th wettest water year (Oct-Feb) in the 122 year record. The total monthly snowfall was 13.0" which seasonal snowfall is 69.6" which is 32.7" above normal (189% of normal). This ranks as the 2nd snowiest

332

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

/below thresholds): None. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 3.15" and was 1.45 1905 9.2 The total monthly snowfall was 1.9" which is 5.2" below normal (27% of normal). This ranks as the 39th least snowiest April in the 122 year record. The last time we received this little snowfall

333

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

March 2011: Minimum temperature of 52 ties old record set in 1978. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall.72. Total monthly snowfall is a Trace which is 11.8" below normal for the month (0% of normal). This ranks as the 4th least snowy March in the 123 year record. The most recent March with this little snowfall

334

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

degrees set in 2000. #12;Precipitation and Snowfall*: The total monthly precipitation was 2.13" and was 0rd wettest water year (Oct-May) in the 122 year record. The total monthly snowfall was 4.1" which. The last time there was this much snow in May was in 2001 with 6.5" of snowfall. 2010 seasonal snowfall

335

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Weather Station  

E-print Network

of 66 degrees breaks the old record of 65 set in 1921. Precipitation and Snowfall*: Total monthly as the 55th driest calendar year in the 122 year record. Total monthly snowfall is 4.4" which is 4.1" below snowfall is also 9.4" which is 14.1" below normal (40.0% of normal). This ranks as the 68th least snowy

336

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-01-01

337

Abstract--Recent advances in sensors, low-power system-on-a-chip devices, and wireless communications, have prompted a  

E-print Network

of wireless sensor nodes and a base station. Various communication models can be employed, such as direct communications, have prompted a proliferation of wireless sensor networks. As these networks require advanced the wireless sensor network communication infrastructure. I. INTRODUCTION ecent technological advances

Milenkovi, Aleksandar

338

A video wireless capsule endoscopy system powered wirelessly: design, analysis and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), as a relatively new technology, has brought about a revolution in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. However, the existing WCE systems are not widely applied in clinic because of the low frame rate and low image resolution. A video WCE system based on a wireless power supply is developed in this paper. This WCE system consists of a video capsule endoscope (CE), a wireless power transmission device, a receiving box and an image processing station. Powered wirelessly, the video CE has the abilities of imaging the GI tract and transmitting the images wirelessly at a frame rate of 30 frames per second (f/s). A mathematical prototype was built to analyze the power transmission system, and some experiments were performed to test the capability of energy transferring. The results showed that the wireless electric power supply system had the ability to transfer more than 136 mW power, which was enough for the working of a video CE. In in vitro experiments, the video CE produced clear images of the small intestine of a pig with the resolution of 320 × 240, and transmitted NTSC format video outside the body. Because of the wireless power supply, the video WCE system with high frame rate and high resolution becomes feasible, and provides a novel solution for the diagnosis of the GI tract in clinic.

Pan, Guobing; Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Jiaoliao

2011-06-01

339

Energy-efficient optical acquisition schemes in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficiency is an essential feature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where the longevity of autonomous sensor nodes\\u000a is limited by their battery life and\\/or energy-harvesting capability. Base-station-initiated optical wireless communication\\u000a with nodes equipped with a passive optical transmitter in the form of a corner cube retroreflector (CCR) provides sensor acquisition\\u000a with no energy expenditure on the part of the sensor

Debbie Kedar; Shlomi Dolev; Shlomi Arnon

340

NEWS ENTERTAINMENT SHOPJOBSHOMESCARSCLASSIFIEDS More about: RSS | Wireless Search Site/Web Yellow Pages Archive Register Now | Log Innmlkji nmlkj nmlkj  

E-print Network

NEWS ENTERTAINMENT SHOPJOBSHOMESCARSCLASSIFIEDS More about: RSS | Wireless Search Site/Web Yellow Pages Archive Register Now | Log Innmlkji nmlkj nmlkj NEWS BUSINESS SPORTS LIFE OPINION WEATHER BLOGS Esophageal Reflux WEDNESDAY, June 20 (HealthDay News) - - A wireless monitoring system that uses electrical

Chiao, Jung-Chih

341

LF broadcasting monitor - space weather warning system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of time measurement using GPS allows measure the carrier wave of commercial LF/MF broadcasting station. Analysis of these measurements allows to study the changes of lower ionosphere. Due to frequency stability of the transmitter only few LF station can be used for the experiment. This method can be used both for monitoring changes in the level of ionization in layer D as well as to warn against sudden changes caused by flares on the Sun. Changes of the ionosphere can be noticed within tens of seconds, and can serve to generate rapid warnings. This method is tested in SRC in order to shorten the reaction time to events associated with space weather.

Pozoga, Mariusz

342

Large-Scale Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the previous chapter, we dealt with how the properties of air and water affected small-scale weather such as the formation of clouds, the formation of fog, and how comfortable you feel at different times of the year. In this chapter, we're going to go global, talking about major interactions between the Sun and Earth, the resulting effects on large air masses, and how these major interactions help us figure out what the weather's going to be tomorrow. As discussed earlier in the book, when science concepts are applied to the real world, things don't always work out exactly as expected. However, it is possible to get an overall picture of what's happening in large-scale weather.

Robertson, William C.

2005-01-01

343

Delicious Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

Gorte, Mary

344

Contemporary Wireless Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wireless means radio in its broadest sense. However, in the early 21st century, wireless refers primarily to the two dominant forms of wireless: cell phones and wireless local area networks (WLANs). This module describes the idea behind the cellular telephone system, how it works, and the primary technologies used in the US and throughout the world. This module also introduces the wireless local area network or WLAN. WLANs are radio-linked computers that are part of a larger network. The wireless links make portability and mobility of computers possible. This module also briefly introduces four common forms of short- range wireless: Bluetooth, ZigBee, ultra wideband (UWB) and RFID.

345

Weather index-based insurances for farmers in the North China Plain : An analysis of risk reduction potential and basis risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent to which weather index-based insurances can contribute to reducing shortfall risks of revenues of a representative average farm that produces corn or wheat in the North China Plain (NCP). The geographical basis risk is quantified to analyze the spatial dependency of weather patterns between established weather stations in

Leif Erec Heimfarth; Oliver Musshoff

2011-01-01

346

Optimization of Bandwidth and Energy Consumption in Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years the proliferation of portable computers, handheld digital devices, and PDAs has led to a rapid growth\\u000a in the use of wireless technologies for the Local Area Network (LAN) environment. Beyond supporting wireless connectivity\\u000a for fixed, portable and moving stations within a local area, the wireless LAN (WLAN) technologies can provide a mobile and\\u000a ubiquitous connection to

Marco Conti; Enrico Gregori

2002-01-01

347

[Temperature and humidity monitoring system of imaging equipment room based on wireless network].  

PubMed

This paper presents a wireless temperature and humidity control system for hospital's video room. The system realizes one to multiple communication using wireless communication module CC1020 and SHT11 as sensors, and then sets up the communication between system and the central station with serial communication controller MSCOMM. The system uses VISUAL C++ programming to realize the video room temperature and humidity alarm control. It is wireless, efficacious and manpower-efficient. PMID:21954588

Zhou, Xuejun; Yu, Kaijun

2011-05-01

348

Reading Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Department of Atmospheric Sciences comes the Reading Weather Maps Web site. Visitors learn how to convert their local time to the standard used by all meteorologists; to tell the difference between Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit temperatures; and how to read maps with weather data collected on and above the Earth's surface. For example, wind bards, which are flag-like symbols that indicate wind direction and wind speed, always point in the direction the wind is blowing "from." Other interesting facts, descriptions, and illustrations are available on the site.

1969-12-31

349

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This background chapter reviews the basic principles of meteorology that educators need to guide inquiry activities in the classroom. Topics include structure of the atmosphere, Coriolis effect, water cycle, greenhouse effect, cyclones, anticyclones, and jet streams. This is chapter 2 of Meteorology: An Educator's Resource for Inquiry-Based Learning for Grades 5-9. The guide includes a discussion of learning science, the use of inquiry in the classroom, instructions for making simple weather instruments, and more than 20 weather investigations ranging from teacher-centered to guided and open inquiry investigations.

350

Weather and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course will help meteorologists and others broaden their understanding of the impacts of weather and climate on public health, including the impacts of heat waves and cold temperatures, winter storms and thunderstorms, flooding, drought, poor air quality, tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfire, UV radiation, and others. This course is directed to broadcast meteorologists, in particular, who play a critical role in the community by helping the public to protect against weather-related health threats and by promoting good health. The course also describes the public health communication system, providing information about reliable public health services, tools, and resources.

Comet

2008-11-25

351

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based module uses hands-on activities and real-time data investigations to allow students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, the students will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities, such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The lesson plans which make up this module have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum to allow for flexibility in implementation

2003-01-01

352

Aerospace crew station design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to spacecraft cockpits and work stations, commercial aircraft cockpits and crew stations, high performance aircraft cockpits and crew stations, and space stations and habitat crew stations. Particular attention is given to an historical review of NASA manned spacecraft crew stations, ESA spacelab crew stations, the evolution of commercial aircraft flight station design, Boeing 757/767 flight deck, a historical review of Concorde flight deck design, trends in the cockpit design of new European fighters, and state-of-the-art applications for Space Station crew interface design.

Carr, Gerald P. (editor); Montemerlo, Melvin D. (editor)

1984-01-01

353

M Station, Austin  

E-print Network

Station 9081 108 ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (Standard) LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station 9081 10849 $0.00/sf Planning ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (Standard) LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station 9081 10849 $0.00/sf... Planning Location ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (Standard) LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station 9081 10849 $0.00/sf Planning Location Transportation ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE LEED Platinum (Standard) LEED Platinum (M Station) M Station...

Mathon, S.

2011-01-01

354

Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

2011-01-01

355

Adaptive reservation-assisted collision resolution protocol for wireless local area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional IEEE 802.11 medium access control protocol, the distributed coordination function is designed for the wireless stations (WSs) to perform channel contention within the wireless local area networks (WLANs). Packet collision is considered one of the major issues within this type of contention-based scheme, which can severely degrade the network performance for the WLANs. Research work has been conducted

Jia-Shi Lin; Chien-Hua Chen; Kai-Ten Feng

2009-01-01

356

Queue Management Strategies to Improve TCP Fairness in IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs  

E-print Network

Queue Management Strategies to Improve TCP Fairness in IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs Mingwei Gong Qian,qianwu,carey}@cpsc.ucalgary.ca Abstract-- Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) based on the IEEE 802.11 technology have become increasingly popular and ubiquitous. The 802.11 standard allows each station in a WLAN equal opportunity

Williamson, Carey

357

Updatable Key Management Scheme with Intrusion Tolerance for Unattended Wireless Sensor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Unattended Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) collects the sensing data by using mobile sinks (MSs). It differs from the traditional multi-hop wireless sensor networks in which unbalanced traffic makes the sensors close to the base station deplete their power earlier than others. An UWSN can save the battery power and prolong the network lifetime. Unfortunately, MSs would be given too

Liang-min Wang; Tao Jiang; Xiao-yan Zhu

2011-01-01

358

Effects of Solar Radio Bursts on Wireless Systems Dale E. Gary1  

E-print Network

1 Chapter Effects of Solar Radio Bursts on Wireless Systems Dale E. Gary1 , Louis J. Lanzerotti1 of the potential for interference and interruption of service of wireless communications systems due to solar radio solar bursts, and the design of current base station systems make them vulnerable to problems near

359

Astronomical Station Vidojevica: Astro-Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical Station Vidojevica *http://vidojevica.aob.rs/) is located on Mt.~Vidojevica near Prokuplje, Serbia. The equipment for measuring astro-climate conditions was installed in November 2010. The main characteristics of All-sky Camera, Weather Station and Seeing Monitor are presented. In addition, some preliminary results obtained using the instruments are discussed. The results presented here are part of our long- term monitoring campaign of astro-climate characteristics for this site, which will be useful in planning observations with the future robotic telescope Milankovi?.

Jovanovic, M.; Stojanovic, M.; Martinovic, N.; Bogosavljevic, M.; Smolic, I.; Ackovic, B.

2012-12-01

360

Space Weather Research in Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Kazakhstan there is an experimental complex for space weather study and forecasting. This complex is situated near Almaty (Kazakhstan). It includes an experimental setup for records of cosmic ray intensity (neutron monitor) at the altitude of 3340 m above sea level, a magnetic observatory ´Alma-Ataª, an optical interferometer SATI for recording the emission of night sky, an ionospheric sounder and a solar radio telescope. Nowadays the measurements of the solar radio flux at frequencies of 1.078 GHz and 2.8 GHz (10.7 cm) is carried out on the regular basis with 1-second time resolution. A new Callisto radio spectrometer (eC37) was installed and configured while the ´Orbitaª ground station. All data are represented on the web site of the Institute of the Ionosphere (www.ionos.kz) in real time. Since July 2006 the space environment prediction laboratory represents the fore cast of geomagnetic activity every day on the same site.

Zhantayev, Zh.; Kryakunova, O.; Nikolayevskiy, N.; Zhumabayev, B.

2014-02-01

361

Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1993-11-01

362

Rainy Weather Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

Reynolds, Karen

1996-01-01

363

Weathering and mass wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class exercise is an opportunity for students to apply textbook information about weathering and mass wasting to local and nationally-recognized surface features, such as Stone Mountain (GA), Half Dome (CA), and others. It also serves as an introduction to the use of Google Earth as an analytical tool for calculating distances, slopes, and evaluating landforms. Designed for a geomorphology course

Clayton, Jordan

364

Microbial Weathering of Olivine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

2002-01-01

365

Weathering the Double Whammy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how governing boards can help their institutions weather the "double-whammy" of doing more with less: identify the institution's short-term and long-term challenges; refocus the institution's mission, planning, and programming; assess and integrate the institution's tuition, aid, and outreach strategies; redouble the institution's…

Wellman, Jane V.

2002-01-01

366

Rocks and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, weathering, erosion and transport, and the rock cycle are explained in this resource for students through written content, interactive content, audio, video and games. A multiple choice test is included. Students may score their tests and the correct responses will be given.

367

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

2010-08-04

368

Weather and emotional state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in

Z. Spasova

2010-01-01

369

Blogging About the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the majority of the content standards related to weather focus on forecasting, elementary students often spend a lot of time studying cloud types, fronts, storms, and using a barometer to read air pressure. Although this allows students to "do" scie

Kyle Evans

2010-04-01

370

Weather and the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on weather and objects in the sky includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

371

Sunspots and Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation for students in how sunspots impact space weather between the Sun and Earth. Students research solar maximum and minimum as well as recent sunspot numbers to determine a connection between the numbers and solar activity. This page is accompanied by a page of websites for further resources.

372

METEOROLOGICAL Weather and Forecasting  

E-print Network

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Weather and Forecasting EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary it is available. © 2010 American Meteorological Society #12;Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Multidisciplinary Analysis of an Unusual Tornado: Meteorology,1 Climatology, and the Communication

373

Weather, Climate, and You.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

374

Uncertain weather, uncertain climate  

E-print Network

Adventure of the Speckled Band" "Good-morning, madam," said Holmes cheerily. "My name is Sherlock Holmes, and then only when you sit on the left-hand side of the driver." #12;Holmes' calculation D. Nychka Uncertain of vehicle Maximize over vehicle #12;D. Nychka Uncertain weather, uncertain climate 8 Holmes' conclusion

Nychka, Douglas

375

Weather and Flight Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

Wiley, Scott

2007-01-01

376

Advancing Profiling Sensors with a Wireless Approach  

PubMed Central

The notion of a profiling sensor was first realized by a Near-Infrared (N-IR) retro-reflective prototype consisting of a vertical column of wired sparse detectors. This paper extends that prior work and presents a wireless version of a profiling sensor as a collection of sensor nodes. The sensor incorporates wireless sensing elements, a distributed data collection and aggregation scheme, and an enhanced classification technique. In this novel approach, a base station pre-processes the data collected from the sensor nodes and performs data re-alignment. A back-propagation neural network was also developed for the wireless version of the N-IR profiling sensor that classifies objects into the broad categories of human, animal or vehicle with an accuracy of approximately 94%. These enhancements improve deployment options as compared with the first generation of wired profiling sensors, possibly increasing the application scenarios for such sensors, including intelligent fence applications. PMID:23443371

Galvis, Alex; Russomanno, David J.

2012-01-01

377

Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

2002-01-01

378

Severe Weather Case Studies from the USArray Transportable Array Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthscope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) network serves as a real-time monitoring and recording platform for both seismic and weather phenomena. To date, most of the approximately 500 TA stations have been retrofitted with VTI SCP1000 MEMS barometric pressure gauges capable of recording data at 1 sample per second (sps). Additionally, over 100 of the TA stations have also been retrofitted with Setra 278 barometric gauges and NCPA infrasound sensors capable of recording data at 1 and 40 sps. While individual seismic events have been successfully researched via the TA network, observations of powerful weather events by the TA network have yet to be embraced by the scientific community. This presentation will focus on case studies involving severe weather passage across portions of the TA network throughout 2011 in order to highlight its viability as a platform for real-time weather monitoring and research. Examples of gust front passages and pressure couplets from severe thunderstorms will be presented, as will observations of the devastating tornado that passed through Joplin, Missouri on May 22nd with an enhanced Fujita (EF) strength of EF5. These data will demonstrate the overall viability of the TA network for monitoring severe weather events in real-time.

Tytell, J. E.; Vernon, F. L.; Busby, R. W.; Eakins, J. A.; Hedlin, M. A.; Muschinski, A.; Walker, K. T.; Woodward, R.

2011-12-01

379

When winter weather disrupts work.  

PubMed

Paul Beevers, of the BVA's legal helpline, explains the implications for employers of travel disruption resulting from bad weather and offers a few pointers on dealing with exceptional weather conditions. PMID:25556140

2015-01-01

380

External Resource: Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Teachers' Domain photo essay with images that depict surface features on Earth that result from weathering and erosion, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects. Topics: weathering, erosion, sediments, dunes, deltas, glaci

1900-01-01

381

Space Weather Impacts on Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The module builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.

Comet

2012-06-12

382

Real-Time Weather Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides real-time and forecast weather maps and data for the United States. The Satellite section contains satellite weather images from the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites, the Radar section contains radar weather images from NEXRAD radars, the Surface Data section contains plots of various weather conditions (temperatures, winds, pressure, precipitation), and the Upper Air section plots winds and temperatures across the United States.

383

Analysis of Energy Consumption of Duplex Residences in College Station, Texas  

E-print Network

This paper characterizes the variability of energy consumption due to a series of construction, occupant, and weather-related effects in duplex residences in College Station, Texas. In this paper, spline regression was used to estimate cooling...

Kim, S. B.; Woods, P. K.

1998-01-01

384

Downlink Wireless Packet Scheduling with Deadlines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation cellular wireless communication networks aim to provide a variety of quality-of-service (QoS) sensitive packet based services to downlink users. Included amongst these are real-time multimedia services, which have stringent delay requirements. Downlink packet scheduling at the base station plays a key role in efficiently allocating system res ources to meet the desired level of QoS for various users.

Aditya Dua; Nicholas Bambos

2007-01-01

385

Road Weather and Transportation Systems  

E-print Network

Road Weather and Transportation Systems Rhonda Young, P.E., PhD Associate Professor Dept. of Civil & Arch. Engineering Portland State University April 18, 2014 #12;Engineering Perspective of Road Weather · How does weather impact transportation systems? · As engineers, is there anything we can do

Bertini, Robert L.

386

Spring Break-Weathering Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to photograph something that shows either physical or chemical weathering. They must be in the photograph for purposes of scale. They must then write up their description of the weathering feature and explain the actual weathering processes. This assignment can also be expanded to include mass wasting and mass wasting prevention.

Farthing, Dori

387

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

Groppi, Christopher

388

Science Sampler: Clever with weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In eighth-grade Earth science at Louisville Middle School in Louisville, Colorado, students learn how large-scale weather patterns such as the jet stream and weather fronts interact to generate local weather conditions. The authors have developed a modeli

David Crowder

2011-02-01

389

Weather Fundamentals: Climate & Seasons. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes), describes weather patterns and cycles around the globe. The various types of climates around…

1998

390

Differences Between Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students collect weather data over several days or weeks, graph temperature data, and compare the temperature data collected with long-term climate averages from where they live. Understanding the difference between weather and climate and interpreting local weather data are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes.

Research, National C.

391

How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why are some weather elements easier to verify than others? 5) What factors may contribute to the quality of the weather forecast?

Gawor, J.

2012-04-01

392

Linking the Weather Generator with Regional Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the downscaling approaches, which transform the raw outputs from the climate models (GCMs or RCMs) into data with more realistic structure, is based on linking the stochastic weather generator with the climate model output. The present contribution, in which the parametric daily surface weather generator (WG) M&Rfi is linked to the RCM output, follows two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters are derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from weather series observed in 125 Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation series (including probability of wet day occurrence). (2) Presenting a methodology for linking the WG with RCM output. This methodology, which is based on merging information from observations and RCM, may be interpreted as a downscaling procedure, whose product is a gridded WG capable of producing realistic synthetic multivariate weather series for weather-ungauged locations. In this procedure, WG is calibrated with RCM-simulated multi-variate weather series in the first step, and the grid specific WG parameters are then de-biased by spatially interpolated correction factors based on comparison of WG parameters calibrated with gridded RCM weather series and spatially scarcer observations. The quality of the weather series produced by the resultant gridded WG will be assessed in terms of selected climatic characteristics (focusing on characteristics related to variability and extremes of surface temperature and precipitation). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO-Climate (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

Dubrovsky, Martin; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr; Huth, Radan

2013-04-01

393

Seasonal Extreme Weather Forecasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forecasts for UK winter gales and severe gales, North Atlantic and US landfalling hurricanes, Northwest Pacific and Far East landfalling typhoons, Southwest Pacific and Australian landfalling cyclones, and US Cooling Degree Days are available at this site from the Benfield Greig Hazard Research Centre at University College, London. Forecast summaries, descriptions of forecasting methodology, and graphics of historical and predicted events through time are presented in .pdf format for each weather subcategory. This site also tells users when the next predictions are to be released and has links to press releases and other extreme weather Websites. This is a good site for those interested in methods of climatology or those who want to prepare for that next big typhoon.

394

National Weather Service Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary contains information on more than 2000 terms, phrases and abbreviations used by the National Weather Service (NWS). Many of these terms and abbreviations are used by NWS forecasters to communicate between each other and have been in use for many years; the glossary will aid users in better understanding NWS products. The glossary is searchable by keyword or browsable by letter of the alphabet.

395

Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

2012-01-01

396

Fracture characteristics in weathered granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of weathered materials is an important factor in the geotechnical characterization of rock for engineering purposes. Most engineering rock mass classifications include weathering schemes that separate the weathering profile into zones or grades that depend upon the engineering and geological properties of the rock. Many geotechnical characteristics, including weathering, are controlled by the density and arrangement of fractures within the rock, but the relationships between fracture patterns and weathering grades are typically not addressed. Fracture characteristics were investigated in 13 exposures in five study areas in weathered granite in eastern Asia. All weathering grades were present, but never in the same exposure. Two approaches were used to evaluate the field data: (1) joint spacings were tabulated and examined within each weathering grade (tabulated classification); and (2) each exposure was classified according to the dominant weathering grade (visual classification). Mean and median joint spacings and joint spacing frequency distributions were analyzed and compared statistically for each approach. The box fractal dimensions for joint spacing were calculated for exposures classified visually in each weathering grade. Three-dimensional models of fresh and weathered granite were also generated and sampled for comparison to the field data. Mean joint spacing is usually 25% or more closer in weathered granite than it is in fresh granite, and the difference between the mean spacings for weathered granite and fresh granite tend to be statistically significant. There are no significant differences between any distribution medians. The joint spacing distributions for weathered granite and fresh granite are also not statistically significantly different, and there are no significant differences among the joint spacing frequency distributions for the different grades of weathered granite. Fractal analysis of joint spacings, however, suggests spacing characteristics of fresh and slightly weathered (SW) granite are very different from those in moderately, highly, and completely weathered granite, and sampling of three-dimensional models for weathered and fresh granite supports this. In an engineering context, this suggests that joint spacing relationships in the various grades of weathered granite can be treated as the same regardless of weathering grade and that joint patterns in fresh granite must be evaluated separately. This knowledge could result in significant time and cost savings in the geotechnical characterization of these materials.

Ehlen, Judy

1999-12-01

397

Wireless sap flow measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study exhibits a measurement system for wireless sensor networks to measure sap flow in multiple locations simultaneously. Transpiration is a major component of the land-surface system because it is indicative of the water movement between the soil and the air. Sap flow can be used to approximate transpiration. In forests, transpiration cannot be represented by the sap flow from a single tree. Multi-location sap flow measurements are required to show the heterogeneity caused by different trees or soil conditions. Traditional multi-location measurements require manpower and capital for data collection and instrument maintenance. Fortunately, multi-location measurements can be achieved by using the new technology of wireless sensor networks. With multi-hop communication protocol, data can be forwarded to the base station via multiple sensor nodes. This communication protocol can provide reliable data collection with the least power consumption. This study encountered two major problems. The first problem was signal amplification. The Crossbow IRIS mote was selected as the sensor node that receives the temperature data of the sap flow probe (thermocouple) through a MDA300 data acquisition board. However, the wireless sensor node could not directly receive any data from the thermocouples since the least significant bit value of the MDA300, 0.6 mV, is much higher than the voltage signal generated. Thus, the signal from the thermocouple must be amplified to exceed this threshold. The second problem is power management. A specific heat differential is required for the thermal dissipation method of measuring sap flow. Thus, an adjustable DC power supply is necessary for calibrating the heater's temperature settings. A circuit was designed to combine the signal amplifier and power regulator. The regulator has been designed to also provide power to the IRIS mote to extend battery life. This design enables wireless sap flow measurements in the forest. With the convenience of wireless sensor networks and the use of this circuit design, the wireless sap flow system is a useful tool for multi-location transpiration measurements in the forest.

Kuo, C.; Davis, T. W.; Tseng, C.; Cheng, C.; Liang, X.; Yu, P.

2010-12-01

398

A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.  

PubMed

Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

2012-01-01

399

A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power  

PubMed Central

Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

2012-01-01

400

Modular Wireless Data-Acquisition and Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular wireless data-acquisition and control system, now in operation at Kennedy Space Center, offers high performance at relatively low cost. The system includes a central station and a finite number of remote stations that communicate with each other through low-power radio frequency (RF) links. Designed to satisfy stringent requirements for reliability, integrity of data, and low power consumption, this system could be reproduced and adapted to use in a broad range of settings.

Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Medelius, Pedro; Mata, Carlos; Eckhoff, Anthony; Blalock, Norman

2004-01-01

401

Generation of Multivariate Surface Weather Series with Use of the Stochastic Weather Generator Linked to Regional Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional-scale simulations of weather-sensitive processes (e.g. hydrology, agriculture and forestry) for the present and/or future climate often require high resolution meteorological inputs in terms of the time series of selected surface weather characteristics (typically temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, humidity, wind) for a set of stations or on a regular grid. As even the latest Global and Regional Climate Models (GCMs and RCMs) do not provide realistic representation of statistical structure of the surface weather, the model outputs must be postprocessed (downscaled) to achieve the desired statistical structure of the weather data before being used as an input to the follow-up simulation models. One of the downscaling approaches, which is employed also here, is based on a weather generator (WG), which is calibrated using the observed weather series and then modified (in case of simulations for the future climate) according to the GCM- or RCM-based climate change scenarios. The present contribution uses the parametric daily weather generator M&Rfi to follow two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate/CZ (v.2) Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters will be derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from observational data in the Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include selected statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation (characteristics of the mean, variability, interdiurnal variability and extremes). (2) Testing a potential of RCM output for calibration of the WG for the ungauged locations. The methodology being examined will consist in using the WG, whose parameters are interpolated from the surrounding stations and then corrected based on a RCM-simulated spatial variability. The quality of the weather series produced by the WG calibrated in this way will be assessed in terms of selected climatic characteristics focusing on extreme precipitation and temperature characteristics (including characteristics of dry/wet/hot/cold spells). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

Dubrovsky, M.; Farda, A.; Huth, R.

2012-12-01

402

Space Station Spartan study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

1985-01-01

403

The wireless revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current demand for and recent developments in wireless communication are described. Funding for wireless worldwide is examined. Tools and techniques used to characterize radio propagation are discussed, and some research results are presented

T. S. Rappaport

1991-01-01

404

Telemedical experiences at an Antarctic station.  

PubMed

Wintering-over in Antarctica represents a physician's most remote and inaccessible scenario, apart from a space station. Because of the harsh and unpredictable winter weather, Antarctic stations are typically inaccessible for over six months of the year. Telephone and fax communication, and recently other forms of telemedicine, have provided vital links to specialists. The author was the sole physician for more than 250 people wintering-over during the 1995 austral winter at McMurdo Station. There were several instances of serious or life-threatening illness where the author relied on teleconsultation. These cases included new-onset coronary artery disease, posterior hip dislocation, complicated Colles' fracture and acute appendicitis. There were also numerous consultations for non-emergency clinical presentations normally managed by specialists. Telemedicine was a crucial link to specialists from the remote and inaccessible environment of Antarctica. PMID:10534856

Hyer, R N

1999-01-01

405

High performance wireless Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the IEEE 802.11b standard for high-performance wireless Ethernet and a proposed extension that provides for 22 Mb\\/s transmission. The IEEE 802.11 sets standards for wireless Ethernet or wireless local area networks. The article describes the history of the IEEE 802.11 standards and the market opportunities in the wireless Ethernet field. The article gives a brief description of

C. Heegard; J. T. Coffey; S. Gummadi; P. A. Murphy; R. Provencio; E. J. Rossin; S. Schrum; M. B. Shoemake

2001-01-01

406

Community Wireless Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…

Feld, Harold

2005-01-01

407

Joint mobility and routing for lifetime elongation in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many energy efficient\\/conserving routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks, the concentration of data traffic towards a small number of base stations remains a major threat to the network lifetime. The main reason is that the sensor nodes located near a base station have to relay data for a large part of the network and thus deplete

Jun Luo; Jean-pierre Hubaux

2005-01-01

408

1 Information Technology | Titan Lab Wireless Printing Setup for Windows 7  

E-print Network

1 Information Technology | Titan Lab Wireless Printing Setup for Windows 7 1. Authenticate Carthy Commons (Black and White) \\\\TL2BW1\\MHTL1 Mc Carthy Commons (Color) \\\\TL2COLOR\\MHTLCOLOR Print Only Station (1st Floor) \\\\printonly11\\printview Print Only Station (2nd Floor) \\\\printonly22\\printview Print

de Lijser, Peter

409

A distributed self-clocked fair queueing architecture for wireless ATM networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) to a wireless local area network (WLAN) environment is a new undertaking and poses many problems not found in either wireline ATM or data-only WLAN networks. The WLAN is designed as a centralized network, where a complex base station polls simpler remote stations. A polling algorithm called distributed fair queueing (DFQ) is developed

Richard Kautz; A. Leon-Garcia

1997-01-01

410

Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

2005-01-01

411

Sum capacity and TSC bounds in collaborative multibase wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a wireless system with base stations which collaborate, and derive bounds on sum capacity and total squared correlation for uniform channels between users and bases. The correspondence also investigates structural properties which must be satisfied by user transmit covariance matrices at the optimal sum capacity\\/total squared correlation (TSC) point, and shows that for multibase systems, maximizing sum capacity

Otilia Popescu; Christopher Rose

2004-01-01

412

Wide area wireless network (WAWN) for supporting precision agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high speed wireless network was established using a 100 meter tall microwave tower as the base station located on Prairie Point Road, 16 km from Macon, MS, in Noxubee County. Three sectorial antennas were used to provide complete 360 degree coverage. The system used state-of-the-art unlicensed dig...

413

Space-time signal processing for wireless communications: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey paper reviews space-time signal processing (STP) in mobile wireless communications. Space-time processing refers to manipulating signals that are received at or transmitted from an antenna array so as to improve performance. We focus on antenna arrays deployed at the base stations since such applications are of current practical interest. We first introduce channel and signal models for base

Constantinos B. Papadias; Arogyaswami J. Paulraj

1997-01-01

414

Networked Wireless Sensor Data Collection: Issues, Challenges, and Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been applied to many applications since emerging. Among them, one of the most important applications is Sensor Data Collections ,w here sensed data are collected at all or some of the sensor nodes and forwarded to a central base station for further processing. In this paper, we present a survey on recent advances in this

Feng Wang; Jiangchuan Liu

2011-01-01

415

Smart antennas for wireless communications beyond the third generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart antennas are essential to increase the spectral efficiency of wireless communication systems. They can be realized by an antenna array at the base station and sophisticated base-band signal processing. Thereby, adaptive directional reception is achieved on the uplink and adaptive directional transmission on the downlink if channel knowledge is available at the transmitter. Hence, an increased antenna gain and

Martin Haardt; Quentin Spencer

2003-01-01

416

Two-dimensional wavelength routing for transparent optical wireless networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a novel system architecture that uses a combination of wavelength and spatial diversity for indoor infrared wireless communications is presented. This configuration promises to fully exploit the available bandwidth of optics and demonstrate all-optical networking. Electronic processing is restricted to mobile terminals, with base stations potentially remaining passive, without any conversion between optics and electronics. For the

Haiyan Shi; Kefei Liang; Stephen J. Sheard; Dominic C. O'Brien; Grahame E. Faulkner

2005-01-01

417

Energy-efficient DSPs for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many new challenges to be faced in implementing signal processing algorithms and designing energy-efficient DSPs for microsensor networks. We study system partitioning of computation to improve the energy efficiency of a wireless sensor networking application. We explore system partitioning between the sensor cluster and the base station, employing computation-communication tradeoffs to reduce energy dissipation. Also we show that

Alice Wang; Anantha Chandrakasan

2002-01-01

418

Preserving Area Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks by using  

E-print Network

with limited battery and of base stations with theoritical infinite energy. Nodes can be sleep to extend to sleep or to be active based on two messages sent by each sensor. The first message is a "hello" message in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), digital electronics, and wireless communications have enabled

Boyer, Edmond

419

Wireless Video Noise Classification for Micro Air Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onboard processing of video is currently outside the capabilities of power limited micro air vehi- cles (MAVs), which forces researchers to transmit video and telemetry to a ground control station for capture and offline processing. Unfortunately, wireless video transmission can introduce struc- tured noise, which can corrupt image processing algorithms if the noisy frames are not identified and rejected from

Jeffrey Byrne; Raman Mehra

420

Channel Assignment with Separation in Wireless Networks Based on  

E-print Network

Channel Assignment with Separation in Wireless Networks Based on Regular Plane Tessellations Alan A spectrum which guarantees interference avoidance. The Channel Assignment (CA) problem achieves this goal by partitioning the radio spectrum into disjoint channels, and assigning channels to the network base stations so

Pinotti, Maria Cristina

421

A hybrid wireless network enhanced with multihopping for emergency communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hybrid wireless network scheme enhanced with ad hoc networking for disaster damage assessment and emergency communications. The network aims to maintain the connection between a base station (BS) and nodes by way of multihopping. In the event that a direct link between BS and a node is disconnected, the node switches modes from cellular to ad

Takahiro Fujiwara; Noboru Iida; Takashi Watanabe

2004-01-01

422

Lifting Scheme DWT Implementation in a Wireless Vision Sensor Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the practical implementation of a Wireless Visual Sensor Network (WVSN) with DWT processing on the visual nodes. WVSN consists of visual nodes that capture video and transmit to the base-station without processing. Limitation of network bandwidth restrains the implementation of real time video streaming from remote visual nodes through wireless communication. Three layers of DWT filters are implemented to process the captured image from the camera. With having all the wavelet coefficients produced, it is possible just to transmit the low frequency band coefficients and obtain an approximate image at the base-station. This will reduce the amount of power required in transmission. When necessary, transmitting all the wavelet coefficients will produce the full detail of image, which is similar to the image captured at the visual nodes. The visual node combines the CMOS camera, Xilinx Spartan-3L FPGA and wireless ZigBee® network that uses the Ember EM250 chip.

Ong, Jia Jan; Ang, L.-M.; Seng, K. P.

423

Global wireless framework: one world wireless devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the paradigm of using autoassigned predefined nonInternet routable IP addresses with mobile devices (global wireless framework) as the basis to provide services to nomadic end users in information spaces. As an example of how global wireless IP can be constructed as a base of services providing for personal mobility, we show working scenarios and protocols that are used

A. Mingkhwan; M. Merabti; B. Askwith

2002-01-01

424

Finding Space Weather Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about searching online data archives for solar wind events. Learners will find at least three episodes of increased solar wind activity impacting Earth using direct measurements of solar wind velocity and density. Then, they will characterize each events by its rise time, the time it takes for the solar wind speed to rise from normal levels to the peak speed of the event, and the percentage increase in solar wind velocity. This is Activity 11 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum.

425

Global Weather Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to global weather patterns and how they affect the kinds of trees and plants that grow in different latitudes of the Earth. The discussion covers the tropics and the lush rainforests that live there, temperate forests in the mid-latitudes, and boreal forests in the far north. There is also a description of how treeless areas occur in various climate zones (desert, tundra, savannah), and how plants adapt to low-water conditions in the desert. A quiz and glossary are included.

426

Weather Forecasting Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather forecasters are usually very precise in reporting such conditions as temperature, wind velocity and humidity. They also provide exact information on barometric pressure at a given moment, and whether the barometer is "rising" or "falling"- but not how rapidly or how slowly it is rising or falling. Until now, there has not been available an instrument which measures precisely the current rate of change of barometric pressure. A meteorological instrument called a barograph traces the historical ups and downs of barometric pressure and plots a rising or falling curve, but, updated every three hours, it is only momentarily accurate at each updating.

1979-01-01

427

Space Station Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strategies, reasoning, and planning guidelines used in the development of the United States Space Station Program are outlined. The power required to support Space Station missions and housekeeping loads is a key driver in overall Space Station design. conversely, Space Station requirements drive the power technology. Various power system technology options are discussed. The mission analysis studies resulting in the required Space Station capabilities are also discussed. An example of Space Station functions and a concept to provide them is presented. The weight, area, payload and altitude requirements on draft and mass requirements are described with a summary and status of key power systems technology requirements and issues.

Baraona, C. R.

1984-01-01

428

QoS-Based Adaptive Contention\\/Reservation Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Local Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the conventional IEEE 802.11 medium access control protocol, the distributed coordination function is designed for the wireless stations (WSs) to perform channel contention within the wireless local area networks (WLANs). Research work has been conducted to modify the random backoff mechanism in order to alleviate the packet collision problem while the WSs are contending for channel access. However, most

Jia-Shi Lin; Kai-Ten Feng

2011-01-01

429

Novel Algorithm of Energy-Aware in Asymmetric Wireless Sensor Networks Routing for In-Point Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since we are not able to replace the battery in a wireless sensor network, energy and lifetime are the most important parameters. Common sensors are not able to connect directly with the central station due to their limited ranges in asymmetrical wireless networks, therefore, we utilize super nodes. A super node has more energy, processing power and a wider range

Ali Shokouhi Rostami; M. R. Tanhatalab; H. M. Bernety; K. Nosrati

2010-01-01

430

Science Sampler: Weathering database technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level, but making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge for students. One way to help students make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which readings are associated with certain types of weather.

Robert Snyder

2005-02-01

431

Vodcasting Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of vodcasts (video podcasts) produced by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, MA). This paper discusses the production and distribution of the series via Webcast, Youtube, and other avenues. It also presents preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness and outreach of the project through feedback from both formal and information education venues. The vodcast series is linked to the NASA Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology project award "Multi-Instrument Investigation of Inner-Magnetospheric/Ionosphere Disturbances.” It is being carried out by Principal Investigator Dr. John Foster, under the auspices of NASA Grant # NNX06AB86G. The research involves using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observations to study the location, extent, and duration of perturbations within stormtime ionospheric electric fields at mid- to low latitudes. It combines ground-based global positioning system (GPS) TEC data, incoherent scatter radar measurements of the mid-latitude ionospheric state, and DMSP satellite observations to characterize conditions which lead to severe low-latitude ionospheric perturbations. Each vodcast episode covers a certain aspect of space weather and the research program.

Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Erickson, P. J.; Needles, M.

2009-01-01

432

Weathering of rock 'Ginger'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

1997-01-01

433

Review of national estuarine research reserve system station data during 2008 Gulf of Mexico hypoxia event  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) creates, integrates, and maintains a broad network of buoys and Coastal Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations. Data from these stations are used by the National Weather Service (NWS) in creating and verifying forecasts, as well as by the general public for commercial and recreational purposes. In addition to

Kelly LaRue; Danielle Carpenter; Ian T. Sears

2009-01-01

434

Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

2004-01-01

435

Space Weathering: An Ultraviolet Indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present evidence suggesting that the spectral slope of airless bodies in the UV-visible wavelength range can be used as an indicator of exposure to space weathering. While space weathering generally produces a reddening of spectra in the visible-NIR spectral regions, it tends to result in a bluing of the UV-visible portion of the spectrum, and may in some cases produce a spectral reversal. The bluing effect may be detectable with smaller amounts of weathering than are necessary to detect the longer-wavelength weathering effects.

Hendrix, A. R.; Vilas, F.

2003-01-01

436

AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.

Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

2001-01-01

437

Strawberries at Troupe Station.  

E-print Network

, TEXAS. Reports and Bulletins are sent free upon application to the Director. STRAWBERRIES AT TROUPE STATION. var the the BY EDWARD C. GREEN ASSISTANT HORTICULTURIST The establishment of Troupe Station, Smith County, has increase( greatly...

Green, Edward C.

1904-01-01

438

The International Space Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access news articles, background information and links about the International Space Station. Materials presented here include crew biographies, expedition press kits, accounts of science experiments, and imagery taken from the station. Other features include a clock/counter that logs the station's and the crew's time in orbit and information for ground-based observers who wish to view the station as it passes overhead at night.

439

Southwestern Research Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site profiles AMNH's Southwestern Research Station (SWRS), a year-round field station that allows biologists, geologists, and anthropologists to study the diverse environments and biotas of the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern Arizona. The site includes an overview of the field station and its work, information on courses offered, and information for visitors, researchers, interns and volunteers.

440

National Severe Storms Laboratory's Weather Room  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational website from NOAA has: facts on tornadoes, hurricanes, lightning and thunderstorms; lessons on weather symbols, maps and systems; an extensive list of weather and climate resources for teachers; information on careers in weather; and a list of weather links including weather data. Additionally, the site includes all the latest meteorological research including tornado genesis and lightning.

2010-08-06

441

How Do Meteorologists Forecast the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson that I developed where students learn how meteorologists predict the weather. Students will use surface weather maps, radar, satellite, and weather models from the National Weather Service to assess the current state of the weather and make a prediction.

David Faysash

2012-07-30

442

Space Weather Action Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a revised "Tracking a Solar Storm-Student Observation Network" with a new format and Web site. The Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) allows students to use near real time data and track a solar storm. By following the basic steps in the Instructional Guide students can access, analyze and record NASA satellite and observatory data. There is a downloadable 'step-by-step' Educator's Setup Guide where you will find a variety of recommendations and diagrams detailing how to construct a fully functional SWAC while keeping potential limitations on space and technology in mind. Flip charts provide the step by step data use and there are also instructions for using green screen technology.

2009-01-01

443

Severe Weather: Hurricanes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Severe Weather: Hurricanes is part of an on-line series of modules entitled Exploring the Environment. Emphasizing an integrated approach to environmental Earth Science education through problem-based learning, this module asks student groups to track an actual (past) hurricane. Background information explains how hurricanes occur, how they are named, and the Saffir-Simpson Intensity Scale. Activities train groups on how to track hurricanes. Once they are given an actual hurricane to track, students must determine the speed of its movement and where it will come ashore. There are extension activities, a glossary of terms, teacher resources, a reference for the problem-based learning model, and links to additional resources.

444

Supporting Weather Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its founding in 1992, Global Science & Technology, Inc. (GST), of Greenbelt, Maryland, has been developing technologies and providing services in support of NASA scientific research. GST specialties include scientific analysis, science data and information systems, data visualization, communications, networking and Web technologies, computer science, and software system engineering. As a longtime contractor to Goddard Space Flight Center s Earth Science Directorate, GST scientific, engineering, and information technology staff have extensive qualifications with the synthesis of satellite, in situ, and Earth science data for weather- and climate-related projects. GST s experience in this arena is end-to-end, from building satellite ground receiving systems and science data systems, to product generation and research and analysis.

2004-01-01

445

The Weather Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of resources, provided by the National Weather Service Forecast Office for the El Paso area, allows users to be their own meteorologists. For example, armed with data such as current temperature, humidity, and windspeed, users may calculate the heat index or wind chill. Using the resources on this page, and providing basic meteorological data such as temperature, air pressure, and dew point, users can calculate such things as the vapor pressure, maxing ratio, or density altitude. This site also provides unit conversion calculators, allowing users to convert temperatures, air pressures, and wind speeds into various units. For some of the conversions, this site presumes its users to have an understanding of meteorological terms and to be able to read basic meteorological instruments.

1969-12-31

446

A Hole in the Weather Warning System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

lack of text information. These problems had forced deaf and hard of hearing people to rely on looking at the sky or having hearing people alert them as their primary methods of receiving emergency information. These problems are documented through the use of a survey of 277 deaf and hard of hearing people in Minnesota and Oklahoma as well as specific examples.During the last two years, some progress has been made to "close this hole" in the weather warning system. The Federal Communications Commission has approved new rules, requiring that all audio emergency information provided by television stations, satellite, and cable operators must also be provided visually. In addition, the use of new technology such as pager systems, weather radios adapted for use by those with special needs, the Internet, and satellite warning systems have allowed deaf and hard of hearing people to have more access to emergency information.In this article, these improvements are documented but continuing problems and possible solutions are also listed.

Wood, Vincent T.; Weisman, Robert A.

2003-02-01

447

Terminal weather information management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

Lee, Alfred T.

1990-01-01

448

Principles of Numerical Weather Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial uses a narrative format to discuss the strengths and limitations of computer weather forecasting models and aids students in recognizing when they will have problems. Students are expected to grasp the importance of initial conditions and of model resolution in a numerical weather forecast.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-01-01

449

Rocks, Weathering, and Erosional Landscapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will identify principal rock forming silicate minerals and distinguish their relative stability when exposed to weathering; identify sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks and deduce the relative resistance based on mineral composition and texture;and finally relate erosional landscapes to the differential weathering and erosion of rocks of varying strengths. Designed for a geomorphology course

Hanson, Lindley

450

CSA Weatherization Demonstration Project Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report comprises the plan of a research and demonstration effort to determine the fraction of energy that may be saved by installing weatherization retrofits in poor peoples' homes throughout the United States. Two broad groups of weatherization retrofits are considered for application in each dwelling: (1) 'architectural,' those affecting the building shell; and (2) 'mechanical,' those affecting space heating

R. Crenshaw; R. Clark; R. Chapman; R. Grot; M. Godette

1979-01-01

451

Regional-seasonal weather forecasting  

SciTech Connect

In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

1980-08-01

452

Weather Fundamentals: Rain & Snow. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) gives concise explanations of the various types of precipitation and describes how the water…

1998

453

Doing Something About the Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exercise that familiarizes students with the language of German weather reports, so that they will know what kinds of information to listen for. The exercise also helps students expand their vocabulary. The article includes transcriptions of actual German weather reports. (SED)

James, Charles J.

1986-01-01

454

Useful Weather Links Nolan Doesken  

E-print Network

forecasts · http://www.co.nrcs.usda.gov/snow/index.html #12;#12;USGS River Gauge Network · http, Kansas http://www.weather.gov/gld NWS Forecast Offices for Colorado #12;NWS NOAA Weather Radio · http on "River Status" and "River Forecasts" #12;NWS Precipitation Estimation http

455

Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

1998

456

The study on modelled and measured weather data for building energy simulation programs for Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will study the usability of future weather data generated from climate model for Malaysia. Detailed future weather data is required for the building energy assessment as input parameters. The future weather data required is normally achieved from climate prediction models. The purpose of this study is to examine the gaps between weather data generated by climate model and the data measured by weather station in Bayan Lepas, Penang. Furthermore, this studies also to establish the modelled weather data for the use for future building energy simulation program. In order to achieve this purpose, simulated weather data sets HadCM3 were supplied by the Hadley Centre in the UK. The measured weather data was supplied by Malaysian Meteorological Department for Bayan Lepas, Penang. The period of analysed time was 18 years from 1990 to 2007 where the available data overlaps between HadCM3 and measured data. Several major weather variables were used in these studies such as Dry-bulb temperature, Solar radiation and Wind speed. The outcome from this studies shows a good match between HadCM3 data and measured data indicates that HadCM3 model is suitable for the purpose of future building energy simulation for Malaysia.

>B Faizal, N. M. D.

2013-06-01

457

Cool Stars and Space Weather  

E-print Network

Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the space weather. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session "Cool stars and Space Weather", that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

Vidotto, A A; Cameron, A C; Morin, J; Villadsen, J; Saar, S; Alvarado, J; Cohen, O; Holzwarth, V; Poppenhaeger, K; Reville, V

2014-01-01

458

Smooth Sailing for Weather Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a cooperative venture with NASA's Stennis Space Center, WorldWinds, Inc., developed a unique weather and wave vector map using space-based radar satellite information and traditional weather observations. Called WorldWinds, the product provides accurate, near real-time, high-resolution weather forecasts. It was developed for commercial and scientific users. In addition to weather forecasting, the product's applications include maritime and terrestrial transportation, aviation operations, precision farming, offshore oil and gas operations, and coastal hazard response support. Target commercial markets include the operational maritime and aviation communities, oil and gas providers, and recreational yachting interests. Science applications include global long-term prediction and climate change, land-cover and land-use change, and natural hazard issues. Commercial airlines have expressed interest in the product, as it can provide forecasts over remote areas. WorldWinds, Inc., is currently providing its product to commercial weather outlets.

2002-01-01

459

RESIDENTIAL WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS August 30, 2011  

E-print Network

RESIDENTIAL WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS August 30, 2011 Index to Sections Section Page I. GENERAL .................................................................................................2 III. GENERAL WEATHERIZATION REQUIREMENTS-fit) weatherization for electrically heated single family homes, manufactured homes, and multi-family buildings

460

Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance Veronica J. Berrocal, Adrian E are needed. Currently, anti-icing decisions are usually based on deterministic weather forecasts. However. Starting with deterministic numerical weather predictions, they produce a joint predictive probability dis

Washington at Seattle, University of

461

49 CFR 195.224 - Welding: Weather.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welding: Weather. 195.224 Section 195.224 Transportation...LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.224 Welding: Weather. Welding must be protected from weather conditions that...

2012-10-01

462

49 CFR 195.224 - Welding: Weather.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welding: Weather. 195.224 Section 195.224 Transportation...LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.224 Welding: Weather. Welding must be protected from weather conditions that...

2011-10-01

463

49 CFR 195.224 - Welding: Weather.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welding: Weather. 195.224 Section 195.224 Transportation...LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.224 Welding: Weather. Welding must be protected from weather conditions that...

2013-10-01

464

MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS  

SciTech Connect

A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

2004-11-01

465

Compute the Weather in Your Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a weather prediction activity connecting local weather network by computer modem. Describes software for telecommunications, data gathering, preparation work, and instructional procedures. (YP)

Meier, Beverly

1988-01-01

466

Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

1992-01-01

467

New approaches to space weather forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed several approaches to the problem of real-time space weather indices forecasting using readily available data from ACE and a number of ground stations. The first one is based on a dynamical-information approach to nonlinear modeling of space plasma [1]. It uses new nonlinear mathematical models of geomagnetic indices and original algorithms for detection of structure and parameters. The identification problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. Novel algorithms provide an optimal structure of discrete dynamical system using fuzzy systems modeling. The second one is based on the regression modeling method [2], which combines the benefits of empirical and statistical approaches. It uses such statistical methods as the linear regression analysis, maximum likelihood method, dispersion analysis and Monte-Carlo simulations to deduce the empirical relationships in the system. In both cases the typical elapsed time per forecast is about several seconds on an average PC. Such techniques can be easily extended to other indices like AE and Kp. The proposed system can also be useful for investigating of physical phenomena related to interactions between the solar wind and the magnetosphere - it already helped uncovering two new geoeffective parameters. In addition, we performed the risk analysis of damage to VUV, EUV and X-ray optics due to space weather factors and analyzed the safety of space instruments. We plan combining short-term and medium-term approaches to accurately predict geomagnetic storms at least 5-10 hours before commencement. Practical applications of such a system include (but are not limited to): - spacecraft safety (prediction of radiation threat); - human health (putting emergency services on alert); - prevention of technological disasters (power grid failures, major radio blackouts). 1. Cheremnykh O.K., Yatsenko V.A., Semeniv O.V., Shatokhina Yu.V. Nonlinear dynamics and prediction for space weather // Ukr. J. Phys. — 2008. — V. 53, ?5. — P. 502-505. 2. Parnowski A.S. Regression modeling method of space weather prediction // Astrophysics & Space Science. — 2009. — V. 323, ? 2. — P. 169-180. doi:10.1007/s10509-009-0060-4 [arXiv:0906.3271

Parnowski, Aleksei; Cheremnykh, Oleg; Yatsenko, Vitaly

2010-05-01

468

Paper Birch Decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, Microclimate, and Birch Stand Conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980's. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have increased in the second one-half of the period of record (1978-2007) as compared to the first one-half (1948-1977). River location was associated with birch health; upper river sites had significantly healthier trees than north bank sites. Localized microclimates in the birch stands have likely facilitated the persistence of the birch populations in a region otherwise unsuitable for the species. These microclimate differences may reduce frequency of thaw/freeze conditions that can induce root injury and potential crown dieback. A large population decline in the context of increased frequency of potentially injurious climatic events would make population recovery much more difficult now than from 1948 to 1977, when thaw/freeze conditions were less frequent. These conditions, combined with little evidence of recruitment of young birch and great geographic distances from potential immigrant sources, make the future persistence of birch in the Niobrara River Valley stands uncertain.

Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

2009-01-01

469

The DLR Project - Weather & Flying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project is introduced which aims at (a) providing timely, tailored and concise meteorological information especially for adverse weather as precisely as possible for air traffic control and management, airline operating centres, pilots, and airports, and (b) building automated flight control systems and evasion-manoeuvre methods to minimise the impact of adverse wind and wake conditions on the flight performance of an aircraft. Today ATM and ATC most of the time only react on adverse weather when the disruption has already happened or is just about to happen. A future air traffic management should pro-actively anticipate disruptive weather elements and their time scales well in advance to avoid or to mitigate the impact upon the traffic flow. But "weather” is not a technical problem that can be simply solved. Predicting the weather is a difficult and complex task and only possible within certain limits. It is therefore necessary to observe and forecast the changing state of the atmosphere as precisely and as rapidly as possible. Measures must be taken to minimise the impact of adverse weather or changing weather conditions on air traffic management and tactical manoeuvring, both on ground and onboard the aircraft. Weather and meteorological information (MET in short) is to be considered as an integral part of air traffic management. In 2008, DLR has initiated a major project "Wetter & Fliegen” (German for "Weather and Flying”) to address this inter¬disciplinary challenge. Its goal is to augment safety and efficiency of air transportation, thereby focusing on the two German hub airports in Frankfurt and München. This high-level goal shall be reached by two strands of work: a) The development of an Integrated Terminal Weather Systems (ITWS) for the air¬¬ports at Frankfurt and München to improve the detection and forecast of weather phenomena adversely affecting airport operations, including deep convection (thunderstorms, hail, wind), wake vortex, and winter weather conditions, and b) The development of on-board systems for automated control, surveillance and information and the specification of requirements for on-board sensors, to improve the behaviour of the aircraft when confronted with wind gusts, wake vortices and thunderstorms. The project design and first results will be presented.

Gerz, T.

2009-09-01

470

Space Weather Forecasting: An Enigma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space age began in earnest on October 4, 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 and was fuelled for over a decade by very strong national societal concerns. Prior to this single event the adverse effects of space weather had been registered on telegraph lines as well as interference on early WWII radar systems, while for countless eons the beauty of space weather as mid-latitude auroral displays were much appreciated. These prior space weather impacts were in themselves only a low-level science puzzle pursued by a few dedicated researchers. The technology boost and innovation that the post Sputnik era generated has almost single handedly defined our present day societal technology infrastructure. During the decade following Neil's walk on the moon on July 21, 1969 an international thrust to understand the science of space, and its weather, was in progress. However, the search for scientific understand was parsed into independent "stove pipe" categories: The ionosphere-aeronomy, the magnetosphere, the heliosphere-sun. The present day scientific infrastructure of funding agencies, learned societies, and international organizations are still hampered by these 1960's logical divisions which today are outdated in the pursuit of understanding space weather. As this era of intensive and well funded scientific research progressed so did societies innovative uses for space technologies and space "spin-offs". Well over a decade ago leaders in technology, science, and the military realized that there was indeed an adverse side to space weather that with each passing year became more severe. In 1994 several U.S. agencies established the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) to focus scientific attention on the system wide issue of the adverse effects of space weather on society and its technologies. Indeed for the past two decades a significant fraction of the scientific community has actively engaged in understanding space weather and hence crossing the "stove-pipe" disciplines. The perceived progress in space weather understanding differs significantly depending upon which community (scientific, technology, forecaster, society) is addressing the question. Even more divergent are these thoughts when the question is how valuable is the scientific capability of forecasting space weather. This talk will discuss present day as well as future potential for forecasting space weather for a few selected examples. The author will attempt to straddle the divergent community opinions.

Sojka, J. J.

2012-12-01

471

Differences Between Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will provide students with first hand knowledge of local weather changes and how they relates to local climates. After this activity students will understand the general distinctions between weather and climate, that daily weather measurements are highly variable compared to long-term climate data, and appreciate the difficulty of identifying climate trends based on limited data. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

472

Writing TAFS for Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Writing TAFs for Winter Weather" is the fourth unit in the Distance Learning Aviation Course 2 (DLAC2) series on producing TAFs that meet the needs of the aviation community. In addition to providing information about tools for diagnosing winter weather and its related impacts, the module extends the Practically Perfect TAF (PPTAF) process to address an airportâs operational thresholds. By understanding the thresholds at airports for which they produce TAFs, forecasters will be better able to produce a PPTAF. The unit also examines how to communicate effectively the logic and uncertainty using the aviation forecast discussion (AvnFD) and addresses maintaining an effective TAF weather watch and updating the TAF proactively.

Comet

2009-09-22

473

Stormy weather in galaxy clusters  

PubMed

Recent x-ray, optical, and radio observations coupled with particle and gas dynamics numerical simulations reveal an unexpectedly complex environment within clusters of galaxies, driven by ongoing accretion of matter from large-scale supercluster filaments. Mergers between clusters and continuous infall of dark matter and baryons from the cluster periphery produce long-lived "stormy weather" within the gaseous cluster atmosphere-shocks, turbulence, and winds of more than 1000 kilometers per second. This weather may be responsible for shaping a rich variety of extended radio sources, which in turn act as "barometers" and "anemometers" of cluster weather. PMID:9545210

Burns

1998-04-17

474

Robust position-based routing in wireless Ad Hoc networks with unstable transmission ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several papers showed how to perform routing in ad hoc wireless networks based on the positions of the mobile hosts. However, all these protocols are likely to fail if the transmission ranges of the mobile hosts vary due to natural or man-made obstacles or weather conditions. These protocols may fail because in routing either some connections are not considered which

Lali Barriére; Pierre Fraigniaud; Lata Narayanan

2001-01-01

475

Wireless Sensor Networks for Debris Flow Observation , P.H. Chou1*  

E-print Network

with the debris flow along its path. Such sensor nodes are to be housed in pyramid-shaped, weather-proof capsules, and wireless transceivers. Normally in low-power or standby mode, these capsules would be deployed in the path

Shinozuka, Masanobu

476

General clustering framework in wireless sensor networks.  

E-print Network

??The fast evolution of electronic technologies has foretold a promising and fancy future for wireless sensor network applications. Distinguished from typical wireless network, wireless sensor… (more)

Chen, Quanbin

2008-01-01

477

Wavelet entropy based damage identification using wireless smart sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a wavelet entropy based damage identification method is experimentally validated using wireless smart sensor units (Imote2) with TinyOS-based firmware. Recently, the wireless smart sensor network has drawn significant attention for applications in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Wavelet entropy is considered to be a damagesensitive signature that can be obtained both at different spatial locations and time stations to indicate changes in dynamic responses of structures. Compared to metrics based on the Fourier Transform, metrics based on wavelets require much simpler mathematics, with no complex numbers. Thus wavelet-based SHM methods would be easier to embed on motes. Wavelets can have other (mathematical) advantages when the structures are complex and the dynamic signals are non-stationary. Particularly, use of the relative wavelet entropy (RWE) has been extensively explored for use in damage detection using wireless smart sensors. First, sensor validation tests have been conducted using wireless and wired sensors. To verify an off-line time synchronization technique and the feasibility of using acceleration data from wireless sensors, modal identifications have been conducted using the ERA technique. Finally, the wavelet entropy based damage detection method has been demonstrated using Imote2 wireless smart sensors.

Yun, Gun-Jin; Lee, Soon-Gie; Carletta, Joan; Nagayama, Tomonori

2009-03-01

478

Adaptation of Mesoscale Weather Models to Local Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methodologies have been developed for (1) configuring mesoscale numerical weather-prediction models for execution on high-performance computer workstations to make short-range weather forecasts for the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and (2) evaluating the performances of the models as configured. These methodologies have been implemented as part of a continuing effort to improve weather forecasting in support of operations of the U.S. space program. The models, methodologies, and results of the evaluations also have potential value for commercial users who could benefit from tailoring their operations and/or marketing strategies based on accurate predictions of local weather. More specifically, the purpose of developing the methodologies for configuring the models to run on computers at KSC and CCAFS is to provide accurate forecasts of winds, temperature, and such specific thunderstorm-related phenomena as lightning and precipitation. The purpose of developing the evaluation methodologies is to maximize the utility of the models by providing users with assessments of the capabilities and limitations of the models. The models used in this effort thus far include the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS), the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Eta Model ( Eta for short). The configuration of the MASS and RAMS is designed to run the models at very high spatial resolution and incorporate local data to resolve fine-scale weather features. Model preprocessors were modified to incorporate surface, ship, buoy, and rawinsonde data as well as data from local wind towers, wind profilers, and conventional or Doppler radars. The overall evaluation of the MASS, Eta, and RAMS was designed to assess the utility of these mesoscale models for satisfying the weather-forecasting needs of the U.S. space program. The evaluation methodology includes objective and subjective verification methodologies. Objective (e.g., statistical) verification of point forecasts is a stringent measure of model performance, but when used alone, it is not usually sufficient for quantifying the value of the overall contribution of the model to the weather-forecasting process. This is especially true for mesoscale models with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution that may be capable of predicting meteorologically consistent, though not necessarily accurate, fine-scale weather phenomena. Therefore, subjective (phenomenological) evaluation, focusing on selected case studies and specific weather features, such as sea breezes and precipitation, has been performed to help quantify the added value that cannot be inferred solely from objective evaluation.

Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dianic, Allan V.; Wheeler, Mark W.; Zack, John W.; Nutter, Paul A.

2003-01-01

479

A New Adaptive MAC Layer Protocol for Broadband Packet Wireless Networks in Harsh Fading and Interference Environments  

E-print Network

compute the weights needed by a base station's adaptive array processor or a space-time processor, thereby base to remote direction. Figure 1 depicts a base station with an array antenna. The array processor vehicles. Such a system could provide fixed point, pedes- trian and remote users with wireless access

Krishnamurthy, Srikanth

480

SWPC: Current Space Weather Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the NOAA/NWS Space Weather Prediction Center provides alerts and warnings to the nation and the world for disturbances that can affect people and equipment working in space and on Earth.

2004-01-12

481

Physical Weathering Concept Map Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students review and score a concept map for physical weathering using a grading rubric. They are then asked to reorganize or redraw the diagram to a form that you believe is appropriate to earn the highest score on the rubric.

Mcconnell, David

482

Space Weathering Processes on Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like the Moon, Mercury has no atmosphere to protect it from the harsh space environment and therefore it is expected that it will incur the effects of space weathering. These weathering processes are capable of both creating regolith and altering its optical properties. However, there are many important differences between the environments of Mercury and the Moon. These environmental differences will almost certainly affect the weathering processes as well as the products of those processes. It should be possible to observe the effects of these differences in Vis/NIR spectra of the type expected to be returned by MESSENGER. More importantly, understanding these weathering processes and their consequences is essential for evaluating the spectral data returned from MESSENGER and other missions in order to determine the mineralogy and the iron content of the Mercurian surface. Theoretical and experimental work has been undertaken in order to better understand these consequences.

Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.

2002-01-01

483

Practical Weathering for Geology Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and data management of an activity to study weathering by increasing the rate of mineral dissolution in a microwave oven is described. Data analysis in terms of parabolic and first-order kinetics is discussed. (CW)

Hodder, A. Peter

1990-01-01

484

Honeycomb Weathering of Limestone Formations  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Honeycomb weathering of sandstone located on the shores of Puget Sound occurs when expanding salt crystals break fragments of rock, creating a small hole that becomes larger as the process repeats itself over time....

485

Exercising Safely in Hot Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... older adults and people with health problems. Being hot for too long can cause hyperthermia—a heat- ... those who want to be active when it’s hot outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s ...

486

Dealing with Cold Weather Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Dealing With Cold Weather Injuries Safety precautions can prevent serious problems during ... clothing should be removed and replaced with warm, dry clothes or blankets. People with hypothermia should also ...

487

Evaluating climate models: Should we use weather or climate observations?  

SciTech Connect

Calling the numerical models that we use for simulations of climate change 'climate models' is a bit of a misnomer. These 'general circulation models' (GCMs, AKA global climate models) and their cousins the 'regional climate models' (RCMs) are actually physically-based weather simulators. That is, these models simulate, either globally or locally, daily weather patterns in response to some change in forcing or boundary condition. These simulated weather patterns are then aggregated into climate statistics, very much as we aggregate observations into 'real climate statistics'. Traditionally, the output of GCMs has been evaluated using climate statistics, as opposed to their ability to simulate realistic daily weather observations. At the coarse global scale this may be a reasonable approach, however, as RCM's downscale to increasingly higher resolutions, the conjunction between weather and climate becomes more problematic. We present results from a series of present-day climate simulations using the WRF ARW for domains that cover North America, much of Latin America, and South Asia. The basic domains are at a 12 km resolution, but several inner domains at 4 km have also been simulated. These include regions of complex topography in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Sri Lanka, as well as a region of low topography and fairly homogeneous land surface type (the U.S. Great Plains). Model evaluations are performed using standard climate analyses (e.g., reanalyses; NCDC data) but also using time series of daily station observations. Preliminary results suggest little difference in the assessment of long-term mean quantities, but the variability on seasonal and interannual timescales is better described. Furthermore, the value-added by using daily weather observations as an evaluation tool increases with the model resolution.

Oglesby, Robert J [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL

2009-12-01

488

International Space Station: Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In November 1998, Zarya was launched into space, ushering in the era of the International Space Station (featured in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This month, the docking of the Zvezda Service Module marks the beginning of yet another phase -- in which Zvezda will serve as living quarters to the first ever resident crew (Expedition One), scheduled to arrive at the International Space Station in early November. This site from NASA provides updated information on the International Space Station, including recent news, planned missions, and a virtual tour of the (yet-to-be-completed) station.

489

Fault Tolerance for Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Wireless communcations and technology have estab- lished themselves as a ubiquitous facet of daily life. Mobile users have grown to depend on wireless technology in small portable computers, satellite communications, and wireless networks [1] establishing a need for wireless communications to operate in a robust and reliable manner. As part of a semester research effort, the topic of fault-tolerance for

Kevin M. Somervill

490

Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 3 Units: Money and Banking, Weather, The Hospital Emergency Room, and Let's Go to Town].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four curriculum units for the third grade level focus on: (1) weather station jobs and the weather prediction system; (2) hospital emergency room workers and the room's function; (3) bank workers and the banking industry; and (4) various urban workers. Behavioral objectives linking the units focus on increasing students' awareness of and…

Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

491

Sorghum head-bugs and grain molds in West and Central Africa: II . Relationships between weather, head-bug and mold damage on sorghum grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional Sorghum Head-Bug and Grain Mold Trial was conducted in 1996 and 1997 by WCASRN in, respectively, 15 and 13 research stations in ten west and central African countries. Empirical relationships between weather factors and head-bug damage on the one hand, and between weather factors and grain mold damage on the other hand, were examined using the “Window” computer

A Ratnadass; D. R Butler; P. S Marley; R Bandyopadhyay; D. E Hess; I Akintayo

2003-01-01

492

Using XBee transducers for wireless data collection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes how to use XBee transducers to create small and lightweight wireless sensors, which send data to a base station for collection and analysis. Data collection is limited to 10-bit accuracy by the XBee hardware. Depending on the type of XBee used, up to six data channels can be transmitted over a range of up to 15 miles. We describe the technical details of the process using the low-power version of the XBee transducer and a three-axis accelerometer chip.

Ayars, Eric; Lai, Estella

2010-07-01

493

Development of high speed Ethernet-based wireless access system (EWA) for the 5 GHz band  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the high-speed Ethernet-based wireless access system (EWA) as a prototype of the IEEE 802.11 TGa standard. EWA consists of stations (STAs) connected to user's PC and access points (APs) connected to Ethernet. The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme is one of the most promising techniques for high data rate wireless access systems in severe propagation environments

Masataka Iizuka; Tetsu Sakata; Masato Mizoguchi; Takeo Ichikawa; Hitoshi Takanashi; Masahiro Morikura

1999-01-01

494

Development of a global fire weather database for 1980-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily, gridded FWI System calculations from 1980-2012. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research, and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code (DC) calculations from the gridded datasets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different over the tropics for strictly MERRA-based calculations. This dataset can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

2014-10-01

495