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1

How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. Methods Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried

Vonthanak Saphonn; Leng Bun Hor; Sun Penh Ly; Samrith Chhuon; Tobi Saidelb; Roger Detelsc

2

Health screening - women - ages 40 - 64  

MedlinePLUS

Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 - 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Yearly exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 - 64; Women’s health - ages 40 - 64; Preventive care - women - ages 40 - ...

3

Health screening - women - ages 18 - 39  

MedlinePLUS

Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 - 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Yearly exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 - 39; Women's health - ages 18 - 39; Preventive care - women - ages 18 - ...

4

Health screening - women - over age 65  

MedlinePLUS

Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

5

Aging women with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

2003-01-01

6

Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

Saucier, Maggi G.

2004-01-01

7

Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo) were determined for females (aged 15–49 years) resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown). Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95% CI) was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1), peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1) and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.4–10.9). Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.2–11.1), accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR), 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05), self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15), and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82); external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.79–3.75). Conclusion HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment in the area from 2004. Women's age, external migration status and HIV-positive status were significantly associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:24360403

Nabukalu, Dorean; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Herbst, Kobus; Newell, Marie-Louise

2013-01-01

8

Missing Women: Age and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative to developed countries and some parts of the developing world, most notably sub?Saharan Africa, there are far fewer women than men in India and China. It has been argued that as many as a 100 million women could be missing. The possibility of gender bias at birth and the mistreatment of young girls are widely regarded as key explanations.

SIWAN ANDERSON; DEBRAJ RAY

2010-01-01

9

Attempted Suicide in Reproductive Age Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we described the frequency of attempted suicide among women of reproductive age (10 to 49 years) in a General University Hospital in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil (conducted 2005). Relevant comorbidities associated with the suicide attempt were calculated. Secondary data were obtained through the hospital's records where attempted suicides were reported. Findings revealed 132 attempted suicides; most women took

Flavia Azevedo Gomes; Beverley OBrien; Ana Marcia Spano Nakano

2009-01-01

10

Work Related Injury among Aging Women  

PubMed Central

This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

2013-01-01

11

Aging and reproductive potential in women.  

PubMed Central

Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

1998-01-01

12

Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23256530

2012-01-01

13

Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43  

Cancer.gov

Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Toronto, Canada (2006) lawrence.paszat@ices.on.ca Selection criteria All women age 40 – 43 resident in Ontario on January 1, 1995 - OHIP (medicare)

14

The Minnesota Women Healthy Aging Project.  

PubMed

The Minnesota Women Healthy Aging Project is an effort to understand how the brain changes with age and why some brains are more resilient than others. Using a unique methodology, researchers are evaluating the brain status of a number of women by taking multiple, multimodal measurements and relating those measures to cognitive abilities, language skills, and genetic information. The goal is to create a comprehensive databank that will provide information by which to characterize brain status, assess changes over time, and associate them with genomic makeup, cognitive function, and language ability. The project was initiated in 2010 and is being conducted through the University of Minnesota and the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System. This article describes the project, which is the first of its kind, and its progress thus far. PMID:22355914

Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

2012-01-01

15

Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (?12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (?43%) than in rural children (?24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru. PMID:24643049

Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

2014-01-01

16

Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study  

PubMed Central

Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27?957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100?000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

2013-01-01

17

Sexuality in Women of Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Women of childbearing age have health-care needs related to sexuality. The health-care needs that are most obvious are the need for contraception and the need for the prevention and treatment of vaginal and sexually transmitted infections. Although providers may have questions related to sexual activity, sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual satisfaction, and intimate partner violence on patient history forms, they often offer little discussion on issues related to sexuality unless the patient raises the issues. Women's sexuality is intensely personal and individual. Changes may occur in sexuality during pregnancy or as a response to infertility. These changes may be physical or emotional. During her prepregnancy and prenatal care, a woman may meet with a range of health-care providers, including childbirth educators, lactation consultants, nurses, midwives, and physicians. It is within the scope of practice of each of these clinicians to address sexuality concerns, validate women's feelings, and provide suggestions of modifications in sexual practices to meet women's needs for sexual expression within the range of activities that are safe and acceptable.

Lewis, Judith A.; Black, Jennifer J.

2006-01-01

18

[The prevalence of anemia among children and women of reproductive age in Kazakhstan and basis of its prevention].  

PubMed

Results of the study on the prevalence of anemia among women of reproductive age and children, residing in the various regions of Kazakhstan, are presented in the article. Representational sampling which takes into account the divisional principle of medical service of children population in each of the 14th areas, Astana and Almaty cities has been implemented. Research involved participation of 1303 women at the age of 15-49 years, and of 1318 children, 353 (26.8%) of whom were in the age of 6 up to 23 months, and 985 (73.2%) were in the age range of 24-59 months. 89 women were pregnant, which constituted 6.8%. The average hemoglobin level in the blood of pregnant women was 11.1 +/- 1.6 g/dL, which was significantly lower compared to that of non-pregnant women, for whom the figure was 12.1 +/- 1.6 g/dL. The average level of hemoglobin in the blood of children in the age range of 6-23 months was 10.7 +/- 1.4 g/dL, and was significantly lower than that of children in the age range of 24-59 months, for whom the figure was, in average, 11.5 +/- 1.4 g/dL (p < 0.05). The rate of prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women was 43.8%, among non-pregnant women--39.0%, among children aged 6-59 months--35.2%. It was found that the prevalence of anemia was significantly higher in children aged 6-23 months (53.3%) compared with children aged 24-59 months (28.8%). As for degree of severity of anemia, mild form prevailed in all of the examined groups: children--53.6%, pregnant women--51.2% and non-pregnant--77.2%. Moderate anemia was mostly diagnosed in children in the age range of 6 to 23 months and in pregnant women (50.5 and 43.6% relatively). Comprehensive program of prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia among children and women includes food fortification, supplementation of target groups with iron preparation and folic acid, food diversification, monitoring and evaluation of program execution, as well as training of medical students and medical staff with policies and strategies of struggle against iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:24640161

Smagulova, I E; Sharmanov, T Sh; Balgimekov, Sh A

2013-01-01

19

Predictors of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies among women of childbearing age in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background While unintended pregnancies pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of families globally, characteristics of Tanzanian women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. This analysis identifies factors associated with unintended pregnancies—both mistimed and unwanted—in three rural districts of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2,183 random households was conducted in three Tanzanian districts of Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga in 2011 to assess women’s health behavior and service utilization patterns. These households produced 3,127 women age 15+?years from which 2,199 gravid women aged 15–49 were selected for the current analysis. Unintended pregnancies were identified as either mistimed (wanted later) or unwanted (not wanted at all). Correlates of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies were identified through Chi-squared tests to assess associations and multinomial logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results Mean age of the participants was 32.1 years. While 54.1% of the participants reported that their most recent pregnancy was intended, 32.5% indicated their most recent pregnancy as mistimed and 13.4% as unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (<20 years), and single marital status were significant predictors of both mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Lack of inter-partner communication about family planning increased the risk of mistimed pregnancy significantly, and multi-gravidity was shown to significantly increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Conclusions About one half of women in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania conceive unintentionally. Women, especially the most vulnerable should be empowered to avoid pregnancy at their own will and discretion. PMID:25102924

2014-01-01

20

Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.  

PubMed

The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%. PMID:24283176

Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

2013-01-01

21

Many Women of Childbearing Age Take Narcotic Painkillers: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Many Women of Childbearing Age Take Narcotic Painkillers: CDC If they become pregnant, birth defects ... 2015) Thursday, January 22, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Pain Relievers Pregnancy and Medicines Women's Health THURSDAY, Jan. 22, ...

22

Attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: a study of rural women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Predictors of rural women's attitudes in Nigeria toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using a random sample of rural women (n = 3911) aged 15-49 years from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Findings were suggestive of social, religious, and cultural influences in the women's attitudes towards IPV. Women resident in the three northern regions, the South South region, Muslim women, women with low levels of education and low household wealth were more likely to tolerate IPV. This is reflective of the socio-economic disadvantages they face, as well as the cultural and religious restrictions imposed on these women. PMID:18842071

Antai, Diddy E; Antai, Justina B

2008-01-01

23

What is a healthy weight for middle aged women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between body mass index (BMI) and selected indicators of health and well-being and to suggest a healthy weight range (based on BMI) for middle aged Australian women.DESIGN: Population based longitudinal study (cross-sectional baseline data).SUBJECTS: 13 431 women aged 45–49 y who participated in the baseline survey for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health.RESULTS: Forty-eight percent

WJ Brown; AJ Dobson; G Mishra

1998-01-01

24

Determinants of Institutional Delivery Among Women of Childbearing Age in Rural Haiti.  

PubMed

Institutional delivery is an important factor associated with reduced maternal mortality rate (MMR). MMR in Haiti is high (350 per 100,000) and institutional delivery is low-just over 25 % of women delivered at a health facility in 2010. There also exists substantial rural-urban disparity in delivery with more hospital deliveries in urban than in rural areas. We aimed to study the prevalence and determinants of institutional delivery in a sample of women of childbearing age in rural Haiti. The study took place in Fond des Blancs and Villa, as part of a baseline assessment undertaken prior to implementation of a maternal, child health, nutrition, and water and sanitation program. From October to November 2011, women 15-49 years old (N = 575) were selected using a cross-sectional two-stage sampling strategy. We used descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with institutional delivery. The prevalence of institutional delivery was 45.4 %; a rate higher than the national average of 25 %. In adjusted analyses, correlates of institutional delivery were younger maternal age (25 years and younger) (OR 1.82; CI 1.15, 2.90; P = 0.0112), antenatal care receipt (OR 3.70; CI 1.84, 7.43; P = 0.0003) and those who were poor according to our poverty index score classification (OR 2.04; CI 1.13, 3.69; P = 0.0187). This study shows that increased hospital delivery is likely explained by accessibility to antenatal care. Programs that improve access to antenatal care, with concurrent efforts to address structural inequalities that drive socio-economic deprivation, are likely critical to increasing institutional delivery. PMID:25418752

Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Khan, Maria R; Striley, Catherine W; Boldon, Ellen; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Saint-Fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Clermont, Miliane

2014-11-25

25

Gynecology and Sexuality in Middle-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sweden and other Western societies, the number of women above the age of 40 is increasing and health and well-being of middle-aged women is an increasing matter of concern. This study examkes menstrual histories, gynecological operations, urinary incontinence, and reproductive functions in a representative sample of middle-aged women, as well as the frequent of climacteric symptoms and how to

Anita Hagstad

1988-01-01

26

Apparel Needs of Aging and\\/or Disabled Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an examination of the apparel needs of aging women. Through the use of data from a focus group of medical caregivers and the results of a design class which worked in the area of providing apparel appropriate to the needs of this population; apparel related problems encountered by aging women are identified. Specific design solutions are suggested

Myrna B. Garner; Vickie L. Douglas

1992-01-01

27

Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

2010-01-01

28

Epidemiology of substance use in reproductive-age women.  

PubMed

A significant number of women of reproductive age in the United States use addictive substances. In 2012 more than 50% reported current use of alcohol, 20% used tobacco products, and approximately 13% used other drugs. Among women, use of these substances is associated with several significant medical, psychiatric, and social consequences, and the course of illness may progress more rapidly in women than in men. The prevalence of substance use and evidence of accelerated illness progression in women highlight the importance of universal substance use screening in women in primary care settings. PMID:24845483

McHugh, R Kathryn; Wigderson, Sara; Greenfield, Shelly F

2014-06-01

29

Disability, physical activity, and muscle strength in older women: The women's health and aging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study associations of motor disability, physical activity, and muscle strength in older women, in particular to investigate whether model of spiraling decrease is expressed in the data.Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from the base-line measurements of The Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS).Setting: Participants' homes.Participants: A total of 1,002 disabled women aged 65 years and older living in

Taina Rantanen; Jack M. Guralnik; Ritva Sakari-Rantala; Suzanne Leveille; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Shari Ling; Linda P. Fried

1999-01-01

30

10 CFR 15.49 - Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and the Government. 15.49 Section 15.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Compromise...release. (1) The debtor is released from further non-tax liability on the compromised debt in consideration of payment in...

2011-01-01

31

10 CFR 15.49 - Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and the Government. 15.49 Section 15.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Compromise...release. (1) The debtor is released from further non-tax liability on the compromised debt in consideration of payment in...

2010-01-01

32

10 CFR 15.49 - Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and the Government. 15.49 Section 15.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Compromise...release. (1) The debtor is released from further non-tax liability on the compromised debt in consideration of payment in...

2013-01-01

33

10 CFR 15.49 - Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and the Government. 15.49 Section 15.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Compromise...release. (1) The debtor is released from further non-tax liability on the compromised debt in consideration of payment in...

2014-01-01

34

10 CFR 15.49 - Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and the Government. 15.49 Section 15.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Compromise...release. (1) The debtor is released from further non-tax liability on the compromised debt in consideration of payment in...

2012-01-01

35

Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in the country. PMID:24917067

2014-01-01

36

Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next

D. M. Eddy; V. Hasselblad; W. McGivney; W. Hendee

1988-01-01

37

Women's Strength Training. Lifting the Limits of Aging?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strength training is considered a male activity, but physicians are recommending it to women who want to keep their musculoskeletal systems strong and flexible as they age. This article discusses goals and problems of strength training for women and suggests it as an adjunct to cardiovascular fitness exercises. (SM)

Cinque, Chris

1990-01-01

38

Person-Environment Interventions With Aging Depressed Women in Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rationale for psychosocial micro and macro interventions for the prevention and treatment of depression in aging women is conceptually based upon empirical research. The investigator's person-environment incongruence model of depression, applied to a study of 50 depressed and 50 non-depressed white women for the purpose of exploring possible…

Wetzel, Janice Wood

39

Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women  

PubMed Central

The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?2(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G. Maria; Koenig, Sara S. K.; McCulle, Stacey L.; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O.; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Davis, Catherine C.; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.

2011-01-01

40

Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women.  

PubMed

The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?(2)(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G Maria; Koenig, Sara S K; McCulle, Stacey L; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O; Brotman, Rebecca M; Davis, Catherine C; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J

2011-03-15

41

Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

42

Factors associated with intimate partner violence against women in Serbia: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study aimed to identify factors associated with intimate partner violence against women living in Belgrade, Serbia.MethodA cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted in Belgrade as part of the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, using a standard questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1456 women aged 15–49 years. Data used in this study were from

Bosiljka Djikanovic; Henrica A F M Jansen; Stanislava Otasevic

2010-01-01

43

Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 release. The thromboxane A2 pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The “Timing Hypothesis,” which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

2012-01-01

44

Domestic Violence and Chronic Malnutrition among Women and Children in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence has harmful physical and psychological health correlates, but there is little evidence regarding a relation between domestic violence and malnutrition. To investigate this relation, the authors analyzed data from 69,072 women aged 15-49 years and 14,552 children aged 12-35 months in the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Physical domestic violence victimization was self-reported by the women. Aspects

Leland K. Ackerson; S. V. Subramanian

2008-01-01

45

Age at Menopause and Its Main Predictors among Iranian Women  

PubMed Central

Background Since time of menopause is influenced by a variety of racial, environmental, and physiological factors, determining age at natural menopause and its main indicators seems to be necessary. The present study attempted to determine average age at menopause and its main predictors among Iranian women. Materials and Methods This descriptive-analytic study was carried out on 400 postmenopausal women aged 43 to 65 years attending the health centers in Hamadan, Hamadan Province, Iran, during 2013. Due to potential effects of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) on age of menopause, we considered two groups of women with and without OCP use using cluster sampling method. Data were collected through individual interviews at the health centers. Results The findings showed significant univariate relationships between age at menopause with some baseline variables including mother’s age at menopause (p<0.001), mother and spouse with high educational level (p<0.001), passive cigarette smoking (p<0.001), weekly physical activity (p<0.001), and high family income (p<001). Adversely, smoking was associated with early menopause. Conclusion The postmenopausal women doing intense weekly physical activity, having mothers with late menopause, having higher monthly income, and experiencing later-age pregnancy are likely to reach menopause later than their contemporaries, while smokers have an early menopause. PMID:25379155

Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Nazari, Mansour

2014-01-01

46

Pubic bone age estimation in adult women.  

PubMed

In recent years, numerous physical anthropologists have pointed out the need for regional standards for estimating age in various world populations. While investigating aging methods for East European populations, dramatic changes were noted in the pubic symphyseal morphology and structure of older adult female individuals. These changes were not captured in the typically used pubic symphysis aging methods. This paper defines and tests the need for a new phase, phase VII, that follows the Suchey-Brooks phase VI. In addition, Suchey-Brooks phases V and VI are redefined. Phase definitions, decision-making rules, and comparison graphics for the new method are presented. Balkan (n = 85) and Eastern Tennessee (n = 104) samples, totaling 189 individuals, were used in the analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients between four observers and a control seriation were strong, indicating ease of replicability between investigators. No statistically significant intra-observer error was detected. Summary statistics show that individuals in phase V were on average in the early 50s, while individuals in phase VI were in their mid 50s to mid 60s, and individuals in phase VII were in their mid 70s. Since linear regression models tend to under-age the elderly and over-age the young, transition analysis, using an unrestricted cumulative probit model, was undertaken to evaluate the phases and to produce point estimates for the ages-at-transition for the Balkan sample. The highest posterior density region point estimates with their associated upper and lower bounds can be used for predicting age for unknown forensic cases related to the Balkan sample. Further, the mean ages and standard deviations for phases V-VII for the Tennessee sample are presented for use in American forensic cases. PMID:18471199

Berg, Gregory E

2008-05-01

47

Determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with high fertility and fast population growth rate. It is also one of the countries with high maternal and child mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa Family planning is a crucial strategy to halt the fast population growth, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health (Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 15 to September 1, 2010 among married women aged 15–49 years in Debre Birhan District. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 851 study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for gathering data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. Results Modern contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married women was 46.9%. Injectable contraceptives were the most frequently used methods (62.9%), followed by intrauterine device (16.8%), pills (14%), norplant (4.3%), male condom (1.2%) and female sterilization (0.8%). Multiple logistic regression model revealed that the need for more children (AOR 9.27, 95% CI 5.43-15.84), husband approve (AOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.67-4.80), couple’s discussion about family planning issues (AOR 7.32, 95% CI 3.60-14.86). Similarly, monthly family income and number of living children were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion Modern contraceptive use was high in the district. Couple’s discussion and husband approval of contraceptives use were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Therefore, district health office and concerned stakeholders should focus on couples to encourage communication and male involvement for family planning. PMID:24490810

2014-01-01

48

College-Educated Women’s Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Age Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adulthood encompasses a large time span and includes a series of psychosocial challenges (E. H. Erikson, 1950). Five aspects of personality (identity certainty, confident power, concern with aging, generativity, and personal distress) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of college-educated women who at the time of data collection were young adults (age: M = 26 years), middle-aged adults (age: M

Alyssa N. Zucker; Joan M. Ostrove; Abigail J. Stewart

2002-01-01

49

Grannies, elders, and friends: aging aboriginal women in toronto.  

PubMed

Based on a research project in Toronto, Canada, this article highlights the strengths and resiliency of 12 female Aboriginal Elders and seniors as they age together. For these women, being actively involved in their families and the Aboriginal community gives them a solid grounding in who they are, what their roles are and how they contribute to the whole. Of particular significance is the support and friendship the women offer each other through their commonalities, activities, and sense of humor. PMID:25026198

Baskin, Cyndy; Davey, Caitlin J

2015-01-01

50

Measuring gender satisfaction among women aging with paralytic polio.  

PubMed

In this study we tested the Gendered Outcome Scale as a measure of gender satisfaction among 295 women aging with the disabling effects of paralytic polio. Principal components analysis, reliability analyses, and content validity were analyzed on the scale. The scale had a Cronbach's alpha of.90. Younger women had more gender satisfaction (r =.181, p <.01), and women who had greater disability had greater gender satisfaction. (r = -.127, p <.05). The results support that the scale is a valid and reliable measure for determing gender satisfaction. Further work is needed to test the scale in diversified samples. PMID:24180563

Walker, Janiece L; Harrison, Tracie C

2014-01-01

51

Psychological stress and reproductive aging among pre-menopausal women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Life history models suggest that biological preparation for current versus longer term reproduction is favored in environments of adversity. In this context, we present a model of reproductive aging in which environmental adversity is proposed to increase the number of growing follicles at the cost of hastening the depletion of the ovarian reserve over time. We evaluated this model by examining psychological stress in relation to reproductive aging indexed by antral follicle count (AFC), a marker of total ovarian reserve. We hypothesized that stress would be related to (i) higher AFC in younger women, reflecting greater reproductive readiness as well as (ii) greater AFC loss across women, reflecting more accelerated reproductive aging. METHODS In a multi-ethnic, community sample of 979 participants [ages 25–45 (mean (standard deviation) = 35.2 (5.5)); 27.5% Caucasian] in the Ovarian Aging study, an investigation of the correlates of reproductive aging, the interaction of age-x-stress was assessed in relation to AFC to determine whether AFC and AFC loss varied across women experiencing differing levels of stress. Stress was assessed by the perceived stress scale and AFC was assessed by summing the total number of antral follicles visible by transvaginal ultrasound. RESULTS In linear regression examining AFC as the dependent variable, covariates (race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, menarcheal age, hormone-containing medication for birth control, parity, cigarette smoking, bodymass index, waist-to-hip ratio) and age were entered on step 1, stress on step 2 and the interaction term (age-x-stress) on step 3. On step 3, significant main effects showed that older age was related to lower AFC (b = ?0.882, P = 0.000) and greater stress was related to higher AFC (b = 0.545, P = 0.005). Follow-up analyses showed that the main effect of stress on AFC was present in the younger women only. A significant interaction term (b = ?0.036, P = 0.031) showed the relationship between age and AFC varied as function of stress. When the sample was divided into tertiles of stress, the average follicle loss was ?0.781, ?0.842 and ?0.994 follicles/year in the low-, mid- and high-stress groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Psychological stress was related to higher AFC among younger women and greater AFC decline across women, suggesting that greater stress may enhance reproductive readiness in the short term at the cost of accelerating reproductive aging in the long term. Findings are preliminary, however, due to the cross-sectional nature of the current study. PMID:22767452

Bleil, M.E.; Adler, N.E.; Pasch, L.A.; Sternfeld, B.; Gregorich, S.E.; Rosen, M.P.; Cedars, M.I.

2012-01-01

52

Charcot's Women: Bodies of Knowledge at the Interface of Aging Studies and Women's Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jean-Martin Charcot's Clinical Lectures on the Diseases of Old Age is recognized as a pioneering, nineteenth-century scientific text on old age. Less acknowledged in gerontology are the elderly women of Paris's Salpêtrière Hospital who were Charcot's research subjects. Looking at the feminist research on Charcot, hysteria, and the history of the Salpêtrière, and critically examining Charcot's text in light of

Stephen Katz

1997-01-01

53

Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.  

PubMed

With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

2012-01-01

54

Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2008-01-01

55

Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age

Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

2009-01-01

56

Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women

Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

2006-01-01

57

Sphincter tears in primiparous women: is age a factor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anal sphincter tears during vaginal delivery may result in serious sequelae. We examined whether younger primiparous patients\\u000a were at increased risk for sphincter tears during vaginal delivery. Data from an obstetric automated record were analyzed.\\u000a Primiparous women delivering term infants (n?=?5,937) were included to test for an association between age and sphincter tear rates. Three age groups were considered:\\u000a young

C. Bryce Bowling; Thomas L. Wheeler II; Kimberly A. Gerten; Victoria R. Chapman; Kathryn L. Burgio; Holly E. Richter

2009-01-01

58

[Risk factors of urogenital chlamydiosis in women of reproductive age].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the risk factors of urogenital chlamydiosis in women of reproductive age. 489 women in the ages of 18-49 years have been questioned and investigated. 268 (55.4%) of them had urogenital chlamydiosis. The control group was formed with 214 women without chlamydial infection. For the assessment of risk factors the odds ratio was calculated. 85.7% of patients were urban citizens with the following education levels: 55.6% of them held high school diplomas and 28.2% had university degrees. The results show that the risk factors of urogenital chlamydiosis are: age <30; presence of more than one sexual partner; more than 2-3 episodes of past pelvic inflammatory diseases and sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis), presence of following sexually transmitted infections: bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis. The assessment of risk factors could be useful for elaborating the screening programs of urogenital chlamydiosis in women of reproductive age. In case of systematic assessment of risk factors probability for prediction dynamics of urogenital chlamydiosis is increased. This could be used as a basis for the chlamydial infection control program. PMID:17077475

Arustamian, K K

2006-10-01

59

Folate Intake and Supplement use in Women of Childbearing Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate intake by dietary intake and supplementation before conception and in the first six weeks of pregnancy protects against the occurrence of birth defects such as neural-tube defects in infants. Data collected in the 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were analyzed to determine folate intake and supplement use in women of childbearing age (11–50 years old). We

N. Sinichi; G. E. Gates

1998-01-01

60

Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality.

Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

2014-01-01

61

Deaths among young, single women in 2000-2001 in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories.  

PubMed

A study in 2000-2001 of causes of death of women of reproductive age (15-49) in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories, found that 154 of the 411 deceased women aged 15-49 with known marital status were single. Death notification forms for reported deaths were analysed and verbal autopsies carried out, where possible, with relatives of the deceased women. We found important differences in the age at death and causes of death among the single and married women, which can be attributed to the disadvantaged social status of single women in Palestinian society, exacerbated by the current unstable political situation. 41% of the deceased single women were under 25 years of age at death compared to 8% of the married women. The proportion of violent deaths and suicides among the single women was almost twice as high as among the married women, mainly in those below age 25. The single women were also more likely to die from medical conditions which indicated that they faced barriers to accessing health care. The fieldwork was conducted at the height of the Intifada and the Israeli military response, with heavy restrictions on mobility, limiting the possibility of probing deeper into the circumstances surrounding sensitive deaths. More research into the socio-cultural context of single women in Palestine society is needed as a basis for intervention. PMID:18513613

Al-Adili, Nadim; Shaheen, Mohammad; Bergström, Staffan; Johansson, Annika

2008-05-01

62

DHEAS Levels and Mortality in Disabled Older Women: The Women’s Health and Aging Study I  

PubMed Central

Background Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is an endogenously produced sex steroid that has been hypothesized to have anti-aging effects. Low DHEAS levels are associated with mortality in older men, but the relationship between DHEAS levels and mortality in women is not clearly defined. Methods The relationship between serum DHEAS level and 5-year mortality was analyzed in a cohort of 539 disabled women aged 65–100 years enrolled in the Women’s Health and Aging Study I (WHAS I). Using Cox proportional hazard models, we calculated multivariate-adjusted mortality risks by DHEAS quartiles and by DHEAS continuously, allowing for a nonlinear relationship. We also examined cause-specific mortality. Results We found a U-shaped relationship between DHEAS level and mortality. After adjusting for multiple covariates, women in the top and bottom DHEAS quartiles had a more than 2-fold higher 5-year mortality than did those in the middle quartiles (hazard ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–3.98 for the top quartile and 2.05; 95% CI, 1.27–3.32 for the bottom quartile, each compared to the third quartile). Women with higher DHEAS levels tended to have greater cancer mortality, whereas those with lower DHEAS tended to have greater cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion Disabled older women with either low or high levels of DHEAS are at greater risk for death than are those with intermediate levels. More research is needed to determine if targeted dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation would provide clinical benefit to disabled older women. PMID:16960027

Cappola, Anne R.; Xue, Qian-Li; Walston, Jeremy D.; Leng, Sean X.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack; Fried, Linda P.

2009-01-01

63

Factors Associated With Nonuse of Condom for Sexually Active Botswana Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we investigate factors associated with nonuse of condoms for sexually active Botswana women. Nationally represented data, drawn from the 2004 Botswana AIDS Impact Survey, were used. A sample of 5,236 women aged 15–49 who have had sexual intercourse was considered for the analysis. Cross-tabulations were used to gain insights into the phenomena to be reinforced with logistic

Kakanyo Fani Dintwa

2009-01-01

64

Associations between socioeconomic status, aging and functionality among older women.  

PubMed

To assess if there is an association between socioeconomic status and quality of life, functional status and markers of aging, we studied 86 women aged 73 ± 7 years, who answered the WHO Qol Bref quality of life survey. Mini mental state examination, timed up and go test, 12 minutes' walk, hand grip and quadriceps strength, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), carotid intima-media thickness and telomere length in peripheral leukocytes were measured. Successful aging was defined as a walking speed, handgrip strength, appendicular lean body mass, timed up and go and minimental values above cutoff points for disability. Participants with successful aging had a higher quality of life score and were more likely to live in rich municipalities. There was a positive correlation between telomere length, right handgrip strength and total fat free mass. Therefore, there is an association between socioeconomic status, successful aging and quality of life. PMID:25288053

Barrera, Gladys; Cases, Tania; Bunout, Daniel; de la Maza, María Pía; Leiva, Laura; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel; Hirsch, Sandra

2014-10-01

65

The women's health questionnaire: A measure of mid-aged women's perceptions of their emotional and physical health  

Microsoft Academic Search

When assessing mood and general health of mid-aged women, the effects of hormonal changes (and resulting symptoms such as hot flushes) and changes associated with age (such as in sleep patterns) can confound the results. A questionnaire was specifically developed to measure subjective reports of emotional and physical well-being of women aged 45 to 65 years. The relationships between symptoms

Myra Hunter

1992-01-01

66

HIV Infection Among Internally Displaced Women and Women Residing in River Populations Along the Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a reproductive health assessment among women aged 15–49 years residing in an internally displaced persons (IDP)\\u000a camp and surrounding river populations in the Democratic Republic of Congo. After providing informed consent, participants\\u000a were administered a behavioral questionnaire on demographics, sexual risk, reproductive health behavior, and a history of\\u000a gender based violence. Participants provided a blood specimen for HIV and

Andrea A. Kim; Faustin Malele; Reinhard Kaiser; Nicaise Mama; Timothée Kinkela; Jean-Caurent Mantshumba; Michelle Hynes; Stacy De Jesus; Godefoid Musema; Patrick K. Kayembe; Karen Hawkins Reed; Theresa Diaz

2009-01-01

67

Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

Sanders, Beverly

68

Heart Rate Variability and Exercise in Aging Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Our group has shown a positive dose-response in maximal cardiorespiratory exercise capacity (VO2max) and heart rate variability (HRV) to 6 months of exercise training but no improvement in VO2max for women ?60 years. Here, we examine the HRV response to exercise training in postmenopausal women younger and older than 60 years. Methods We examined 365 sedentary, overweight, hypertensive, postmenopausal women randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups exercising at 50% (4?kcal/kg/week, [KKW]), 100% (8 KKW) and 150% (12 KKW) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Panel physical activity guidelines. Primary outcomes included time and frequency domain indices of HRV. Results Overall, our analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in parasympathetic tone (rMSSD and high frequency power) for both age strata at 8 KKW and 12 KKW. For rMSSD, the age-stratified responses were: control, <60 years, 0.20?ms, 95% confidence interval (CI)?2.40, 2.81; ?60 years, 0.07?ms, 95% CI ?3.64, 3.79; 4 KKW, <60 years, 3.67?ms, 95% CI 1.55, 5.79; ?60 years, 1.20?ms, 95% CI ?1.82, 4.22; 8-KKW, <60 years, 3.61?ms, 95% CI 0.88, 6.34; ?60 years, 5.75?ms, 95% CI 1.89, 9.61; and 12-KKW, <60 years, 5.07?ms, 95% CI 2.53, 7.60; ?60 years, 4.28?ms, 95% CI 0.42, 8.14. Conclusions VO2max and HRV are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Despite no improvement in VO2max, parasympathetic indices of HRV increased in women ?60 years. This is clinically important, as HRV has important CVD risk and neurovisceral implications beyond cardiorespiratory function. PMID:21967166

Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

2012-01-01

69

Stress and Coping Styles of Middle-Aged Women Changing Jobs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle aged women who have previously been occupied with family and community activities often experience increased role stress when they begin to invest more time and energy in their work roles. To compare coping styles women use to adjust to job changes, 71 women, aged 30-62, who had changed jobs within a 3-year interval were classified into…

Ackerman, Rosalie J.

70

Prospective Predictors of Mental Health after the Development of Breast Cancer in Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigated the prospective predictors of mental health after breast cancer diagnosis among mid-aged Australian women (initially aged 45-50 years). Two waves of data collected 2 years apart from a longitudinal population-based survey of 12,177 women identified a group of 63 women who reported onset of BC between T1 (T1) and Time 2…

Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

2005-01-01

71

Lipid profile and socioeconomic status in healthy middle aged women in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and full lipid profile in middle aged healthy women. PARTICIPANTS: These comprised 300 healthy Swedish women between 30 and 65 years who constitute the control group of the Stockholm female coronary risk study, a population based, case-control study of women with coronary heart disease (CHD). The age matched control group,

S P Wamala; A Wolk; K Schenck-Gustafsson; K Orth-Gomér

1997-01-01

72

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

2013-01-01

73

Knowledge and attitudes towards use of long acting reversible contraceptives among women of reproductive age in Lubaga division, Kampala district, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. Her high fertility is mainly attributed to the high unmet need for family planning. Use of Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) is low (13%) in Uganda yet they are the most cost-effective contraceptives. This study aimed to assess the reproductive aged women’s knowledge, attitudes, and factors associated with use of LARC. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 565 women (15–49 years) attending private and public health facilities in Lubaga division, Kampala district. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and factors associated with use of LARC; Intra-Uterine Devices, Implants and Injectables. The outcome variable was current use of LARC. A generalized linear regression model was run in STATA version12.0. Prevalence Risk Ratios for associations between current LARC use and independent factors were obtained and regarded significant at 95% CI with p?age (SD) and current use of LARC was 26.34 (5.35) and 31.7% respectively. Factors associated with current use of LARC were; previous use adj.PRR 2.89; (95% CI 2.29, 3.81), knowledge of implant administration site adj.PRR 1.83; (95% CI 1.17, 2.87), and perception that; male partner decisions positively influence their contraceptive choices adj.PRR 1.49; (95% CI 1.18, 1.88). Contrary, perception that LARC should be used by married women was negatively associated with use of LARC adj.PRR 0.63; (95% CI 0.44, 0.90). Conclusion Knowledge about site of administration, previous use of LARC and women’s attitude that male partners’ choice influence their contraceptive decisions were positively associated with current use of LARC. Contrary, the attitude that LARC was for married women was negatively associated with its use. This study suggests a need to strengthen client education about LARC to dispel possible myths and to consider integrating male partner’s decision making in contraceptive choices for women. PMID:24636154

2014-01-01

74

The Malignant Potential of Small Cystic Ovarian Tumors in Women over 50 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The aim of this study was to determine the risk of malignancy in cystic ovarian tumors <10 cm in diameter in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age.Methods.All cystic ovarian tumors detected by transvaginal sonography screening in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age were evaluated with respect to size and morphology. Histology was recorded on

C. L. Bailey; F. R. Ueland; G. L. Land; P. D. DePriest; H. H. Gallion; R. J. Kryscio; J. R. van Nagell

1998-01-01

75

Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness  

PubMed Central

Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception of Chinese and Caucasian faces. Résumé Objectifs Le vieillissement entraine des changements caractéristiques de l'apparence de la peau du visage. Parmi ces changements on distingue les éléments topographiques (relâchement de la peau et rides), les taches brunes et les cernes sur le contour de l'œil. Bien que ces modifications cutanées avec l'âge soient similaires pour les visages caucasiens et chinois; leur âge d'apparition et leur degré de sévérité varient entre ces deux populations. Il y a très peu d'informations disponibles liées à l'influence du vieillissement cutané sur la perception des visages féminins par les femmes chinoises. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer la contribution des différents signes de vieillissement à la perception de l'âge et d'attirance chez ces femmes. Methodes Des photos de visages de femmes caucasiennes et chinoises d'environ 60 ans ont été manipulées de façon à réduire séparément les signes suivants: (i) le relâchement de la peau et les rides, (ii) les taches brunes, et (iii) les cernes. Enfin, tous les signes ont été atténués ensemble (iv). Des participantes chinoises ont estimé, à partir de ces photos, l'écart d'âge entre la version originale et chaque version modifiée; elles ont également évalué l'attirance des visages originaux et modifiés. Resultats Les femmes chinoises ont jugé les visages chinois plus jeunes après correction des taches qu'après correction des rides/relâchement, alors que les visages caucasiens ont été perçus les plus jeunes après correction des rides/relâchement. Les femmes chinoises ont jugé que les visages avec correction des taches étaient les plus attirants quelle que soit l'origine du visage. La manipulation des cernes a entraîné un rajeunissement des 2 types de visages et les a rendus plus attirants, m

Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

2014-01-01

76

End of Life and Women Aging with a Disability  

PubMed Central

Abstract Approximately 21 million noninstitutionalized Americans with physical disabilities will ultimately face end-of-life [EOL] issues. Studies have documented disparate care and poorer outcomes for persons with preexisting disabilities who have life-limiting illnesses, which raises the question of how EOL experiences may differ for these individuals. The aim of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore how EOL issues might emerge within the life stories of women aging with functional disabilities. Interview data were obtained from a larger, ongoing ethnographic study focused on the creation of an explanatory model of health disparities of disablement in women with mobility impairment. Each participant was interviewed three to four times using a life-course perspective that captures life trajectories and transitions experienced over time. For this analysis, 41 interviews were selected from 20 participants who discussed issues related to death and dying. Content analysis of the data revealed five analytic categories: death as a signpost, impact of others' deaths, deaths that affected personal insights and choice, EOL possibilities, and a personal brush with death. EOL issues were manifested in a variety of ways that revealed both determination to remain as independent as possible within the context of declining functional ability and uncertainty regarding the future. PMID:22536990

Zolnierek, Cynthia; Harrison, Tracie; Walker, Janiece

2012-01-01

77

Understanding Women's Breast Screening Behaviour: A Study Carried out in South East London, with Women Aged 50-64 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To understand low uptake of breast cancer screening through exploring the personal reasoning underlying women's attendance or non-attendance, and identifying differences between those who attend and those who decline. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community and home environments of women eligible for breast screening aged

Barter-Godfrey, Sarah; Taket, Ann

2007-01-01

78

Designing a Community Study of Moderately to Severely Disabled Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This paper reports on the design of a community-based study focusing on the effects of prevalent and incident disease and other modifying influences, on changes in functioning among moderately and severely disabled elderly women over a 3-year period (the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS)). METHODS: An approach to conceptualizing and assessing disability which captured functional diffi- culty across

JUDITH D. KASPER; SAM SHAPIRO; JACK M. GURALNIK; KAREN J. BANDEEN-ROCHE; LINDA P. FRIED

79

Routine breast screening for women aged 65–69: results from evaluation of the demonstration sites  

PubMed Central

Routine programme data and specially designed surveys from 3 demonstration sites were analysed to determine the implications of extending the NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP), to include routine invitations for women up to 69 years. All women aged 65–69 and registered with GPs in these areas received routine invitations for breast screening along with those aged 50–64. Overall uptake was 71% in women aged 65–69 compared with 78% in younger women, but was ??90% in both groups who had previously attended within 5 years. Recall rates were lower for older women, but with a higher positive predictive value for cancer. The percentages of invasive cancer in different prognostic categories were similar in the 2 age groups. Older women took no longer to screen than younger women. The costs per woman invited or per woman screened were also similar to those for women aged 50–64, whilst the cost per cancer detected was some 34% lower in older women. Breast screening is as cost effective for women aged 65–69 as for those aged 50–64, with a higher cancer detection rate balancing shorter life expectancy. The proposed extension to the national programme will have considerable workforce implications for the NHSBSP and require additional resources. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11720462

Moss, S M; Brown, J; Garvican, L; Coleman, D A; Johns, L E; Blanks, R G; Rubin, G; Oswald, J; Page, A; Evans, A; Gamble, P; Wilson, R; Lee, L; Liston, J; Sturdy, L; Sutton, G; Wardman, G; Patnick, J; Winder, R

2001-01-01

80

Women's strategic responses to violence in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.?DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.?SETTING—León, Nicaragua.?PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.?MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.?CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.???Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011

Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H

2001-01-01

81

A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women’s Age Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory’s (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age with the youthful-ideal prototype for women presented in the media. The present study extended this research

Casey L. Augustus-Horvath; Tracy L. Tylka

2009-01-01

82

Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes among non-pregnant women of reproductive age in the United States, 1999-2010.  

PubMed

Undiagnosed diabetes has particularly harmful consequences among women of reproductive age. We assessed the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes among non-pregnant women of reproductive age. In our data 30 women had A1C?6.5 and 28 had FPG?126mg/dl values suggesting approximately 300,000 women of reproductive age nationwide may have undiagnosed diabetes. PMID:24216319

Razzaghi, Hilda; Marcinkevage, Jessica; Peterson, Cora

2015-02-01

83

Solitude in Old Age: Effects of Female Headship on Elderly Women's Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of demographic shifts and because of increasing rates of divorce and nonmarriage among women, it is anticipated that more women will live alone in coming decades. How these women will cope with others' demands for care and with their own need for care will be affected by their life-styles before they reach their old age. This article

Martha N. Ozawa

1993-01-01

84

The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

Roy, Carole

2005-01-01

85

Bridget of Sweden, margery kempe and women's Jerusalem pilgrimages in the middle ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes accounts of Jerusalem pilgrimage by two women, Bridget of Sweden and Margery Kempe. Analysis of the two accounts within the broader context of the place of Jerusalem pilgrimage in female spirituality, together with a brief survey of pilgrimage to Jerusalem by women in the Middle Ages, show the religious climate, which enabled women to undertake such journeys.

Sylvia Schein

1999-01-01

86

Stroke Incidence in Women under 60 Years of Age Related to Alcohol Intake and Smoking Habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: The association between alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of stroke amongst women remains unclear, especially in young women. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 45,449 Swedish women aged 30–50 years free of stroke and heart diseases at enrolment in 1991 and 1992. Information on drinking and smoking habits at enrolment was collected using a questionnaire. Incident

Ming Lu; Weimin Ye; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

2008-01-01

87

Determinants of modern family planning use among women of reproductive age in the Nkwanta district of Ghana: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background Average contraceptive prevalence rate in the Nkwanta district of Ghana was estimated to be 6.2% relative to the national average at the time, of 19%. While several efforts had been made to improve family planning in the country, the district still had very low use of modern family planning methods. This study sought to determine the factors that influenced modern family planning use in general and specifically, the factors that determined the consistently low use of modern family planning methods in the district. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Nkwanta district of Ghana to determine socio-economic, socio-cultural and service delivery factors influencing family planning usage. One hundred and thirty cases and 260 controls made up of women aged 15–49 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires. A logistic regression was fitted. Results Awareness and knowledge of modern family planning methods were high among cases and controls (over 90%). Lack of formal education among women, socio-cultural beliefs and spousal communication were found to influence modern family planning use. Furthermore, favourable opening hours of the facilities and distance to health facilities influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion While modern family planning seemed to be common knowledge among these women, actual use of such contraceptives was limited. There is need to improve use of modern family planning methods in the district. In addition to providing health facilities and consolidating close-to-client service initiatives in the district, policies directed towards improving modern family planning method use need to consider the influence of formal education. Promoting basic education, especially among females, will be a crucial step as the district is faced with high levels of school dropout and illiteracy rates. PMID:25117887

2014-01-01

88

Voices of Transformational Learning: Life Experiences of Women Aged Eighty and above in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research study examined the lived experiences and stories of dynamic women over 80 years of age. Their contribution to transformational and lifelong learning may offer a blueprint for baby boomers to age successfully. The exploration disclosed common patterns of the individual lives. The interviews revealed that the women were…

Morgan, Lorri A.

2010-01-01

89

Aging, women and health: From the pains of imprisonment to the pains of reintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine the ways in which older women's experiences of imprisonment, aging, and health impact their lives. Specifically, we focus on the community reintegration experiences of older women who have served long prison sentences, exploring the lasting effects of imprisonment and aging on their physical and mental health. Two separate Canadian studies of reintegration, consisting of interviews

Laura R. Shantz; Sylvie Frigon

2009-01-01

90

To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

Eriksen, Shelley J.

2012-01-01

91

Blood Pressure Responses During Walking In Water In Middle-aged And Elderly Women: 720  

Microsoft Academic Search

*** Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of physical activity in water from the perspective of blood pressure responses in middle?aged and elderly women for whom water exercise is recommended. Subjects comprised 22 middle? aged and elderly women who regularly go swimming or participate in water exercise in a sports club. A flowmill was used

Takeshi Ueda; Kazunari Ishihara; Tomoki Shono; Tetsuro Ogaki

2007-01-01

92

Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 days of Creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in college-aged women. Fifteen healthy college-aged women (mean ± SD = 22.3 ± 1.7 ...

Smith, Abbie E.; Walter, Ashley A.; Herda, Trent J.; Ryan, Eric D.; Moon, Jordan R.; Cramer, Joel T.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

2007-01-01

93

Images of powerful women in the age of ‘choice feminism’  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of scholars and journalists have argued that Western culture has become ‘sexualized’. Both women and men, they maintain, are highly sexualized in popular media. At the same time, scholars have examined the sexualization of women as part of a broader cultural ‘backlash’ against the gains of second-wave feminism and women's increasing power in society. We contribute to both

Erin Hatton; Mary Nell Trautner

2012-01-01

94

Effects of gender, anthropometric variables, and aging on the evolution of hip strength in men and women aged over 65  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gender differences in fall rates may partly explain the higher prevalence of fractures in elderly women than men, male bones may also be intrinsically stronger or suffer less structural degradation with age than those of women. We used hip structural analysis (HSA) to study gender differences in hip geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) as they evolved over time

Stephen Kaptoge; Nichola Dalzell; Nigel Loveridge; Thomas J Beck; Kay-Tee Khaw; Jonathan Reeve

2003-01-01

95

Why men age faster but reproduce longer than women: mTOR and evolutionary perspectives  

PubMed Central

Women live longer than men. Yet, it is believed that men do not age faster than women but simply are weaker at every age. In contrast, I discuss that men age faster. From evolutionary perspective, high accidental death rate in young males is compatible with fast aging. Mechanistically, hyper-activated mTOR (Target of Rapamycin) may render young males robust at the cost of accelerated aging. But if women age slower, why then is it women who have menopause? Some believe that menopause is programmed and purposeful (grandmother theory). In contrast, I discuss how menopause is not programmed but rather is an aimless continuation of the same program that initially starts reproduction at puberty. This quasi-program causes over-activation of female reproductive system, which is very vulnerable to over-activation. Mechanisms of aging and menopause are discussed. PMID:20519781

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

2010-01-01

96

[Morphology of the reproductive age women cervical epithelium under hypothyreosis].  

PubMed

The purpose of the investigation was to examine the morphological manifestations of hypothyreosis in the reproductive age women cervical mucosa. With clinically verified hypothyreosis in 1524 cases, 538 patients had a different variants of endocervical pathology, accounting for two major research groups: I - (n=259) operated by colloidal goiter treated by L-thyroxin during last 3 years, II - (n=279) with similar diagnosis, without replacement therapy within last 3 years. Therapeutic and diagnostic scrapings from cervix, as well as parallel samples of the operative removal thyroid gland (TG), after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and picrofuchsin by van Gieson were studied morphologically. The different variants of the cervical mucosa reaction from simple hyperplasia in treated group to adenomyosis with stratification of epithelium, and the tendency of sclerosis and atrophy in the group not receiving L-thyroxin were revealed. In all compared cases Spearmen correlation coefficient had high level of relevance (0,00003). We believe that the cervix changes are the consequence of the decrease of sensitivity to estrogen under the low level of T3 and T4 and increase TSH in plasma. Molecular atypia of endocervical cells clearly demon-strates cross-combination of two leading hormonal systems. PMID:23388537

Beruchashvili, M; Gogiashvili, L; Tsagareli, Z; Topuriya, Z

2013-01-01

97

Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:24327996

Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

98

Age differences in death anxiety among African-American women.  

PubMed

Samples of 83 younger and 52 older African-American women completed a death anxiety scale; the younger women had significantly higher scores on the total scale, principally on items dealing with pain, loss of bodily integrity, and decomposition. PMID:10079711

Thorson, J A; Powell, F C; Samuel, V T

1998-12-01

99

How can more women of childbearing age be encouraged to follow fish consumption recommendations?  

PubMed

Several studies show that most women do not consume enough fish during pregnancy (and afterward) to derive the maximum health benefits for themselves and their babies, according to the USDA guidelines. We engaged in a two-part study to better understand what might be done to encourage women of childbearing age to eat healthy fish-a mail survey of women who recently gave birth in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania, and six focus groups with women of childbearing age living in the Great Lakes region. Similar to other studies, we found that many women changed their behavior and consumed less fish during pregnancy than before. Most women reported receiving information, primarily during pregnancy, about the types of fish and how much fish to eat. As a result, increasing access to information during pregnancy likely would not result in increasing many women?s fish consumption. Based on our examination of factors influencing women to try to follow the recommendations, the strongest connection with trying to follow the recommendations was receiving enough information to decide and believing that eating fish was good for the baby. Focus group participants also reported that messages about the specific health benefits of fish consumption for their children were particularly influential. These findings suggest that refining messages through testing might be a valuable approach toward increasing women?s consumption of less-contaminated fish. PMID:25262080

Connelly, Nancy A; Lauber, T Bruce; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

2014-11-01

100

Menopause negatively impacts sexual lives of middle-aged Iranian women: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The study aimed to explore associations between sexual function, demographic variables, health and menopausal status among middle-aged Iranian women. Participants were 200 Iranian middle-aged women (40-65 years). All women completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Brief Profile of Female Sexual Function. Data were analyzed using a Pearson correlation statistical test, a one-way analysis of variance, an independent t test, and a linear regression analysis. Advanced age, lower education, and socioeconomic status were significantly correlated with the lower scores on the Female Sexual Function Index. Lower scores on the Female Sexual Function Index were associated with being retired; having a hysterectomy or oophorectomy; and presence of hot flashes, vaginal dryness, health problems, prescription drug use, and cold sweats. There were no significant associations between middle-aged women's sexual function and ethnicity, body mass index, alcohol consumption, severity of hot flashes, and hot flash frequency. Sexual desire was decreased or absent in 94.5% of the postmenopausal respondents. Our findings appear that sexual function is associated with sociodemographic characteristics of Iranian middle-aged women. Gender-sensitive counseling and medical services for aging Iranian women can improve the quality of women's sexual lives. PMID:24308863

Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Sheikhan, Fatemeh; Shamsalizadeh, Neda; Haghani, Hamid; Yousofnia Pasha, Yousof Reza; Killeen, Therese

2014-01-01

101

Aging enhances autonomic support of blood pressure in women.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in both acute and chronic blood pressure regulation in humans. The activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is positively associated with peripheral resistance, an important determinant of mean arterial pressure in men. In contrast, there is no association between sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral resistance in women before menopause, yet a positive association after menopause. We hypothesized that autonomic support of blood pressure is higher after menopause in women. We examined the effect of ganglionic blockade on arterial blood pressure and how this relates to baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity in 12 young (25±1 years) and 12 older postmenopausal (61±2 years) women. The women were studied before and during autonomic blockade using trimethaphan camsylate. At baseline, muscle sympathetic nerve activity burst frequency and burst incidence were higher in the older women (33±3 versus 15±1 bursts/min; 57±5 versus 25±2 bursts/100 heartbeats, respectively; P<0.05). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity bursts were abolished by trimethaphan within minutes. Older women had a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure (-29±2 versus -9±2 mm?Hg; P<0.01) and total peripheral resistance (-10±1 versus -5±1 mm?Hg/L per minute; P<0.01) during trimethaphan. Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity was associated with the decrease in mean arterial pressure during trimethaphan (r=-0.74; P<0.05). In summary, our results suggest that autonomic support of blood pressure is greater in older women compared with young women and that elevated sympathetic nerve activity in older women contributes importantly to the increased incidence of hypertension after menopause. PMID:24324040

Barnes, Jill N; Hart, Emma C; Curry, Timothy B; Nicholson, Wayne T; Eisenach, John H; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha; Joyner, Michael J

2014-02-01

102

PARENTAL LOSS AND EATING-RELATED COGNITIONS AND BEHAVIORS IN COLLEGE-AGE WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia Test–Revised (BULIT-R). ?Women who had experienced parental death scored significantly

MINNA R. BEAM; HEATHER L. SERVATY-SEIB; LAURA MATHEWS

2004-01-01

103

Modernization and status change among aged men and women.  

PubMed

This study investigates the differences between the relationship between elderly occupational status and modernization for men and women. Consonant with previous findings, it finds that economic development is associated with relative losses of elderly men in professional and technical occupations. Augmenting those findings, however, it finds an even stronger association between development and such losses for women. In accounting for the differences, several explanations are advanced and tested, using data from fifty-one nations. PMID:1302242

Clark, R

104

The Economic Legacy of Divorce and Separation for Women in Old Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or what the nature of this poverty is. Like any other group of older Canadians,…

McDonald, Lynn; Robb, A. Leslie

2004-01-01

105

Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

2004-01-01

106

Gonadal status in reproductive age women after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ovarian failure is a frequent complication occurring after haematopoietic stem cell transplantion (SCT), which is generally ascribed to radiation treatment and antiblastic alkylating agents. METHODS: Ovarian morphology and function were studied in reproductive age women 12-24 months after allogeneic SCT (n = 23) received from an HLA identical sibling, or autologous SCT (n = 22). Thirteen allo-transplanted women were

Libuse Tauchmanova; Carmine Selleri; Gennaro De Rosa; Mariarosaria Esposito; Francesco Orio Jr; Stefano Palomba; Giuseppe Bifulco; Carmine Nappi; Gaetano Lombardi; Bruno Rotoli; Annamaria Colao

107

Gender barriers to health promotion in middle-aged Iranian women.  

PubMed

This study explores the perceived socio-cultural factors that might be barriers to health-promoting behaviour in middle-aged women in the city of Yazd in Iran. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the barriers to a healthy lifestyle in middle-aged women. Interviews with women aged 40-60 were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using content analysis. The interviews focused on socio-cultural factors and five main themes emerged: (a) giving higher priority to non-health-related needs; (b) the dominance of the husband's will in the family; (c) preference of children's needs to own needs; (d) having to fulfil multiple responsibilities; and (e) low access to community resources for health promotion. The multiple responsibilities of family and work, patriarchal societal attitudes and lack of exercise facilities are barriers to health in middle-aged Iranian women. PMID:24176045

Enjezab, B; Farajzadegan, Z; Taleghani, F; Aflatoonian, A

2014-11-01

108

Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, such as bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination. Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%). A significant association was found between the disease and educational level, pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, stress, alcohol consumption, overweight, dental visit, and teeth brushing (P<0.05). Women who suffered periodontal disease showed deep PD, obvious BOP, and clinical attachment loss. Among this population, pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (P<0.001) after adjusting for age and stress. Conclusions: The periodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently. Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted, especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness. PMID:23463766

Wu, Yan-min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

2013-01-01

109

A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

Perez, Shireese Redmond

2011-01-01

110

Effect of declining renal function on bone density in aging women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The factors that are responsible for trabecular bone loss in aging women are not completely understood. To evaluate declining\\u000a renal function as a possible factor, we studied 19 Caucasian women (average age 67) who were from 6 to 41 years postmenopausal.\\u000a Trabecular bone density was quantitated by computerized tomography of the spine. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine\\u000a were normal in

James R. Buchanan; Cathleen A. Myers; Robert B. Greer

1988-01-01

111

Anti-Mullerian hormone serum concentrations in normoovulatory and anovulatory women of reproductive age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the number of\\u000a antral follicles as well as age and constitute an endocrine marker for\\u000a ovarian aging. In normogonadotropic anovulatory infertile women [World\\u000a Health Organization (WHO) class 2], the number of early antral follicles\\u000a is usually increased. To investigate whether AMH concentrations are\\u000a increased, serum levels in 128 WHO 2 women were compared with

J. S. E. Laven; J. A. Visser; A. P. N. Themmen; Jong de F. H; B. C. J. M. Fauser; A. G. M. G. J. Mulders

2004-01-01

112

Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and prevalence of age-related nuclear cataract in older women. Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study participants aged 50 y+, at 3 sites, who reported high (above the 78th percentile...

113

Does women’s age influence zona pellucida birefringence of metaphase ?? oocytes in in-vitro maturation program?  

PubMed Central

Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) is a promising treatment option for certain infertile women. Nowadays, with the aid of PolScope, it has become possible to evaluate zona pellucida (ZP) characteristics as a parameter of oocyte quality. Moreover, quality of oocytes can be influenced by many factors, such as patient’s age. The PolScope system is a non-invasive technique to assess birefringent structures such as the meiotic spindle and ZP in living oocytes. Objective: The aim was to determine the influence of the woman's age on ZP birefringence, a sign of oocyte quality, and morphology of in-vitro matured human oocytes using non-invasive polarized light (PolScope) microscopy. Materials and Methods: ZP birefringence and morphology were determined in 105 retrieved oocytes from 58 women undergoing ICSI in two age groups (?30 years and <30 years). The immature oocytes were selected and after IVM, the quality of metaphase ?? (MII) oocytes was assessed. The oocytes abnormalities were classified as intracytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic abnormalities. Results: Oocyte maturation rates were significantly reduced in ?30 year’s women (56%) in comparison with other age group (80.7%). In addition, the ZP birefringence was significantly higher in MII oocytes in the younger group compared with the older group (76.2% vs. 38.1%; p=0.00). Following morphologic assessment, the rates of oocytes with extracytoplasmic (p=0.02) and both abnormalities (extra- and intracytoplasmic) (p=0.01) were higher in aged versus the younger women. Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between advanced maternal age with decreased ZP birefringence and oocyte morphological quality in in-vitro matured human oocytes. PMID:24639703

Omidi, Marjan; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Nahangi, Hossein; Ashourzadeh, Sareh; Rahimipour, Marzieh

2013-01-01

114

Malaria prevention in Kenyan women of childbearing age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program is to reduce malaria incidence in Kenya. Malaria poses a large public health challenge in Kenya, and although public health efforts have traditionally been focused on treatment of infected patients, due to increased drug resistance and lack of drug-adherence, prevention strategies are needed. This program targets Kenyan women, the likely caretakers in the home, and

Dawn W Foster

2008-01-01

115

Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women.  

PubMed

Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959-1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I-III (1971-1994), and NHANES 1999-2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?-0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005-2008 it had reversed and was -0.33 years lower (95% CI?=?-0.54, -0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend?women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

Krieger, Nancy; Kiang, Mathew V; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Beckfield, Jason

2015-02-01

116

Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

1994-01-01

117

Achievement and Identity in College-Age vs. Adult Women Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between Fear of Success (FOS) and Identity Status. Two groups of women, regular college age (18-23) and adult (over 30) were interviewed and completed measures of FOS. The hypothesis that adult students would exhibit less FOS than their college age counterparts was confirmed. (DWH)

Freilino, Mary Kay; Hummel, Raymond

1985-01-01

118

Toward sustainable development: Implications for population aging and the wellbeing of elderly women in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attaining sustainable development has significant implications for population age structure, family structure and the wellbeing of elderly women. If one of the primary goals of sustainable development is reducing fertility to attain a population growth rate which can be supported by the Earth's resources, then working toward sustainable development will lead to an aging population. This demographic change coupled with

Jennifer C. Cornman

1996-01-01

119

A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age

Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

2009-01-01

120

Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women  

E-print Network

Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women predicts a trade-off between fitness benefits and costs of delaying age at first reproduction (AFR decades, raising a question of whether any fitness benefits accrued outweigh costs incurred

Lummaa, Virpi

121

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

122

Decline in muscle mass with age in women: A longitudinal study using an indirect measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle mass is known to decline with age, but only limited longitudinal data exist to quantify the rate of loss. Using 24-hour urine creatinine, corrected for the contribution of dietary meat intake, we assessed the change with age prospectively in 107 women who provided a minimum of 3 sets of measurements spanning an average interval of 11.9 years, centered around

K. Michael Davies; Robert P. Heaney; Karen Rafferty

2002-01-01

123

Phenotype of Frailty: Characterization in the Women's Health and Aging Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. ''Frailty'' is an adverse, primarily gerontologic, health condition regarded as frequent with aging and having severe consequences. Although clinicians claim that the extremes of frailty can be easily recognized, a standardized definition of frailty has proved elusive until recently. This article evaluates the cross-validity, criterion validity, and internal validity in the Women's Health and Aging Studies (WHAS) of a

Karen Bandeen-Roche; Qian-Li Xue; Luigi Ferrucci; Jeremy Walston; Jack M. Guralnik; Paulo Chaves; Scott L. Zeger; Linda P. Fried

2006-01-01

124

Determinants of hip axis length in women aged 10–89 years: A twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip axis length (HAL), a measure of femoral geometry, has been shown to predict hip fracture in white women over the age of 67 years, independently of bone mineral density at the femoral neck. A cross-sectional study of 304 pairs of female twins [176 monozygous (MZ) and 128 dizygous (DZ)], aged between 10 and 89 years, was performed to examine

L. Flicker; K. G. Faulkner; J. L. Hopper; R. M. Green; B. Kaymakci; C. A. Nowson; D. Young; J. D. Wark

1996-01-01

125

Well-being and occupational roles among middle-aged women.  

PubMed

One purpose of the present study is to explore the stability of the pattern of health/work and sickness absence among middle-aged women over a period of three years. This study tested two hypotheses: (a) that enduringly healthy working women would perceive more valued occupational roles and higher well-being than long-term sick-listed women; (b) that high levels of well-being at baseline would predict enduring health and occupational role value at a 3-year follow-up. Middle-aged women (n = 208) answered a postal survey with the Role checklist, a well-being scale and questions about work and sickness situation. The results showed that there was a considerable variability in the pattern of health/work and sickness absence. The variability was greatest among the women who were long-term sick-listed at baseline, and the internal drop out was great among them. The results showed that the enduringly healthy women experienced a more valued worker role and higher well-being than the long-term sick-listed women. Furthermore, high levels of well-being concerning health and work predicted enduring health in the studied sample, and high well-being concerning work was predictive of a valued worker role. Interventions that enable women to develop valuable worker and leisure roles, as well as harmony between different roles, may be important constituents of health promotion/rehabilitation programmes. PMID:15920309

Håkansson, Carita; Eklund, Mona; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Nerbrand, Christina; Samsioe, Göran; Nilsson, Peter M

2005-01-01

126

Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. Design/Methods 1690 participants (1196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Results Among HIV+ women, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with poorer cognitive performance evidenced by longer Trails A and Trails B and shorter SDMT completion times. An obese BMI (30 kg/m2 or higher) was related to better performance on Trails B and worse performance on the Stroop Interference test. Among HIV- women, an obese BMI was related to worse performance on the Stroop – Color naming test. Few and inconsistent associations were observed between WC, WHR and cognition. Conclusion Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection, common anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV infected women. PMID:24338243

Gustafson, Deborah R.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A.

2014-01-01

127

The relationship between malocclusion and menarcheal age, and its secular trend for Korean women  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to evaluate the mean age of menarche, its secular trend in Korean women, and the relationship between malocclusion and the rate of skeletal maturation, as defined by menarcheal age. Methods We retrospectively collected data on menarcheal age from 931 Korean women born during 1961 - 1997. Subjects were divided by the malocclusion type and birth-year decade into 3 and 4 groups, respectively. The mean menarcheal age for each group was determined, and one-way ANOVA was performed for intergroup comparison (p = 0.05). Two-way ANOVA was also performed to compare all the 12 subgroups (p = 0.05). Results The mean age of menarche was 12.82 years for Korean women born during 1961 - 1997. A distinct downward secular trend of menarcheal age was noticed (p < 0.05). For the birth-year decade 1961 - 1970, the Class III malocclusion group showed earlier onset of menarche than the other malocclusion groups (p < 0.05), but the other birth-year groups did not show any significant difference in the type of malocclusion (p > 0.05). Conclusions A positive secular trend towards earlier menarche exists among Korean women. Malocclusion does not show any significant relationship with the rate of skeletal maturation, as defined by menarcheal age. PMID:23112926

Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung

2012-01-01

128

Age is no barrier to wanting to look good: women on body image, age and advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Most fashion advertising in the UK uses and targets young, slim women (and\\/or men). The purpose of this paper research is to ask whether this approach is relevant and appropriate to older women, who make up a large and growing segment of the market, and who generally have more disposable income to spend on clothes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Adapted

Selina Akram

2007-01-01

129

Childbearing, reproductive control, aging women, and health care: the projected ethical debates.  

PubMed

Of the many social trends that will have an impact on the ethical debates surrounding women's health in the 21st century, three are discussed: the shifting demographics of age and race in the United States; the fundamental change in the health care system to a community-based, preventive model; and the equal voice of women in the government. Using these trends as a framework, this article hypothesizes the ethical debates that will occur in the 21st century concerning such issues as fetal viability, abortion, contraception, infertility, genetic engineering, aggressive versus nonaggressive treatment of aging women, scarce resources, menopause, organ transplants, sexism in biomedical research, fertility in postmenopausal women, birthing centers, fetal surgery, and fetal therapy. PMID:8201457

Freda, M C

1994-02-01

130

Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women  

PubMed Central

Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020

Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

2010-01-01

131

Effects of ovarian hormones and aging on respiratory sinus arrhythmia and breathing patterns in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of ovarian hormones and aging on breathing pattern [pulmonary minute ventilation $$ {\\\\left( {\\\\dot {V}_{{{\\\\rm E}}}} \\\\right)} $$], tidal volume (V\\u000a T), breathing frequency (F\\u000a b), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in women. Recordings of $$ \\\\dot {V}_{{{\\\\rm E}}}$$ and electrocardiogram (ECG) were obtained from 23 healthy women (10 premenopausal, 13 postmenopausal) under resting, isocapnic\\u000a hypoxia

Marlen Lüthi; Daniel E. Roach; Andrew E. Beaudin; Chantel T. Debert; Robert S. Sheldon; Marc J. Poulin

2008-01-01

132

Breast and Cervix Cancer Screening among Multiethnic Women: Role of Age, Health, and Source of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between age, health status, access to care, and breast and cervical cancer screening among multiethnic elderly and nonelderly women.Methods.A structured telephone survey of a quota sample of 1,420 New York City women from four Hispanic groups (Columbian, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Ecuadorian) and three black groups (U.S., Caribbean, and Haitian) was

Jeanne S. Mandelblatt; Karen Gold; Ann S. O'Malley; Kathryn Taylor; Kathleen Cagney; John S. Hopkins; Jon Kerner

1999-01-01

133

Serum leptin concentration in women: effect of age, obesity, and estrogen administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare serum leptin levels in normally cycling reproductive females (20–35 years old) with those in age-matched males, in women who were receiving oral contraceptives, and in older (postmenopausal) women (50–65 years old) who were or who were not receiving hormone replacement therapy.Design: Case-control study.Setting: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center-Amarillo, or the Exercise Physiology

V. Daniel Castracane; Robert R Kraemer; Mary Ann Franken; Ginger R Kraemer; Terry Gimpel

1998-01-01

134

Policy and Practice Implications from the Lives of Aging International Migrant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a study of the cross-cultural experiences of older women who came to the US as adults from Asia or the Caribbean we can learn about how to formulate appropriate services and legislation. Women in Pennsylvania aged 60-89 were interviewed. They sometimes experienced con.ict between their original cultures and their lives in the US. Their stories included material about initial

Fiona M. Patterson

2004-01-01

135

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are widely used in the general population. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials of CAM therapies for obstetrical and gynecologic conditions and presents therapies that are likely to be used by women of reproductive age and by pregnant women. Data Sources: Sources included English-language papers in MEDLINE 1966-2002 and AMED (1985-2000) and the

Adriane Fugh-Bermana; Fredi Kronenberg

2003-01-01

136

Antimüllerian Hormone as a Predictor of Natural Fecundability in Women Aged 30–42 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective To generate estimates of the association between markers of ovarian aging and natural fertility in a community sample at risk for ovarian aging. Methods Women aged 30–44 years with no history of infertility who had been trying to conceive for less than 3 months provided early-follicular phase serum and urine (N=100). Subsequently, these women kept a diary to record menstrual bleeding and intercourse and conducted standardized pregnancy testing for up to 6 months. Serum was analyzed for estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antimüllerian hormone, and inhibin B. Urine was analyzed for FSH and estrone 3-glucuronide (E13G). Diary data on menstrual cycle day and patterns of intercourse were used to calculate day-specific fecundability ratios. Results Sixty-three percent of subjects conceived within 6 months. After adjusting for age, 18 women (18%) with serum antimüllerian hormone levels of 0.7 ng/ml or less had significantly reduced fecundability given intercourse on a fertile day compared to women with higher antimüllerian hormone levels (fecundability ratio 0.38, 95% CI:0.08–0.91). The day-specific fecundability for women with early-follicular phase serum FSH values greater than 10 mIU/ml compared to women with lower FSH levels was also reduced, though nonsignificantly (11% of women affected; fecundability ratio 0.44, 95% CI: 0.08, 1.10). The association with urinary FSH was weaker (27% women affected; fecundability ratio 0.61, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.26), and the associations for the other markers were weaker still. Conclusions Early-follicular phase antimüllerian hormone appears to be associated with natural fertility in the general population. PMID:21422850

Steiner, Anne Z.; Herring, Amy H.; Kesner, James S.; Meadows, Juliana W.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Hoberman, Steven; Baird, Donna D.

2013-01-01

137

Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

138

Older women's fears of violence: the need for interventions that enable active ageing.  

PubMed

Women's fear of violence can impact negatively on their active participation in life. An ageing survey conducted with 2,620 Australian respondents aged 50 to 90 years examined aspects of work, learning, social, spiritual and emotional status, health, vision, home, life events, demographics, and asked an open-ended question about what being actively engaged in life meant. Ordinal regression was carried out on two dependent variables: wanting and needing to learn to discourage violence. Analyses found that as women's age increased, those on lower incomes were more likely than others to say they needed to learn how to discourage violence against them. This paper investigates the variables associated with the findings-transport, finances, news media, home safety, and reduced social interactions. Results highlight the importance of understanding women's fear in the context of personal and social issues, and the need to provide learning opportunities to improve safety and social engagement. PMID:18032260

Barnett, Karen; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Smith, Dianne; Heffernan, Maree

2007-01-01

139

Domestic injuries and suicide among women of reproductive age in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to map out some epidemiological aspects of intentional and unintentional injuries among Iranian women of reproductive age using a national registry. Methods Injury data were taken from a national-based injury surveillance system over the period 2000–2002. The study population comprised 31.5% of the population of Iran. Results Of all the 307,064 domestic injuries reported during the years 2000–2002, about 152,600 cases (49.7%) involved women. About half of these women (76,474) were in the reproductive age group. The majority (42.7%) of injuries among women of reproductive age were burn wounds followed by lacerations in 32.6%. Eighty-five percent of suicide cases were poisonings, followed by 11% for suicides by burning. However, 45.2% of burn suicides were fatal, compared with a 0.89% fatality rate for poisonings. Of all female suicide victims, 1029 died, 174 victims became disabled, while the remainder improved or were undergoing therapy when reported. Conclusion Injuries, especially burns, are a major public health problem for women of reproductive age. PMID:22807643

Fardiazar, Zahra; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Reza

2012-01-01

140

Increased working memory-related brain activity in middle-aged women with cognitive complaints.  

PubMed

Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests might be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50-60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as the threshold, 12 women were categorized as cognitive complainers (CC) and 11 were noncomplainers (NC). All subjects then took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning session during which they completed a visual-verbal N-back test of working memory. Results showed no difference in working memory performance between CC and NC groups. However, the CC group showed greater activation relative to the NC group in a broad network involved in working memory including the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9 and 10), the precuneus (BA 7), and the cingulate gyrus (BA 24 and 32). The CC group recruited additional regions of the working memory network compared with the NC group as the working memory load and difficulty of the task increased. This study showed brain activation differences during working memory performance in a middle-aged group of postmenopausal women with subjective cognitive complaints but without objective cognitive deficit. These findings suggest that subjective cognitive complaints in postmenopausal women might be associated with increased cortical activity during effort-demanding cognitive tasks. PMID:23036586

Dumas, Julie A; Kutz, Amanda M; McDonald, Brenna C; Naylor, Magdalena R; Pfaff, Ashley C; Saykin, Andrew J; Newhouse, Paul A

2013-04-01

141

Lipid profile and socioeconomic status in healthy middle aged women in Sweden.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and full lipid profile in middle aged healthy women. PARTICIPANTS: These comprised 300 healthy Swedish women between 30 and 65 years who constitute the control group of the Stockholm female coronary risk study, a population based, case-control study of women with coronary heart disease (CHD). The age matched control group, drawn from the census register of greater Stockholm, was representative of healthy Swedish women aged 30-65 years. Five measures of SES were used; educational level, occupation, decision latitude at work, annual income, and size of house or apartment. MAIN RESULTS: Swedish women with low decision latitude at work, low income, low educational level, blue collar jobs, and who were living in small houses or apartments had an unhealthy lipid profile, suggesting an increased risk of CHD. Part of this social gradient in lipids was explained by an unhealthy lifestyle, but the lipid gradients associated with decision latitude at work and annual income were independent of these factors. Decision latitude, educational level, and annual income had the strongest associations with lipid profile. These associations were independent of age, menopausal status, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption, obesity, excess abdominal fat, and unhealthy dietary habits. Of the lipid variables, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels were most consistently associated with low SES. CONCLUSIONS: Decision latitude at work was the strongest SES predictor of HDL levels in healthy middle aged Swedish women, after simultaneous adjustment for other SES measures, age, and all lifestyle factors in the multivariable regression model. PMID:9328547

Wamala, S P; Wolk, A; Schenck-Gustafsson, K; Orth-Gomér, K

1997-01-01

142

The achievement motive in high school and college age women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental procedure for producing an increase in achievement motivation and a measurable difference in the mean n Achievement score obtained from thematic apperception stories in male college students is shown to produce an increase in the mean n Achievement score of younger high school age male Ss  The same experimental procedure does not produce an increase in the mean

Joseph Veroff; Sue Wilcox; John W. Atkinson

1953-01-01

143

Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

2004-06-01

144

Lumbar Spine Flexion and Extension Extremes of Motion in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups  

PubMed Central

Study Design Observational. Objective To provide normative values of lumbar flexion and extension for women of different age and racial groups. Summary of Background Data Spinal range of motion (ROM) is one of the AMA Guides criteria used to estimate level of impairment and subsequent compensation entitlement. Studies show that spinal ROM varies with age, gender, and possibly race/ethnicity, but adequate normative values for different age and racial/ethnic groups do not exist. Methods A cohort of free-living women was recruited for the Women's Injury Study at The Cooper Institute in Dallas. Originally, 917 women between the ages of 20 and 83 (M = 52 ± 13) underwent an orthopedic examination including lumbar spine flexion and extension measurement using an electronic inclinometer. Measurements were taken in the fully extended and flexed positions, respectively. This removes the influence of initial resting posture and is termed “extreme of motion” (EOM) as opposed to ROM. Age and racial groups were compared using a 2-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed with post hoc tests. Results Means (±SD) were calculated for racial (white, N = 619, African-American, N = 147) and age groups (young, 20–39 years, n = 126; middle, 40–59 years, n = 412; older, ?60 years, n = 228). Lumbar extension for African-American women (60.1°) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than for white women (52.6°), but flexion was not different (15.2° and 17.0°), respectively. Extension EOM for the young group (61.6°) was greater (P < 0.05) than the middle (56.6°) and older (50.8°) groups. Extension difference between the middle and older groups was significant. Flexion EOM for the young group (20.1°) was greater (P < 0.05) than the middle (15.2°) and older (12.8°) groups. The difference in flexion between the middle and older groups was not significant. Conclusion Normative values of lumbar extension are different for white and African-American women. Values for lumbar flexion and extension are different between age groups. Different criteria should be used to estimate impairment level in women of different racial and age groups. PMID:20072092

Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Fleisher, Lisa Ann; Borman, Nicole; Morrow, James R.; Frierson, Georita M.

2009-01-01

145

Antidepressant Use, Depressive Symptoms, and Incident Frailty in Women Aged 65 and Older from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the associations of depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, and duration of use with incident frailty three years later in nonfrail women ? age 65. Design Secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), a prospective cohort study. Setting WHI-OS was conducted in 40 U.S. clinical centers. Participants Women aged 65-79, not frail at baseline. Measurements Antidepressant use was assessed through medication container inspection at baseline. We created four groups according to baseline use and Burnam depression screen (range 0-1, 0.06 cut-off): antidepressant non-users without depressive symptoms (referent group), antidepressant non-users with depressive symptoms, antidepressant users without depressive symptoms, and antidepressant users with depressive symptoms. Frailty components included slowness/weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintended weight loss, ascertained through self-report and physical measurements at baseline and year 3. Results Among 27652 women at baseline, 4.9% (n=1350) were antidepressant users and 6.5% (n=1794) were categorized depressed. At year 3, 14.9% (n=4125) were frail. All groups had an increased risk for incident frailty compared to the referent group. Odds ratios ranged from 1.73 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.41-2.12) among non-depressed antidepressant users to 3.63 among depressed antidepressant users (95% CI = 2.37-5.55). All durations of use were associated with incident frailty (<1 year OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.41-2.68; 1 to 3 years OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.45-2.74; > 3 years OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.20-2.14). Conclusion In older adult women, depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were associated with frailty after 3 years follow-up. PMID:22568404

Lakey, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Gray, Shelly L.; Borson, Soo; Williams, Carla D.; Calhoun, Darren; Goveas, Joseph S.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Ockene, Judith K.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Coday, Mace; Rosal, Milagros C.; Woods, Nancy F.

2012-01-01

146

Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

147

A Population-Based Study of Factors Associated With Nocturia in Reproductive-Aged Turkish Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of nocturia according to the International Continence Society (ICS) definition in Turkish women and to determine the associated risk factors and the correlation of other voiding symptoms with nocturia. Materials and Methods A prospective epidemiological study was carried out by use of self-reported questionnaires in 4,250 reproductive-aged women from January 2013 to May 2013. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form and a questionnaire developed by the researchers according to the ICS were administered to define nocturia and other lower urinary tract symptoms. Other physical, reproductive, and health characteristics were also recorded concurrently. Results Overall, 1,636 women were included in the final analyses. The women had an average age of 34.4±5.26 years. The overall prevalence of nocturia was 34.7% (567 of 1,636 women). Women with nocturia were older (p<0.001), had a higher body mass index (p=0.026), and had more children (p<0.001). Nocturia occurred more frequently in women with a history of nocturnal enuresis (p<0.001). Three or more pregnancies, 3 or more deliveries, and age >40 years were significant risk factors for nocturia. We also found that other lower urinary tract symptoms correlated significantly (p<0.001) with nocturia. Conclusions Although the prevalence of nocturia is higher with increasing age, younger adults are also affected. Nocturia may cause sleep disorders, mood disturbances, reduced quality of life, and distractibility. Thus, even if one void nightly causes a patient to experience bother, nocturia should be queried about and should be treated if necessary according to the cause of the disease. PMID:24955226

Telli, Onur; Özgür, Berat Cem; Doluo?lu, Ömer Gökhan; Ero?lu, Muzaffer; Bozkurt, Selen

2014-01-01

148

Trends in induced abortion among Nordic women aged 40-44 years  

PubMed Central

Objectives Women aged 40-44 years in 2005 ought to have been subjected to much more influence on attitudes and knowledge on contraceptive methods during their fertile period than women who were in the same age span in 1975 when the abortion laws were introduced. Material From official statistics, the rates of induced abortion and birth rates in women aged 40-44 years were collected for Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland for each five-year during the period 1975-2005. Results With the exception of Sweden all other studied Scandinavian countries have lowered their abortion rates since 1975 (p < 0.001) and reduced the proportion of induced abortions in relation to birth rate (p < 0.001). In 2005 these countries also had lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden in the age group 40-44 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is a significant change in rates of induced abortion in women aged 40-44 years in Finland, Norway, Denmark, and at status quo in Sweden. 40-44 years in Finland, Norway, Denmark, and at status quo in Sweden. This indicates that family planning programs works well in the Nordic countries. The differences found may be assumed to possible diverging focus on attitudes or ethical considerations. PMID:21846348

2011-01-01

149

Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.  

PubMed

Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed. PMID:21793691

Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

2011-10-01

150

Knowledge and use of folic acid in women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects. As approximately 50% of pregnancies are unintended, women of reproductive age should be aware of the importance of folic acid. We reviewed the existing literature on these women's knowledge of folic acid and neural tube defects. Databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, and Health Reference Center Academic. We used terms such as "folic acid knowledge" and "folic acid awareness" to search articles published from 1998 to 2010. Awareness of the benefits of folic acid before conception and during pregnancy was low, although knowledge levels were associated with education and household income. Women who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals, magazines and newspapers, and radio and television as common sources of information. Effective knowledge translation is needed to ensure that women are informed about the benefits of folic acid during the reproductive years. This knowledge will allow them to make informed decisions about folic acid consumption. Health care professionals play an influential role in promoting folic acid knowledge among women of childbearing age. Lower levels of knowledge among women with lower levels of education and/or household income must be addressed. PMID:22146120

Fehr, Kelly R S; Fehr, Kelsey D H; Protudjer, Jennifer Lisa Penner

2011-01-01

151

Age-stratified 5-year risks of cervical precancer among women with enrollment and newly detected HPV infection.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with "newly detected" HPV infections at their second screening visit. Women (57,899, 6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p?Women with enrollment versus newly detected HPV infection had higher 5-year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% versus 3.9%, (p?age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% versus 7.4% (p = 0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% versus 3.5% (p = 0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65. PMID:25136967

Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K

2015-04-01

152

Understanding women's attitudes towards wife beating in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with attitudes towards wife beating among women in partnerships in Zimbabwe in order to assist public health practitioners in preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: A nationally representative survey of 5907 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was conducted in Zimbabwe. Women were asked about their attitudes towards wife beating in five situations. The survey included sociodemographic characteristics, partnership characteristics, and household decision-making. FINDINGS: Over half of all women in Zimbabwe (53%) believed that wife beating was justified in at least one of the five situations. Respondents were most likely to find wife beating justified if a wife argued with her spouse (36%), neglected her children (33%), or went out without telling her spouse (30%). Among women in partnerships (n=3077), younger age, living in rural areas, lower household wealth, schooling at a lower level than secondary, and lower occupational status were associated with women reporting that wife beating is justified. Women who reported that they make household decisions jointly with their partners were less likely to say that wife beating is justified. CONCLUSIONS: Zimbabwe has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly because the younger generation of women is significantly more likely to believe that wife beating is justified compared with older women. Given the current social and political climate in Zimbabwe, finding means to negotiate rather than settle conflict through violence is essential from the household level to the national level. PMID:12973642

Hindin, Michelle J.

2003-01-01

153

The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

2012-01-01

154

Age of smoking initiation and risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between time of smoking initiation and both the independent and joint effects of active and passive tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women. Methods Data from two large population-based case-control studies conducted among Ontario women aged 25–75 years were combined for analysis (n = 12,768). Results Women who had ever smoked and were exposed to passive smoke had a significant increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01–1.25). A significant increased risk was also observed among women who initiated smoking: at age 26 or older (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.03–1.55); more than five years from menarche (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.12–1.42); and, after their first live birth (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.02–1.52). Conclusion The results suggest that women who initiate smoking at an older age are at an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:19222858

Young, Erin; Leatherdale, Scott; Sloan, Margaret; Kreiger, Nancy; Barisic, Andriana

2009-01-01

155

Evaluation of GWAS-identified genetic variants for age at menarche among Chinese women  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Do genetic polymorphisms which influence age at menarche in women of European ancestry also influence women of Chinese ancestry? SUMMARY ANSWER Many genetic variants influencing age at menarche in European populations appear to impact Chinese populations in a similar manner. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS Prior genome-wide association studies have uncovered 42 SNPs associated with age at menarche in European populations. This study is the first to demonstrate that many of the genetic determinants of age at menarche are shared between European and Chinese women. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING We evaluated 37 of 42 SNPs identified as associated with age at menarche from a recent, large meta-analysis, consisting primarily of women of European ancestry, in a population of 6929 Chinese women from Shanghai, China. We also constructed weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) combining the number of effect variants for all 37 SNPs, or only the SNPs associated with age at menarche among our study population, to evaluate their joint influence on age at menarche. MAIN RESULTS For 32 of the 37 evaluated variants, the direction of the allele associations were the same between women of European ancestry and women of Chinese ancestry (P = 3.71 × 10?6, binomial sign test); 9 of these were statistically significant. Subjects in the highest quintile of GRSs began menarche ?5 months later than those in the lowest quintile. BIAS, LIMITATIONS AND GENERALIZABILITY TO OTHER POPULATIONS Age at menarche was obtained by self-report, which can be subject to recall errors. The current analysis was restricted to loci which met or approached GWAS significance thresholds and did not evaluate loci which may act predominantly or exclusively in the Chinese population. The smaller sample size for our meta-analysis compared with meta-analyses conducted in European populations reduced the power to detect significant results. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This study was supported, in part, by grants from US National Institutes of Health (grants R01CA124558, R01CA090899, R01CA070867; R01CA064277 and R01CA092585 and UL1 RR024975), Ingram professorship funds and Allen Foundation funds. There are no competing interests to declare. PMID:23406970

Delahanty, R.J.; Beeghly-Fadiel, A.; Long, J.R.; Gao, Y.T.; Lu, W.; Xiang, Y.B.; Zheng, Y.; Ji, B.T.; Wen, W.Q.; Cai, Q.Y.; Zheng, W.; Shu, X.O.

2013-01-01

156

Variation in the Incidence of Uterine Leiomyoma Among Premenopausal Women by Age and Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify the incidence of uterine leiomyoma confirmed by hysterectomy, ultrasound, or pelvic examination according to age and race among premenopausal women.Methods: From September 1989 through May 1993, 95,061 premenopausal nurses age 25–44 with intact uteri and no history of uterine leiomyoma were followed to determine incidence rates of uterine leiomyoma. The self-reported diagnosis was confirmed in 93% of

Lynn M Marshall; Donna Spiegelman; Robert L Barbieri; Marlene B Goldman; JoAnn E Manson; Graham A Colditz; Walter C Willett; David J Hunter

1997-01-01

157

The Multiple Sources of Women's Aging Anxiety and Their Relationship With Psychological Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors examine associations of three sources of women's aging anxiety—declining attractiveness, health, and fertility—with social contexts of their lives, including locations in systems of inequality, connections to institutions, relationships, and health. They also explore links between aging anxieties and distress. Method: Employing data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States conducted in 1995-1996, the

Anne E. Barrett; Cheryl Robbins

2008-01-01

158

Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.  

PubMed Central

The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

Minkowski, W L

1992-01-01

159

Dating violence affects women regardless of their age, but teens are particularly vulnerable. In fact, women age 16 to 24 experience the highest per capita rate of intimate partner violence.i  

E-print Network

Dating violence affects women regardless of their age, but teens are particularly vulnerable. In fact, women age 16 to 24 experience the highest per capita rate of intimate partner violence.i Teen dating violence is prevalent and teens may also be exposed to domestic violence in their homes. Teens

Derisi, Joseph

160

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A BODY MASS REDUCTION PROGRAM IN OBESE WOMEN IN PERIMENOPAUSAL AND MENOPAUSAL AGE COMPARED WITH THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SUCH A PROGRAM IN YOUNGER (18-44 YEARS OF AGE) WOMEN LIVING IN POLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective: The aim of the work was: to compare the effectiveness of body mass reducing program in women of perimenopausal (and menopausal) age with the effectiveness of such a program when it was applied to women aged 18-44 years. Methods: The paper deals with observation study of the group of obese patients recruited and treated in Bialystok's Clinical Center

161

Syphilis in women of reproductive age in Mogadishu, Somalia: serological survey.  

PubMed Central

In Mogadishu, Somalia 223 women of childbearing age, including prostitutes, were tested for serum markers for syphilis by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA). Sera reactive in either of these tests were tested for IgM antibodies by solid phase haemadsorption assay (SPHA). Three per cent of sera from 67 pregnant women and none of those from 71 educated women gave positive results that were confirmed with the TPHA. In contrast, 58% of sera from 85 prostitutes were confirmed as being positive, 26% of which were SPHA positive, which indicated active syphilis. The proportion of TPHA positive sera increased with age among the prostitutes. As venereal syphilis is highly prevalent in prostitutes in Mogadishu, a strategy of intervention based on screening followed by treatment seems to be indispensable. PMID:3500110

Jama, H; Hederstedt, B; Osman, S; Omar, K; Isse, A; Bygdeman, S

1987-01-01

162

Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

2014-12-01

163

Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.  

PubMed

Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 ?g/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ? 10 ?g/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (? 10 ?g/g) in 2012. PMID:24789525

de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

2014-07-01

164

Perioperative and postoperative morbidity after sacrocolpopexy according to age in Korean women  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to compare perioperative and postoperative morbidity of older and younger women undergoing sacrocolpopexy (SCP). Methods A retrospective study included 271 patients who underwent laparotomic SCP for symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse from November 2008 to June 2013 at our institution. By the review of medical records, perioperative and postoperative data including the length of the surgery, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion, the length of hospital stay, wound complications and febrile morbidity were collected. In addition, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, or neurological adverse events were retrieved. The need for an indwelling urinary catheter or performance of clean intermittent self-catheterization, mesh erosion rate and the number of days required for each were included in the postoperative outcomes. For the outcome variable analyzed in this study, the patients was dichomotized into women aged 65 and older and those younger than 65. Results One hundred and thirty-five (49.8%) patients were younger than 65 and 136 (50.2%) were aged 65 and older. Older women had higher body mass index, vaginal parity and prior surgery for hysterectomy than younger women (P<0.05). And older women had higher baseline comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiac disease (P<0.05), and their American society of Anesthesiologist class was higher (P<0.001). In the perioperative and postoperative complication, older group showed no differences in most of the operation-related complication rates, but gastrointestinal complication rate. Also, mesh erosion rate was not found to be significantly different between the two groups at the last visit. Conclusion Older women undergoing laparotomic SCP have similar perioperative and postoperative morbidities as younger women, suggesting surgeons can counsel older and younger women similarly in terms of operative risks. PMID:25629020

Oh, Sumin; Shin, So Hyun; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Maria

2015-01-01

165

Effect of Age, Initiator Status, and Infidelity on Women's Divorce Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divorce can be a distressing event. Although various studies have been conducted to better understand this phenomenon, little research has focused on the combined effect of age, initiator status, spousal infidelity, and spiritual well-being on divorce adjustment. To determine the effect of these 4 factors on divorce adjustment, 133 divorced women in the United States were surveyed using the Fisher

Lisa M. Steiner; Elisabeth C. Suarez; James N. Sells; Scott D. Wykes

2011-01-01

166

Is There a Double Standard of Aging?: Older Men and Women and Ageism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine current young adults' attitudes toward older adults and to explore, more specifically, whether they hold different attitudes towards older men and women. An additional objective was to examine the association between knowledge of aging processes and attitudes towards older adults. A total of 405 (210 males, 195…

Narayan, Chetna

2008-01-01

167

HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AGE 35-64 IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY  

E-print Network

percentage of African American adults and children are living in poverty in the County,2 one would expectHEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AGE 35-64 IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY A BLACK PAPER and economic status of African Americans in the County is among the worst in the United States1 and a high

Sibille, Etienne

168

Recent increase of breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Geneva Cancer Registry, we found that in 2002–2004, breast cancer incidence in women aged 25–39 years increased by 46.7% per year (95% CI: 7.1–74.0, P=0.015), which surveillance or detection bias may not fully explain. PMID:17533391

Bouchardy, C; Fioretta, G; Verkooijen, H M; Vlastos, G; Schaefer, P; Delaloye, J-F; Neyroud-Caspar, I; Balmer Majno, S; Wespi, Y; Forni, M; Chappuis, P; Sappino, A-P; Rapiti, E

2007-01-01

169

Recent increase of breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the Geneva Cancer Registry, we found that in 2002–2004, breast cancer incidence in women aged 25–39 years increased by 46.7% per year (95% CI: 7.1–74.0, P=0.015), which surveillance or detection bias may not fully explain.

C Bouchardy; G Fioretta; H M Verkooijen; G Vlastos; P Schaefer; J-F Delaloye; I Neyroud-Caspar; S Balmer Majno; Y Wespi; M Forni; P Chappuis; A-P Sappino; E Rapiti

2007-01-01

170

Recent increase of breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty.  

PubMed

Using data from the Geneva Cancer Registry, we found that in 2002-2004, breast cancer incidence in women aged 25-39 years increased by 46.7% per year (95% CI: 7.1-74.0, P=0.015), which surveillance or detection bias may not fully explain. PMID:17533391

Bouchardy, C; Fioretta, G; Verkooijen, H M; Vlastos, G; Schaefer, P; Delaloye, J-F; Neyroud-Caspar, I; Balmer Majno, S; Wespi, Y; Forni, M; Chappuis, P; Sappino, A-P; Rapiti, E

2007-06-01

171

OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

172

Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.  

PubMed

Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

2014-06-15

173

Frequency of low back pain among men and women aged 30 to 64 years in France  

E-print Network

1 Frequency of low back pain among men and women aged 30 to 64 years in France Results of two back pain (LBP) have been carried out among workers or patients. Until very recently, the frequency: prevalence; low back pain; general population. inserm-00225042,version1-30Jan2008 #12;3 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

Actual and subjective age-related differences in women's attitudes toward their bodies across the life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined actual and subjective age-related variations in women's perceptions of their weight, sexual attractiveness,\\u000a physical condition, and overall body satisfaction. To this end, 265 women between the ages of 17 and 85 years completed the\\u000a Body Esteem Scale (Franzio & Shields, 1984), the subjective age scales of the Subjective Age and Gender Scale (Montepare,\\u000a 1996), and the

Joann M. Montepare

1996-01-01

175

HIV infection among internally displaced women and women residing in river populations along the Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

We conducted a reproductive health assessment among women aged 15-49 years residing in an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp and surrounding river populations in the Democratic Republic of Congo. After providing informed consent, participants were administered a behavioral questionnaire on demographics, sexual risk, reproductive health behavior, and a history of gender based violence. Participants provided a blood specimen for HIV and syphilis testing and were referred to HIV counseling and testing services established for this study to learn their HIV status. HIV prevalence was significantly higher among women in the IDP population compared to women in the river population. Sexually transmitted infection symptoms in the past 12 months and a history of sexual violence during the conflict were associated with HIV infection the river and IDP population, respectively. Targeted prevention, care, and treatment services are urgently needed for the IDP population and surrounding host communities during displacement and resettlement. PMID:19319674

Kim, Andrea A; Malele, Faustin; Kaiser, Reinhard; Mama, Nicaise; Kinkela, Timothée; Mantshumba, Jean-Caurent; Hynes, Michelle; De Jesus, Stacy; Musema, Godefoid; Kayembe, Patrick K; Hawkins Reed, Karen; Diaz, Theresa

2009-10-01

176

Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

1994-01-01

177

Estimated acceptance of HPV vaccination among Italian women aged 18-26 years.  

PubMed

In Italy vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national immunization programme in 2007; the primary target for this vaccination is 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. This project was carried out in the period 2007-2009 to estimate the acceptance rate among 18-26-year-old, to whom free-of-charge vaccination was actively offered. Socio-demographic factors associated with acceptance were also investigated. A sample of 1159 women was randomly selected from resident population lists of 10 Local Health Units in 6 of Italy's 21 Regions; 1032 women were deemed eligible for the study. Of the eligible women, 580 received at least one vaccine dose for an acceptance rate of 56.2% and 542 received all three vaccine doses (52.6%). The acceptance rate was significantly higher for: residents of northern and central Italy (OR(adj)=2.22, 95%CI 1.64-3.01 and OR(adj)=1.77, 95%CI, 1.20-2.61 respectively), compared to southern Italy; women with a high educational level (OR(adj)=1.41; 95%CI: 1.02-1.93); and students (OR(adj)=1.64; 95%CI: 1.13-2.37). The low immunization rate highlights the difficulties of reaching young adult women, although the current coverage rates observed in the primary target population of HPV vaccination campaign (64%) emphasize that achieving high coverage rates is challenging also in younger age groups. Our results suggest that it would be premature to extend the active free-of-charge offer of HPV vaccination to older women and that efforts should be focused on the priority target, considering that the objective of 95% coverage established for this age group is still far from being attained. PMID:21872630

Giambi, Cristina; Donati, Serena; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Scherillo, Isabella; Bella, Antonino

2011-10-26

178

6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging  

PubMed Central

Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

2009-01-01

179

Sources of Food Affect Dietary Adequacy of Inuit Women of Childbearing Age in Arctic Canada  

PubMed Central

Dietary transition in the Arctic is associated with decreased quality of diet, which is of particular concern for women of childbearing age due to the potential impact of maternal nutrition status on the next generation. The study assessed dietary intake and adequacy among Inuit women of childbearing age living in three communities in Nunavut, Canada. A culturally-appropriate quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 106 Inuit women aged 19-44 years. Sources of key foods, energy and nutrient intakes were determined; dietary adequacy was determined by comparing nutrient intakes with recommendations. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was >70%, and many consumed inadequate dietary fibre, folate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A, D, E, and K. Non-nutrient-dense foods were primary sources of fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes and contributed >30% of energy. Traditional foods accounted for 21% of energy and >50% of protein and iron intakes. Strategies to improve weight status and nutrient intake are needed among Inuit women in this important life stage. PMID:22106751

Schaefer, Sara E.; Erber, Eva; Trzaskos, Janel P.; Roache, Cindy; Osborne, Geraldine

2011-01-01

180

Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity  

SciTech Connect

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2010-07-15

181

Bone mineral density is not associated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years.  

PubMed

Although many studies reported improvement of back pain after osteoporosis treatment, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether osteoporosis is painful. We investigated whether bone mineral density correlated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years. Data for postmenopausal women aged ?50 years were obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Demographics, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, and numeric rating scale for pain in the hip and knee joints, presence of back pain, and activity level were analyzed. Only subjects with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and hip and knee radiographs were included. Those with malignancy, pain medication use, or a history of fragility fractures were excluded. After univariate analysis, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the significant factors correlated with the degree of hip and knee pain. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors significantly associated with the presence of back pain. In total, 387 women were included in the data analysis. Age (p?=?0.005) was the only significant factor correlated with the intensity of hip pain, while Kellgren-Lawrence grade (p?age (p?=?0.002) was the only significant factor associated with the presence of back pain. Musculoskeletal pain was not affected by or associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) of the affected body part in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years after adjusting for the degree of osteoarthritis. PMID:25288023

Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, In Hyeok; Jung, Ki Jin; Park, Jin Woo; Moon, Sang Young; Park, Moon Seok

2015-02-01

182

Cultural and socio-economic factors on changes in aging among Iranian women.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences. PMID:24762357

Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

2014-05-01

183

Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida.  

PubMed

The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ?1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ?$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ?1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406

Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina

2014-12-01

184

Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men  

PubMed Central

Background The age of peak swim performance has been investigated for freestyle swimmers for distances ranging from 50 m to 1500 m among swimmers aged 19 to 99 years. However, studies have yet to investigate the 10 to 19 year-old age group. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the age range of peak freestyle swim speed, and (2) to find differences in age range and peak freestyle swim speed between male and female freestyle swimmers from 50 m to 1500 m at a national level. Methods The changes in age range and peak freestyle swim speed among Swiss elite freestyle swimmers aged 0–9 years and 70–79 years who were ranked on the Swiss high score list between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. Results Men were fastest at ages 22–23 years for 100 m and 200 m; at ages 24–25 years for 400 m and 800 m; and at 26–27 years for 50 m and 1500 m. Women achieved peak freestyle swim speed at ages 20–21 years for all distances with the exception of 800 m. In the 800 m, women were fastest at ages 26–27 years. The difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m (ie, 13.1% ± 1.3% in 50 m; 13.2% ± 0.9% in 100 m; 10.8% ± 0.9% in 200 m; 7.9% ± 1.3% in 400 m; and 4.2% ± 2.0% in 800 m). For 1500 m, however, the gender difference increased to 6.4% ± 2.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that peak freestyle swim speed is achieved at lower age ranges in women when compared to men at 50 m to 1500 m, but not at 800 m. The gender difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m, but not for 1500 m. These data should be confirmed with swimmers at an international level. PMID:24198602

Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

2012-01-01

185

Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young\\u000a and middle-aged Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health\\u000a checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and

Xin Ying; Zhen-ya Song; Chang-jun Zhao; Yan Jiang

2010-01-01

186

Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers. PMID:24693364

Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

2013-01-01

187

Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.  

PubMed

Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices. PMID:25500343

Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

2014-12-01

188

Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women  

PubMed Central

The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

2012-01-01

189

Pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of age-related osteoporosis in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the cardinal manifestations of old age in humans is bone loss leading to fragility of the skeleton and increased risk\\u000a of fractures, a disease known as osteoporosis. It is estimated that approximately 45% of all women will suffer at least one\\u000a osteoporotic fracture during their lifetime. Genetic, environmental, nutritional, biomechanical and hormonal factors determine\\u000a the integrity of the

Moustapha Kassem; Kim Brixen

190

Risk Factors for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Women Under the Age of 45 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the etiologic profile of triple-negative breast cancer (negative for estrogen receptor\\/progesterone receptor\\/human epidermal growth factor), a breast cancer subtype associated with high mortality and inadequate therapeutic options. We undertook this study to assess the risk for triple-negative breast cancer among women 45 years of age and younger in relation to demographic\\/lifestyle factors, reproductive history, and oral

Jessica M. Dolle; Janet R. Daling; Emily White; Louise A. Brinton; David R. Doody; Peggy L. Porter; Kathleen E. Malone

191

Breast cancer in Swedish women before age 50: evidence of a dual effect of completed pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We set out to detect a transient increase in risk of breast cancer following childbirth, the existence of which has been postulated, but for which empirical evidence is contradictory. Breast cancers and births occurring among the cohort of Swedish women born after 1939 were linked, yielding 3,439 cases and 25,140 age-matched controls with at least two children. Within three years

David A. Leon; Lucy M. Carpenter; Mireille J. M. Broeders; Jan Gunnarskog; Michael F. G. Murphy

1995-01-01

192

Effects of Zopiclone as Compared to Flurazepam on Sleep in Women over 40 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zopiclone is a new nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, the recommended dose of which is 7.5 mg. It was compared to flurazepam 30 mg in a sleep laboratory study. 12 women aged 40–60 years, with subjective sleep disorders for at least 2 months, were treated for 13 nights with each drug in a crossover double-blind design. Each active drug period was preceded by

Petre Quadens; G. Hoffman; G. Buytaert

1983-01-01

193

Antral follicle counts by transvaginal ultrasonography are related to age in women with proven natural fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relation between reproductive age and ultrasound (US)-based follicle counts and the reproducibility of follicle counts in regularly cycling women with proven fertility.Design: Prospective observational study.Setting: Tertiary fertility center.Patient(s): Healthy female volunteers with proven fertility, recruited by advertisement in local newspapers.Intervention(s): The number of antral follicles sized 2–10 mm and ovarian volume were estimated by transvaginal US

Gabriëlle J Scheffer; Frank J. M Broekmans; Marinus Dorland; Johannes D. F Habbema; Caspar W. N Looman; Egbert R te Velde

1999-01-01

194

Waist Circumference, BMI, Smoking, and Mortality in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Measurement of waist circumference alone as a proxy of abdominal fat mass has been suggested as a simple clinical alternative to BMI for detecting adults with possible health risks due to obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: From 1993 to 1997, 27,178 men and 29,875 women, born in Denmark, 50 to 64 years of age, were recruited in the Danish prospective

Janne Bigaard; Anne Tjønneland; Birthe Lykke Thomsen; Kim Overvad; Berit Lilienthal Heitmann; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen

2003-01-01

195

Care of HIV-positive women aged 50 and over - can we do better?  

PubMed

A sample of 123 HIV-positive women aged 50 years and over showed high rates of late diagnosis with CD4 count <350 (71%), significant co-morbidities (90%), high rates of premature menopause (6.8%) and early menopause (6.8%) and cervical cytological abnormalities (47%). Specific interventions to improve care in this group should include yearly cervical cytology, early counselling with regard to reproductive options, menopause management and screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). PMID:24047886

Samuel, M I; Welch, J; Tenant-Flowers, M; Poulton, M; Campbell, L; Taylor, C

2014-03-01

196

Depressive Symptoms and Smoking in Middle-Aged and Older Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Smoking research and intervention efforts have neglected older women. Depressive symptoms, which are common in middle-aged and older women, are related to the maintenance of adult smoking. Methods: This study investigated the relation of a composite measure of current depressive symptoms, derived from a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and history of depressive symptoms, derived from two items from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, to smoking outcomes in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (N = 90,627). Participants were postmenopausal with an average age of 63.6 years at baseline. Participants were recruited from urban, suburban, and rural areas surrounding 40 clinical centers in the United States. Analyses controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. Results: In multinomial logistic regression analyses, depressive symptoms were related cross-sectionally to current light (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.14–1.23) and heavier (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.23–1.32) smoking at baseline compared with nonsmokers. In prospective multiple logistic regression analyses, baseline depressive symptoms were negatively predictive of smoking cessation at a 1-year follow-up (OR = .85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.93) and at participants’ final assessments in the study (OR = .92, 95% CI = 0.85–0.98). Light smokers had more than 2 times higher odds of smoking cessation than did heavier smokers. Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate a consistent link between depressive symptoms and negative smoking-related behaviors among middle-aged and older women at both light and heavier smoking levels. PMID:21504881

Powers, Daniel A.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Marti, C. Nathan; Ockene, Judith K.

2011-01-01

197

Chronic telogen effluvium: Increased scalp hair shedding in middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diffuse loss of scalp hair is a common problem in middle-aged women. A segment of these cases represents idiopathic chronic telogen effluvium (CTE).Objective: The purpose was to establish distinctive clinical and pathologic criteria for the diagnosis of CTE to facilitate its differentiation from androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and systemic causes of chronic diffuse hair loss.Methods: A group of 355 patients

David A Whiting

1996-01-01

198

The quadruple test for Down syndrome screening in pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not the quadruple test for screening Down syndrome is an effective\\u000a method to replace direct amniocentesis in pregnant women ?35 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study analyzed the screening performance of the quadruple test according to maternal age at delivery among subjects who\\u000a had a quadruple screening test at 1 of

Ji Young Kwon; In Yang Park; Seong-min Kwon; Chan Joo Kim; Jong Chul Shin

199

Nutrition and Depression: Implications for Improving Mental Health Among Childbearing-Aged Women  

PubMed Central

Adequate nutrition is needed for countless aspects of brain functioning. Poor diet quality, ubiquitous in the United States, may be a modifiable risk factor for depression. The objective was to review and synthesize the current knowledge of the role of nutrition in depression, and address implications for childbearing-aged women. Poor omega-3 fatty acid status increases the risk of depression. Fish oil and folic acid supplements each have been used to treat depression successfully. Folate deficiency reduces the response to antidepressants. Deficiencies of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, and selenium tend to be more common among depressed than nondepressed persons. Dietary antioxidants have not been studied rigorously in relation to depression. Childbearing-aged women are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of poor nutrition on mood because pregnancy and lactation are major nutritional stressors to the body. The depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and a lack of recovery postpartum may increase a woman’s risk of depression. Prospective research studies are needed to clarify the role of nutrition in the pathophysiology of depression among childbearing-aged women. Greater attention to nutritional factors in mental health is warranted given that nutrition interventions can be inexpensive, safe, easy to administer, and generally acceptable to patients. PMID:16040007

Bodnar, Lisa M.; Wisner, Katherine L.

2015-01-01

200

Determinants of Vitamin D Status in Fair-Skinned Women of Childbearing Age at Northern Latitudes  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57–58° north. Method Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25–40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OH)D was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. Results Mean 25(OH)D was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R2?=?0.27). Conclusion Every fifth woman had 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status. PMID:23593333

Hedlund, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Olausson, Hanna

2013-01-01

201

[Profile of exposure to medication among women of reproductive age attended in a Toxicologial Information Center].  

PubMed

The scope of this article is to analyze the epidemiological data relating to exposure to medication among women of reproductive age attended at a Toxicology Information Center. A study was conducted among women of reproductive age exposed to medication between 2007 and 2011. The variables relating to the patients, the occurrence and the medication involved were studied in a total of 777 notified cases. Data was collected from Aggravated Injury Notification System forms and processed on Epi Info for Windows software. The majority of the occurrences (90.5%) was intentional, 33.7% of theses incidents involved the intake of 2 or 3 types of drugs by the patients and the percentile of hospitalization was 35.6%. Drugs acting on the central nervous system were responsible for 59.9% of the incidents, and antidepressants (21.3%) and anti-epileptics (21.2%) were most commonly involved. The main factors associated with hospitalization were: delayed medical rescue after exposure, patients with higher education, ingestion of 2 or 3 types of drugs and exposure to anti-epileptics and antidepressants. Data from this study showed that exposure to medication is a serious health problem for women of reproductive age and it contributes to the increase in the number of hospitalizations. PMID:24820602

Takahama, Carina Harumi; Turini, Conceição Aparecida; Girotto, Edmarlon

2014-04-01

202

Accuracy of BMI to detect percent fat obesity in men and women, ages 17 to 39: The TIGER Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A BMI of 30 kg/m2 is used to define obesity of men and women of all ages. Using variable samples, investigators have shown that age and gender account for percent fat (%Fat) variance independent of BMI. This age and gender bias can be traced to the inability of BMI to distinguish between the body's ...

203

Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

204

Restructuring a College to Meet Postsecondary Educational Needs of "Non-College-Age Women." Concluding Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project to enroll and serve "non-college-age" women at Barat College, Illinois, is described. The 18-month project was designed to develop new college-community ties, increase substantially the numbers of women returning to college, restructure internally to meet new identified educational needs, and provide cross-generational learning formats…

Marchese, Theodore J.

205

USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711) In the United States, sampling women o...

206

Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

2012-01-01

207

Human papillomavirus infection and risk factors in a cohort of Tuscan women aged 18-24: results at recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is conclusive evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) infections of the cervix are a necessary cause of cervical cancer. In Italy there are consistent data of HPV prevalence in women aged 25 - 64 years, but there is limited data for younger women. The objective of this on-going 3-year prospective cohort study is to investigate the prevalence, acquisition, clearance

Massimo Confortini; Francesca Carozzi; Marco Zappa; Leonardo Ventura; Anna Iossa; Paola Cariaggi; Livia Brandigi; Mario Franchini; Francesco Mirri; Paolo Viacava; Aurora Scarfantoni; Daniela Bazzanti; Cristina Sani

2010-01-01

208

Pregnancy outcomes in women aged 35 years or older with gestational diabetes - a registry-based study in Finland.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To compare pregnancy outcomes of women ?35 years to women <35 years with and without gestational diabetes. Methods: The data include 230?003 women <35 years and 53?321 women ?35 years and their newborns from 2004 to 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were preterm delivery (<28, 28-31 and 32-36 weeks' gestation), Apgar scores <7 at 5?min, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal death, asphyxia, preeclampsia, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), shoulder dystocia and large for gestational age (LGA). Results: In comparison to women <35 with normal glucose tolerance, preeclampsia (OR 1.57, CI 1.30-1.88), admission to the NICU (OR 3.30, CI 2.94-3.69) and shoulder dystocia (OR 2.12, CI 1.05-4.30) were highest in insulin-treated women ?35 years. In women ?35, diet- and insulin-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increased the rates of preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia and admission to NICU (OR 3.07 CI 2.73-3.45). The effect of advanced maternal age was observed in very preterm delivery (<28 weeks), fetal death, preeclampsia and NICU. The increase in preeclampsia was statistically significant. Conclusions: GDM at advanced age is a high risk state and, more specifically, the risk caused by age and GDM appear to be increasing in preeclampsia. PMID:25385268

Lamminpää, Reeta; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Gissler, Mika; Selander, Tuomas; Heinonen, Seppo

2014-12-01

209

Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

2011-01-01

210

Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

2009-01-01

211

Human cytomegalovirus infection in women of childbearing age throughout Fars Province - Iran: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) has been described as an important etiological agent of intrauterine infection in women of childbearing age that causes congenital malformation. In the present study we examined 844 serum samples from women of child-bearing age for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against hCMV by Elisa technique. 764 out of 844 (93%) of the cases were seropositive

M. Arabpour; A. Jankhah

2007-01-01

212

Concurrent Alcohol Use or Heavier Use of Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking Among Women of Childbearing Age with Accessible Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to provide nationally representative findings on the prevalence and distribution of concurrent alcohol\\u000a use or heavier use of alcohol and cigarette smoking among women of childbearing age with accessible health care. For the years\\u000a 2003–2005, a total of 20,912 women 18–44 years of age who participated in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) reported\\u000a that during the

James Tsai; R. Louise Floyd; Patricia P. Green; Clark H. Denny; Claire D. Coles; Robert J. Sokol

2010-01-01

213

High-resolution computed tomographic appearance of the intrasellar contents in women of childbearing age  

SciTech Connect

Our experience with high-resolution computed tomography has indicated that the accepted norms for appearance and size of the pituitary gland may not be entirely valid for women of childbearing age. Fifty women with normal menstrual histories and who were not taking oral contraceptives were studied. The study consisted of overlapping 1.5-mm sections through the pituitary fossa in the coronal position only, using a bolus of contrast material followed by a continuous drip during the study. The results indicate that the top of the normal range of gland height is well over the accepted 7 mm and that focal defects within the gland are common. Other variables such as gland shape, width, and overall density were also evaluated.

Swartz, J.D.; Russell, K.B.; Basile, B.A.; O'Donnell, P.C.; Popky, G.L.

1983-04-01

214

Effects of ovarian hormones and aging on respiratory sinus arrhythmia and breathing patterns in women.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of ovarian hormones and aging on breathing pattern [pulmonary minute ventilation (V(E))], tidal volume (V(T)), breathing frequency (F(b)), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in women. Recordings of V(E) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were obtained from 23 healthy women (10 premenopausal, 13 postmenopausal) under resting, isocapnic hypoxia (IH), and euoxic hypercapnia (EH) conditions. Premenopausal women were tested on three different days, each day corresponding to a specific phase of the menstrual cycle (follicular, mid-cycle, and luteal); postmenopausal women (PMW) were tested on 1 day only. On each test day, subjects were challenged with IH and EH. The order of the two tests was randomized and separated by at least 1 hour. Due to the low F (b) of several PMW, the band limits for RSA analysis had to be adjusted. The spectral coherence between respiratory flow and ECG RR-interval was used to determine the spectral band. Within the spectral band, there was a consistent phase relationship between the two variables where high values of spectral coherence indicate a well-defined phase relationship between respiratory flow and RR-interval variability. The main findings in this study for RSA are fourfold. First, RSA did not change with different levels of ovarian hormones (progesterone, serum 17beta-estradiol) during the menstrual cycle. Second, RSA was not influenced by hormone replacement therapy. Third, RSA did not change with age. Fourth, RSA did not change with IH and EH-induced changes in breathing patterns. Finally, high individual variability of average RR-interval change per breath was found. PMID:18463937

Lüthi, Marlen; Roach, Daniel E; Beaudin, Andrew E; Debert, Chantel T; Sheldon, Robert S; Poulin, Marc J

2008-06-01

215

Lifecourse Adversity and Physical Performance across Countries among Men and Women Aged 65-74  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. Methods We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia) and Tirana (Albania). The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. Results A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. Conclusions We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life. PMID:25101981

Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Thanh Tu, Mai; Phillips, Susan P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

2014-01-01

216

The influence of age at menarche on the fertility of Chinese women.  

PubMed

This paper examines the effect of age at menarche on children ever born (CEB). We use data from the 1997 Sample Survey of Population and Reproductive Health conducted by the China Population Information and Research Center and the State Family Planning Commission. Poisson regression models are estimated for 10,919 ever married Chinese Han women. The influence of a woman's age at menarche on her CEB is examined while controlling for the social effects of rural/urban residency, education, her number of fecund years, whether her first birth occurred before or after the initiation of China's one child policy, and her age at first marriage. The results support our hypothesized positive association between age at menarche and CEB. That is, the later a woman's age at menarche, the greater her number of children ever born. Holding the other five independent variables constant, we show that for every additional month in age at menarche, a Chinese Han woman's mean number of children ever born increases by 0.5 percent. Some of the implications of these results are explored. PMID:16382813

McKibben, Sherry L; Poston, Dudley L

2003-01-01

217

Hip structural geometry in old and old-old age: Similarities and differences between men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionChanges in hip structure and geometry during aging contribute to decreased bone strength. Little is known, however, about these characteristics at advanced age, when fragility fractures are common. We examined hip structural geometry in men and women of old age (72–84 years) and old-old age (85–96 years) to determine (1) gender differences; (2) whether or not these differences are consistent with the

Laurel B. Yates; David Karasik; Thomas J. Beck; L. Adrienne Cupples; Douglas P. Kiel

2007-01-01

218

A Reappraisal of Women's Health Initiative Estrogen-Alone Trial: Long-Term Outcomes in Women 50–59 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Estrogen-Alone Trial randomized postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, with prior hysterectomy, to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo with a 5.9-year median duration of CEE use. In 2013, the WHI published outcomes for additional extended follow-up. Reported here for the first time is an analysis of the number needed to treat with CEE rather than placebo for younger women (50–59 years) to prevent an adverse long-term outcome. For every 76 women randomized to CEE at 50–59 years, one less myocardial infarction occurred during the 13-year cumulative long-term follow-up. For every 37 women randomized to CEE at 50–59 years, one less woman experienced a global index endpoint (including coronary heart disease, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and death) during the 13-year follow-up. Younger women (50–59 years), compared to older women, had more favorable cumulative long-term outcomes for MI and global index. Though a subgroup analysis is not an adequate basis for making primary prevention guideline recommendations, the WHI Estrogen-Alone Trial outcomes strongly suggest that a similar course of estrogen initiated at 50–59 years in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy results in significant long-term health benefit.

2015-01-01

219

Rubella Immunity in Women of Childbearing Age, Eight Years After the Immunization Program in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Rubella is a viral disease with a worldwide distribution. Mass vaccination campaigns have increased the vaccine coverage in the world with substantial impact on reduction of rubella infections. In Iran, the national measles-rubella campaign, targeting individuals 5-25 years old, was initiated in 2003 and mass childhood vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps has continued ever since. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of routine vaccination on rubella immunity among women of childbearing age in Babol, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 women of childbearing age living in Babol, north of Iran, in 2011. Twelve samples were excluded from the study because of inadequate sera amounts. Serum samples were examined for presence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies by means of quantitative ELISA. Results: From a total of 800 samples in this study, rubella IgG seropositivity was seen in 786 (98.3% [95% CI = %97.5-%99.1]) cases. The maximum IgG seropositivity (99.2%) was seen in the age group of 21-25 years old and the lowest immunity (87.7%) was in the group of above 30 years old. Conclusions: Our data indicated that the rate of seropositivity to rubella virus in our population was high, suggesting that vaccination has been successful in Babol, reducing the likelihood of congenital rubella infection. PMID:25237562

Barari Sawadkohi, Rahim; Zarghami, Amin; Izadpana, Fatemeh; Pournasrollah, Mohammad

2014-01-01

220

Attitudes towards embryo donation in Swedish women and men of reproductive age  

PubMed Central

Background When performing in-vitro fertilization (IVF), more embryos than needed are often derived. These embryos are usually frozen and stored, but as ruled by Swedish law they have to be discarded after 5 years. In other countries it is legal to donate the excess embryos to other infertile couples who for different reasons cannot undergo the procedure of IVF. The aim of the present study was to investigate public opinion in Sweden regarding different aspects of embryo donation. Methods A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards aspects of embryo donation was sent to a randomized sample of 1,000 Swedish women and men of reproductive age. Results A total of 34% responded to the questionnaires. A majority of the respondents (73%) were positive towards embryo donation. Seventy-five per cent agreed that it should be possible to donate embryos to infertile couples. Approximately half of the participants (49%) supported embryo donation to single women. A majority of the participants emphasized that demands should be imposed on the recipient's age (63%), alcohol addiction (79%), drug addiction (85%), and criminal record (67%). Forty-seven per cent of the respondents agreed that the recipient should be anonymous to the donor, and 38% thought that the donor should remain anonymous to the child. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate support for embryo donation among a subset of the Swedish population of reproductive age. If embryo donation were to be allowed in Sweden, strategies for treatment and counselling need to be developed. PMID:23786323

Prag, Frida; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

2013-01-01

221

Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

Milanovi?, Zoran; Panteli?, Saša; Trajkovi?, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kosti?, Radmila; James, Nic

2013-01-01

222

A 1st-trimester combined screening test in pregnant women of advanced maternal age in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test for trisomy 21 in different maternal age groups in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data on the 1st-trimester combined screening test (maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, free ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) were analysed. The study population of 17,556 pregnant women was subdivided into three groups according to maternal age: 16,113 were < 35 years of age; 1,228 were 35-39 years of age; and 215 were ? 40 years of age. The detection and false-positive rates of the 1st-trimester screening test for trisomy 21 or trisomy 18 in the three groups of women were 89.5 and 1.7%; 90.9 and 6.8%; and 100 and 22.3%, respectively. With increasing maternal age, the odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR) were increased. The balance between the detection rate and false-positive rate of the 1st-trimester combined screening test is more favourable in women < 36 years with comparable OAPR. Although the false-positive rate increases with increasing maternal age, the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test in women ? 35 years is more effective than screening based on maternal age alone. PMID:25057869

Pan, M; Han, J; Yang, X; Zhen, L; Liao, C; Li, D Z

2015-02-01

223

Alcohol Use Trajectories in Two Cohorts of U.S. Women Ages 50 to 65 at Baseline  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To examine drinking trajectories followed by two cohorts of older women during 8–10 years of follow-up. DESIGN Longitudinal analyses of two nationally-representative cohorts using semi-parametric group-based models weighted and adjusted for baseline age. PARTICIPANTS One cohort included 5,231 women in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) ages 50–65 in 1996; the other included 1,658 National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) women ages 50–65 in 1995. MEASUREMENTS Both cohorts reported any recent drinking and their average number of drinks per drinking day using similar, but not identical questions. HRS women provided biannual data from 1996 – 2006. NLS women provided biannual data from 1995 – 2003. RESULTS All trajectory models yielded similar results. Among HRS women, four trajectory groups were observed in the model based on drinks per day: Increasing Drinkers (4.9% of cohort), Infrequent and Nondrinkers (61.8%), Consistent Drinkers (25.9%) and Decreasing Drinkers (7.4%). Corresponding NLS values from the drinks per day model were 8.8%, 61.4%, 21.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. In 2006, the average number of drinks per day among HRS women in Increasing Drinkers and Consistent Drinkers trajectories was 1.31 and 1.59, respectively. In 2003, these values for NLS women were 0.99 and 1.38, respectively. CONCLUSION Most women do not markedly change their drinking behavior after age 50, but some increase their alcohol use substantially, while others continue to exceed current recommendations. These findings underscore the importance of periodically asking older women about their drinking to assess, advise, and assist those who may be at risk for developing alcohol-related problems. PMID:21087226

Bobo, Janet Kay; Greek, April A.; Klepinger, Daniel H.; Herting, Jerald R.

2010-01-01

224

Modeling mid-aged women's sexual functioning: a prospective, population-based study.  

PubMed

This article uses a prospectively, annually collected sexuality questionnaire from an 8-year study of 340 mid-aged Melbourne women. We modeled the interactions of sexuality domains, the effect of prior level of sexual functioning, and the effects of change in partner-related factors. We found that we were unable to separate items denoting sexual interest from those denoting responsiveness. Using the statistical technique of auto-correlation, we determined that the most important predictor of female sexual functioning is prior level of sexual functioning. Partner-related factors (change in partner status and feelings for partner) also had significant effects. PMID:15205073

Dennerstein, Lorraine; Lehert, Philippe

2004-01-01

225

Partner Age Differences and Concurrency in South Africa: Implications for HIV-Infection Risk Among Young Women.  

PubMed

Partner-age difference is an HIV-risk factor among young women in Africa, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We used nationally representative data among black South Africans (men: 3,530; women: 3,946) to examine the proportion of women in partnerships involving male partner concurrency by age of female partners and by age-disparate (?5 years) partnerships. Of all partners reported by men, 35 % of young (16-24) women were in partnerships involving male partner concurrency of 4 weeks or longer during the past 12 months. Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to be in partnerships with men who had other concurrent partners (9 %; OR 1.88 p < 0.01) and more likely to be connected to an older sexual network. Our results suggest that the relationship between male concurrency and age-disparate relationships may increase HIV risk for young women by connecting them to larger and older sexual networks. PMID:25047687

Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Kenyon, Chris; Lurie, Mark N

2014-12-01

226

Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ?36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 µmol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (?0.36–<0.7 µmol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7–1.4 µmol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (>1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy. PMID:25317119

Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

2014-01-01

227

Cancer-Related Concerns among Women Newly Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer: An Exploration of Age Group Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to characterize cancer-related concerns among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. The study compared degree of cancer-related concern between young women (? 45 years), middle age women (46–64 years), and older women (? 65 years). Methods/Materials Data from women (N =243) diagnosed with primary gynecological cancer who were participating in a randomized control trial were analyzed. Women completed a measure that assessed degree of concern in twelve cancer-related domains (physical functioning, cancer treatment, emotional functioning, sexual functioning, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, relationship with others, employment, and finances). Multivariate comparisons were made between the three age groups on the cancer-related concerns. Results There were age group differences in overall cancer-related concern and specific cancer-related domains. Young women reported the greatest cancer-related concern (p < .001). They reported greater concern over emotional functioning (p < .001) and sexual functioning (p < .001) compared to the middle and older age groups. Older women reported less concern over the impact of cancer on finances (p = 007). There were no differences between age groups in concern over physical impairment, cancer treatment, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, and relationship with others. Conclusions Age may play an important role in the impact of a gynecological cancer diagnosis in domains of functioning, specifically emotional functioning, sexual functioning, and finances. Other cancer-related areas may represent more universal degree of impact. Professionals may benefit form considering the impact of cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. PMID:24346489

Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L.; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norm; Graff, John J.

2014-01-01

228

Age at Menarche, the Leg Length to Sitting Height Ratio, and Risk of Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate the associations of age at menarche and the leg length-to-sitting-height ratio, markers of adolescent growth, with risk of diabetes in later life. Materials and Methods Information from 69,385 women and 55,311 men, aged 40–74 years from the Shanghai Women's Health Study and Shanghai Men's Health Study, were included in the current analyses. Diabetes status was ascertained through biennial in person follow-up. Cox models, with age as the time scale, were used. Results There were 2369 cases of diabetes (1831 women; 538 men) during an average of 7.3 and 3.6 years of follow-up of the women and men, respectively. In females, menarche age was inversely associated with diabetes risk after adjustment for birth cohort, education, and income (HR?=?0.95, 0.92–0.98). In both genders, leg length-to-sitting-height ratio was inversely related to diabetes (HR?=?0.88, 0.80–0.97 for men; HR?=?0.91, 0.86–0.96 for women) after adjustment for birth cohort, education, and income. Further adjustment for adult BMI at study enrollment completely eliminated the associations of age at menarche (HR?=?0.99, 0.96–1.02) and the leg length-to-sitting-height ratio (HR?=?1.00, 0.91–1.10 for men; HR?=?1.01, 0.96–1.07 for women) with diabetes risk. Conclusions Our study suggests that markers of an early age at peak height velocity, i.e. early menarche age and low leg-length-to-sitting height ratio, may be associated with diabetes risk later in life and this association is likely to be mediated through obesity. PMID:22448212

Conway, Baqiyyah N.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Xianglan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

2012-01-01

229

Obesity affects short-term folate pharmacokinetics in women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

Maternal folate status and body mass index (BMI) are independent risk factors for neural tube defects (NTD). Population-based studies have identified an inverse association between serum folate and BMI, after adjusting for intake. The objective of this intervention study was to compare the relationship between BMI and the short-term pharmacokinetic response to an oral dose of folic acid. Healthy obese (BMI ?30.0?kg?m(-2); n=16) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9?kg?m(-2); n=16) women of childbearing age (18-35 years) were administered a single oral dose of folic acid (400??g). Blood samples were collected over a 10-h period to evaluate the serum folate response. Fasting baseline serum folate was lower in the obese group (P=0.005); in contrast, red blood cell folate was higher (P=0.05). Area-under-the-curve for the absorption phase (0-3?h) and peak serum folate concentrations were lower in obese versus normal-weight women (P<0.005). Overall serum folate response (0-10?h) was lower in obese versus normal-weight women (repeated-measures ANOVA, P=0.001). Data suggest body distribution of folate is significantly affected by obesity, and, should pregnancy occur, may reduce the amount of folate available to the developing embryo. These findings provide additional support for a BMI-adjusted folic acid intake recommendation for NTD risk reduction. PMID:23567925

da Silva, V R; Hausman, D B; Kauwell, G P A; Sokolow, A; Tackett, R L; Rathbun, S L; Bailey, L B

2013-12-01

230

Trauma exposure and the subsequent risk of coronary heart disease among mid-aged women.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to examine whether exposure to trauma in the form of a history of physical, mental, emotional or sexual abuse or violence predicted new onset of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. In addition, this study aimed to examine the mediation effects of psychological, lifestyle and health related factors in the abuse-CHD relationship. Data from 6 surveys over 15 years, from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a large prospective cohort study, were used. Participants from the 1946-1951 cohort who did not self-report heart disease at surveys 1 (1996) and 2 (1998) and who had provided information on other variables were included (n = 9,276). After adjusting for age, women who reported trauma exposure at baseline were 1.54 times more likely (95 % confidence interval 1.29-1.83) to report new onset of CHD than those who did not report trauma exposure. The association between trauma and CHD was largely explained by psychological factors, suggesting a direct pathway between exposure to trauma and risk of CHD. PMID:24923258

May-Ling, June Lee; Loxton, Deborah; McLaughlin, Deirdre

2015-02-01

231

Utilization of Screening Mammography Among Middle-Aged and Older Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims This study examines patterns of screening mammogram use, investigating the relationship of screening with demographic, health status, and healthcare factors. Methods Data from 1242 women aged ?41 were obtained from a random sample of mailed surveys to community households in an eight-county region in Central Texas in 2010. The dependent variable was the timing of the participants' most recent screening mammography (in the past 12 months, between 1 and 2 years, or >2 years). Predictor variables included demographic, health status, and healthcare access factors. Multinomial logistic regression identified variables associated with screening mammography practices. Results The majority of women reported having at least one mammogram during their lifetime (93.0%) and having a mammography within the past 2 years (76.2%). Participants who reported not having a routine checkup in the past 12 months (odds ratio [OR] 0.12, p<0.001), having a lapse of insurance in the past 3 years (OR 2.95, p<0.05), and living in a health provider shortage area (OR 1.42, p<0.05) were less likely to be screened within the past 2 years. Conclusions Routine healthcare plays a major role in preventive screening, which indicates screening mammography practices can be enhanced by improving participation in routine checkups with medical providers, continuity of insurance coverage, and women's access to healthcare. Interventions to encourage screening mammography may be particularly needed for women who have experienced a lapse in insurance or have not had a checkup in the past year. PMID:21780914

Hochhalter, Angela K.; Ahn, SangNam; Wernicke, Meghan M.; Ory, Marcia G.

2011-01-01

232

Oncofertility for gynecologic and non-gynecologic cancers: Fertility sparing in young women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

About ten percent of all female cancer survivors is younger than 40 years of age. For these young women the primary goal is to ensure the highest possibility of cure and to maintain the reproductive functions as well. Oncofertility is a new concept including both oncology and reproductive medicine. By this recently defined concept young women will have maximal chance to make an optimal decision without any significant impact and delay in oncologic outcome. Oncofertility concept could be applied for genital cancer as well as non-genital cancer of reproductive age. Currently sperm and embryo banking are the standard methods used for young patients with cancer whose future fertility is under risk. In contrary oocyte banking, ovarian tissue cryopreservation are all controversial procedures and still accepted as experimental by many authors although American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) consideres oocyte cryopreservation "no longer experimental". For genital cancers procedures for oncofertility depends on the type of the cancer and the treatment of choice. In this review the current data and concepts regarding oncofertility concept including the gynecologic oncologic perspective is reviewed. PMID:25090914

Dursun, Polat; Do?an, N Utku; Ayhan, Ali

2014-12-01

233

Knowledge and use of folic acid by women of childbearing age--United States, 1997.  

PubMed

Each year in the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies are affected by spina bifida and anencephaly. Babies born with spina bifida usually survive, often with serious disability, but anencephaly is invariably fatal. The B vitamin folic acid can reduce the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly by at least 50% when consumed daily before conception and during early pregnancy. In 1992, the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. Folic acid can be obtained from multivitamins or certain other supplements and from some fortified breakfast cereals. It is found naturally in orange juice, green leafy vegetables, and beans; however, it is difficult to obtain the recommended 400 microg daily through diet alone. This report summarizes findings from a survey conducted during January and February 1997 that indicate modest increases since 1995 in knowledge about and consumption of folic acid among U.S. women aged 18-45 years and highlights the need for additional public health efforts to take full advantage of this prevention opportunity. PMID:9262072

1997-08-01

234

Occupational Training for Mature Women: A Survey of the Enrollment of Women Over Age 35 in Proprietary Institutions in Cuyahoga County, Spring 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic objective of the study was to investigate the participation of mature adult women, over age 35, in the proprietary business, trade, and technical schools in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Data were collected by telephone on the 29 registered resident-study schools of Cuyahoga County and two Cleveland-based home study schools pertaining to…

Patterson, Janice B.

235

Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week?¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and ?-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial compliance were also significantly increased (p < 0.05), while ?-stiffness was markedly decreased (p < 0.01) after the intervention. On the other hand, there was no change in the parameters tested in the control group. This study demonstrates that regular aerobic exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women. PMID:22784030

Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

2012-10-01

236

Results from Ad Hoc and Routinely Collected Data among Celiac Women with Infertility or Pregnancy Related Disorders: Italy, 2001–2011  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune illness triggered by gluten consumption in genetically predisposed individuals. Worldwide, CD prevalence is approximately 1%. Several studies suggest a higher prevalence of undiagnosed CD in patients with infertility. We described reproductive disorders and assessed the frequency of hospital admissions for infertility among celiac women aged 15–49. We conducted two surveys enrolling a convenient sample of celiac women, residing in Apulia or in Basilicata (Italy). Moreover, we selected hospital discharge records (HDRs) of celiac women and women with an exemption for CD, and matched the lists with HDRs for reproductive disorders. In the surveys we included 91 celiac women; 61.5% of them reported menstrual cycle disorders. 47/91 reported at least one pregnancy and 70.2% of them reported problems during pregnancy. From the HDRs and the registry of exemption, we selected 4,070 women with CD; the proportion of women hospitalized for infertility was higher among celiac women than among resident women in childbearing age (1.2% versus 0.2%). Our findings highlight a higher prevalence of reproductive disorders among celiac women than in the general population suggesting that clinicians might consider testing for CD women presenting with pregnancy disorders or infertility. PMID:24895657

2014-01-01

237

Effects of Aging on Perceived Exertion and Pain During Arm Cranking in Women 70 to 80 YEARS OLD  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on perceived exertion (PE) and perceived arm pain (PaP) at the end of a maximal graded arm test in 70- to 80-year -old women. Twelve healthy young (mean age 22.9 ± 3.3 years), and 12 healthy elderly (mean age 74.6 ± 3.7 years) women performed a maximal graded test (GXT) on an arm crank ergometer until exhaustion. The results revealed no significant difference between both groups concerning PE (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.62) and when heart rate (HR) was expressed as a theoretical maximal heart rate (THRmax) (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.17). Nevertheless, PaP was significantly lower (p < 0.05; Effect Size = 2.95) in the elderly compared to the young group. In conclusion, these results suggest that, at the end of GXT, PE is not influenced, whereas PaP may be altered by aging of the women tested in the present study. Therefore, it appears difficult to use PaP in these elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program. Key Points At the end of a maximal graded arm test, perceived exertion is not influenced, whereas perceived arm pain may be altered by aging. It appears difficult to use perceived arm pain in elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program. PMID:24259993

Groslambert, Alain; Grange, Céline C.; Perrey, Stéphane; Maire, Jérôme; Tordi, Nicolas; Rouillon, Jean Denis

2006-01-01

238

Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older  

MedlinePLUS

... in: PDF (155 KB) Chinese (??) Related Resources Women Fitness: Overtraining Risks Pregnancy, Nursing and Bone Health Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian ...

239

Preconception health of reproductive aged women of the Mississippi River delta.  

PubMed

Optimal preconception health (PCH) may improve maternal and infant outcomes, priority issues in Mississippi (MS). Our study objective was to compare the PCH of women in the MS Delta to other regions. We analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2005, 2007, and 2009, and limited analyses to 171,612 non-pregnant black and white women 18-44 years of age. Region was defined as 14 MS Delta counties (MS Delta), remainder of MS (MS non-Delta), Delta states (LA, AR, TN), and non-Delta US states. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) to assess associations between region and 16 indicators of optimal PCH, controlling for demographic characteristics. Healthy PCH factors such as consuming ?5 fruits and vegetables daily and normal body mass index (18.5 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2)), respectively, were more prevalent in the MS non-Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.7 and aPR = 1.2; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.4), non-MS Delta (aPR = 1.5; 95 % CI: 1.2,2.0 and aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.5) and non-Delta states (aPR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.3,2.2 and aPR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.2,1.6) compared to the MS Delta. Physical activity levels were higher among non-Delta US states compared to the MS Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.4). Household income and race confounded the associations between region and PCH. Reproductive aged women in the MS Delta had poorer PCH, particularly for physical activity and nutrition, than women in other regions. MS Delta service providers and public health practitioners should consider implementing or enhancing lifestyle, nutrition, and physical activity interventions, with a special focus on reducing income-based and racial disparities. PMID:23099798

Bish, Connie L; Farr, Sherry; Johnson, Dick; McAnally, Ron

2012-12-01

240

The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n?=?28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n?=?26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led intervention will achieve better weight control in pre-menopausal women than a self-directed intervention. The results will add to the scant body of literature on obesity prevention methods at an under-researched high-risk life stage, and inform the development of population-based interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000064909 PMID:24156558

2013-01-01

241

Association between leisure time physical activity and 10-year body mass change among working-aged men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether habitual leisure time physical activity and body mass change of working-aged men and women are associated. DESIGN: Prospective 10 y follow-up study. SUBJECTS: A regionally representative cohort of 19–63 y old men (n=2564) and women (n=2695) in three municipalities in Finland. MEASUREMENTS: The main outcome measures were average body mass change during the 10 y of

N Haapanen; S Miilunpalo; M Pasanen; P Oja; I Vuori

1997-01-01

242

Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the Bent-Knee Push-Up for College-Age Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised push-up test has been found to have good validity but it produces many zero scores for women. Maybe there should be an alternative to the revised push-up test for college-age women. The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity, reliability, and validity for the bent-knee push-up test (executed on hands and knees) for…

Wood, Heather M.; Baumgartner, Ted A.

2004-01-01

243

Follicular fluid vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations are elevated in women of advanced reproductive age undergoing ovulation induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s): To determine whether follicular fluid (FF) from women of advanced reproductive age had a relative deficiency of the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor\\/vascular permeability factor. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether luteinized granulosa cells secrete vascular endothelial growth factor\\/vascular permeability factor in response to hypoxia.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: University teaching hospital.Patients: Women undergoing follicular aspiration after superovulation in

Chad I. Friedman; Douglas R. Danforth; Cristina Herbosa-Encarnacion; Laura Arbogast; Baha M. Alak; David B. Seifer

1997-01-01

244

R egular exercise, hormone replacement therapy and the age-related decline in carotid arterial compliance in healthy women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Carotid arterial compliance is reduced with age in sedentary estrogen-deficient women, contributing to the development of cardiovascular disorders. We determined the effects of regular aerobic exercise, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and their interaction on carotid arterial compliance using a combination of cross-sectional and intervention study designs. Methods: Cross-sectionally, we studied three groups of healthy postmenopausal women (50-80 years): 20

Kerrie L. Moreau; Anthony J. Donato; Douglas R. Seals; Christopher A. DeSouza; Hirofumi Tanaka

245

Reproductive health decision making among Ghanaian women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women’s reproductive health decision-making and choices, including engaging in sexual intercourse and condom use, are essential for good reproductive health. However, issues concerning sexual intercourse and condom use are shrouded in secrecy in many sub-Saharan African countries. This study investigates factors that affect decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom among women aged 15–49. Method A nationally representative sample (N = 3124) data collected in the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study the association between women’s economic and socio-demographic characteristics and their decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom. Results One out of five women reported that they could not refuse their partners’ request for sexual intercourse while one out of four indicated that they could not demand the use of condoms by their partners. Women aged 35–49 were more likely to make decision on engaging in sexual intercourse (OR?=?1.35) compared to those aged 15–24. Furthermore, the higher a woman’s education, the more likely that she would make decision regarding condom use. Also, if a woman had primary (OR?=?1.37) or secondary (OR?=?1.55) education, she is more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse compared to a woman who had no formal education. Compared to women in the Greater Accra region (the capital city region), women in the Western region (OR?=?2.10), Central region (OR?=?2.35), Brong Ahafo (OR?=?1.70), Upper East (OR?=?7.71) and Upper West (OR?=?3.56) were more likely to make decision regarding the use of condom. Women who were in the richest, rich and middle wealth index categories were more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse as well as condom use compared to the poorest. Conclusion Interventions and policies geared at empowering women to take charge of their reproductive health should focus particularly on women from less wealthy backgrounds and those with low educational attainments. PMID:24628727

2014-01-01

246

Older Homebound Women: Sharing the Risk with Age-Peers of Being Unable to Reach Help Quickly  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this facet of a longitudinal descriptive phenomenological study of the experience of reaching help quickly for older homebound women was to explore the personal-social context (life-world) of situations when age-peers had needed to reach help quickly (RHQ). Twenty-five women aged 85–95 (13 subscribers to a personal emergency response system and 12 non-subscribers) reported 80 peer situations. Life-world was characterized by sharing with peers the risk of being unable to RHQ. Knowledge of peer situations had varying degrees of influence on participants’ decisions to adopt and use RHQ devices. Findings support the need for healthcare professionals to explore the influences of age-peer RHQ situations upon adoption and use of devices to RHQ by older homebound women. PMID:23070958

Porter, Eileen J.; Lasiter, Sue

2012-01-01

247

Clinical determinants of biomechanics platform measures of balance in aged women.  

PubMed

The cross-sectional associations between clinical variables and biomechanics platform measures of balance (sway) were determined in a random sample of 50 aged single women living in high rise apartment buildings. A history of falling in the previous year was associated with increased areas of sway. Increased body mass was associated with decreased velocity of sway. Poor near, but not far, visual acuity was associated with increased areas of sway. A postural drop of 10 mmHg or more in diastolic pressure was associated with increased velocity of sway. The associations between these variables and the balance measures persisted after adjustment for age and each other to adjust for potential confounding. Slower hand reaction times and poor hearing were associated with increased areas of sway, but these associations were removed after adjustment for age and near visual acuity. There were no associations between any of the balance measures and postural changes in systolic pressure and heart rate. There were no associations between balance measures and base of support. The observed associations, if causal, can aid in development and testing of effective interventions to improve balance and prevent falls in the elderly. PMID:3171052

Lichtenstein, M J; Shields, S L; Shiavi, R G; Burger, M C

1988-11-01

248

Association between Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal bacterial community composition among reproductive-age women  

PubMed Central

Objectives Some vaginal bacterial communities are thought to prevent infection by sexually transmitted organisms. Prior work demonstrated that the vaginal microbiota of reproductive-age women cluster into five types of bacterial communities; 4 dominated by Lactobacillus species (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii), and one (termed community state type (CST) IV) lacking significant numbers of lactobacilli and characterized by higher proportions of Atopobium, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Mobiluncus, and other taxa. We sought to evaluate the relationship between vaginal bacterial composition and Trichomonas vaginalis. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained cross-sectionally from 394 women equally representing four ethnic/racial groups. T. vaginalis screening was performed using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA and ?-tubulin genes. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. A panel of eleven microsatellite markers was used to genotype T. vaginalis. The association between vaginal microbiota and T. vaginalis was evaluated by exact logistic regression. Results T. vaginalis was detected in 2.8% of participants (11/394). Of the eleven T. vaginalis-positive cases, eight (72%) were categorized as CST-IV, two (18%) as communities dominated by L. iners and one (9%) as L. crispatus-dominated (p-value:0.05). CST-IV microbiota were associated with an 8-fold increased odds of detecting T. vaginalis compared to women in the L. crispatus-dominated state (OR:8.26, 95% CI:1.07–372.65). Seven of the 11 T. vaginalis isolates were assigned to two genotypes. Conclusion T. vaginalis was associated with vaginal microbiota consisting of low proportions of lactobacilli and high proportions of Mycoplasma, Parvimonas, Sneathia, and other anaerobes. PMID:23007708

Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bradford, L. Latey; Conrad, Melissa; Gajer, Pawel; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.; Carlton, Jane M.; Abdo, Zaid; Ravel, Jacques

2012-01-01

249

Factors associated with the age of the onset of diabetes in women aged 50?years or more: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Objective Investigate factors associated with the onset of diabetes in women aged more than 49?years. Design and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using self-reports with 622 women. The dependent variable was the age of occurrence of diabetes using the life table method. Cox multiple regression models were adjusted to analyse the onset of diabetes according to predictor variables. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors were evaluated. Results Of the 622 women interviewed, 22.7% had diabetes. The mean age at onset was 56?years. The factors associated with the age of occurrence of diabetes were self-rated health (very good, good) (coefficient=?0.792; SE of the coefficient=0.215; p=0.0001), more than two individuals living in the household (coefficient=0.656, SE of the coefficient=0.223; p=0.003), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at 20–30?years of age (coefficient= 0.056, SE of the coefficient=0.023; p=0.014). Conclusions Self-rated health considered good or very good was associated with a higher rate of survival without diabetes. Sharing a home with two or more other people and a weight increase at 20–30?years of age was associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25428628

Valadares, Ana L R; Machado, Vanessa S S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Sousa, Maria H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

2014-01-01

250

Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

2014-01-01

251

Tax reform, population ageing and the changing labour supply behaviour of married women.  

PubMed

"The burden of financing retirement incomes in an ageing population is predicted to rise sharply in future decades. This paper investigates the effects of reforms to the Australian tax-benefit system involving a greater reliance on proportional taxation for raising revenue and a more targeted welfare system for cutting government expenditure, in order to reduce expected budget deficits. Estimates of changes in net incomes and hours of work suggest that reforms of this kind shift the tax burden to lower and middle income households with a second earner and that they can have counter-productive labour supply effects. The study explores the impact of projected increases in female work force participation and illustrates the importance of shifts in the labour supply of married women in predicting the fiscal effects of demographic change." PMID:12316986

Apps, P

1991-01-01

252

Adequacy and change in nutrient and food intakes with aging in a seven-year cohort study in elderly women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  As women age total dietary intake falls which may increase the risk of dietary deficiencies in some individuals. The aims\\u000a of this study were to investigate the changes in nutrient and dietary intakes that occurred with aging in a seven-year longitudinal\\u000a study of elderly Australian women and to evaluate the adequacy of their dietary intakes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Longitudinal population based study on

K. Zhu; A. Devine; A. Suleska; C. Y. Tan; C. Z. J. Toh; D. Kerr; R. L. Prince

2010-01-01

253

Experiences and Status of Chinese Rural Women: Differences among Three Age Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Old China, working women had no rights in such matters as politics, economy, culture, society, and family life. Women were governed by the Chinese feudal society tradition. When "new" China was founded in 1949, working women made up the 7.5 percent of the total work force. By 1983, the number of working women had increased to 36.5 percent. In…

Slimmer, Virginia M.; Kejing, Dai

254

Hostility is associated with Visceral, but not Subcutaneous, Fat in Middle-Aged African-American and White women  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study was designed to examine the cross-sectional association between hostility and measures of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in middle-aged African-American and white women. Because fat-patterning characteristics are known to differ by race,we were particularly interested in examining whether these associations were similar for women of both racial/ethnic groups. Methods Participants were 418 (45% African-American, 55% white) middle-aged women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Visceral and Subcutaneous fat were measured by Computed Tomographic Scans and hostility was assessed via questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted to test associations among race/ethnicity, hostility and measures of abdominal fat. Results In models adjusted for race/ethnicity and total percent fat, higher levels of hostility were associated with a greater amount of visceral fat (B=1.8, s.e.=.69, p=.01). This association remained significant after further adjustments for age, education, and multiple coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Hostility was not associated with subcutaneous fat (p=.8). Although there were significant racial/ethnic differences in hostility (p<.001) and the amount of total body (p<.001), subcutaneous (p<.001) and visceral fat (p<.001), the associations between hostility and measures of abdominal fat did not differ for African-American compared to white women (race/ethnicity*hostility interaction p=.67 for visceral, p=.85 for subcutaneous). Conclusions Hostility may affect CHD risk in women via the accumulation of visceral fat. Despite significant black-white differences in fat patterning and overall CHD risk, the association between hostilty and visceral fat appears to be similar for both African-American and white women. PMID:19592520

Lewis, Tené T.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Janssen, Imke; Wesley, Deidre; Powell, Lynda H.

2010-01-01

255

Correlations of urinary phytoestrogen excretion with lifestyle factors and dietary intakes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women  

PubMed Central

Isoflavones and lignans, two major groups of phytoestrogens, have been postulated to have multiple health benefits, including anti-estrogenic, anti-cancer, pro-cardiovascular health, and ameliorating menopausal symptoms. Urinary excretion of isoflavonoids, including daidzein, genistein, glycitein, O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), dihydro-daidzein, dihydrogenistein, and equol, and lignans, including enterodiol and enterolactone, have been used as biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies. We evaluated the urinary excretion of phytoestrogens and their correlations with lifestyle and dietary factors among 2,165 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), a population-based prospective cohort study of 74,942 urban Chinese women aged 40-70 years at study enrollment (1996-2000). The medians (in nmol/mg creatinine) were: isoflavonoids, 17.13; daidzein, 5.57; genistein, 2.41; glycitein, 0.94; O-DMA, 1.52; dihydrodaidzein, 0.81; dihydrogenistein, 0.19; equol, 0.11; enterodiol, 0.30; and enterolactone, 1.18. These levels are 2- (enterodiol) to 126- (O-DMA) fold higher than levels among US women similar in age range with the exception of enterolactone, for which a similar level was observed for both populations. Urinary isoflavonoid excretion was higher among older women and women who engaged in regular exercise and significantly associated with soy food intake, but was inversely related to fruit intake. Urinary excretions of dihydrodaidzein, dihydrogenistein, equol, enterodiol, and enterolactone were inversely associated with body mass index (BMI). Urinary excretion of isoflavones correlated with soy food intake and healthy lifestyle but was inversely associated with fruit intake among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. Our study adds important information to the rapidly growing body of research on the potential health benefits of phytoestrogens. PMID:22493748

Wu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Dai, Qi; Li, Honglan; Cai, Qiuyin; Yang, Gong; Franke, Adrian A; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

2012-01-01

256

Human papillomavirus infection and risk factors in a cohort of Tuscan women aged 18-24: results at recruitment  

PubMed Central

Background There is conclusive evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) infections of the cervix are a necessary cause of cervical cancer. In Italy there are consistent data of HPV prevalence in women aged 25 - 64 years, but there is limited data for younger women. The objective of this on-going 3-year prospective cohort study is to investigate the prevalence, acquisition, clearance and persistence of HPV infections in young Tuscan women and the risk factors correlated with such events. Methods One thousand and sixty-six women aged between 18 and 24 years were enrolled and received an initial HPV test. They were asked to return to the clinic over the study period for further tests every 12 months, if their HPV HR result was negative, or every 6 months, if positive. Additionally, women with an HPV positive result were given a cytological examination and if the cytological diagnosis was ASC-US or more severe, only women with HPV HR, were referred for colposcopy. Results We present here data for the enrolment phase of the study. At baseline, within the study sample, just under 30% of women were infected by HPV and 19.3% of women were infected with oncogenic types. A relationship was highlighted between HPV infection, number of sexual partners (in particularly in the last 3 years) and the lifetime number of partner's partners. Condom use showed a slight protective effect in univariate analysis but these data were not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. The association between HPV infection and demographic and behavioural variables were tested by crude odds ratio (OR). Multivariate logistic regression was applied to compute the adjusted odds ratios. Conclusions The prevalence of oncogenic HPV types was high in young Tuscan women. The 3-year follow-up of this cohort may provide a better understanding of the processes of acquisition, clearance and persistence of infection and the correlated risk factors. PMID:20529280

2010-01-01

257

Fertility intentions among HIV positive women aged 18–49 years in Addis Ababa Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Given the degree of HIV epidemic among women and the current antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale up in Ethiopia; considering the issue of fertility is vital to ensure the delivery of integrated reproductive health along with prevention services provided to positive women. This study was aimed to assess fertility intentions of women living with HIV attending public health institutions (hospitals & health centers) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional survey was conducted, among 1855 HIV positive, women aged 18–49 years selected from different public health facilities in Addis Ababa; from June to October 2012. Information was gathered by using interviewer administered questionnaires. Data were double entered in EPI Info version 3.5.2 software, cleaned finally exported to IBM SPSS statistics version 20 for analysis. Logistic regression models were used to predict the association of study variables and adjusted for possible confounders. Result Overall, 44% of women reported fertility intention. ART users had higher fertility intention (AOR; 1.26, 95%CI; 1.01 to 1.60) than ART naïve. In addition to this, having partner being on sexual relationship, young age, being single and having fewer or no children were found to be predictors of fertility intentions. The presence of ART, improvement of health condition and the influence of husband were the main reasons for childbearing intentions of women in the study area. Conclusion A considerable proportion of women reported fertility intention. There was an association between fertility intentions and ART use. It is important for health care providers and policy makers to strengthen the fertility need of HIV positive women along with HIV care so that women may decide freely and responsibly on their fertility issues. PMID:24885318

2014-01-01

258

Serologic Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian Women of Child Bearing Age and Effects of Social and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare. Aim To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted. Results Most women were in the 18–25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26–30 years (28.2%) and 31–35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18–25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers. Conclusions This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737–176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24675656

Singh, Sarman; Munawwar, Arshi; Rao, Sugandhi; Mehta, Sanjay; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

2014-01-01

259

Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N?=?15,437) compared with those 35 and over (N?=?2,387) who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks), low Apgar score (5 min.), small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4%) than younger women (6.4%). They had more prior terminations (<0.001), were more likely to have a body mass index (BMI) >25 (<0.001), had more in vitro fertilization (IVF) (<0.001) and other fertility treatments (<0.001) and a higher incidence of maternal diabetes (<0.001) and chronic hypertension (<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that women of AMA had higher rates of: preterm delivery before 37 weeks 19.2% (OR 1.39 CI 1.24 to 1.56) and before 34 weeks 8.7% (OR 1.68 CI 1.43 to 2.00) low Apgar scores at 5 min. 7.1% (OR 1.37 CI 1.00 to 1.88), Small-for-Gestational Age (SGA) 26.5% (OR 1.42 CI 1.28 to 1.57), Asphyxia 12.1% (OR 1.54 CI 1.34 to 1.77), Caesarean delivery 50% (OR 2.02 CI 1.84 to 2.20) and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) 31.6% (OR 1.45 CI 1.32 to 1.60). Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia. PMID:22687260

2012-01-01

260

Urinary Paraben Concentrations and Ovarian Aging among Women from a Fertility Center  

PubMed Central

Background: Parabens are preservatives commonly used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. There is documented widespread human exposure to parabens, and some experimental data suggest that they act as estrogenic endocrine disruptors. As far as we are aware, no epidemiologic studies have assessed female reproductive health effects in relation to paraben exposure. Objective: We examined the association of urinary paraben concentrations with markers of ovarian reserve in a prospective cohort study of women seeking fertility treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: Measures of ovarian reserve were day-3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and ovarian volume. Paraben concentrations [methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP)] were measured in spot urine samples collected prior to the assessment of outcome measures. We used linear and Poisson regression models to estimate associations of urinary paraben concentrations (in tertiles) with ovarian reserve measures. Results: Of the women enrolled in 2004–2010, 192 had at least one ovarian reserve outcome measured (mean age ± SD, 36.1 ± 4.5 years; range, 21.0–46.7 years). MP and PP were detected in > 99% of urine samples and BP in > 75%. We found a suggestive trend of lower AFC with increasing urinary PP tertiles [mean percent change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1, respectively, were –5.0% (–23.7, 18.4) and –16.3% (–30.8, 1.3); trend p-value (ptrend) = 0.07] as well as higher day-3 FSH with higher urinary PP tertiles [mean change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1 were 1.16 IU/L (–0.26, 2.57) and 1.02 IU/L (–0.40, 2.43); ptrend = 0.16]. We found no consistent evidence of associations between urinary MP or BP and day-3 FSH or AFC, or between urinary MP, PP, or BP and ovarian volume. Conclusions: PP may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve. However, our results require confirmation in further studies. Citation: Smith KW, Souter I, Dimitriadis I, Ehrlich S, Williams PL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2013. Urinary paraben concentrations and ovarian aging among women from a fertility center. Environ Health Perspect 121:1299–1305;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205350 PMID:23912598

Smith, Kristen W.; Souter, Irene; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

2013-01-01

261

Rubella immunity among prenatal women in Ontario, 2006–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Countries of the Americas have been working towards rubella elimination since 2003 and endemic rubella virus transmission appears to have been interrupted since 2009. To contribute towards monitoring of rubella elimination, we assessed rubella seroprevalence among prenatal screening tests performed in Ontario. Methods Specimens received for prenatal rubella serologic testing at the Public Health Ontario Laboratory, the provincial reference laboratory, between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. A patient-based dataset was created using all tests occurring among 15–49 year-old females, where prenatal screening was indicated. Multiple tests were assigned to the same patient on the basis of health card number, name and date of birth. Only unique tests performed at least nine months apart were included. SAS version 9.2 was used for analysis. Results Between 2006 and 2010, we identified 459,963 women who underwent 551,160 unique prenatal screening tests for rubella. Of these, 81.6%, 17.1% and 1.4% had one, two and three or more tests respectively. Rubella immunity remained stable at approximately 90% overall; the proportion of susceptible women was 4.4%. Additionally, 0.6% of women were initially susceptible and subsequently developed immunity. Across the province, susceptibility was highest in the north and declined with increasing age (p?women with multiple tests, the proportion who remained susceptible declined as the number of years between tests increased (p?age at first test, younger women had the highest susceptibility (4.2% among 15–19 year-olds) and were significantly more likely to develop immunity if previously susceptible (p?women in Ontario supports elimination goals as population immunity in this group is relatively high. Higher susceptibility among young women and women living in the north highlights an opportunity for greater focus on identification and immunization of susceptible women in these groups. PMID:23914729

2013-01-01

262

Mortality after Distal Radius Fracture in Men and Women Aged 50 Years and Older in Southern Norway  

PubMed Central

Increased mortality rates in patients sustaining hip and vertebral fractures are well documented; however in distal radius fracture patients the results are conflicting. The aim of this study was to examine short- and long-term mortality in distal radius fracture patient in comparison with the background population. Patients aged ?50 years with distal radius fracture living in Southern Norway who suffered a fracture in the two year period 2004 and 2005 were included in the study. The mortality risk of the standard Norwegian population was used to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). The number of distal radius fractures was 883 (166 men and 717 women). Mean age was 69 years (men 65 years and women 70 years). After one year the overall mortality rate was 3.4% (men 5.4% and women 2.9%) and after five years 4.6% (men 4.0% and women 4.8%). The SMR for men and women compared to the Norwegian population for the first year was 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 2.7) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.2), respectively, and after five years 1.7 (95% CI: 0.3, 3.0) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.7). Stratified on age groups (50–70 and >70 years) an increased SMR was only seen in female patients aged >70 years five years after the fracture (SMR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6). In conclusion, increased SMR was found in female patients aged >70 years five years after the distal radius fracture, but not in men or in women younger than 70 years. PMID:25380128

Øyen, Jannike; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Haugeberg, Glenn

2014-01-01

263

Knowledge about folic acid and use of multivitamins containing folic acid among reproductive-aged women--Georgia, 1995.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects that affect an estimated 4000 pregnancies each year in the United States. However, women can substantially decrease the risk for this birth defect by consuming 400 micrograms (0.4 mg) of folic acid per day before conception and during early pregnancy. In September 1992, the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily. To characterize knowledge about the benefits of folic acid and use of multivitamins containing folic acid among Georgia women, the Division of Public Health, Georgia Department of Human Resources (GDHR), analyzed data from the 1995 Georgia Women's Health Survey (GWHS)--a comprehensive study of women's health that included questions about folic acid. This report summarizes the survey findings regarding knowledge and use of folic acid, which indicate that only 20% of Georgia women aged 15-44 years consumed a multivitamin containing > or = 400 micrograms of folic acid per day, and 71% did not know that folic acid can prevent some birth defects. PMID:8926994

1996-09-20

264

The root of reduced fertility in aged women and possible therapentic options: current status and future perspects.  

PubMed

It is well known that maternal ageing not only causes increased spontaneous abortion and reduced fertility, but it is also a high genetic disease risk. Although assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been widely used to treat infertility, the overall success is still low. The main reasons for age-related changes include reduced follicle number, compromised oocyte quality especially aneuploidy, altered reproductive endocrinology, and increased reproductive tract defect. Various approaches for improving or treating infertility in aged women including controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI), IVF/ICSI-ET, ovarian reserve testing, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening (PGD/PGS), oocyte selection and donation, oocyte and ovary tissue cryopreservation before ageing, miscarriage prevention, and caloric restriction are summarized in this review. Future potential reproductive techniques for infertile older women including oocyte and zygote micromanipulations, derivation of oocytes from germ stem cells, ES cells, and iPS cells, as well as through bone marrow transplantation are discussed. PMID:23796757

Qiao, Jie; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Feng, Huai-Liang; Miao, Yi-Liang; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Yang; Wei, Yan-Chang; Yan, Jie; Wang, Wei-Hua; Shen, Wei; Sun, Shao-Chen; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

2014-08-01

265

Associations between placental cadmium and zinc and age and parity in pregnant women who smoke.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that the ratio of placental zinc to placental cadmium (Zn/Cd ratio) is positively related to infant birth weight in pregnant smokers. Clinical studies have reported that older pregnant smokers are at higher risk for impaired fetal growth than younger pregnant smokers. This study examines the relationships among placental cadmium, placental zinc, placental Zn/Cd ratio, age, and parity in 98 smokers and 151 nonsmokers. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze cadmium and zinc. Thiocyanate was used as an index of smoking status. The data were analyzed using univariate correlation and repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results showed that increased parity is related to increased levels of placental cadmium in smokers, and decreased placental zinc in smokers and nonsmokers. Age is inversely related to the Zn/Cd ratio in both smokers and nonsmokers; moreover, the oldest nonsmokers have a higher ratio than the youngest smokers. These results are consistent with a depletion of body zinc stores with increasing parity and the long half-life of cadmium in the body. The data explain in part the clinical finding that smoking during pregnancy is more harmful in older women. PMID:3336544

Kuhnert, B R; Kuhnert, P M; Zarlingo, T J

1988-01-01

266

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Response and Recovery from High-Intensity Exercise in Women: Effects of Aging and Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypotheses that aging is associated with prolonged recovery after a challenge to the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis (acute exercise) and that aerobic fit- ness is associated with a blunting of the age-related loss of negative feedback sensitivity. Young (27 2.8 yr, n 9), older (64.6 1.4 yr, n 11), and older-fit women (66.3 2.2 yr, n 11)

TINNA TRAUSTADOTTIR; PAMELA R. BOSCH; TIMASUE CANTU; KATHLEEN S. MATT

267

Male age negatively influences clinical pregnancy rate in women younger than 40 years undergoing donor insemination cycles.  

PubMed

The influence of paternal age on clinical pregnancy was examined within younger patients undergoing donor insemination (DI) cycles in Western Australia. A retrospective analysis of 2142 DI cycles was carried out, including only women <40 years with no history of fertility problems. Logistic regression analysis was used to relate donor age to clinical pregnancy rate. Proportional hazards regression analysis was used to relate male age to time to pregnancy. Mediation analysis was conducted to adjust for influence of sperm concentration and motility. Analysis was controlled for female age, luteal-phase progesterone support and insemination year. There was no effect of female age on pregnancy rate or time to pregnancy. Older males (age ? 45 years) were significantly associated with a reduced pregnancy rate and longer time to pregnancy. Mediation analysis indicated that sperm concentration and motility did not fully account for the effect of male age on pregnancy. This study reveals an adverse effect of male age on clinical pregnancy in women <40 years of age that is not solely mediated by decreased sperm concentration or motility. This has implications for recruitment systems that attract older donors such as open-identity systems, which may benefit from actively recruiting younger donors. PMID:23768621

Koh, Su-Ann; Sanders, Katherine; Deakin, Richard; Burton, Peter

2013-08-01

268

Are Men Aging as Oaks and Women as Reeds? A Behavioral Hypothesis to Explain the Gender Paradox of French Centenarians  

PubMed Central

Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as “oaks,” seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as “reeds,” seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

Balard, Frédéric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

2011-01-01

269

Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to…

Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

270

Socioeconomic differences in the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged men and women with subclinical atherosclerosis in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the persistence of socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been recognized for many years, less is known about whether socioeconomic factors are of importance to CVD before symptoms of the disease appear. In this study the associations among educational level, occupational status and progression of atherosclerosis were investigated in 1016 Swedish middle-aged men and women with signs of

Maria Rosvall; Per-Olof Östergren; Bo Hedblad; Sven-Olof Isacsson; Lars Janzon; Göran Berglund

2006-01-01

271

Reproductive Health Rights of Women in the Rural Areas of Meherpur District in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the reproductive health rights, women empowerment and gender equity in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods Three hundred married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Meherpur District, Bangladesh were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and purposing sampling techniques. The logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominating factors affecting reproductive health rights. To fulfill the objectives of the study the two main factors, age at marriage and family planning acceptance of the respondents, were regarded as the determinants. Results The study results revealed that almost all the respondents were housewives (82.3%), one-third (31.0%) did not avail any modern facility, and their yearly income was very low. Moreover, about half of the women (52.7%) were very young (?30 years), most of them (79.0%) had married early (<18 years) and about half of them (53.3%) had taken contraceptives based on their husbands’ choice. Finally, multi-variate analysis identified the relationship between the profession of the respondents, yearly income, number of family members, and the availability of modern facilities with age at marriage (Model 1). The study also identified the relationship between the age of respondents, education, occupation, yearly income, and the total number of family members with family planning acceptance (Model 2). Conclusion Regarding the results of this study, women's reproductive health rights, marriage after the age of 18 and family planning acceptance among couples needs to be enhanced in Mehrpur District in Bangladesh. PMID:23926496

Hossain, Md Kamal; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Akter, Mst Nazniz

2011-01-01

272

Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was ?0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having ?4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747

Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2010-01-01

273

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

2013-01-01

274

Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: An examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly-cycling women  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether reproductive age, indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies between women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based sample. Patients Multi-ethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African-American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly-cycling pre-menopausal women, ages 25-45. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures(s) AMH level. Results A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, non-linear terms for age (age2, age3) and BMI (BMI2, BMI3), and 2-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each other predictor variable in relation to AMH. Following backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F=8.45), age (F=349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F=4.67), age2 (F=31.61), and BMI (F=10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower in the Latina vs. white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower in the African-American and Chinese women vs. white women at younger and middle ages, respectively, and AMH levels were higher in the African-American vs. Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Conclusions Although results must be considered preliminary, findings are two-fold, suggesting 1) African-American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age; and 2) Latina and Chinese women, compared to white women, may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and possible increased risk for earlier menopause. PMID:24182412

Bleil, Maria E.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Adler, Nancy E.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

2014-01-01

275

The legacy of minimum legal drinking age law changes: Long-term effects on suicide and homicide deaths among women  

PubMed Central

Background Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Methods Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990–2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed which incorporated state and birth year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. Results In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.18, p=0.0003) and homicide (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.04, 1.25; p=0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Conclusions Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. PMID:22085045

Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R.; Norberg, Karen E.; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.

2013-01-01

276

Factors influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women: a qualitative study to inform clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background About half of women decrease their regular exercise during middle age. Concurrently, they experience a reduction in basal metabolic rate and loss of lean muscle as they transition to menopause. The combined effects place these women at increased risk for body weight gain and associated co-morbidities. Further research is required to better assess their barriers to regular exercise and to develop more applied knowledge aimed to improve the applicability of clinical interventions aimed at this population. The main aim of this study was to identify enablers and barriers influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women who exercise. Methods An interpretive description qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. The two key questions were focused on planning to engage in physical activity and succeeding or planning to engage in physical activity and not succeeding. Inductive content analysis was used. Results Fifty-three women interviewed were aged 40–62 years and experiencing mild to moderate menopausal symptoms. Six broad themes influencing adhering to regular exercise were: routine, intrinsic motivation, biophysical issues, psychosocial commitments, environmental factors, and resources. Common sub-themes were identified as enabling factors: daily structure that incorporated physical activity (broad theme routine), anticipated positive feelings associated with physical activity (intrinsic), and accountability to others (psychosocial). Other common sub-themes identified as barriers were disruptions in daily structure (routine), competing demands (routine) and self-sacrifice (psychosocial). Conclusions The most common barrier middle-aged women describe as interfering with adhering to regular exercise was attributable to the demands of this life stage at home and with others. Lack of time and menopausal symptoms were not identified as the common barriers. To support women to adhere to regular exercise, healthcare professionals should consider a narrative approach to assessing barriers and focus on enablers to overcoming identified barriers. PMID:24666887

2014-01-01

277

Susceptibility to cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 and age-dependent differences in levels of rubella antibodies among pregnant women.  

PubMed

Infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19), and rubella can lead to serious complications in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility to CMV, B19, and rubella antibodies in pregnant women in Norway. Consecutive sera samples were collected from pregnant women in two different regions in Norway. Sera were collected from age groups; ?19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and ?40 years old. Of the 2,000 pregnant women tested, anti-CMV IgG was positive in 62.8% anti-parvovirus B19 IgG in 59.7% and anti-rubella IgG in 94.4%. CMV IgG susceptibility has decreased in pregnant women less than 30 years of age, from 60% in a study conducted in 1973-1974 to 37.2% in present study. There was a significant difference in CMV IgG seropositivity rate between the two regions (58.6% and 67.1%). Serum levels of rubella IgG was lowest in age group 25-29 years with a positivity rate of 91.0%. Women born before vaccination with two doses of MMR started, had both a higher positivity rate and significantly higher levels of rubella antibody titre, 96.1% and 82.2?IU/ml compared to those born after 92.9% and 41.7?IU/ml. Significantly lower anti-rubella IgG titre found in the youngest age groups highlights the need for continued antenatal screening. A considerable increase in anti-CMV-IgG seropositivity rate was observed and might be associated with higher rate of breastfeeding and a higher percentage attending day-care centres. PMID:24114849

Barlinn, Regine; Vainio, Kirsti; Samdal, Helvi Holm; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Nøkleby, Hanne; Dudman, Susanne G

2014-05-01

278

Estimated intake levels of methylmercury in children, childbearing age and pregnant women in a Mediterranean region, Murcia, Spain.  

PubMed

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a bioaccumulable toxin in the trophic chain and a powerful neurotoxin during fetal and child development. Consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish is a principal environmental source of MeHg exposure. This study was designed to assess the Hg and estimated MeHg intake in vulnerable groups of the Murcia region, a Mediterranean part of Spain, compared with international regulations. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess seafood consumptions in 320 children younger than 10 years, 301 women of childbearing age, and 537 pregnant women. Hg concentrations were measured in the most consumed fish products by cold vapor generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The weekly intake of MeHg (microg/kg bw/week) was 2.60 (95% CI = 2.10-3.10) in children 1-5 years, 2.65 (95% CI = 2.26-3.03) in children 6-10 years, 0.98 (95% CI = 0.89-1.07) in women of childbearing age, and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.81-0.95) in pregnant women. The main exposure to MeHg, especially in young children, is related to intake of bluefin tuna and swordfish. Fifty-four percent of children aged 1-10 years, 10% of pregnant women, and 15% of women of childbearing age exceed the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives provisional tolerable weekly intake of MeHg. In the Murcia region, where fish is a central component of the diet, the focus should be on educating vulnerable populations to reorient fish consumption in order to lower the amount of Hg incorporated with the diet as well as to reduce Hg emissions into the environment. PMID:19096874

Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Rodriguez, Kristina; Calatayud, Marta; Martin, Marlene; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Sánchez-Alarcon, Mari Carmen; Torres Cantero, Alberto Manuel; Galindo-Cascales, Consuelo; Gil-Vázquez, Juana María; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Sánchez-Solís, Manuel; Alfonso-Marsilla, Blas; Romero-Braquehais, Fernando

2009-09-01

279

Sexual Dimorphism of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Immunoreactive Neurons in the Infundibular Nucleus of Aged Men and Women  

PubMed Central

The secretory output of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons is critically influenced by peptidergic neurons synthesizing kisspeptins (KP) and neurokinin B (NKB) in the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (Inf). These cells mediate negative feedback effects of sex steroids on the reproductive axis. While negative feedback is lost in postmenopausal women, it is partly preserved by the sustained testosterone secretion in aged men. We hypothesized that the different reproductive physiology of aged men and women is reflected in morphological differences of KP and NKB neurons. This sexual dimorphism was studied with immunohistochemistry in hypothalamic sections of aged human male (?50?years) and female (>55?years) subjects. KP and NKB cell bodies of the Inf were larger in females. The number of KP cell bodies, the density of KP fibers, and the incidence of their contacts on GnRH neurons were much higher in aged women compared with men. The number of NKB cell bodies was only slightly higher in women and there was no sexual dimorphism in the regional density of NKB fibers and the incidence of their appositions onto GnRH cells. The incidences of NKB cell bodies, fibers, and appositions onto GnRH neurons exceeded several-fold those of KP-IR elements in men. More NKB than KP inputs to GnRH cells were also present in women. Immunofluorescent studies identified only partial overlap between KP and NKB axons. KP and NKB were colocalized in higher percentages of afferents to GnRH neurons in women compared with men. Most of these sex differences might be explained with the lack of estrogen negative feedback in aged women, whereas testosterone can continue to suppress KP, and to a lesser extent, NKB synthesis in men. Overall, sex differences in reproductive physiology of aged humans were reflected in the dramatic sexual dimorphism of the KP system, with significantly higher incidences of KP-IR neurons, fibers and inputs to GnRH neurons in aged females vs. males. PMID:22654828

Hrabovszky, Erik; Molnár, Csilla S.; Sipos, Máté T.; Vida, Barbara; Ciofi, Philippe; Borsay, Beáta A.; Sarkadi, László; Herczeg, László; Bloom, Stephen R.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Dhillo, Waljit S.; Kalló, Imre; Liposits, Zsolt

2011-01-01

280

Food consumption patterns and associated factors among Vietnamese women of reproductive age  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Adequate nutrient intakes among women of reproductive age (WRA) are important determinants of maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. However, data on dietary intake for WRA in Vietnam are lacking. This paper aimed to examine the adequacy and determinants of energy and macronutrient intakes among WRA enrolled in a study of preconceptual micronutrient supplementation (PRECONCEPT) being conducted in 20 rural communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. Methods Dietary intakes were determined for 4983 WRA who participated in the baseline survey using a previously validated 107-item (semi-quantitative) food-frequency questionnaire that was administered by trained field workers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with energy and macronutrient intakes. Results A disproportionate number of energy came from starches, primarily rice. Carbohydrate, fat and protein constituted 65.6%, 19.5% and 14.8% of total energy, respectively. Fat intake was below recommended levels in 56.5% of respondents, but carbohydrate intakes were above recommended level in 54.6%. Only 0.1% and 5.2% of WRA achieved adequate intake of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Multivariate linear regression revealed that low education, low socioeconomic status, and food insecurity were significant predictors of reduced total energy intake, reduced energy from protein and fat, and greater energy from carbohydrates. Logistic regression confirmed that inadequate macronutrient intake was more common among the poor, food insecure, and less educated. Conclusions Imbalanced dietary intakes among underprivileged women reflect lack of dietary diversity. Nutrition programs should be linked with social development, poverty reduction, education programs and behavior change counseling in order to improve the nutritional status of WRA in Vietnam. PMID:24028650

2013-01-01

281

Vertebral Size, Bone Density, and Strength in Men and Women Matched for Age and Areal Spine BMD  

PubMed Central

To explore the possible mechanisms underlying sex-specific differences in skeletal fragility that may be obscured by two-dimensional areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measures, we compared quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based vertebral bone measures among pairs of men and women from the Framingham Heart Study Multidetector Computed Tomography Study who were matched for age and spine aBMD. Measurements included vertebral body cross-sectional area (CSA, cm2), trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD, g/cm3), integral volumetric BMD (Int.vBMD, g/cm3), estimated vertebral compressive loading and strength (Newtons) at L3, the factor-of-risk (load-to-strength ratio), and vertebral fracture prevalence. We identified 981 male-female pairs (1:1 matching) matched on age (± 1 year) and QCT-derived aBMD of L3 (± 1%), with an average age of 51 years (range 34 to 81 years). Matched for aBMD and age, men had 20% larger vertebral CSA, lower Int.vBMD (?8%) and Tb.vBMD (?9%), 10% greater vertebral compressive strength, 24% greater vertebral compressive loading, and 12% greater factor-of-risk than women (p < 0.0001 for all), as well as higher prevalence of vertebral fracture. After adjusting for height and weight, the differences in CSA and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) between men and women were attenuated but remained significant, whereas compressive strength was no longer different. In conclusion, vertebral size, morphology, and density differ significantly between men and women matched for age and spine aBMD, suggesting that men and women attain the same aBMD by different mechanisms. These results provide novel information regarding sex-specific differences in mechanisms that underlie vertebral fragility. PMID:23955966

Bruno, Alexander G; Broe, Kerry E; Zhang, Xiaochun; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Meng, Ching-An; Manoharan, Rajaram; D’Agostino, John; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P; Bouxsein, Mary L

2014-01-01

282

Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

2009-01-01

283

Characteristics of Middle-Aged Women in Inpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined descriptive characteristics of women 35 years and older seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder. A second purpose was to compare characteristics and treatment experiences of midlife patients to young adult patients. Participants were 193 women admitted for treatment to a residential eating disorders facility. All of the women received the standard inpatient treatment package offered

Maryelizabeth forman; William N. Davis

2005-01-01

284

Clomiphene citrate challenge test predicts outcome of intrauterine insemination in women aged under 37 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clomiphene citrate challenge test is a tool to predict ovarian reserve and fertility. It has mainly been used as a predictor of success of IVF\\/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Infertile young women with diminished ovarian reserve have a worse prognosis than women with adequate ovarian reserve attempting IVF\\/ICSI cycles. Nothing is known regarding the outcome of young women with

Amiram Magendzo; Juan-Enrique Schwarze; Claudia Diaz de la Vega; Elena Altieri; Fernando Zegers-Hochschild; Jose P Balmaceda

2006-01-01

285

Majority of Filipino women do not want any more children.  

PubMed

The 1993 National Demographic Survey for the Philippines was conducted by the National Statistics Office and included a national sample of 15,029 women aged 15-49. Survey data indicate that a large proportion of Filipino women have achieved their childbearing goals and do not want to have any more children. Indeed, 51% of currently married women report not wanting to have any more children, 12% are sterilized, 19% want to delay the birth of their next child at least two years, and 9% want to have another child within two years. The majority of Filipinos approve of family planning and 86% of women think it is acceptable for family planning messages to be broadcast on radio and television. Despite almost universal knowledge of family planning in the Philippines, however, only 40% of currently married women are using a method of family planning; 25% modern methods. Female sterilization used by 12% is the most popular method, followed by the pill among 9%, natural family planning at 7%, and withdrawal at 7%. More than 25% of married women have an unmet need for family planning, with need highest among rural women and women who have elementary school education or less. The level of contraceptive use would approach 70% if all women in need of family planning were to use contraception. The Philippines 4.1 rate of total fertility is one of the highest in Southeast Asia despite moderate declines over the past two decades due largely to the increased use of family planning. Rural women have an average of 1.3 children more than urban women, women in Bicol have an average of three children more than women in metro Manila, and women with no education typically have one child more than women with college education. Finally, considerable progress has been made in maternal and child health, with declining infant and under-five mortality, and 72% of children aged 12-23 months having received all recommended vaccinations. 83% of women receive antenatal care and 53% of births occur with assistance from a physician, nurse, or midwife even though the majority of births take place at home. PMID:12319378

1995-01-01

286

Is my period normal? How college-aged women determine the normality or abnormality of their menstrual cycles.  

PubMed

The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to explore young adult women's conceptualizations of their menstruation experiences using a feminist approach. Grounded theory was used to understand how 15 college-aged women (ages 18-22 years, 86% white) evaluate their menstrual patterns as "normal" or "abnormal." Data analysis of the semi-structured interviews revealed four themes that the women used to judge the pattern of their menstruation (i.e., interval, duration, discomfort, and volume) as normal: (1) Pattern resembled learned norms, (2) consistent pattern discordant from learned norms, (3) predictably variable pattern, and (4) absence of problems. Two distinct themes informed their decisions to consider a menstrual pattern as abnormal: (1) Unpredictable variability, and (2) extreme experiences. The core variable emerging from data analysis, establishing a personal norm, illuminated the two major sources that women relied on in trying to interpret their menstrual patterns: the limited and often inaccurate information that they had been taught and their own menstrual experiences. Implications include the need to improve education about menstrual variability throughout the life cycle and about the diversity of women's normal menstrual patterns and experiences. PMID:18032174

Wood, Jill M; Barthalow Koch, Patricia; Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff

2007-01-01

287

Educational level, prevalence of hysterectomy, and age at amenorrhoea: a cross-sectional analysis of 9536 women from six population-based cohort studies in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Hysterectomy prevalence has been shown to vary by education level. Hysterectomy influences age at amenorrhoea. The aim of this study was to examine these associations in Germany within population-based data sets. Methods Baseline assessments in six population-based cohorts took place from 1997 through 2006 and included 9,548 women aged 20–84 years. All studies assessed hysterectomy history, school and professional degrees. Degrees were categorized into three levels each. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Prevalences were higher in West Germany than East Germany, increased by age, and leveled off starting at 55–64 years. The age- and study-adjusted prevalence ratio (lowest versus highest school level) was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.28-5.30), 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.81), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80-1.28) for women aged 20–45, 45–64, and 65 and more years respectively. The estimated adjusted prevalence ratios per one unit decrement of the educational qualification score (range 1?=?lowest, 8?=?highest) were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02-1.64), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.12), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.03) for women aged 20–44, 45–64, and 65–84 years respectively. Age at amenorrhoea was on average 6.2 years lower (43.5 years versus 49.7 years) among women with a history of hysterectomy than those without. Conclusions Lower educational level was associated with a higher hysterectomy prevalence among women aged 20–64 years. Several mediators associated with educational level and hysterectomy including women’s disease risk, women’s treatment preference, and women’s access to uterus-preserving treatment may explain this association. At population level, hysterectomy decreases the age of amenorrhoea on average by 6.2 years. PMID:24433474

2014-01-01

288

Is Younger Really Safer? A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of Age-Disparate Relationships among Women in Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women’s perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women’s perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive. PMID:24260585

Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

2013-01-01

289

The effect of joint contraceptive decisions on the use of Injectables, Long-Acting and Permanent Methods (ILAPMs) among married female (15–49) contraceptive users in Zambia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Zambia’s fertility rate and unmet need for family planning are still high. This is in spite of the progress reported from 1992 to 2007 of the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate from 15% to 41% and use of modern methods of family planning from 9% to 33%. However, partner disapproval of family planning has been cited by many women in many countries including Zambia. Given the effectiveness of long-acting and permanent methods of family planning (ILAPMs) in fertility regulation, this paper sought to examine the relationship between contraceptive decision-making and use of ILAPMs among married women in Zambia. Methods This paper uses data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. The analysis is based on married women (15–49) who reported using a method of family planning at the time of the survey. Out of the 7,146 women interviewed, only 1,630 women were valid for this analysis. Cross-tabulations and binary logistic regressions with Chi-square were used to analyse associations and the predictors of use of ILAPMs of contraception, respectively. A confidence interval of .95 was used in determining relationships between independent and dependent variables. Results Two thirds of women made joint decisions regarding contraception and 29% of the women were using ILAPMs. Women who made joint contraceptive decisions are significantly more likely to use ILAPMs than women who did not involve their husband in contraceptive decisions. However, the most significant predictor is the wealth index. Women from rich households are more likely to use ILAPMs than women from medium rich and poor households. Results also show that women of North Western ethnicities and those from Region 3 had higher odds of using ILAPMs than Tonga women and women from Region 2, respectively. Conclusion Joint contraceptive decision-making between spouses is key to use of ILAPMs in Zambia. Our findings have also shown that the wealth index is actually the strongest factor determining use of these methods. As such, family planning programmes directed at increasing use of LAPMs ought to not only encourage spousal communication but should also consider rolling out interventions that incorporate economic empowerment. PMID:24993034

2014-01-01

290

Determinants of willingness to pay for a new therapy in a sample of menopausal-aged women.  

PubMed

Menopause is a natural physiological event that usually begins in women between the ages of 48 and 55 years. In many cases, this event is associated with unpleasant somatic-vegetative, urogenital or psychological symptoms. To test the health and social demographic factors (especially household income level) that influence willingness to pay (WTP) for a new hormone-free treatment in women of menopausal age. 1365 women between the ages of 45 and 73 years were surveyed about their health and WTP for the new treatment. WTP was evaluated with a closed-ended binary questionnaire (four groups with different levels of co-payment between euro15 and euro60), using the contingent valuation method. The average WTP was calculated according to the area under the demand function. Factors contributing to payment readiness were examined by means of binary logistic regression. WTP was significantly affected by women's opinion of the new medication, the level of co-payment required, net household income, whether currently in treatment for menopausal symptoms, and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) values. Compared with other factors, the level of co-payment was predicted to have a negative impact on WTP. Income level is an important factor in WTP and correlates highly with several other health-related variables (WHO-5 index, MRS value, receipt of other menopause medicines and existing co-morbidity). The average co-payment that our group of women was willing to pay was between euro17 and euro35 per month, or euro24 to euro42 for women who were currently receiving treatment for symptoms of menopause. While interpreting the results, it should be considered that the hypothetical therapy was assumed to be a new non-reimbursable alternative to conventional therapy offered under the existing statutory framework for health insurance in Germany. Despite some methodological limitations, these results are useful for examining the factors affecting WTP and incremental utilities for future medicine dealing with menopause. PMID:19712011

Rasch, Andrej; Hodek, Jan-Marc; Runge, Claus; Greiner, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

291

Improvement of the Vietnamese Diet for Women of Reproductive Age by Micronutrient Fortification of Staples Foods and Condiments  

PubMed Central

Background A micronutrient survey carried out in 2010 among randomly selected Vietnamese women in reproductive age indicated that anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are still prevalent. The objective of this study was thus to analyze the dietary micronutrient intakes of these women, to select the food vehicles to be fortified and to calculate their contributions to meet the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for iron, zinc, vitamin A and folic acid. Main Findings Consumption data showed that the median intake was 38.4% of the RNI for iron, 61.1% for vitamin A and 91.8% for zinc. However, more than 50% of the women had daily zinc consumption below the RNI. Rice and vegetable oil were consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 320.4 g/capita/day and 8.6 g/capita/day respectively) by over 90% of the women, making them suitable vehicles for fortification. Based on consumption data, fortified vegetable oil could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 27.1% of the RNI and fortified rice could increase the intake of iron by 41.4% of the RNI, zinc by 15.5% and folate by 34.1%. Other food vehicles, such as fish and soy sauces and flavoring powders, consumed respectively by 63% and 90% of the population could contribute to increase micronutrient intakes if they are properly fortified and promoted. Wheat flower was consumed by 39% of the women and by less than 20% women from the lowest socioeconomic strata. Conclusion The fortification of edible vegetable oils with vitamin A and of rice with iron, zinc and folic acid are the most promising fortification strategies to increase micronutrient intakes of women in reproductive age in Vietnam. While rice fortification will be implemented, fortification of fish and soy sauces with iron, that has been proven to be effective, has to be supported and fortification of flavouring powders with micronutrients investigated. PMID:23226308

Laillou, Arnaud; Berger, Jacques; Le, Bach Mai; Pham, Van Thuy; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Cong Khan; Panagides, Dora; Rohner, Fabian; Wieringa, Frank; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

2012-01-01

292

Use of emergency department services by women victims of violence in Lazio region, Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Violence against women is a significant health problem and a hidden phenomenon, in Italy that about 31% of the women have been victims of violence once in life. Aims of this study are to describe characteristics of women victims of violence (VV) attending the EDs in the Lazio region in 2008 and to illustrate the frequency and characteristics of previous ED visits. Methods Using the Emergency Information System, visits of women, (15–49 years), in the 60 EDs, for a violent trauma have been analysed. For each VV identified, we considered the last episode and searched for ED attendances in a six year period (2003–08) in order to identify other visits. We performed descriptive analyses of socio-demographic and clinical factors of VV and we analyzed the impact previous ED visits. We compared ED utilization of women VV with a random sample of women with the same age distribution who gave birth in 2008. Results In 2008, 7,725 ED attendances of women VV were found (1.1% of the ED visits) corresponding to 6,936 women (prevalence?=?52.0x10,000). The mean number of ED visits for each woman in five years was 5.0 (1–190). Prevalent diagnoses were contusions (45.8%), neurotic disorders (5.4%) complications of medical care (6.3%). The women were young, approximately 70% were residents in Rome or the surrounding areas. Foreign women were three times more likely to visit the ED for intentional injuries than were Italian women (114.1 vs 44.4 per 10.000). Conclusions This study shows high prevalence of violence against women in Lazio region, Italy. Most of the women have been visited by the ED several times before the violent episode, often with traumas. ED medical and nursing staff should be prepared and trained to successfully manage victims of violence. PMID:23870135

2013-01-01

293

Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49–79  

PubMed Central

Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p?=?0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p?=?0.0027. p?=?0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p?=?0.0050, P?=?0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P?=?0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P?=?0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P?=?0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P?=?0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities –frequent attendance clubs/lodges/groups”, and with ‘a little’ vs. ‘none’ or ‘great deal’ of strength and comfort from religion. PMID:24896649

Wyshak, Grace

2014-01-01

294

Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

295

A Qualitative Analysis of Stress and Coping in Korean Immigrant Women in Middle-age and Older-adulthood.  

PubMed

This qualitative grounded theory study explored stress-coping mechanisms in 14 Korean immigrant women (age ?40) in the USA, by analyzing existing focus group data about relevant concepts that had been collected in a parent study. Using content analysis, stressors related primarily to socioenvironmental changes following immigration: language barriers, lack of trusting human relationships, and role changes were identified. Both healthy (activities, church, staying busy) and unhealthy (being alone and keeping negative feelings inside) coping strategies were reported by participants. The findings reveal unique aspects of stress-coping among Korean women who had immigrated after being culturally engrained with Confucian influences. PMID:25517124

Sin, Mo-Kyung

2015-01-01

296

Two hypotheses of dense breasts and viral infection for explaining incidence of breast cancer by age group in Korean women.  

PubMed

Breast cancer, the second leading type of cancer in Korean women, has shown increasing incidence over the past 10 years. However, the curves of incidence by age group cast doubt on the birth cohort effect hypothesis. To explain the curves, here I suggest two alternative hypotheses of breast density and viral infection based on pre-existing evidences. Evaluating these hypotheses would require important clues to find unknown risk factors of breast cancer and to plan more effective strategies for breast cancer control in Korean women. PMID:25266421

Bae, Jong-Myon

2014-01-01

297

Effect of Integrated Personalized Health Care System on Middle-Aged and Elderly Women's Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives Body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat, and blood pressure are important indicators of a person's health. In this experimental study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an integrated personalized health care system, Health Improvement and Management System (HIMS)-everyday, which instantly provides subjects with biofeedback on their measured body weight, BMI, body fat and blood pressure using a database that stores subjects-customized information. Methods The subjects of this study used the system once or twice a week for 8 weeks. We analyzed the changes in their body weight, BMI, body fat, and blood pressure according to their respective usage of the system, and analyzed the changes in their perceived health status and health promoting behavior accordingly. Results Subjects' body weight, BMI, and blood pressure decreased significantly with respect to their individual usage of the system. Subjects who used the system more frequently showed significant improvement in their body weight, BMI, and body fat. However, subjects' perceived health status and health promoting behavior did not improve significantly. Conclusions The study showed that the biofeedback-based personalized health care system was effective in controlling middle-aged and elderly women' body weight, BMI, body fat, and blood pressure. PMID:23115743

Lee, Hiye-Ja; Park, Seung-Hun; Ju, Se-Jin; Jin, Mi-Hwa; Park, Boc-Nam

2012-01-01

298

Utilization of Modern Contraceptives among HIV Positive Reproductive Age Women in Tigray, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background. HIV infected women in sub-Saharan Africa are at substantial risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. In developing countries including Ethiopia counseling and provision of modern contraceptives of choice to HIV infected women including those on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important strategy to prevent unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Little is known about the existing practices and utilization of modern contraceptives among HIV positive reproductive age women attending ART units. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess utilization of modern contraceptives and associated factors among HIV positive reproductive age women attending ART units in zonal hospitals of Tigray region, North Ethiopia. Method. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 364 HIV positive reproductive age women in all zonal hospitals of Tigray region using systematic sampling technique. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods were used to analyze utilization of modern contraceptives and the factors associated with it. Result. Three hundred sixty-four subjects participated with a response rate of 99.2%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 ± 6.5 (SD) years. About 46% of participants utilized modern contraceptives, 59.9% out of them used dual method. However, a significant proportion of the respondents (46%) reported that they wished to have a desire for children. Being secondary education and higher (AOR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.17–6.95) and currently on HAART (AOR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.49–7.01) they were more likely to utilize modern contraceptive. But those women who were ?25 years old, house wives, single, divorced, or widowed were less likely to utilize modern contraceptive. Conclusion. Results of this study revealed that the number of respondents who were ever heard of modern contraceptives was high. However, modern contraceptive utilization was still low. Additional efforts are needed to promote modern contraceptive utilization in general and dual method use in particular among HIV positive reproductive age women. PMID:24224116

Berhane, Yemane; Berhe, Haftu; Abera, Gerezgiher Buruh; Berhe, Hailemariam

2013-01-01

299

Dyspareunia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative middle-aged women: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate whether dyspareunia is associated with HIV status in menopausal women and also to assess which factors are associated with dyspareunia in a group of HIV-positive menopausal women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 178 HIV-negative and 128 HIV-positive women aged 40–60?years. The Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ) was used to collect data. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioural and reproductive factors were evaluated, as well as factors related to the HIV infection. Dyspareunia was defined as pain during intercourse. A bivariate analysis and Poisson multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Overall, 41.4% of the HIV-positive women reported dyspareunia compared with 34.8% of the HIV-negative women (p=0.242). In the HIV-positive women, bivariate analysis revealed an association between dyspareunia and having a steady partner (p=0.047); the woman’s partner having undergone HIV testing (p=0.020); vaginal dryness (p<0.001); muscle/joint pain (p=0.021); physical/emotional violence (p=0.049); urinary incontinence (p=0.004); and the use of lamivudine/zidovudine (p=0.048). The Poisson multiple regression analysis found an association between dyspareunia and vaginal dryness (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.96, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.50, p=0.023) and urinary incontinence (PR=1.86, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.27, p=0.031). Conclusions Dyspareunia was common in this group of HIV-positive women and was associated principally with vaginal dryness and urinary incontinence. The importance of treating dyspareunia within the context of sexual health in this group of women should be emphasised and appropriate management of this issue may reduce the likelihood of lesions on the vaginal wall, which may act as a portal of entry for other infections. PMID:25421335

Valadares, Ana L R; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Gomes, Debora de C; D'Avanzo, Walquíria C; Moura, Alexandre S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Sousa, Maria Helena

2014-01-01

300

Determinants of Institutional Delivery among Childbearing Age Women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: Unmatched Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Results Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI))?=?2.754(1.510–8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI)?=?.454(.209–.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI)?=?3.822 (1.766–8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI)?=?2.914(1.105–7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI)?=?.136(.054–.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI)?=?9.995(2.101–47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI)?=?6.957(2.422–19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI)?=?3.541(1.732–7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI)?=?.665(.173–.954)], respondents’ awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI)?=?2.454 (1.663–6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI)?=?.258(.122–.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions and Recommendations Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have to consider the predictors of institutional delivery like education, birth order, antenatal care utilization and residence to improve institutional delivery in the area. PMID:24810609

Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero

2014-01-01

301

Increased frequency of gestational and delivery-related complications in women of 35 years of age and above.  

PubMed

Abstract This retrospective study evaluated gestational and delivery-related characteristics focusing on women aged 35 and above (? 35 years). Data were collected on maternal (n = 8,407) and newborn records during a 4-year admission period (2008-11) at the County Emergency Hospital, Tîrgu-Mure?, Romania. The prevalence of preterm deliveries increased in all age groups, from 19.5% to 27.8% (p = 0.006) in mothers ? 35 years. Twinning rate showed a highly significant increase, being 2.6% in 2008 and 9.5% in 2011 (p = 0.005), while caesarean delivery incidence increased from 46.3% to 51.0% in women aged ? 35. Our study revealed a highly significant decrease of mean gestational age and mean fetal weight, as well as a higher incidence of comorbidities and pregnancy-related complications in those aged ? 35 years. We assume that comorbidities, maternal and fetal indications to perform caesarean section (CS), in the more mature age group, were a main determinant of the elective or iatrogenic preterm deliveries, which might have contributed to further complications; moreover, previous CSs were likely a promoting factor for further CSs. PMID:25093420

Bereczky, L-K; Kiss, Sz-L; Szabó, B

2015-02-01

302

Greater Short-Term Weight Loss in Women 20-45 versus 55-65 Years of Age Following Bariatric Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Whether and how sex and age affect bariatric-surgery outcome is poorly understood. Estrogens regulate body composition in women and animals and increased weight loss in a rodent model of gastric bypass, suggesting that premenopausal women may lose more weight following bariatric surgery. Methods 1,356 female gastric-bypass or gastric-banding patients were retrospectively grouped as 20-45 y old (presumptively premenopausal; n = 1199) and 55-65 y old (presumptively postmenopausal; n = 157). Mixed-model ANCOVA followed by Bonferroni-corrected t-tests were used to categorically test the effect of age on percent excess body weight loss (%EBWL) at 1 and 2 y post-surgery, controlling for preoperative EBW and surgery type. Age effects were also tested dimensionally in all women and in 289 male patients. Results 20-45 y-old women showed greater %EBWL 1 and 2 y post-surgery than 55-65 y-old women (p’s < 0.0005). No age effect was detected in 20-25 vs. 30-35, 30-35 vs. 40-45, or 20-25 vs. 40-45 y-old women (p’s > 0.2) This age effect was detected only after gastric banding, with 20-45 y-old women losing ~7 kg more than 55-65 y-old women after 2 y. Dimensional analysis confirmed a significant inverse effect of age on bariatric surgery outcome in women, but did not detect any effect in men. Conclusions Results indicate that 55-65 y-old women lose less weight than 20-45 y-old women in the initial 2 y after bariatric surgery, especially gastric banding; this may be mediated by age- or menopause-associated changes in physical activity, energy expenditure, or energy intake. PMID:23700235

Ochner, Christopher N.; Teixeira, Julio; Geary, Nori; Asarian, Lori

2013-01-01

303

Secular Trends in Menarcheal Age in India-Evidence from the Indian Human Development Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified. Methods We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15–49 years) in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey. Results The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77) in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85) among women born prior to 1955–1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67) among women born during late 1985–1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955–1964 (95% CI: 14.89–15.11) to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63–12.56) during 1985–1989. Conclusion The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women. PMID:25369507

Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Tripathi, Niharika; Subramanian, S. V.

2014-01-01

304

Age-related site-specific muscle loss in the thigh and zigzag walking performance in older men and women.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationships between site-specific muscle loss in the thigh, muscle quality and zigzag walking performance, 40 men and 41 women aged 65-79 years had muscle thickness (MTH) measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. Skeletal muscle mass (SM) was estimated from an ultrasoundderived prediction equation. Site-specific thigh sarcopenia was calculated using ultrasound-measured MTH at the anterior/posterior aspects of the thigh (AP-MTH ratio). Zigzag walking time (ZWT) and maximum isometric knee extension (KE) and flexion (KF) torques were measured. Muscle quality (torque/thigh SM) and knee joint strength index (torque/body mass) were calculated. There were no significant correlations between SM index and ZWT. However, AP-MTH ratio was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to ZWT in men (r = -0.335) and women (r = -0.309). ZWT was also inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to KE-strength index in both sexes (men, r = -0.328; women, r = -0.372). Similarly, ZWT was correlated to KF-strength index (r = -0.497) and muscle quality (r = -0.322) in women, but not in men. After adjusting for age, height and body mass, AP-MTH ratio was inversely correlated to ZWT in men (r = -0.325) and tended to be correlated to ZWT in women (r = -0.263). Zigzag walking performance may be associated with site-specific thigh sarcopenia in older men and women. PMID:25201711

Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Ogawa, M; Mitsukawa, N

2014-12-01

305

Level of Nutrition Knowledge and Its Association with Weight Loss Behaviors Among Low-Income Reproductive-Age Women.  

PubMed

To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16-40 year old women (n = 1,057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0-15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P < .001). Obese women (P = .002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P = .030), and some college hours/degree (P < .001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.18], switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.06-1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.04-1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Berenson, Abbey B

2014-11-14

306

The combined effect of adiposity, fat distribution and age on cardiovascular risk factors and motor disability in a cohort of obese women (aged 18-83).  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with a number of serious diseases and with a degree of motor disability, but the extent of the risk and functional derangement within the obese population is not yet completely defined. The study aims to evaluate the combined effect of degree of adiposity, body fat distribution and age on selected cardiovascular risk factors and functional motor disability in a cohort of obese women. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is employed to show the combined impact of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and age on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), total and HDL cholesterol (T-CH and HDL-CH), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, leg power output (W, assessed with a Margaria test for stair climbing) and subjective general fatigue in a cohort of 463 obese women (BMI range 30.2-66.7 kg/m2; age range 18-83 yr). High WHR and older age, but not BMI, are to a variable degree related to unfavorable values of parameters which contribute to the cardiovascular risk. WHR in the high range is associated with significantly higher values of SBP (p<0.001), CHD risk scores (p<0.001) as well as lower levels of HDL-CH (p=0.01), while older age is significantly associated with higher SBP (p<0.001), T-CH (p<0.001) and CHD risk scores (p<0.001). A significant interaction between age and WHR was detected in the effect on DBP (p=0.01), the negative role of high WHR values being apparent in older women (age > or = 51 yr) but not in younger ones (age < 51 yr). Although not significantly related to CHD risk scores, BMI interacted significantly with WHR in determining high risk score values (p=0.01), the negative effect of a high WHR being apparent in women with a high degree of obesity (BMI > or = 40 kg/m2) but not in those with a low one (BMI < 40 kg/m2). In contrast, WHR did not significantly affect W, which appeared to be mainly dependent on age (p<0.001) and BMI (p<0.001), when considered in terms of unit body mass (BM). Subjective global fatigue, however, was unaffected by any of the factors considered. In the present cohort of obese women, older age and excessive abdominal fat distribution (as assessed by WHR) appear to be significant factors in relation to increased cardiovascular disease risk, irrespective of BMI, while older age and higher levels of overall adiposity are associated with functional motor derangement irrespective of body fat distribution. This suggests that obesity increases metabolic risk and induces motor dysfunction by means of different biological mechanisms and with a different impact within the obese female population. PMID:17185900

Lafortuna, C L; Agosti, F; Proietti, M; Adorni, F; Sartorio, A

2006-11-01

307

The relationship between age of coital debut and HIV seroprevalence among women in Durban, South Africa: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the impact of early sexual debut on HIV seroprevalence and incidence rates among a cohort of women. Design Prospective study. Setting KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants A total of 3492 sexually active women who consented to screen a HIV prevention trial during September 2002 to September 2005; a total of 1485 of them were followed for approximately 24?months. Primary and secondary outcome measures HIV seroprevalence among those who were screened for the trial and HIV seroconversion among those who seroconverted during the study. Results Lowest quintiles of age at sexual debut, less than high school education, a higher number of lifetime sexual partners and lack of cohabitation, being diagnosed as having herpes simplex virus 2 and other sexually transmitted infections were all significantly associated with prevalent HIV infection in multivariate analysis. During follow-up, 148 (6.8 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 5.8 to 8.0) women seroconverted. Highest seroconversion rate was observed among women who had reported to have had sex 15?years or younger (12.0 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 8.0 to 18.0). Overall, impact of risk factors considered in this study was associated with considerable potential reductions in HIV prevalence and incidence rates (population attributable risk: 85%, 95% CI 84% to 87% and population attributable risk: 77%, 95% CI 72% to 82%, respectively). Conclusions The association of HIV status with younger age at sexual debut may likely due to an increased number of lifetime partners. This increase could result from longer duration of sexual life. Prevention of HIV infection should include efforts to delay age at first sex in young women. Trial registration number NCT00121459. PMID:22223838

Ramjee, Gita

2012-01-01

308

Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among women seeking induced abortion in Kathmandu, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261

Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats

2014-01-01

309

Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women.  

PubMed

The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk. PMID:21354991

Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H

2011-06-01

310

The relation of coffee consumption to serum uric Acid in Japanese men and women aged 49-76 years.  

PubMed

Objective. Few studies have suggested an inverse relation between coffee intake and serum concentrations of uric acid (UA), but none has addressed the relation in men and women separately. We examined the relation between coffee intake and serum UA levels in free-living middle-aged and elderly men and women in Fukuoka, Japan. Methods. Study subjects were derived from the baseline survey of a cohort study on lifestyle-related diseases, and included 11.662 men and women aged 49-76 years; excluded were those with medication for gout and hyperuricemia, use of diuretic drugs, and medical care for cancer or chronic kidney disease. Statistical adjustment was made for body mass index, alcohol use, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other factors. Results. There were inverse associations of coffee consumption with serum UA concentrations and hyperuricemia in men regardless of adjustment for covariates. Women showed a statistically significant, but weaker, inverse association between coffee and serum UA levels after allowance for the confounding factors. Conclusion. The findings add to evidence for a protective association between coffee intake and hyperuricemia. PMID:20798877

Pham, Ngoc Minh; Yoshida, Daigo; Morita, Makiko; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Ohnaka, Keizo; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kono, Suminori

2010-01-01

311

The Relation of Coffee Consumption to Serum Uric Acid in Japanese Men and Women Aged 49–76 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective. Few studies have suggested an inverse relation between coffee intake and serum concentrations of uric acid (UA), but none has addressed the relation in men and women separately. We examined the relation between coffee intake and serum UA levels in free-living middle-aged and elderly men and women in Fukuoka, Japan. Methods. Study subjects were derived from the baseline survey of a cohort study on lifestyle-related diseases, and included 11.662 men and women aged 49–76 years; excluded were those with medication for gout and hyperuricemia, use of diuretic drugs, and medical care for cancer or chronic kidney disease. Statistical adjustment was made for body mass index, alcohol use, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other factors. Results. There were inverse associations of coffee consumption with serum UA concentrations and hyperuricemia in men regardless of adjustment for covariates. Women showed a statistically significant, but weaker, inverse association between coffee and serum UA levels after allowance for the confounding factors. Conclusion. The findings add to evidence for a protective association between coffee intake and hyperuricemia. PMID:20798877

Pham, Ngoc Minh; Yoshida, Daigo; Morita, Makiko; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Ohnaka, Keizo; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kono, Suminori

2010-01-01

312

Women Bib # First Last Age Time Ages 12-15 4 Danielle Gore 12 25:52:00  

E-print Network

Mark Simpson 54 27:37:00 13 Sam Coleman 57 25:56:00 28 Robert Barney 60 #12;36 Jim Rumple 60 23:33 56 23:45 Age Winner 27 Becky Barney 57 14 Audrey Sento 65 #12;22 Meghan Bancroft 45:45:00 23 Kathy Donald 38 19:02 72 Harlan Shannon 39 18:23 Age winner Ages 40-49 29 David Lavoie, JR 40 32 Robert Dunbar

Boynton, Walter R.

313

Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation  

SciTech Connect

American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

2009-08-15

314

Age and Meanings of Violence: Women's Experiences of Partner Violence in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men's violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don't support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as…

Piispa, Minna

2004-01-01

315

Factors Predicting Consumption of Fonio Grain ("Digitaria exilis") among Urban Malian Women of Reproductive Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify factors influencing intention to consume an indigenous nutritious grain, fonio ("Digitaria exilis"), among women in Mali. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model. Setting and Participants: One hundred and eight women (31.5 plus or minus 10.5 years),…

Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; van Dam, Bianca; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain A. M.; Brouwer, Inge D.

2011-01-01

316

Contraceptive Use Among Canadian Women of Reproductive Age: Results of a National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Past studies indicate that despite a wide range of contraceptive options, Canadian women tend to use a narrow selection of contraceptive methods. New contraceptive methods have recently been introduced in Canada. The objective of this research is to characterize Canadian women's current contraceptive choices and adherence to contraceptive regimens. Methods: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2006.

Amanda Black; Qiuying Yang; Shi Wu Wen; André B. Lalonde; Edith Guilbert; William Fisher

317

Psychosocial Determinants of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-Aged Women: A Prospective Study in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A social gradient in coronary heart disease (CHD) has been documented in a variety of settings, predominantly among men. This study aimed to establish whether a social gradient in CHD existed in a group of Swedish women and whether it could be explained by established coronary risk factors or psychosocial factors. The Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study includes 49,259

Hannah Kuper; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

2006-01-01

318

Women and Stroke Knowledge: Influence of Age, Race, Residence Location, and Marital Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition

Kathleen A. Ennen; Emily R. Beamon

2012-01-01

319

Purpose in Life among Men and Women Aged 85 Years and Older  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate purpose in life in relation to psychological well-being, social relations, and physical and psychological symptoms among very old women (n = 120) and men (n = 69). Their purpose in life was evaluated using the Purpose in Life (PIL) scale. Women scored lower on this PIL scale than men (102 vs. 108 p =…

Hedberg, Pia; Gustafson, Yngve; Brulin, Christine

2010-01-01

320

Basal estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone predict fecundity in women of advanced reproductive age undergoing ovulation induction therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prognostic value of single basal E2 and FSH levels as predictors of fecundity in women of advanced reproductive age who are undergoing ovulation induction with IUI therapy.Design: Prospective, observational.Setting: Fertility service of university medical center.Patient(s): Infertile couples in which the female partner was ?38 years old.Intervention(s): Single assessment of basal E2 and FSH levels and ovulation

Richard P. Buyalos; Said Daneshmand; Peter R. Brzechffa

1997-01-01

321

Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Sample of College-Age Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interview (PTSD-I; Watson, C. G., Juba, M., Manifold, V., Kucala, T., & Anderson, E. D., 1991) was adapted into a self-report questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire (PTSD-Q), which was validated against the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV) PTSD module (First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995), using a sample of 76 college-age women who were

Melissa R. Cross; Thomas R. McCanne

2001-01-01

322

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men and women in Gothenburg, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Random samples of 50-year-old men living in Gothenburg have been examined every 10th year since 1963 with a focus on cardiovascular risk factors. The aims of the study were to acquire up-to-date information about risk factors in the fifth cohort of 50-year-old men and women, to re-examine those who were 50 years of age in 1993, and to analyse

Lennart Welin; Annika Adlerberth; Kenneth Caidahl; Henry Eriksson; Per-Olof Hansson; Saga Johansson; Annika Rosengren; Kurt Svärdsudd; Catharina Welin; Lars Wilhelmsen

2008-01-01

323

Psychosocial and Behavioral Profile and Predictors of Self-Reported Energy Underreporting in Obese Middle-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy underreporting is a concern with dietary intake data; therefore, subject characteristics associated with underreporting energy intake should be elucidated. Baseline self-reported dietary intake and measures of diet and weight history, life status, weight-loss readiness, psychology, eating behavior, physical activity, and self-image of obese middle-aged women (mean body mass index [calculated as kg\\/m2]=31.0) enrolled in a lifestyle weight-loss program were

Jaclyn Maurer Abbot; Cynthia A. Thomson; James Ranger-Moore; Pedro J. Teixeira; Timothy G. Lohman; Douglas L. Taren; Ellen Cussler; Scott B. Going; Linda B. Houtkooper

2008-01-01

324

Women in Radio Soap Operas: A Historical Perspective of the Image of Women's "Sphere" in the "Golden Age."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radio's "Golden Age," the 1930s and 1940s produced numerous successful and profitable daytime serials, called "soap operas" because they were most often sponsored by firms selling laundry products. Among the most popular of these series were those produced by the team of Anne and Frank Hummert. Working through the Blackett-Sample-Hummert…

St John, Jacqueline

325

Different changes of quantity due to aging in the psoas major and quadriceps femoris muscles in women.  

PubMed

Bone fractures cause disabilities that leave the elderly bedridden and strengthening the muscles of the lower limbs, especially the quadriceps femoris, is the main kinematical method of preventing falls. Recently, however, it has become clear that the psoas major is critical for walking ability. We examined changes due to aging in the size of the psoas major compared with changes in the quadriceps femoris. Bone fractures are more frequent in women than in men; our participants (n=210) were therefore exclusively women ranging in age from 20 to 79 and divided into 6 age groups (n=35 each) in 10-year increments. Cross-sectional areas of the two muscles were measured by an MR scanner for a comparative estimation of muscle size. The psoas major showed the greatest quantity in subjects in their 20s, after which it declined steadily until the 60s and dramatically in the 70s, while the area of the quadriceps femoris was preserved until the 40s and showed no dramatic later decline. Exercise beyond regular daily activities is recommended to prevent the psoas major from decreasing in volume. We also recommend the development of a method of maintaining its muscle volume which would target women younger than 40 and older than 60. PMID:16849833

Takahashi, K; Takahashi, H E; Nakadaira, H; Yamamoto, M

2006-01-01

326

Barriers to male involvement in contraceptive uptake and reproductive health services: a qualitative study of men and women’s perceptions in two rural districts in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Spousal communication can improve family planning use and continuation. Yet, in countries with high fertility rates and unmet need, men have often been regarded as unsupportive of their partner’s use of family planning methods. This study examines men and women’s perceptions regarding obstacles to men’s support and uptake of modern contraceptives. Methods A qualitative study using 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected men aged 15–54 and women aged 15–49 as well as eight key informant interviews (KIIs) with government and community leaders was conducted in 2012 in Bugiri and Mpigi Districts, Uganda. Open-ended question guides were used to explore men and women’s perceptions regarding barriers to men’s involvement in reproductive health. All FGDs and KIIs were recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti. Results Five themes were identified as rationale for men’s limited involvement: (i) perceived side effects of female contraceptive methods which disrupt sexual activity, (ii) limited choices of available male contraceptives, including fear and concerns relating to vasectomy, (iii) perceptions that reproductive health was a woman’s domain due to gender norms and traditional family planning communication geared towards women, (iv) preference for large family sizes which are uninhibited by prolonged birth spacing; and (v) concerns that women’s use of contraceptives will lead to extramarital sexual relations. In general, knowledge of effective contraceptive methods was high. However, lack of time and overall limited awareness regarding the specific role of men in reproductive health was also thought to deter men’s meaningful involvement in issues related to fertility regulation. Conclusion Decision-making on contraceptive use is the shared responsibility of men and women. Effective development and implementation of male-involvement family planning initiatives should address barriers to men’s supportive participation in reproductive health, including addressing men's negative beliefs regarding contraceptive services. PMID:24597502

2014-01-01

327

Diet quality of middle age and older women from Primorsko-Goranska County evaluated by healthy eating index and association with body mass index.  

PubMed

Accorded dietary habits provide adequate nutrient intakes, especially important for quality aging. Adequate nutrition for older persons has vital influence on maintaining good health and social functioning. Therefore, using simple tool for evaluation of diet of older population in relation to overweight and obesity is of public health importance. Among many factor that influence quality of aging has obesity, where in Croatia the prevalence of obesity is greater in older women than men. Our aim was to evaluate diet quality of middle age and older women from Primorsko-Goranska County by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and to see the association of HEI to overweight and obesity. Diet quality of 124 women with average age 59.91 +/- 5.31 years was graded with 10 component HEI score, ranging from 0 to 100, where HEI score less than 51 implies "poor" diet. Overweight and obesity was classified according to WHO classification. The majority of women had diet that "needs improvement" (66.1%), and only 3.2% had "good" diet. Older women had better HEI score than middle-aged women, while overweight was statistically significant positively related to better HEI score (P = 0.26, p = 0.048). Older women better scored for meat, dairy, cholesterol and dietary variety. "Poor" diet mostly had women with normal weight and middle-aged. Age did not influenced overall HEI score, neither its components. Obese women had lower achievements for almost all recommended HEI components. Women having "poor" diet quality could raise a chance for overweight and obesity for almost two times ([OR] = 1.67, 95% [CI] = 1.072-2.59, p = 0.023; [OR] = 1.51, 95% [CI] = 1.08-2.10, p = 0.015, respectively). The provided results showed that with age, women tended to have better diet. These could be because of that with aging are higher disease incidences that essentially need diet improvements; so older women tended to improve their diet to reduce disease discomforts. Being obese influenced the diet quality of our sample of women, therefore, for quality aging, the importance of public health nutrition programs are strongly needed. HEI score is a good assessment for diet quality, but further investigation of influence on other sociodemographic and health characteristics is required. PMID:21302715

Jovanovi?, Gordana Kendel; Zezelj, Sandra Pavici?; Malatestini?, Dulija; Suti?, Ines Mrakovbi?; Stefanac, Vesna Nadarevi?; Dorci?, Fedor

2010-04-01

328

Pharmacologic management of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications in women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

The numbers of women of childbearing age with pregestational diabetes mellitus (diabetes existing before pregnancy) are increasing, primarily because more patients are developing type 2 diabetes at younger ages. The teratogenicity associated with hyperglycemia in early pregnancy is well documented, and tight glucose control minimizes the risk of congenital malformation. Preconception planning is essential; thus contraception that does not worsen complications of diabetes is desirable. In addition, because contraceptives are not 100% effective, the treatment of elevated blood glucose levels, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these women requires consideration of unplanned pregnancy. We summarized the literature to aid clinicians in choosing individualized treatment that minimizes risk in case pregnancy occurs and maximizes benefit in preventing the complications of diabetes. In women with well-controlled diabetes without vascular disease, all contraceptive methods are safe. Intrauterine devices are recommended due to their minimal effects on risk factors for diabetic complications and their lack of reliance on patient adherence for efficacy. Among insulins, the insulin analogs-insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin detemir-offer patients greater convenience than regular insulin and NPH insulin, and they are safe in case of unplanned pregnancy. Of the noninsulin agents, glyburide and metformin are the safest during pregnancy, but many of the other agents pose minimal risk as long as they are withdrawn during early pregnancy. The risks and benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in women with compelling indications must be weighed individually. In hypertensive patients at a high risk for unplanned pregnancy, nifedipine should be considered due to literature supporting its safety during early pregnancy. Pravastatin is recommended for women with dyslipidemia who are using effective contraception because there have been no reports of birth defects with this statin when used during early pregnancy in humans and animals. PMID:25644781

S Mukherjee, Mimi; Coppenrath, Valerie A; Dallinga, Bree A

2015-02-01

329

Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter.  

PubMed

As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid hormone production during pregnancy, women who are planning to become pregnant should ideally consume 150 ?g iodine/d (US RDA). As few UK data exist for this population group, a cross-sectional study was carried out at the University of Surrey to assess the iodine intake and status of women of childbearing age. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24 h urine samples in fifty-seven women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90 % of ingested iodine was excreted. The average iodine intake was also estimated from 48 h food diaries that the participants completed. The median urinary iodine concentration value (63·1 ?g/l) indicated the group to be mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24 h urinary iodine excretion value (149·8 ?g/24 h) indicated a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. The median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 ?g/d, whereas it was lower, at 123 ?g/d, when estimated from the 48 h food diaries. Iodine intake estimated from the food diaries and 24 h urinary iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r 0·75, P< 0·001). The intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. The present study highlights the need for revised cut-off values for iodine deficiency that are method- and age group-specific. PMID:25274294

Bath, Sarah C; Sleeth, Michelle L; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P

2014-11-28

330

Intra- and Inter-Individual Variability of Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations in Hmong Women of Reproductive Age  

PubMed Central

The reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations has not been well characterized in nonpregnant women of reproductive age. Our primary study objectives were to describe the distribution of urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations among a population of Hmong women of reproductive age, and to evaluate intra- and inter-individual variability of phthalate metabolite concentrations. Ten phthalate metabolites were measured in first morning urine samples collected from 45 women and 20 of their spouses who were members of the Fox River Environment and Diet Study cohort in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Repeated first morning urine samples were collected and analyzed from 25 women who provided up to three samples over approximately one month. Measurement variability was assessed using intraclass correlations (ICCs) and surrogate category analysis. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the associations between participant characteristics and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Nine of the 10 phthalate metabolites were detected in > 80% of all samples analyzed, of which seven were detected in all samples. As a measure of reliability, ICCs were strongest for monobenzyl phthalate (0.64) and weakest for the metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (ranging from 0.13 to 0.22). Similarly, surrogate category analysis suggested that a single urine sample characterized average one-month exposure with reasonable accuracy across low, medium and high tertiles for all metabolites except the DEHP metabolites. Geometric mean concentrations of monoethyl phthalate increased with age, but patterns by education, income, body mass index, environmental tobacco smoke or season were not observed when measures were adjusted for urinary dilution. Our results suggest that the participant characteristics assessed in this study have limited influence on inter-individual variability of phthalate metabolite concentrations. With regard to intra-individual variability, our results suggest that urinary concentrations of some phthalate metabolites are more reproducible over time and less subject to exposure misclassification than others (e.g., metabolites of DEHP). PMID:19223940

Peck, Jennifer David; Sweeney, Anne M; Symanski, Elaine; Gardiner, Joseph; Silva, Manori J.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Schantz, Susan L

2010-01-01

331

Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Methods The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high). Results High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P?women with low CRF. Conclusions Overall, Chinese middle-aged women demonstrated a moderate level of CRF. CRF was independently associated with CVD risk factors, including overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, arterial stiffness, and abnormal ECG during exercise, with the least fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors. PMID:24885417

2014-01-01

332

Social capital in association with health status of women in reproductive age: study protocol for a sequential explanatory mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background Women’s health is a general health priority. Preserving and improving women’s health is not only a basic human right, but it is also essential for the health of all nations. Women’s health in Reproductive age affects long-term health of theirs, their family members, and community. Origins of health inequalities are very complicated. Health outcomes are influenced by biological, social and political factors, so to improve women’s health it is necessary to recognize all these factors. Social capital is one of the social determinants of health that might play a considerable role in health inequalities. The association between social capital and health varies according on the sample studied, the type of health outcome and the context in which it is studied. This mixed methods study was designed to determine and explore of relationship between social capital and health status of women of reproductive age in Tehran (capital city of Iran) with its specific social-cultural characteristics. Methods/design This study is sequential explanatory mixed methods study, follow-up explanations variant, with two strands (phases). This design will be implemented in two distinct phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age residing in any of the 22 municipal districts across Tehran. Based on a need to further understand the quantitative results, researchers will implement a second qualitative phase that is designed to help explain the initial quantitative results. Finally, the researchers will present an interpretation about explanation of quantitative results using the qualitative data. Discussion This study promotes women’s health by determining the priorities and designing evidence-based interventions founded on the basic and insightful information provided on social capital and the status of the health of women. PMID:24885213

2014-01-01

333

Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.  

PubMed

This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. PMID:24215967

Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

2013-12-01

334

Attitudes toward wife beating among Palestinian women of reproductive age from three cities in West Bank.  

PubMed

A total of 450 women were interviewed in Mother and Child Health Care Centers in three cities in West Bank, Palestine, to assess attitudes toward wife beating. Overall, women perceived wife beating to be justified if a wife insults her husband (59%), if she disobeys her husband (49%), if she neglects her children (37%), if she goes out without telling her husband (25%), if she argues with her husband (11%), and if she burns the food (5%). Sixty-five percent of women agreed with at least one reason for wife beating, but there were statistically significant regional differences: Wife beating was most accepted in Jenin (73% acceptance of at least one reason) and least accepted in Hebron (55%). Lower level of education, not being employed, having more than one child, being married for fewer than 10 years, and making few household decisions were all associated with women's acceptance of wife beating. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:19494245

Dhaher, Enas A; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Maxwell, Annette E; Krämer, Alexander

2010-03-01

335

Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

A wide variety of strategies were used to recruit women into an acupuncture trial. The investigators collected data on the numbers of study inquiries (telephone calls and e-mail messages) received from women in the study area and sorted them by recruitment method. Posters, flyers, and direct mailings proved to be the most effective methods. However, maximizing study exposure through active recruitment using multiple methods was necessary to reach accrual goals.

336

Evaluation of new and established age-related macular degeneration susceptibility genes in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. This is a multice...

337

It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women

Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

2006-01-01

338

The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

Nur, Naim

2012-01-01

339

Clomiphene citrate challenge test predicts outcome of intrauterine insemination in women aged under 37 years.  

PubMed

The clomiphene citrate challenge test is a tool to predict ovarian reserve and fertility. It has mainly been used as a predictor of success of IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Infertile young women with diminished ovarian reserve have a worse prognosis than women with adequate ovarian reserve attempting IVF/ICSI cycles. Nothing is known regarding the outcome of young women with diminished ovarian reserve undergoing low-complexity assisted reproductive treatment such as ovulation induction plus intrauterine insemination (IUI). This study included all women under 37 years who consulted in the authors' centre between May 2004 and August 2005 who underwent ovulation induction and IUI. Ninety-six women younger than 37 years with adequate ovarian reserve, and 50 women with diminished ovarian reserve were found. The pregnancy rate and pregnancy rate per cycle in the adequate ovarian reserve group were significantly higher than those of the diminished ovarian reserve group (46.7% versus 25%, P < 0.02 ; 15.9% versus 7.6%, P < 0.02 respectively). It is concluded that the clomiphene citrate challenge test is a good predictor of low-complexity infertility intervention outcome, and represents an effective tool to establish a prognosis. Therefore, it is very useful in planning therapy, and advising the infertile couple. PMID:16740214

Magendzo, Amiram; Schwarze, Juan-Enrique; Diaz de la Vega, Claudia; Altieri, Elena; Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Balmaceda, Jose P

2006-04-01

340

Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and free androgen index among adult women: chronological and ovarian aging  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In this study, levels and rates of change in total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free androgen index (FAI) were related to chronological age and to the final menstrual period (FMP) as an indicator of ovarian aging. METHODS Data were annually acquired over a 15-year period in 629 women of the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study cohort. Data were censored for hormone therapy use. Endogenous androgen patterns over time were described with stochastic processes and bootstrapping. RESULTS With ovarian aging, T levels rose from a mean of 18 ng/dl commencing 10 years prior to the FMP to 27 ng/dl at the FMP. Over the 20-year period encompassing the FMP, modeled mean SHBG levels changed from 58 to 34 nM and the FAI ratio increased from 1.6 to 2.9 in a non-linear manner. With chronological aging, total T levels increased (P < 0.0001) from 43 to 50 years, but not thereafter. SHBG declined steadily with age with a modestly greater rate of change between 49 and 54 years. The FAI increased from 1.3 to 2.5 from 34 to 58 years. CONCLUSIONS T increased from approximately age 40 until the FMP whereas SHBG had rate of change patterns reflecting both chronological and ovarian aging components. These data provide new insight into the endogenous androgen patterns at mid-life. PMID:19520711

Sowers, M.F.R.; Zheng, H.; McConnell, D.; Nan, B.; Karvonen-Gutierrez, C.A.; Randolph, J.F.

2009-01-01

341

A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age  

SciTech Connect

Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels > 300 {mu}g of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.

Kwok, Richard K., E-mail: rkwok@rti.org

2007-08-01

342

Bone Mineral Density in Gravida: Effect of Pregnancies and Breast-Feeding in Women of Differing Ages and Parity  

PubMed Central

Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ?30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years), parity (1–13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari

2014-01-01

343

Urinary mercury concentrations associated with dental restorations in adult women aged 16–49 years: United States, 1999–2000  

PubMed Central

Background: Mercury amalgam dental restorations have been used by dentists since the mid 19th century and issues on safety continue to be periodically debated within the scientific and public health communities. Previous studies have reported a positive association between urine mercury levels and the number of dental amalgams, but this relation has never been described in a nationally representative sample in the United States. Aims and Methods: Using household interview, dietary interview, dental examination, and laboratory data from the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the association between mercury concentrations and dental restorations was examined in US women of reproductive age. Results: In women of childbearing age, approximately 13% of all posterior dental surfaces were restored with amalgams and the average urinary mercury level in women was low (1.34 µg/l). It is estimated that an increase of 1.8 µg/l in the log transformed values for mercury in urine would occur for each 10 dental surfaces restored with amalgam. Conclusions: Although the findings do not address the important issues of adverse health effects at low thresholds of mercury exposure, they do provide important reference data that should contribute significantly to the ongoing scientific and public health policy debate on the use of dental amalgams in the USA. PMID:15901883

Dye, B; Schober, S; Dillon, C; Jones, R; Fryar, C; McDowell, M; Sinks, T

2005-01-01

344

Having a Say Matters: Influence of Decision-Making Power on Contraceptive Use among Nigerian Women Ages 35–49 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that women of reproductive age who are involved in household decision-making are more likely than those who are not involved to be able to control their fertility. Little is known, however, about this relationship among women at the upper end of the reproductive spectrum. The aim of this study was to determine the association between household decision-making power and modern contraceptive use among Nigerian women ages 35–49 years. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study involving a secondary analysis of data from the Nigerian 2008 Demographic and Health Survey was conducted among women ages 35–49 years who were considered to be in need of contraception. The outcome was modern contraceptive use while the main independent variable was a woman's household decision-making power score, constructed using principal component analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether the women's household decision-making power score, categorized into tertiles, was independently associated with modern contraceptive use. Data were weighted and adjusted for the complex survey design. Results Prevalence of modern contraceptive use among Nigerian women deemed to be in need of contraception in this study was 18.7%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that women's decision-making power remained statistically significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, even after adjusting for age, education, religion, polygyny, parity, wealth and domicile. Women who were in the highest decision-making power tertile had more than one and a half times the odds of using modern contraception compared with women in the lowest tertile [Adjusted Odds Ratio?=?1.70; 95% Confidence Interval?=?1.31–2.21, p<0.001]. Significance Older Nigerian women who are involved in making household decisions are also able to make decisions related to their fertility. Programs in Nigeria focused on increasing modern contraceptive use should include strategies to increase women's status through encouraging more visible involvement in decision-making across different spheres of their lives. PMID:24897300

OlaOlorun, Funmilola M.; Hindin, Michelle J.

2014-01-01

345

Age-related hearing loss and bone mass in a population of rural women aged 60 to 85 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demineralisation of the cochlear capsule in conjunction with age-related bone mass loss may be one biologic factor contributing to hearing loss in the elderly. In other metabolic bone diseases, including Paget's disease of the bone and cochlear otosclerosis, demineralization of the cochlea has been associated with sensorineural hearing loss. In 1988\\/1989, the relation between hearing loss and bone mass of

Kathleen Clark; Maryfran R. Sowers; Robert B. Wallace; Mary L. Jannausch; Jon Lemke; Charles V. Anderson

1995-01-01

346

A high anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women  

PubMed Central

Background Our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors to prevent myocardial infarction (MI) in young and middle-aged women is limited, and the impact of diet is largely unknown. Dietary flavonoids exert potential beneficial effects on endothelial function in short-term trials; however the relationship between habitual intake and risk of MI in women in unknown. Methods and Results We followed 93,600 women aged 25–42 years from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and risk of MI. Intake of flavonoid sub-classes were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires collected every 4 years using an updated and extended USDA database. During 18 years of follow-up, 405 cases of MI were reported. An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–0.96; p=0.03 comparing highest versus lowest quintiles) after multivariate adjustment. The addition of intermediate conditions, including history of hypertension, did not significantly attenuate the relationship (HR 0.70; 0.50–0.97; p=0.03). Combined intake of two anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries, tended to be associated with a decreased risk of MI (HR 0.66; 0.40–1.08) comparing those consuming >3 servings/week to those with lower intake. Intakes of other flavonoid sub-classes were not significantly associated with MI risk. Conclusions A high intake of anthocyanins may reduce MI risk in predominately young women. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the health impact of increasing intakes of commonly consumed anthocyanin-rich foods. PMID:23319811

Cassidy, Aedín; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Liu, Lydia; Franz, Mary; Eliassen, A. Heather; Rimm, Eric B

2013-01-01

347

Age, psychological maturity, and the transition to motherhood among English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area.  

PubMed

In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area expecting their 1st baby (mean age = 32.81 years; 41% conceived after fertility treatment) completed measures of psychological maturity (hardiness, ego development, and ego resiliency) and pregnancy adaptation (maternal fetal attachment and formation of a maternal identity) in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and a measure of postnatal adjustment at 4-6 months postpartum. Structural equation modeling showed age was positively associated with a latent construct of psychological maturity, and psychological maturity was associated with more optimal adaptation in pregnancy and early motherhood. Both psychological maturity and pregnancy adaptation predicted positive postnatal adjustment. Age was indirectly related to adaptation through its relationship with psychological maturity. The relationships in the model applied regardless of mode of conception (fertility treatment or spontaneous). Potentially confounding contextual factors associated with older age at motherhood, higher education, and maternal and child health were included in the model. These results suggest that psychological maturity is a benefit of motherhood at older ages. PMID:25069055

Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A; Gibson, Frances L; Boivin, Jacky

2014-08-01

348

Sickness Absence following Coronary Revascularisation. A National Study of Women and Men of Working Age in Sweden 1994–2006  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence based and gender specific knowledge about sickness absence following coronary revascularisation is lacking. The objective was to investigate sickness absence after a first coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among women and men in a national Swedish study. Materials and Methods All patients 30–63 years of age, who underwent a first CABG (n?=?22,985, 16% women) or PCI (40,891, 22% women) in Sweden between 1994 and 2006 were included. Information on sickness absence, co-morbidity, and other patient characteristics was obtained from national registers. Long-term sickness absence (LTSA) was defined as >180 and >90 sick-leave days in the first sick-leave spell following CABG and PCI, respectively. Prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of LTSA were calculated. Findings LTSA followed the interventions in 41% and 36% for CABG and PCI patients, respectively. Women had more often LTSA compared with men, (CABG PR?=?1.23: 95% CI 1.19–1.28 and PCI PR?=?1.19; 95% CI 1.16–1.23). A history of sickness absence the year before the intervention increased the risk for LTSA after the intervention in both genders. Among women, older age, or being self employed or unemployed was associated with a lower risk for LTSA. Among men previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes and low socio-economic position increased the risk. During the observation period, there was no change in sickness absence rates among PCI patients but an increase among CABG patients adjusting for patient characteristics. Conclusion This national study covering a 13-year period shows that long-term sickness absence following coronary revascularisation is common in Sweden, especially among women, and is associated with socio-economic position, co-morbidity, and sickness absence during the year before the intervention. Gender specific scientific knowledge about use and effects of sickness absence following coronary revascularisation is warranted for the patients, the treating physicians, the healthcare sector, and the society. PMID:22848415

Voss, Margaretha; Ivert, Torbjörn; Pehrsson, Kenneth; Hammar, Niklas; Alexanderson, Kristina; Nilsson, Tage; Vaez, Marjan

2012-01-01

349

The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

2014-01-01

350

Heterogeneity in Rate of Decline in Grip, Hip, and Knee Strength and the Risk of All-Cause Mortality: The Women’s Health and Aging Study II  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To assess the relationship between rate of change in muscle strength and all-cause mortality. DESIGN A prospective observational study of the causes and course of physical disability. SETTING Twelve contiguous ZIP code areas in Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred and seven community-dwelling women aged 70–79 years at study baseline. MEASUREMENTS The outcome is all-cause mortality (1994–2009); predictors include up to seven repeated measurements of handgrip, knee extension, and hip flexion strength, with a median follow-up time of 9 years. Demographic factors, body mass index, smoking status, number of chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, physical activity, Interlukin-6, and albumin were assessed at baseline and included as confounders. The associations between declining muscle strength and mortality were assessed using a joint longitudinal and survival model.. RESULTS Grip and hip strength declined an average of 1.10 and 1.31 kg per year between age 70 and 75and 0.50 and 0.39 kg/year thereafter, respectively; knee strength declined at a constant rate of 0.57 kg/year. Faster rates of decline in grip and hip strength, but not knee strength, independently predicted of mortality after accounting for their baseline levels and potential confounders (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.06–1.67), 1.14 (CI=0.91–1.41), and 2.62 (CI=1.43–4.78) for every 0.5 standard deviation increase in rate of decline in grip, knee, and hip strength, respectively. CONCLUSION Monitoring the rate of decline in grip and hip flexion strength in addition to the absolute levels may greatly improve the identification of women most at risk of dying. PMID:21054287

Xue, Qian-Li; Beamer, Brock A.; Chaves, Paulo H.M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fried, Linda P.

2010-01-01

351

Ovarian cancer mortality among women aged 40-79 years in relation to reproductive factors and body mass index: latest evidence from the Japan Collaborative Cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study mainly aimed to investigate the association of ovarian cancer mortality with reproductive factors and body mass index among Japanese women aged 40-79 years. Methods The source of the data was the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study which covered the period of 1988 to 2009. A representative sample of 64,185 women was used. Cox model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The total number of ovarian cancer deaths was 98, with a mortality rate of 9.30 per 100,000 person-years. Women with single marital status revealed significantly higher age-adjusted RR (RR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.66 to 10.23; p=0.005) as compared to married women. The effect of single marital status was stronger among older women aged 50+ years (RR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.65 to 12.72; p=0.003) than younger women. An elevated risk was found for both nulliparous and nullipregnant women. Similarly, an increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality was estimated among overweight among aged 50 years or less. Conclusion Out of many factors only single marital status indicated a higher risk for ovarian cancer mortality. All other factors provided inconclusive results, which imply further epidemiological investigations. PMID:23875075

Khan, Aklimunnessa; Nojima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Sadao; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tokudome, Shinkan; Tamakoshi, Koji; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko

2013-01-01

352

Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.  

PubMed

Suicidal behaviours are one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease among women, but little is known about prevalence and modifiable risk factors in low and middle income countries. We use data from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and relationships between suicide attempts and mental health status, child sexual abuse, partner violence and other variables. Population representative cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from 2000-2003 in 13 provincial (more rural) and city (urban) sites in Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia, Thailand and Tanzania. 20967 women aged 15-49 years participated. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with suicide attempts in each site. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts ranged from 0.8% (Tanzania) to 12.0% (Peru city); lifetime thoughts of suicide from 7.2% (Tanzania province) to 29.0% (Peru province), and thoughts in the past four weeks from 1.9% (Serbia) to 13.6% (Peru province). 25-50% of women with suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks had also visited a health worker in that time. The most consistent risk factors for suicide attempts after adjusting for probable common mental health disorders were: intimate partner violence, non-partner physical violence, ever being divorced, separated or widowed, childhood sexual abuse and having a mother who had experienced intimate partner violence. Mental health policies and services must recognise the consistent relationship between violence and suicidality in women in low and middle income countries. Training health sector workers to recognize and respond to the consequences of violence may substantially reduce the health burden associated with suicidal behaviour. PMID:21676510

Devries, Karen; Watts, Charlotte; Yoshihama, Mieko; Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Deyessa, Negussie; Heise, Lori; Durand, Julia; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jansen, Henrica; Berhane, Yemane; Ellsberg, Mary; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

2011-07-01

353

A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women  

PubMed Central

We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1?ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

2014-01-01

354

Gestational weight gain in normal weight women and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at 20 years of age.  

PubMed

Objective:Limited knowledge exists on the long-term implications of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring health. Our objective was to examine whether high GWG in normal weight women is associated with adult offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods:We used a cohort of 308 Danish women who gave birth in 1988-89 and whose offspring participated in a clinical examination at 20 years of age. Main outcome measures were offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, weight-regulating hormones, blood lipids and glucose metabolism. Associations were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regression models.Results:A weak positive association was observed between GWG during the first 30 weeks and offspring anthropometry. Each 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with 0.1-kg m(-2) higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.2) offspring BMI and 10% (95% CI: 0.1%, 20%) higher odds of offspring overweight at the age of 20 years, with similar associations observed in both sexes. However, sex differences were observed for the association between maternal GWG and specific cardio-metabolic risk factors. Hence, a 1-kg increase in GWG was associated with 3.4% (95% CI; 0.8, 6.0%) higher homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 3.7% (95% CI: 1.4%, 6.2%) higher insulin and 10.7% (95% CI: 5.7%, 15.9%) higher leptin levels in male offspring. These associations were not observed in females, which may partly be explained by more frequent reports of dieting and physical exercise at follow-up among female offspring.Conclusions:In normal-weight women, high GWG may have modest long-term implications on offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at adult age.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.179. PMID:25298277

Hrolfsdottir, L; Rytter, D; Olsen, S F; Bech, B H; Maslova, E; Henriksen, T B; Halldorsson, T I

2014-10-01

355

Effects of combined exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and serum BDNF level in mid-aged women  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purposes of this study is first to examine a positive effect of long term combined exercise including aerobic and resistance exercise on increasing level of serum BDNF, and investigate how aerobic exercise is related to improving BDNF circulation and resistance exercise improves fat oxidation in mid-aged women. [Methods] Initially, 30 mid-aged women, according to their exercise preference, was randomly assigned as a non-exercise group (n=7, control group; CG) and exercise group (n=23). Then, 23 exercise participants were divided by aerobic exercise group (n=15, AEG) and combination of aerobic and resistance exercise group (n=8, CEG). Prior to the experiment, all participants’maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, and blood factors were measured. Changes (? delta value) in body composition, fitness level, and serum BDNF level of the different groups were tested through one way ANOVA. [Results] For AEG and CG after 24 weeks, VO2max and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly increased. During this period, CEG had significant increase in muscular strength and decrease in triglyceride (TG) total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C (p=0.013). Continuously, serum BDNF concentration of both AEG and CEG was significantly increased (F=6.328, p=0.001) compared to CG. There, however, was no significant between-group difference. [Conclusion] Although there was no difference in serum BDNF level between AEG and CEG, we confirmed that CEG may have a possibility of positive changes in increase of serum BDNF level in mid-aged women. PMID:25566440

Cho, Hyun Chul; Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Nam Ju; Kim, Seung Yoon; Yoon, Nam Kyu

2014-01-01

356

Virginie PRIVAS -BRAUT The Trinity of a new Age: Three struggling Women in  

E-print Network

opposing the two religious communities, supposedly, as well as the Republicans against the British army in favour of social justice between the Catholics and the Protestants in Ulster, is a Northern Irish are about women fighting against men rather than Catholics against Protestants, Republicans against

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

Factors That May Influence the Experience of Hot Flushes by Healthy Middle-Aged Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Interest in menopausal symptoms in general and hot flushes (HFs) in particular has grown in recent years. This is mostly due to increased awareness and the vast impact these symptoms have on women's lives. Despite the high prevalence of women who experience HFs, a definitive etiology for HFs is yet to be found. Our objective was to review the current literature dealing with associated factors for experiencing HFs and to provide a synthesized overview on this common and often debilitating condition. Methods We systematically searched the English-language literature in the PubMed database using relevant key words and included only those articles that contained information on associated factors for HFs in generally healthy midlife women. Results Both conflicting scientific results between studies documenting factors that influence HFs and the lack of validated measuring tools make it difficult to truly pinpoint associated factors for HFs. Nonetheless, we identified the following clusters of associated factors: the menopausal stages, sex steroid hormones, other endocrine agents, genetic polymorphisms, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and obesity, mood disorders, smoking, soy isoflavones and phytoestrogens, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Conclusions No single associated factor was consistently identified as having a major role in experiencing HFs. More resources should be directed to develop a unified study system along with multivariable analyses to get a better understanding of this condition, which often imposes a tremendous social and personal toll on the women who experience it. PMID:20831431

Ziv-Gal, Ayelet

2010-01-01

358

Hair Loss, Insulin Resistance, and Heredity in Middle-aged Women. a Population-based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context The association of androgenic alopecia (AGA) with insulin resistance, coronary artery disease and hypercholesterolemia has been previously reported in men, but no such association has been reported in women with female androgenic alopecia (AGA). Female AGA has usually been linked with hyper-androgenism and hirsutism and, most recently, also with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), even though epidemiological documentation of the

Veikko Matilainen; Mauri Laakso; Päivi Hirsso; Pentti Koskela; Ulla Rajala; Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi

2003-01-01

359

Evaluating the micronutrient status of women of child-bearing age living in the rural disaster areas one year after Wenchuan Earthquake.  

PubMed

Populations with special physiological state, such as pregnant, nursing and women of child-bearing age, have been identified as nutritionally vulnerable during natural disaster. The objective of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia and micronutrient status of women of reproductive age in April 2009 one year after the Whenchuan Earthquake. The survey recruited 58 pregnant, 66 lactating and 242 women of child-bearing age from 19 to 45 years. The concentrations of haemoglobin in whole blood and ferritin and micronutrients in serum were assayed. Among the three groups (pregnant, nursing and child-bearing women), respectively, the prevalence of anaemia was 29.1%, 25.5% and 28.8%; that of iron deficiency was 45.4%, 49.0% and 52.9%; and that of zinc deficiency was 45.4%, 23.0% and 33.5%. The sum of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was more than 90% in each group, and the total vitamin B12 deficiency and marginal deficiency prevalence percentages were 47.3%, 17.7% and 35.7%, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency was 1.8% and 9.1% in pregnant women, 6.1% and 15.2% in nursing women and 8.6% and 21.3% in women of child-bearing age, respectively. Our findings indicated that the micronutrient status of women of reproductive age was poor in the disaster areas. Therefore, improving the micronutrient status of these women should be an urgent priority in these areas. PMID:25516326

Dong, Caixia; Ge, Pengfei; Ren, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xianfeng; Fan, Haoqiang; Yin, Shi-An; Weiderpass, Elisabete

2014-01-01

360

Neuroserpin polymorphisms and stroke risk in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American) and 211 age-matched control subjects (43.1% African-American). Neuroserpin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chosen through HapMap were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke. Results Of the five SNPs analyzed, the A allele (frequency; Caucasian = 0.56, African-American = 0.42) of SNP rs6797312 located in intron 1 was associated with stroke in an age-adjusted dominant model (AA and AT vs. TT) among Caucasians (OR = 2.05, p = 0.023) but not African-Americans (OR = 0.71, p = 0.387). Models adjusting for other risk factors strengthened the association. Race-specific haplotype analyses, inclusive of SNP rs6797312, again demonstrated significant associations with stroke among Caucasians only. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that neuroserpin is associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among Caucasian women. PMID:17961231

Cole, John W; Naj, Adam C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, Oscar C; Sorkin, John D; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Yepes, Manuel; Lawrence, Daniel A; Reinhart, Laurie J; Strickland, Dudley K; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

2007-01-01

361

What constitutes clinically significant binge eating? Association between binge features and clinical validators in college-age women  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between binge features and clinical validators. Method The Eating Disorder Examination assessed binge features in a sample of 549 college-age women: loss of control (LOC) presence, binge frequency, binge size, indicators of impaired control, and LOC severity. Clinical validators were self-reported clinical impairment and current psychiatric comorbidity, as determined via a semistructured interview. Results Compared with women without LOC, those with LOC had significantly greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and comorbidity (ps < 0.001). Among women with LOC (n = 252), the indicators of impaired control and LOC severity, but not binge size or frequency, were associated with greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and/or comorbidity (ps < 0.05). Discussion Findings confirm that the presence of LOC may be the hallmark feature of binge eating. Further, dimensional ratings about the LOC experience—and possibly the indicators of impaired control—may improve reliable identification of clinically significant binge eating. PMID:23386591

Vannucci, Anna; Theim, Kelly R.; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Genkin, Brooke; Rizk, Marianne; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki O.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Aspen, Vandana; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

2013-01-01

362

The Effects of Health Education through Face To Face Teaching and Educational Movies, on Suburban Women in Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ‘face-to-face education’ and ‘educational movies’ on ‘knowledge’ and ‘practice’ of women of child-bearing-age, in terms of health-care during pregnancy and during infancy in a suburban region near Tehran City, Iran. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, the sample included 873 married women. Questionnaires for knowledge and practice assessment were designed. The women were assigned to three groups: control (group I), face-to-face education (group II), and educational movie (group III). Knowledge questionnaires were completed before and immediately after intervention. Practice questionnaires were completed before and three months after intervention. Both questionnaires consisted of two types of questions: type A (concerning infant care issues) and type B (concerning prenatal health care). Results: There was a significant difference in post-test knowledge between groups I and II and between groups I and III, but not between groups II and III. In terms of post-test practice, the changes were determined for every individual question, and significantly, better results were seen in group II, especially concerning type B questions. Conclusion: Face to face education lead to better practice than educational movies. In addition, significantly better practice occurred regarding child health care issues rather than prenatal issues in both groups. Realistic and tangible issues, those easy to practice, and with little or no economical burden imposed on the family, progressed from the knowledge state to the practice state more successfully in both groups. PMID:23113010

Vameghi, R; Mohammad, K; Karimloo, M; Soleimani, F; Sajedi, F

2010-01-01

363

Women's Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of their marital status earlier in life, most women can expect to be single for some of their old age. In addition, older single women often have reduced resources. Many women now face situations unlike their expectations when they chose their life courses. Such a situation is shared by a unique community of Catholic sisters. Changes in…

Mercier, Joyce McDonough; And Others

364

Isometric strength, endurance, and the blood pressure and heart rate responses during isometric exercise in healthy men and women, with special reference to age and body fat content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of sex, age, and body fat content were assessed on the maximal voluntary strength (MVC), the endurance of a sustained contraction held at 40% of the subject's maximal strength, and the associated changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Isometric hand-grip strength was, as expected, greater in men than in women; however, in both sexes, age was inversely

Jerrold S. Petrofsky; Alexander R. Lind

1975-01-01

365

Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

2010-01-01

366

Length of residence, age and patterns of medicinal plant knowledge and use among women in the urban Amazon  

PubMed Central

Background This paper explores patterns of women’s medicinal plant knowledge and use in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, this paper examines the relationship between a woman’s age and her use and knowledge of medicinal plants. It also examines whether length of residence in three different areas of the Amazon is correlated with a woman’s use and knowledge of medicinal plants. Two of the areas where respondents may have resided, the jungle/seringal and farms/colonias, are classified as rural. The third area (which all of the respondents resided in) was urban. Methods This paper utilizes survey data collected in Rio Branco, Brazil. Researchers administered the survey to 153 households in the community of Bairro da Luz (a pseudonym). The survey collected data on phytotherapeutic knowledge, general phytotherapeutic practice, recent phytotherapeutic practice and demographic information on age and length of residence in the seringal, on a colonia, and in a city. Bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the inter-relationships among the key variables. Three dependent variables, two measuring general phytotherapeutic practice and one measuring phytotherapeutic knowledge were regressed on the demographic factors. Results The results demonstrate a relationship between a woman’s age and medicinal plant use, but not between age and plant knowledge. Additionally, length of residence in an urban area and on a colonia/farm are not related to medicinal plant knowledge or use. However, length of residence in the seringal/jungle is positively correlated with both medicinal plant knowledge and use. Conclusions The results reveal a vibrant tradition of medicinal plant use in Bairro da Luz. They also indicate that when it comes to place of residence and phytotherapy the meaningful distinction is not rural versus urban, it is seringal versus other locations. Finally, the results suggest that phytotherapeutic knowledge and use should be measured separately since one may not be an accurate proxy for the other. PMID:24565037

2014-01-01

367

Modelling HIV incidence and survival from age-specific seroprevalence after antiretroviral treatment scale-up in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Objective: Our study uses sex-specific and age-specific HIV prevalence data from an ongoing population-based demographic and HIV survey to infer HIV incidence and survival in rural KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2011, a period when antiretroviral treatment (ART) was rolled out on a large scale. Design: Catalytic mathematical model for estimating HIV incidence and differential survival in HIV-infected persons on multiple rounds of HIV seroprevalence. Methods: We evaluate trends of HIV incidence and survival by estimating parameters separately for women and men aged 15–49 years during three calendar periods (2003–2005, 2006–2008, 2009–2011) reflecting increasing ART coverage. We compare model-based estimates of HIV incidence with observed cohort-based estimates from the longitudinal HIV surveillance. Results: Median survival after HIV infection increased significantly between 2003–2005 and 2009–2011 from 10.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8–11.2] to 14.2 (95% CI 12.6–15.8) years in women (P?age-group 15–49 years in 2009–2011 compared with 2003–2005. Age-specific and sex-specific model-based HIV incidence estimates were in good agreement with observed cohort-based estimates from the ongoing HIV surveillance. Conclusion: Our catalytic modelling approach using cross-sectional age-specific HIV prevalence data could be useful to monitor trends of HIV incidence and survival in other African settings with a high ART coverage. PMID:23842131

Mossong, Joël; Grapsa, Erofili; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie-Louise

2013-01-01

368

Body composition and age in african-american and caucasian women: Relationship to plasma leptin levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is a recently isolated peptide hormone released from adipocytes that has been postulated to play a role in appetite regulation and energy metabolism. Aging affects both food intake and body composition. Body composition is also affected by ethnicity. We have evaluated the relationships between serum leptin levels, age, body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and hormonal parameters in a

H. M. Perry; J. E. Morley; M. Horowitz; F. E. Kaiser; D. K. Miller; G. Wittert

1997-01-01

369

The Intergenerational Transmission of Age at First Birth among Married and Unmarried Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong relationship has been established between a mother's age at first birth and her daughter's age at first birth. Using a theoretical framework derived from the literature and a long-term intergenerational panel study of White mother–child pairs, this article (1) establishes that the intergenerational transmission of first birth timing is also strong among sons, (2) provides a theoretical model

Jennifer S. Barber

2001-01-01

370

Nutritional anemia and its epidemiological correlates among women of reproductive age in an urban slum of Bhubaneswar, Orissa.  

PubMed

The present cross-sectional study involving 240 women of reproductive age as the study population was carried out in the beneficiary slum area, the field practice area of Community Medicine department to find out the burden of nutritional anemia and study its epidemiological correlates. The prevalence of anemia was found to be 60.8%, of which 39.6, 20.0 and 1.2% women had mild, moderate and severe anemia, respectively. Almost 63, 21.2 and 15.7% of the study subjects had microcytic hypochromic picture, indicative of iron deficiency anemia, normocytic hypochromic picture suggestive of early stage of iron deficiency anemia and dimorphic/ macrocytic hypochromic anemia implying iron deficiency anemia and or folate/vitamin B12 deficiency respectively. Statistical analyses have shown that epidemiological factors like age, education of respondents, socioeconomic status, history of excessive menstrual bleeding and inadequate intake of green leafy vegetables and pulses were found to be significantly associated with anemia. PMID:22298143

Panigrahi, Ansuman; Sahoo, Prasun Bikash

2011-01-01

371

Advanced age is a risk factor for higher grade perineal lacerations during delivery in nulliparous women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To identify risk factors for the development of severe perineal lacerations and to give recommendations for their prevention\\u000a in nulliparous women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective case–control analysis of deliveries at our University Hospital was performed. Multiparae, Caesarean sections,\\u000a twin pregnancies, fetal breech position and preterm deliveries were excluded. Univariate and multivariate step forward regression\\u000a analyses were performed; correlations between contributors were further

Amadeus Hornemann; Axel Kamischke; Doerte W. Luedders; Daniel A. Beyer; Klaus Diedrich; Michael K. Bohlmann

2010-01-01

372

Risky alcohol use among reproductive-age men, not women, in Mae La refugee camp, Thailand, 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, alcohol use contributes to close to 4% of all deaths and is a leading cause of ill health and premature death among men of reproductive age. Problem alcohol use is an unaddressed public health issue among populations displaced by conflict. Assessing the magnitude of the problem and identifying affected groups and risk behaviours is difficult in mobile and unstable populations. Methods From 15–28 December 2009 we conducted a simple rapid screening test of risky alcohol use using the single item modified Short Assessment Screening Questionnaire (mSASQ) by all women currently enrolled in the antenatal care clinic in Mae La refugee camp, a long standing displaced setting on the Thai Burma border. Women self- reported and gave a secondary report of their male partners. Gender differences in alcohol use were further explored in semi-structured interviews with camp residents on attitudes, behaviours, and beliefs regarding alcohol and analysed thematically. Results Of 636 women screened in the antenatal clinic, almost none (0.2%, 95CI 0.0-0.9%) reported risky alcohol use prior to pregnancy, whereas around a quarter (24.4%, 95CI 21.2-27.9%) reported risky alcohol use by their male partners. Interviews with 97 camp residents described strong social controls against women’s alcohol use and men’s drinking to intoxication, despite a dominant perception that the social context of life in displacement promoted alcohol use and that controls are loosening. Conclusions As a stigmatised behaviour, alcohol use is difficult to assess, particularly in the context of highly mobile adult male populations: the simple assessment methods here show that it is feasible to obtain adequate data for the purposes of intervention design. The data suggest that risky drinking is common and normalised among men, but that the population may have been partially protected from rapid rises in problem alcohol use observed in nation-wide data from Thailand. The changing social context contains vulnerabilities that might promote problem alcohol use: further investigation, ongoing monitoring, and development of targeted interventions are warranted. PMID:22963719

2012-01-01

373

Changes in sex and non-sex hormones and distribution of erythrocyte antigens in reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus in Adjara.  

PubMed

The aim the research was to study the hormonal state of reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus. The quantitative changes of sex steroid hormones: progesterone (P), estradiol (E), testosterone (T), gonadotropine -Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were investigated. Distribution of ABO blood group antigens and Rh-Hr systems genetic variants in the blood of women living in Adjara Region was also studied. For study was used reproductive age women's blood with benign (fibromioma) and malignant (endometrial cancer) tumors of body of uterus (the middle age was 20-45 years). The determination of hormones was made by the enzymatic analysis method (ELAIZA). For the research of blood groups, were used the immunoserologic methods. The study have revealed that in blood of reproductive age women with benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus, level of estradiol was increased while levels of progesterone and testosterone were sharply reduced. Amount of Follicle-stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone were also increased. It's significant that, both hormones were sharply increased in case of cancer of body of uterus, in comparison with control group and benign tumor. According to distribution of ABO blood group phenotypes - O (I) phenotypic group of ABO system has its highest frequency in blood of women with cancer of body of uterus. Cancer of body of uterus is associated with O (I) phenotypic groups; benign tumor of body of uterus - with A(II) and AB(IV) phenotypic groups. Women with cc and EE genetic variants of Rh-Hr system have sensitivity to the development of benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus; women with ee genetic variant have lower sensitivity towards body of uterus cancer and sharply expressed sensitivity to uterus benign tumors. In women with malignant tumors of body of uterus the frequency of distribution of Rh-Hr system CC genetic variant was sharply reduced. PMID:23676481

Nakashidze, I; Kotrikadze, N; Diasamidze, A; Nagervadze, M; Ramishvili, L

2013-04-01

374

Vitamin A and E intakes and plasma concentrations of retinol, \\/3-carotene, and a-tocopherol in men and women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidants have been linked to protection against degenerative diseases associated with aging. Plasma con- centrations were determined for and 7-d diet records collected from 200 women and 23 1 men aged 20-95 y who took part in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Men consumed more vitamin A from animal and less from vegetable sources than did women. These sex

Judith Hallfrisch; Denis C Muller; Vishwa N Singh

375

Acculturation and Post-Migration Stress in Middle-Aged Chinese Immigrant Women in Philadelphia: Variation between the Fujianese and the non-Fujianese women  

PubMed Central

The experience of acculturation in Chinese immigrant women from the rural coastal province of Fujian has not been well studied despite of their growing numbers in American cities. This exploratory study is an attempt to examine the experience of acculturation and post-migration stress in Fujianese immigrant women as compared to those from other parts of China. The study is based on a convenience sample 240 Fujianese and 162 non-Fujianese Chinese immigrant women living in Philadelphia. Results from bivariate analyses showed that the variation in demographic characteristics between Fujianese and non-Fujianese women was marginal; that all Chinese women in this study reported experiencing a unidimensional process of acculturation and a domain-generic model of acculturation; and that the Fujianese women showed a higher level of post-migration stress than the non-Fujianese women. In multiple regression controlling for demographic characteristics and including all the women in our sample, more acculturated women reported a higher level of post-migration stress. However, separate multiple regression analyses for Fujianese and non-Fujianese women revealed a different pattern of post-migration stress models. The findings suggest the importance of further research to understand acculturation and post-migration stress among Fujianese immigrant women. PMID:22451743

Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Tseng, Marilyn

2012-01-01

376

A cross-sectional study to estimate high-risk human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in Italian women aged 18–26 years  

PubMed Central

Background Pre-vaccination information on HPV type-specific prevalence in target populations is essential for designing and monitoring immunization strategies for cervical cancer (CC) prevention. Data on HPV prevalence in Italy are available for women over the age of 24 years, target of the population-based CC screening programmes; while data of HPV prevalence in younger ages are very limited. The present study enrolled Italian women aged 18–26 years in order to assess the prevalence and distribution of high-risk (HR) HPV types. Risk-factors correlated with HR-HPV positivity were also described. Methods A sample of 2,289 women was randomly selected from the resident population lists of ten Local Health Units (LHUs) located in six Italian Regions scattered across the country; both rural and urban LHUs were involved. Women aged between 18 and 26 years and living in the selected LHUs were included in the study; pregnant women and women who did not speak Italian were excluded. A total of 1,102 women met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. Participants were offered pap test and Hybrid-Capture 2 (HC2) test for HR-HPV types and genotyping was performed on positive smears. Results Out of 1,094 valid samples, 205 (18.7%) were HR-HPV positive. Women with 2–4 (ORadj?=?4.15, 95%CI: 2.56-6.72) and ?5 lifetime partners (ORadj?=?10.63, 95%CI: 6.16-18.36) and women who have used any contraceptive in the last six months (ORadj?=?1.67, 95%CI: 1.09-2.54) had a higher risk to be infected; women living with their partner had a lower risk (ORadj?=?0.56, 95%CI: 0.34-0.92) to acquire infection than women living with parents/friends/alone. Among HC2 positive women, HPV16 was the most prevalent type (30.9%), followed by 31 (19.6%), 66 (12.9%), 51 (11.3%), 18 (8.8%), 56 (8.8%). Co-infections of HR-HC2 targeted types were found in 20.4% of positive samples. The HR-HPV prevalence in women with abnormal cytology (52.4%) was significantly higher than in women with normal cytology (14.6%); however 33.0% of HR-HPV infected women had an abnormal cytology. Conclusion HR-HPV prevalence in Italian women aged 18–26 years was 19%, higher than what detected for older women, by other studies using the same molecular method and laboratory network; this result supports the choice of electing girls before the sexual debut as the primary target of HPV vaccination. The HPV type distribution found in this study may represent a baseline picture; an accurate post-vaccine surveillance is necessary to early detect a possible genotype replacement. The high prevalence of viral types other than vaccine-HPV types supports the necessity to guarantee the progression of CC screening programmes in vaccinated women. PMID:23390953

2013-01-01

377

Prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective : To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted between March 1 and April 29, 2011 on married women aged 15-49 years. Exposure to at least one of these types of violence at least one time within the past one year was regarded as the presence of domestic violence. Chi-square test and Logistic Regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence against women was found to be 39.0%. About 38,4% and 26.8% of women reported verbal and psychological violence respectively. The risk factors found for the domestic violence included youngest age group, an educational level of secondary/high school for men, form of the first marriage, number of children, alcohol and gambling habits of the husband. Conclusion: Our study found higher prevalence of domestic violence than expected. Verbal violence is also a significant problem particularly in terms of its consequences. It was concluded that further informative studies are needed on domestic violence to find out the causative factors to chalk out preventive strategies. PMID:25225532

Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Arslantas, Didem; Unsal, Alaettin

2014-01-01

378

Women's autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background How socio-demographic factors influence women's autonomy in decision making on health care including purchasing goods and visiting family and relatives are very poorly studied in Nepal. This study aims to explore the links between women's household position and their autonomy in decision making. Methods We used Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2006, which provided data on ever married women aged 15-49 years (n = 8257). The data consists of women's four types of household decision making; own health care, making major household purchases, making purchase for daily household needs and visits to her family or relatives. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of these variables to all four types of decision making. Results Women's autonomy in decision making is positively associated with their age, employment and number of living children. Women from rural area and Terai region have less autonomy in decision making in all four types of outcome measure. There is a mixed variation in women's autonomy in the development region across all outcome measures. Western women are more likely to make decision in own health care (1.2-1.6), while they are less likely to purchase daily household needs (0.6-0.9). Women's increased education is positively associated with autonomy in own health care decision making (p < 0.01), however their more schooling (SLC and above) shows non-significance with other outcome measures. Interestingly, rich women are less likely to have autonomy to make decision in own healthcare. Conclusions Women from rural area and Terai region needs specific empowerment programme to enable them to be more autonomous in the household decision making. Women's autonomy by education, wealth quintile and development region needs a further social science investigation to observe the variations within each stratum. A more comprehensive strategy can enable women to access community resources, to challenge traditional norms and to access economic resources. This will lead the women to be more autonomous in decision making in the due course. PMID:20630107

2010-01-01

379

Desires, Need, Perceptions, and Knowledge of Assisted Reproductive Technologies of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the desire, need, perceptions, and knowledge of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) for women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and determine correlates of ART knowledge desire. WLWHIV of reproductive age were surveyed using the survey instrument “The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire” at HIV/AIDS service organizations across Ontario, Canada. Of our cohort of 500 WLWHIV, median age was 38, 88% were previously pregnant, 78% desired more information regarding ART, 59% were open to the idea of receiving ART, 39% felt they could access a sperm bank, and 17% had difficulties conceiving (self-reported). Age, African ethnicity, and residence in an urban center were correlated with desire for more ART information. Of participants, 50% wanted to speak to an obstetrician/gynecologist regarding pregnancy planning, and 74% regarded physicians as a main source of fertility service information. While the majority of participants in our cohort desire access to ART information, most do not perceive these services as readily accessible. Healthcare practitioners were viewed as main sources of information regarding fertility services and need to provide accurate information regarding access. Fertility service professionals need to be aware of the increasing demand for ART among WLWHIV. PMID:22957265

Zhang, Yimeng; Margolese, Shari; Yudin, Mark H.; Raboud, Janet M.; Diong, Christina; Hart, Trevor A.; Shapiro, Heather M.; Librach, Cliff; Gysler, Matt; Loutfy, Mona R.

2012-01-01

380

Desires, Need, Perceptions, and Knowledge of Assisted Reproductive Technologies of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the desire, need, perceptions, and knowledge of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) for women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and determine correlates of ART knowledge desire. WLWHIV of reproductive age were surveyed using the survey instrument "The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire" at HIV/AIDS service organizations across Ontario, Canada. Of our cohort of 500 WLWHIV, median age was 38, 88% were previously pregnant, 78% desired more information regarding ART, 59% were open to the idea of receiving ART, 39% felt they could access a sperm bank, and 17% had difficulties conceiving (self-reported). Age, African ethnicity, and residence in an urban center were correlated with desire for more ART information. Of participants, 50% wanted to speak to an obstetrician/gynecologist regarding pregnancy planning, and 74% regarded physicians as a main source of fertility service information. While the majority of participants in our cohort desire access to ART information, most do not perceive these services as readily accessible. Healthcare practitioners were viewed as main sources of information regarding fertility services and need to provide accurate information regarding access. Fertility service professionals need to be aware of the increasing demand for ART among WLWHIV. PMID:22957265

Zhang, Yimeng; Margolese, Shari; Yudin, Mark H; Raboud, Janet M; Diong, Christina; Hart, Trevor A; Shapiro, Heather M; Librach, Cliff; Gysler, Matt; Loutfy, Mona R

2012-01-01

381

Women's Empowerment and Contraceptive Use: The Role of Independent versus Couples' Decision-Making, from a Lower Middle Income Country Perspective  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined - and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach. Methods We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR), to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods. Results Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method. Conclusion Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to be made to educate women and their husbands equally, with particular focus on highly effective contraceptive methods. PMID:25119727

Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Sheikh, Muhammad Ishaque; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

2014-01-01

382

Different dietary lifestyles and serum zinc and copper in women of reproductive age  

SciTech Connect

Nutrient intakes and biochemical measures of zinc and copper were compared in non-pregnant young women representing different dietary lifestyles, viz, those who habitually ate red meat (RM), fish or poultry (FP), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LV) sources of protein. All were in good health and concerned about their diets; none was using supplements or oral contraceptives. Three-day food records were analyzed for nutrient content. Serum and drinking water samples were assayed for zinc and copper (AAS), and serum, for ceruloplasmin (RID). Sign. diff. in dietary Zn or Cu content were not reflected by serum(Zn) or (Cu), but the incidence of serum(Zn) < the 95% CI for RM eaters was sign. higher in FP and LV groups (X/sup 2/ = 20.65, p < 0.001). Thus, use of diets limited in animal protein sources may be associated with an increase risk of low serum (Zn).

Breskin, M.W.; Worthington-Roberts, B.S.; Monsen, E.R.

1986-03-01

383

Variability of centre of pressure movement during gait in young and middle-aged women.  

PubMed

The variability of the centre of pressure (COP) movement is a tool that is often used for stability assessments during standing; however, this variable can provide relevant findings during dynamic conditions, which are more related to fall risks. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related differences in the variability of COP movement. Healthy young (younger group - 25 subjects, age 22.2 ± 1.8 years) and middle-aged (elder group - 25 subjects, age 56.6 ± 4.9 years) females participated in this study. The ground reaction forces and COP movement during walking at a self-selected speed were recorded using two force platforms. Each stance phase was divided into four subphases: loading response (LR), mid-stance (MSt), terminal stance (TSt) and preswing (PS). Standard deviations of the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior and total COP displacements were assessed. For statistical comparisons, one-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test were used. These results showed significantly higher COP movement variability in selected variables in the PS, LR and MSt subphases in the elder group (p < 0.05) compared with the younger group; no differences were found in the TSt subphase. A comparison of the subphases within the groups revealed significant differences (p < 0.001 for all cases and both groups) between the parameters in the LR × MSt, LR × TSt, MSt × PS and TSt×PS subphases. The LR and PS subphases showed significantly higher values for the variability parameters. PMID:24973140

Bizovska, Lucia; Svoboda, Zdenek; Kutilek, Patrik; Janura, Miroslav; Gaba, Ales; Kovacikova, Zuzana

2014-07-01

384

Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

2008-01-01

385

Accounting for Recent Declines in Employment Rates among Working-Aged Men and Women with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1990s, employment rates of people with disabilities fell and the number of working-age people receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits increased dramatically, Analysis of Current Population Survey and disability insurance data suggests that growth in the SSDI program accounts for much of the decline in employment…

Bound, John; Waidmann, Timothy

2002-01-01

386

The Experience of Religious Fortification: The Coming of Age of Religious Zionist Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accounts of 37 17-year-old religious Zionist female adolescents in a boarding school in Israel show that they experience adolescence as a intense period of religious fortification and conflict between religious and secular societal values. Implications for female coming of age are discussed. (SLD)

Rapoport, Tamar; Garb, Yoni

1998-01-01

387

Urinary perchlorate exposure and risk in women of reproductive age in a fireworks production area of China.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive age from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater exposure doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination. PMID:24859046

Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei

2014-07-01

388

[Comparative morphofunctional characteristics of the ovaries in women of reproduction age in the norm and with chronic anovulatory infertility].  

PubMed

This work was aimed at the study of ovarian histophysiology in patients with chronic anovulation. The biopsy specimens obtained by endoscopic laparoscopy from the ovaries of women of reproductive age with anovulation or normal cycle (control) were examined. It was found that in the ovaries of anovulation patients the thickness of both tunica albuginea and follicular theca externa was increased. The number of primordial follicles was not different in groups studied, while the number of antral follicles was decreased in anovulation group. No differences in 3 beta-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase and NADH-dehydrogenase activities in the cells of theca interna and cyst walls were found in both groups, while NADPH-dehydrogenase and NO-synthase activities in these structures were reduced in anovulation. Reduction of estradiol concentration and increase of testosterone concentration were noted in blood of women with anovulatory infertility. The data obtained can be used for the analysis of etiology and pathogenesis of anovulatory infertility and for development of the methods of its treatment. PMID:14994596

Ryzhavski?, B Ia; Smirenina, I V; Shapiro, E P

2003-01-01

389

Effect of intake of gardenia fruits and combined exercise of middle-aged obese women on hormones regulating energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study is aimed at analyzing how exercise and gardenia affect hormones that regulate energy metabolism by having middle aged, obese women exercise and take gardenia simultaneously. [Methods] This study assigned a total of 35 middle-aged obese women with body fat percentage of more than 35 percent into 9 people of the complex treatment group of intake of gardenia and exercise, 9 people of the exercise group, 9 people of the gardenia group and 8 people of the control group in order to find out the effect of the intake of gardenia fruits and Combined exercise of 8 weeks on the body composition, hormones regulating energy metabolism. This study arranged .08 g per weight of 1 kg of the gardenia fruits to be taken twice a day for 8 weeks after breakfast and dinner through the numerical method of roasting the gardenia fruits on fire. And the exercise program was set to be five times a week for 8 weeks, whereas the aerobic exercise of 60 to 70 minutes was 50 to 60 percent for HRmax; thus, the resistance exercise was set to be 1-RM 50 percent. As for the data analysis, the two-way repeated measures ANOVA was utilized for the analysis of interactive effect between groups and times. [Results] Thus, the obtained conclusion is as follows: The %fat and WHR has decreased further in the gardenia+exercise group and the exercise group as compared with the control group. And the visceral fat area has decreased further in the gardenia and exercise group and the gardenia group as compared with the control group (p<.05). In addition, the gardenia+exercise group and the exercise group were found to have a significant improvement effect in all the items of body composition, and the gardenia group has reduced the fat percentage and BMI after the treatment (p<.05). Leptin has decreased further in the gardenia+exercise group and the exercise group as compared with the control group, and the insulin resistance and GLP-1 have decreased in all the treatment groups (p<.05). [Conclusion] As a result of this study, all the treatment groups were found to have an improvement effect of research variables in general; therefore, the single treatment and complex treatment for the middle-aged obese women were found to have a positive impact on body composition, adjusting factors for energy metabolism. Also, the complex treatment was found to be more positive in terms of change amount. In particular, in the case of visceral fat area that is the major risk factor for metabolic disease of middle-aged obese women, it was found to have decreased further in the complex treatment group than the gardenia group; therefore, the complex treatment was found to be more advantageous.

Shin, Jae Sug; Huh, Yu Sub

2014-01-01

390

In vitro antimicrobial profile of Ureaplasma urealyticum from genital tract of childbearing-aged women in Northern and Southern Italy.  

PubMed

Ureaplasma urealyticum is an opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy and in newborns. Other clinical problems related to U. urealyticum infections are: no susceptibility to cell wall-active drugs, limits of antibiotic treatment in pregnancy, and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, the results of antimicrobial susceptibility against U. urealyticum from various countries are few and controversial. The antimicrobial susceptibility of U. urealyticum, isolated from cervical swabs and collected from outpatient childbearing-aged women in Italy from 2009 to 2012, was performed against fluoroquinolones, macrolides, streptogramin and tetracyclines, using an available biochemical commercial kit and a specific solid culture medium, to improve the therapeutic management of these pathogenic agents. Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 49.4% of samples, but significant bacterial load was revealed in 29.8%. In vitro tetracyclines showed the best activity against U. urealyticum, followed by streptogramin, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones. PMID:24106832

Pignanelli, Salvatore; Pulcrano, Giovanna; Iula, Vita Dora; Zaccherini, Patrizia; Testa, Antonio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

2014-06-01

391

Pharmacological anti-thrombotic prophylaxis after elective caesarean delivery in thrombophilia unscreened women: should maternal age have a role in decision making?  

PubMed

In obstetrical practice, the best prevention strategy for pregnant women aged >35 years without known thrombosis risk factors who underwent elective caesarean delivery (CD) is controversial. We performed an observational-longitudinal cohort study on pregnant women aged >35 years who delivered at term by elective caesarean section after a physiological single pregnancy to evaluate the role of maternal age in the decision-making process of whether or not to perform low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis during the post-partum period after elective CD in healthy women with unknown inherited thrombophilia status. During the 6 post-partum weeks, we followed two groups: GROUP-A (349 women treated for 7 days with low-molecular-weight heparin) and GROUP-B (180 women not treated with LMWH treatment). The outcomes were as follows: onset of thromboembolic events during the post-partum period; non-obstetrical-linked maternal haemorrhage; blood transfusion; re-laparotomy; detection of a surgical site haematoma; length of hospitalisation; and treatment suspension because of decreased platelet count. Except for the parity number, the two groups were homogeneous with regard to general features. In both the groups, we reported no cases of thromboembolic events during the follow-up period. Maternal haemorrhage requiring transfusion occurred in 16 women in GROUP-A and none in GROUP-B. Among the GROUP-A women, 11 demonstrated a surgical site haematoma and 4 required re-laparotomy. No cases of treatment suspension were reported. Pneumatic compression stockings represent a better, low cost and safe way to prevent post-partum venous thromboembolic episodes after elective caesarean section in an unscreened population. Pharmacological prophylaxis after elective caesarean section should be performed only in case of clear and known adjunctive risk factors, independent of maternal age. PMID:24246285

Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Anis, Omar; Saccardi, Carlo; Zambon, Alessandra; Di Gangi, Stefania; Tormene, Daniela; Gangemi, Michele; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

2014-05-01

392

Brain-age quotients in recently detoxified alcoholic, recovered alcoholic and nonalcoholic women.  

PubMed

Examined performance of three matched groups (N = 35 each) of female alcoholics (average sobriety 1 month), female recovered alcoholics (average sobriety 1 year), and female nonalcoholic controls on the Brain-Age Quotient (BAQ), an age-adjusted index of cerebral dysfunction. The mean BAQs of the alcoholics and recovered alcoholics were significantly lower than that of the controls. Analyses of the BAQ subtests indicated that the alcoholics performed significantly less well than the controls on the Halstead Category Test, Tactual Performance Test-Time, WAIS Block Design and WAIS Digit Symbol, which replicates findings with male alcoholics. The recovered alcoholics performed at the alcoholic level on WAIS Block Design and Digit Symbol and performed at the control level on the Halstead Category test; which suggests a differential recovery of cognitive abilities in abstinent female alcoholics. PMID:7056868

Hochla, N A; Fabian, M S; Parsons, O A

1982-01-01

393

The Impact of Genital Self-Image on Gynecological Exam Behaviors of College-Aged Women  

E-print Network

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Ariane V. Hollub B.E. Pruitt Committee Members, Danny Ballard Bruce Thompson Debra Herbenick Head of Department, Richard Kreider...-Chairs of Committee: Dr. Ariane V. Hollub Dr. B.E. Pruitt Human papillomavirus (HPV) affects at least half of all sexually active people, especially those aged 20-24 years. Gynecological exams are instrumental in cervical cancer prevention due...

DeMaria, Andrea Laine

2012-07-16

394

Medications as a potential source of exposure to phthalates among women of childbearing age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between the use of medications potentially containing phthalates and urinary concentrations of specific phthalate metabolites around conception. Methods Women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health project from 2006 to 2009 completed questionnaires about the use of medications and provided multiple urine samples before and after conception. We compared the mean urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites between users of phthalate containing medications and a matched unexposed control group. Results One woman used Asacol® (mesalamine), which utilizes dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as a delayed release coating material, and had a mean urinary concentration of the main DBP metabolite 200 times higher than the controls (8176 ?g/L vs. 37.5 ?g/L). The three users of stool softeners had a higher concentration of the main diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite (8636 ?g/L vs. 714.2 ?g/L). Neither the three additional Prilosec® (omeprazole) users nor one cyclobenzaprine user had higher urinary concentration than controls. Conclusion Selected medications may be important sources of DBP and DEP exposures around conception. PMID:23333816

Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Su, Yung-Cheng; Mitchell, Allen A.; Kelley, Katherine E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

2013-01-01

395

Why Are the Benefits of Increased Resources Not Impacting the Risk of HIV Infection for High SES Women in Cameroon?  

PubMed Central

Background Despite evidence of a positive SES-HIV gradient in some SSA countries, researchers and policy-makers frequently assume that a range of protective interventions – increasing awareness of mechanisms of HIV transmission, techniques for prevention, greater access to health care facilities, and greater availability of condoms – will reduce the likelihood of contracting HIV, even among higher SES populations. We therefore explore the relationships between SES and these intervening behaviors to illuminate the complex factors that link SES and HIV among women in Cameroon. Methods We use bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis to examine patterns among the 5, 155 women aged 15–49 who participated in the 2004 CDHS. Results The results show a strong pattern where higher SES women have greater access to and use of health care facilities, higher levels of condom use, more HIV knowledge, and command higher power within their relationships, yet also have higher rates of HIV. These traditionally protective factors appear to be offset by riskier sexual behaviors on the part of women with increased resources, most notably longer years of premarital sexual experience, multiple partners in last 12 months, and sexual encounters outside of relationship. Multivariate analyses suggests net of the effect of other factors, women who command higher decision-making power, have greater access to health care, more negative attitudes toward wife beating, longer years of premarital sexual exposure, and partners with professional/white collar jobs (characteristics associated with rising SES) had higher odds of testing positive for HIV. Conclusion Results show that higher riskier sexual practices on part of high SES women offset benefits that may have accrued from their increased access to resources. The results suggest that traditional approaches to HIV prevention which rely on poverty reduction, improving access to health care, improving HIV knowledge, and boosting women’s social and economic power may be insufficient to address other drivers of HIV infection among women in SSA. PMID:24968350

Mumah, Joyce N.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas

2014-01-01

396

Domestic violence and its predictors among married women in reproductive age in Fagitalekoma Woreda, Awi zone, Amhara regional state, North Western Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Violence against women is one of the most systematic and prevalent human rights abuses in the world. It is a form of discrimination and deeply rooted in power imbalances and structural inequality between women and men. Documenting the extent of the problem and associated factors is essential to develop public health interventions to tackle violence against women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine magnitude of domestic violence and identify its predictors among married women in the reproductive age in north western Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to March 15, 2011 among 682 married women and 46 key informants. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents for the quantitative method. Purposive sampling was used to select in-depth interview key informants for and focus group discussants. Data were analyzed using SPSS window version 16.0. Binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the prevalence and identify independent predictors of domestic violence against women. Statistical association was measured by adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was declared at P?women reported different forms of psychological, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Alcohol consumption by husband (AOR?=?1.9, 95%CI?=?1.3, 2.8), being pregnant (AOR?=?2.1, 95% CI?=?1.4, 3.4), decision making power (AOR?=?2.3, 95% CI?=?1.5, 3.4) and annual income (AOR?=?1.9, 95% CI?=?1.1, 3.3) were predictors of domestic violence. Conclusion The prevalence of domestic violence was very high as compared to other studies. Women’s husband alcohol consumption, decision making power annual household income and being pregnant are some of the predictors of domestic violence against women. PMID:24308763

2013-01-01

397

Trends in tooth loss in relation to socio-economic status among Swedish women, aged 38 and 50 years: repeated cross-sectional surveys 1968-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Oral diseases are a health problem worldwide. Differences in oral health status may vary with geographical locations, but also within the same country and between groups with different social backgrounds. The specific aims were to describe secular trends in oral health status regarding number of remaining teeth and also to describe differences in socio-economic status, among 38- and 50-year-old women, over a 36-year period. Methods Cross-sectional health surveys were performed at four occasions; 1968/69 (n?=?746), 1980/81 (n?=?532), 1992/93 (n?=?165) and 2004/05 (n?=?500), including randomly selected women aged 38 and 50 years. The number of teeth was determined using panoramic radiographs and self-reported measures of marital status, social class, educational level, and income were recorded. Results The mean number of teeth among women has increased significantly. The educational level has increased while fewer women are married/cohabiting over time. There has been a shift in the social group the women belong to, where proportionally more women were categorized in a higher social group in 2004/05 than in 1968/69. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between fewer teeth and a lower social group, and among the 50-year-old women, this was irrespective of examination year. However, multivariate analyses showed that the risk to be edentulous or not, or to have fewer remaining teeth was significantly higher for women of lower social group, or living alone, in all studies over the 36 year-period. This was independent of age group, even though the risk diminished over the study period. Conclusions Cohort comparisons of women aged 38 and 50 years during 36 years showed that dental status improved, with (i) a decreasing prevalence of edentulism and, (ii) an increasing number of remaining teeth in dentate individuals over time. Differences due to social group and education were still present, with more remaining teeth in the women in the higher social group. A time trend analysis indicated that in the later examination years the individuals had fewer teeth lost, irrespective of age, marital status and, social group. PMID:24195640

2013-01-01

398

Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is associated with a decreased folate status in women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

In vitro studies indicate that folate in collected human blood is vulnerable to degradation after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This has raised concerns about folate depletion in individuals with high sun exposure. Here, we investigate the association between personal solar UV radiation exposure and serum folate concentration, using a three-week prospective study that was undertaken in females aged 18-47years in Brisbane, Australia (153 E, 27 S). Following two weeks of supplementation with 500?g of folic acid daily, the change in serum folate status was assessed over a 7-day period of measured personal sun exposure. Compared to participants with personal UV exposures of <200 Joules per day, participants with personal UV exposures of 200-599 and >600 Joules per day had significantly higher depletion of serum folate (p=0.015). Multivariable analysis revealed personal UV exposure as the strongest predictor accounting for 20% of the overall change in serum folate (Standardised B=-0.49; t=-3.75; p=<0.01). These data show that increasing solar UV radiation exposures reduces the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation. The consequences of this association may be most pronounced for vulnerable individuals, such as women who are pregnant or of childbearing age with high sun exposures. PMID:24509071

Borradale, D; Isenring, E; Hacker, E; Kimlin, M G

2014-02-01

399

Trends and determinants of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural Guinea-Bissau, West Africa – a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background There are few studies reporting mortality of women of reproductive age (WRA) in developing countries. The trend and patterns of their mortality may be important for documenting the health status of the population in general. Methods We used a prospective open cohort of women aged 12 to 49 years living in the Bandim Health Project’s rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 5 regions of Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 2007. Information on in- and out-migration and deaths were collected through the HDSS routine procedures. We assessed the trends in mortality and the associated determinants using Cox regression models. Results We followed 27,185 WRA for 141,693 person-years-at-risk (PYO) among whom 9,093 moved out and 1,006 died. Overall standardized mortality rate was 759 per 100,000 PYO. WRA mortality did not decline, but three periods could be distinguished: a stable mortality between 1996–2000 followed by 14% increase in mortality [Hazard rate ratio (HRR)?=?1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-1.32; p?=?0.08] between 2001–2003, and then in the last period from 2004–2007 a 25% decline (HRR?=?0.75; 95% CI: 0.64-0.87; p?age. Conclusions Over the twelve-year period mortality of WRA did not decline. A stable mortality in the beginning was followed by an increase and then a return to the previous levels. Further monitoring of mortality is needed to identify the risk factors for the striking regional differences. Advantage should be taken of the HDSS to monitor progress towards the MDGs and beyond. PMID:24304945

2013-01-01

400

U.S. provider reported folic acid or multivitamin ordering for non-pregnant women of childbearing age: NAMCS and NHAMCS, 2005-2006.  

PubMed

Folic acid use started prior to pregnancy confers a decreased risk of neural tube defects, and yet 20-50% of pregnancies are unplanned. We sought to determine whether medical providers order folic acid (FA) or folic acid-containing multivitamins (MVI) for their non-pregnant female patients of childbearing age. This is a cross-sectional study using data from the CDC's National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) (2005 and 2006). Among non-pregnant, female patients of childbearing age (15-44), the proportion of preventive visits during which a provider ordered FA/MVI supplements was determined and compared to pregnant patients. Next, the rates of FA/MVI orders were examined according to race/ethnicity, age, insurance status, region of the country, provider type, contraceptive care, income and education. Analyses were conducted using SAS-callable Sudaan to account for survey design and to obtain population estimates. There were 4,634 preventive visits for non-pregnant women of childbearing age, representing 32.1 million visits nationally. Of these visits, 7.2% included provider-ordered FA/MVI. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that provider-ordered FA/MVI was most common for women ages 30-34, who receive Medicaid, and whose race/ethnicity was other than White, Black or Hispanic. Preventive care visits represent an important venue for counseling regarding the benefits of FA for women of childbearing age, but appear to be under-utilized in all women. Our findings suggest that annually there may be over 29 million missed opportunities to recommend folic acid to non-pregnant women seeking preventive care. PMID:20204479

Burris, Heather H; Werler, Martha M

2011-04-01