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1

To estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group (15-49 years).  

PubMed

The present study is a Cross-Sectional Study and was conducted in Post-graduate department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College, Srinagar between Feb. 2012 and Jan. 2013. The sample size of 1,041 was estimated. The study was conducted to estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group in two districts of Kashmir valley, district Srinagar and district Ganderbal, which were selected randomly. A frame of the blocks and villages in the two districts and their population was formed. From each district 10% of the blocks were selected using simple random sampling. From each block, 5% of the villages were selected using simple random sampling. A door to door survey was conducted in the selected villages and all the women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) identified and examined clinically for goiter after taking informed consent. Salt samples (one teaspoonful) from every household were taken and assessed for iodine content on spot and the iodine content of salt was assessed qualitatively by spot testing kits. The results of the present study have indicated that iodine deficiency continues to be a health problem. Almost the whole population consumes powdered salt but the storage and cooking practices diminish the iodine content of salt and results in decreased intake. Thus the need of the hour is to make people aware about proper storage and cooking practices. Women in the reproductive age group especially need to be made aware about the importance of consumption of adequately iodized salt because of the wide range of ill effects of iodine deficiency on the developing fetus and the growing child. In addition monitoring of iodine content of salt at distributor level should be done. PMID:23760753

Kousar, Junaid; Kawoosa, Zaffar; Hamid, Sajad; Munshi, Iftikhar Hussain; Hamid, Shahnawaz; Rashid, Arsalaan F

2013-12-01

2

How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. Methods Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried

Vonthanak Saphonn; Leng Bun Hor; Sun Penh Ly; Samrith Chhuon; Tobi Saidelb; Roger Detelsc

3

Aging women with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

2003-01-01

4

Women, Work and Age Discrimination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Millions of older women who work face combined age and sex discrimination. Fifty percent more women aged 45-54 (3.5 million) will enter the job market in the next two decades and face the same problems. Illegal discriminatory practices encountered by older women when job hunting include exclusion from a job opportunity because of a male selecting…

DeGooyer, Janice

5

Women, Middle Age and Sex  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... important is sex to a woman's health-related quality of life as she ages? And what factors ... were both associated with continued sexual activity but quality of sex was not. And as women aged, ...

6

[Aging and sexuality in women].  

PubMed

A large number of biological, psycho-relational and socio-cultural factors are related to women's sexual health and they may negatively affect the entire sexual response cycle inducing significant changes in sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and satisfaction during the entire reproductive life span. In spite of the high prevalence of sexual problems with increasing age, sexual retirement is not an inevitable consequence of the passage of time and a high proportion of men and women remains sexually active well into later life, a result of changing attitudes toward sexuality and the availability of effective treatments for sexual dysfunction. Population-based studies reported an age-related decline of sexual functioning and an additional adverse effect of menopausal status. Ageing per se interferes with the level of sexual performance, but sexual behaviour of midlife and older women is highly dependent on several factors such as general physical and mental well-being, quality of relationship and life situation. Sex hormones, mainly low levels of estradiol, are relevant for the lack of sexual awareness and vaginal receptivity in naturally menopausal women. Even diminished levels of androgens, as it more frequently occurs in surgically menopausal women, has a negative impact on desire and sexual responsiveness. Several hormonal treatments have been used locally or systemically to alleviate sexual symptoms, especially by using estrogen plus androgen preparations and tibolone, with noticeable results on drive, enjoyment, lubrication, ability to reach orgasm and initiation of sex. However, sexual counseling and individualized management is mandatory to obtain meaningful and long-lasting results in clinical practice. PMID:17576405

Nappi, R E; Albani, F; Valentino, V; Polatti, F; Chiovato, L; Genazzani, A R

2007-06-01

7

Age, Women, and Hiring: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the baby boom cohort reaches retirement age, demographic pressures on public programs such as social security may cause policy makers to cut benefits and encourage employment at later ages. This paper reports on a labor market experiment to determine the hiring conditions for older women in entry-level jobs in Boston, MA and St. Petersburg, FL. Differential interviewing by age

Joanna N. Lahey

2005-01-01

8

Work related injury among aging women.  

PubMed

This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

2013-02-01

9

Impaired Folliculogenesis and Ovulation in Older Reproductive Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that older reproductive aged women ovulate at a smaller follicle diameter and are more likely to produce multiple follicles during their menstrual cycle compared with midreproductive aged women. We performed a comparative study of 16 midre- productive aged women (MRA; 22-34 yr old) and 34 older re- productive aged women

NANETTE SANTORO; BARBARA ISAAC; GENEVIEVE NEAL-PERRY; TOVAGHOL ADEL; LAURA WEINGART; AIMEE NUSSBAUM; SHILPA THAKUR; HIKOYOSHI JINNAI; NIDHI KHOSLA; DAVID BARAD

10

Aging and reproductive potential in women.  

PubMed Central

Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age.

Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

1998-01-01

11

Societal Trends: The Aging Baby Boom and Women's Increased Independence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two most important societal trends today are the aging baby boom and womens increased independence. This paper compares the travel profiles of women aged 40 to 49 (early baby boomers) with women aged 75 and over and with men aged 75 and over (parents ...

D. Spain

1997-01-01

12

Candies in hell: women’s experiences of violence in Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of domestic violence against women in León, Nicaragua. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 488 women between the ages of 15–49. The physical aggression sub-scale of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to identify women suffering abuse. In-depth interviews with formerly battered women were performed and

Mary Ellsberg; Rodolfo Peña; Andrés Herrera; Jerker Liljestrand; Anna Winkvist

2000-01-01

13

Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study  

PubMed Central

Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27?957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100?000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research.

Haglund, Bengt; Hogberg, Ulf; Essen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

14

[The prevalence of anemia among children and women of reproductive age in Kazakhstan and basis of its prevention].  

PubMed

Results of the study on the prevalence of anemia among women of reproductive age and children, residing in the various regions of Kazakhstan, are presented in the article. Representational sampling which takes into account the divisional principle of medical service of children population in each of the 14th areas, Astana and Almaty cities has been implemented. Research involved participation of 1303 women at the age of 15-49 years, and of 1318 children, 353 (26.8%) of whom were in the age of 6 up to 23 months, and 985 (73.2%) were in the age range of 24-59 months. 89 women were pregnant, which constituted 6.8%. The average hemoglobin level in the blood of pregnant women was 11.1 +/- 1.6 g/dL, which was significantly lower compared to that of non-pregnant women, for whom the figure was 12.1 +/- 1.6 g/dL. The average level of hemoglobin in the blood of children in the age range of 6-23 months was 10.7 +/- 1.4 g/dL, and was significantly lower than that of children in the age range of 24-59 months, for whom the figure was, in average, 11.5 +/- 1.4 g/dL (p < 0.05). The rate of prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women was 43.8%, among non-pregnant women--39.0%, among children aged 6-59 months--35.2%. It was found that the prevalence of anemia was significantly higher in children aged 6-23 months (53.3%) compared with children aged 24-59 months (28.8%). As for degree of severity of anemia, mild form prevailed in all of the examined groups: children--53.6%, pregnant women--51.2% and non-pregnant--77.2%. Moderate anemia was mostly diagnosed in children in the age range of 6 to 23 months and in pregnant women (50.5 and 43.6% relatively). Comprehensive program of prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia among children and women includes food fortification, supplementation of target groups with iron preparation and folic acid, food diversification, monitoring and evaluation of program execution, as well as training of medical students and medical staff with policies and strategies of struggle against iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:24640161

Smagulova, I E; Sharmanov, T Sh; Balgimekov, Sh A

2013-01-01

15

Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.  

PubMed

The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%. PMID:24283176

Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

2013-01-01

16

Attitudes of middle-aged women to aging: contribution of the Reactions to Aging Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Attitudes to aging in mid-life have been found to be a predictor of health and well-being. The main purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of the Reactions to Aging Questionnaire (RAQ) to the understanding of middle-aged women's attitudes towards their aging. An additional purpose was to expand the existing information regarding the dimensions of the new version of the RAQ. Middle-aged Melbourne women (n = 381) were asked to complete the RAQ, in addition to another attitudes-to-aging scale (Worries About Aging). Factor analysis of the RAQ was used to explore its dimensionality, and frequencies of responses were used to assess the spread of response of both instruments. The factors extracted in the factor analysis of the RAQ were interpretable and meaningful in terms of emotions related to aging. They were also similar to the factors described by previous data. The RAQ was more effective in its distribution ability than the Worries About Aging Scale. With some modifications, the RAQ may be more informative than was the Worries About Aging Scale in its ability to assess emotions, opinions and beliefs associated with aging in middle-aged women. PMID:11770187

Netz, Y; Guthrie, J R; Garamszegi, C; Dennerstein, L

2001-12-01

17

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment Substance use ... 7.0 Alcohol and Drug Abuse Figure 1. Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Substance Abuse ...

18

Sexual Motivation in Women as a Function of Age  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women’s motivations to engage in sex are likely influenced by their past sexual experiences, the type of relationship in which they are involved in, and numerous lifestyle factors such as career and family demands. The influences of these factors undoubtedly change as women age. Aim This study aimed to examine potential differences in sexual motivation between three distinct age groups of premenopausal women. Methods Women aged 18–22 years (N = 137), 23–30 years (N = 103), and 31–45 years (N = 87) completed an online survey that assessed the proportion with which they had engaged in sexual intercourse for each of 140 distinct reasons. Main Outcome Measures The YSEX? Questionnaire by Meston and Buss [1] was used to measure sexual motivation. The items of this questionnaire were composed of four primary sexual motivation factors (physical, goal attainment, emotional, insecurity), and 13 subfactors. Results Women aged 31–45 years reported a higher proportion of engaging in sex compared with one or both of the younger age groups of women for nine of the 13 YSEX? subfactors: stress reduction, physical desirability, experience seeking, resources, social status, revenge, expression, self-esteem boost, and mate guarding. At an item level, the top 25 reasons for having sex were virtually identical across age groups. Conclusion Women aged 31–45 have more motives for engaging in sex than do women aged 18–30, but the primary reasons for engaging in sex do not differ within this age range. Women aged 18–45 have sex primarily for pleasure, and love and commitment. The implications for diagnosis and treatment of women with sexual dysfunctions were discussed.

Meston, Cindy M.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Harte, Christopher B.

2010-01-01

19

Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p < .000) in women and body image in men (p < .0298). As for aging characteristics, decreasing hearing ability (p < .000), performance as before (p < .004), more irritability (p < .0227), ability to travel alone (p < .0429), needs check up (p < .001), and needs a geriatric home (p < .001) were statistically associated with age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people. PMID:23767841

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

2013-01-01

20

Sexual dysfunction among middle aged women in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a community survey of women aged 35-59 sexual functioning was studied in the 436 women with partners. One third of these women had operationally defined sexual dysfunction: impaired sexual interest was identified in 17% of women (68\\/406), vaginal dryness in 17% (73\\/434), infrequency of orgasm in 16% (60\\/379), and dyspareunia in 8% (30\\/379). Sexual dysfunctions were statistically significantly associated

Madeline Osborn; Keith Hawton; Dennis Gath

1988-01-01

21

Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam.  

PubMed

Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region. PMID:22117931

Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Lam, Nguyen Thi; Skeaff, C Murray; Todd, Joanne; McLean, Judy M; Green, Timothy J

2012-10-01

22

Social age deadlines for the childbearing of women and men  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This study examines whether social age deadlines exist for childbearing in women and men, how they vary across countries, whether they are lower than actual biological deadlines and whether they are associated with childbearing at later ages and the availability of assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). METHODS This study is based on the European Social Survey, Round 3 (2006–2007), which covers 25 countries. Data were gathered on social age deadlines for childbearing in women (21 909 cases) and men (21 239 cases) from samples of representative community-dwelling populations aged 15 and older. RESULTS Social age deadlines for childbearing were perceived more frequently for women than men. These deadlines are often lower than actual biological limits, and for women and men alike: 57.2% of respondents perceived a maternal social age deadline ?40 years of age; 46.2% of the respondents perceived a paternal social age deadline ?45 years of age. There is also considerable variability in deadlines across countries, as well as within them. At the country level, the presence of social age deadlines for the childbearing of women was negatively associated with birth rates at advanced ages and the prevalence of ART, and later deadlines were positively associated with these factors. CONCLUSIONS It is important to understand the factors that increase and limit late fertility. While biological factors condition fertility, so do social expectations. These findings provide widespread evidence across Europe that social limits exist alongside biological ones, though both sets of factors are more binding for women.

Billari, F.C.; Goisis, A.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Settersten, R.A.; Aassve, A.; Hagestad, G.; Speder, Z.

2011-01-01

23

Intimate partner violence and current tobacco smoking in low- to middle-income countries: Individual participant meta-analysis of 231,892 women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

Research on the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) has primarily focused on gynaecological and sexual health outcomes or psychiatric disorders. Much less is known about the association between IPV and tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. This study examines the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age from low- to middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 29 countries (231,892 women, aged 15-49) to examine the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. There was a significant association between IPV and current tobacco smoking (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.79) after controlling for age, education, occupation, household wealth, religion and pregnancy status across countries. The association was moderately consistent across the 29 countries (I(2) = 55.3%, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that exposure to IPV is associated with an increased likelihood of current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. Future research on the association between exposure to IPV and tobacco smoking in prospective cohort studies is warranted. PMID:24773510

Caleyachetty, Rishi; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Stephenson, Rob; Muennig, Peter

2014-05-01

24

Musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in Puebla, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, complaints of musculoskeletal pain are more frequent than complaints of hot flashes amongst women of menopausal\\u000a age. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in the city of Puebla, Mexico.\\u000a An opportunity sample was recruited from public parks and markets, with representation from all social classes (n=755). Mean age was 50.1~years,

Lynnette Leidy Sievert; Susan K. Goode-Null

2005-01-01

25

Epidemiology of substance use in reproductive-age women.  

PubMed

A significant number of women of reproductive age in the United States use addictive substances. In 2012 more than 50% reported current use of alcohol, 20% used tobacco products, and approximately 13% used other drugs. Among women, use of these substances is associated with several significant medical, psychiatric, and social consequences, and the course of illness may progress more rapidly in women than in men. The prevalence of substance use and evidence of accelerated illness progression in women highlight the importance of universal substance use screening in women in primary care settings. PMID:24845483

McHugh, R Kathryn; Wigderson, Sara; Greenfield, Shelly F

2014-06-01

26

Valvular Heart Disease in Aging Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elderly women are at risk for aortic and mitral valve disease that may be challenging to manage because of co-morbidities.\\u000a Many reports focus on the evaluation and management of elderly patients, but only limited information that is directed specifically\\u000a at women is available. Until more research can be completed, current guidelines offer updated recommendations for the diagnosis\\u000a and treatment of

John W. Petersen; Marian C. Limacher

2011-01-01

27

Framing Lives: Therapy with Women of a “Certain Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women face powerful and negative stereotypes of who they will become as they age. They can either fight against them or they can succumb. From a social constructionist position, one may question any given formulation of reality, including the nature of aging. Because no image of aging is compulsory, there are ways of resisting the tide of negativity associated with

Mary M. Gergen

2009-01-01

28

Perception on influenza vaccination in Korean women of childbearing age  

PubMed Central

Purpose Women who are pregnant, planning to become pregnant in the influenza season or caring for infant 6-59 months of age are identified as priority groups for influenza vaccination. Vaccination rate is presumed to be low in those women. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of childbearing age women about influenza vaccination. Materials and Methods Childbearing age women visiting the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 3 University hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do province were surveyed. Individual interviews were performed to them with questionnaire for 2 months from April to May 2012. Demographic data, Immunization history, general understanding and factors associated with vaccination were asked. Results Three hundred fifty-five (71.0%) of total 500 reproductive age women had the experience of influenza vaccination. Among 343 women who has been pregnant at least once, 48 women (16.4%) had vaccination during pregnancy, and 46 of them got vaccination since 2009. One hundred ninety women of total 500 women responded that they would get vaccination if pregnant in the next influenza season (38.0%). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant factors associated with plans of influenza vaccination in pregnancy were as follows: experience of childbirth (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.93), high level of education (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.22 to 3.15), previous influenza vaccination (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.01). Conclusion Influenza vaccine coverage on childbearing age women including pregnant women is low because of misperception of vaccination during pregnancy. It is necessary for healthcare provider to correct misunderstanding and to recommend vaccination actively.

Kim, In Seon; Seo, Yu Bin; Hong, Kyung-Wook; Noh, Ji Yoon; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Cho, Geum Joon; Oh, Min Jeong; Kim, Hai Joong; Hong, Soon Choul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Woo Joo

2012-01-01

29

Biological age and tempos of aging in women over 60 in connection with their morphofunctional characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The study of aging processes and the changes in morphological, physiological, and functional characteristics that are associated with aging is of great interest not only for researchers, but also for the general public. The aim of the present paper is to study the biological age and tempos of aging in women older than 60 years, including long-lived females (over 90-years-old), and their associations with morphofunctional characteristics. Results Somatic traits, body mass components, and functional characteristics were investigated in 119 elderly (between 60 and 74-years-old) and long-lived (over 90-years-old) women in Tiraspol. With the special PC software ‘Diagnostics of Aging: BioAge’ (National Gerontological Center, Moscow, Russia) the biological age and tempos of aging were evaluated in the study participants. The results show close connections between morphofunctional changes, particularly in body mass components, and biological age. The software demonstrated its validity in the estimation of biological age in the group of elderly women. In the homogenous (according to their chronological age) group of women, three subgroups were separated with different tempos of aging: those with lower rates of aging (biological age less than chronological age by two years or more); those consistent with their chronological age, and those with accelerated tempos of aging (biological age higher than chronological age by two years or more). Conclusions Morphofunctional characteristics in the studied groups of women demonstrate the trends of age-involutive changes which can be traced through all groups, from those with slow rates of aging, to those with average rates, to those with accelerated tempos of aging, and finally in long-lived women. The results of comparative analysis show that women with accelerated aging are characterized with such traits as lower skeletal muscle mass, lower hand grip strength, and higher metabolic rate. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed a number of morphofunctional characteristics which differentiate the early-aging women from women with average rates of aging: higher BMI values, excessive fat mass, lower skeletal muscle mass and low values of hand grip strength. Thus the presence of such characteristics in elderly women can be considered as additional risk factor towards the early onset of the aging process.

2014-01-01

30

Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in the country.

2014-01-01

31

Misconceptions and Miscommunication among Aging Women with Overactive Bladder Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objectives With the ultimate goal of improving the quality of care provided to aging women with overactive bladder, we sought to better understand aging women’s experience with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and the care they receive. Methods Women seen in outpatient female urology clinics were identified by ICD-9 codes for OAB and recruited. Patients with painful bladder syndrome, mixed stress and urge incontinence, prolapse, or recent pelvic surgery were excluded. Patient focus groups were conducted by trained non-clinician moderators incorporating topics related to patients’ perceptions of OAB physiology, symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, treatments, and outcomes. Qualitative data analysis was performed using grounded theory methodology. Results Five focus groups totaling 33 women with OAB were conducted. Average patient age was 67 years (range 39–91). Older women with OAB lacked knowledge about the physiology of their disease and had poor understanding regarding the rationale for many diagnostic tests, including urodynamics and cystoscopy. The results of diagnostic studies often were not understood by older patients. Many women were dissatisfied with the care they had received. This lack of knowledge and understanding was more apparent among the elderly women in the group. Conclusions Findings demonstrated a poor understanding of the physiology of overactive bladder and the rationale for various diagnostic modalities and treatments. This was associated with dissatisfaction with care. There is a need for better communication with older women experiencing OAB symptoms about the physiology of the condition.

Smith, Ariana L.; Nissim, Helen A.; Le, Thuy X.; Khan, Aqsa; Maliski, Sally L.; Litwin, Mark S.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Raz, Shlomo; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Anger, Jennifer T.

2010-01-01

32

Women's Personality in Middle Age: Gender, History, and Midcourse Corrections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines several key features of the course of adult development in the cohort of women born during the baby boom. By focusing on the women in this group and comparing their experience with that of older cohorts and research on men, the authors demonstrate the need for models of aging that take account of the intersections of history,

Abigail J. Stewart; Joan M. Ostrove

1998-01-01

33

Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

Troll, Lillian E.

34

Why Some Women Look Young for Their Age  

PubMed Central

The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

2009-01-01

35

ART outcome in young women with premature ovarian aging  

PubMed Central

Background: Young women with signs of ovarian aging are a matter of concern as far as their reproductive performance is concerned. With more women approaching infertility centers with this problem, it becomes necessary to understand what reproductive outcomes are possible in such cases. Female age and basal Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level, both are strong independent predictors of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcome. Objective: To correlate age-related basal FSH with IVF outcome in women with premature ovarian aging in gonadotropins-induced cycles. Materials and Methods: Between January 2011 and October 2012, a total of 135 women undergoing IVF and ICSI cycles with antagonist protocol were included in this retrospective cohort study. Basal FSH concentrations were measured and the women's ages were calculated before they were undergoing pituitary desensitization and its correlation with assisted reproduction technique (ART) outcome was evaluated. Results: Increasing FSH was associated significantly with reduced number of oocytes retrieved, and embryos obtained. Young women with high FSH up to 20 produced less but good quality embryo's resulting in sound pregnancy rate. Conclusion: FSH is a quantitative and age is a qualitative measure of ovarian reserve. Both are equally important in predicting IVF outcome. Basal FSH concentration should be restricted to counseling of patients on probability of achieving pregnancy, but should not be used to exclude them from fertility treatment.

Dua, Meenakshi; Bhatia, Vandana; Malik, Sonia; Prakash, Ved

2013-01-01

36

Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

37

Antiepileptic drug use in women of childbearing age  

PubMed Central

Research on antiepileptic drug (AED) teratogenesis has demonstrated an increased risk for valproate. The impact of these findings on current AED prescribing patterns for women of childbearing age with epilepsy is uncertain. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective multicenter observational investigation that enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on the most common AED monotherapies from October 1999 to February 2004 (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate, and phenytoin). A 2007 survey of AED use in women of childbearing age at eight NEAD centers found a total of 932 women of childbearing age with epilepsy (6% taking no AED, 53% monotherapy, 41% polytherapy). The most common monotherapies were lamotrigine or levetiracetam. Since 2004, prescriptions of carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate have decreased, whereas those for levetiracetam have increased. Except for the top two AED monotherapies, there were marked differences in other monotherapies and in polytherapies between U.S. and UK centers. Future investigations are needed to examine reasons for drug choice.

Meador, Kimford J.; Penovich, Patricia; Baker, Gus A.; Pennell, Page B.; Bromfield, Edward; Pack, Alison; Liporace, Joyce D.; Sam, Maria; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Thurman, David J.; Moore, Eugene; Loring, David W.

2009-01-01

38

Women's Position Within the Household as a Determinant of Maternal Health Care Use in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Although gender inequality is often cited as a barrier to improving maternal health in Nepal, little attention has been directed at understanding how sociocultural factors may influence the use of health care. In particular, how a woman's position within her household may affect the receipt of health care deserves further investigation. METHODS: Data on ever-married women aged 15-49 from

Marie Furuta; Sarah Salway

2006-01-01

39

Health profile of middle-aged women: The Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Middle-aged women experience various health-related problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of menopause status and hormone intervention on women's health. METHODS: In an ongoing, population-based study, 4943 women, born 1935 to 1945 and living in the Lund area of Southern Sweden, were included in this analysis. They completed a generic questionnaire pertaining to socio-demographic

Cairu Li; Kittisak Wilawan; Jonas Lidfeldt; Carl-David Agardh; Christina Nerbrand

40

The Age Discrimination Act of 1975 and Women on Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Age Discrimination Act of 1975 is summarized, and issues concerning the adult woman and older students on campus are discussed. The act will be helpful in eliminating some of the inequities older women (and men) may face in educational institutions. The act does not define "age" to limit coverage; it simply prohibits discrimination on the…

Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

41

Pubic bone age estimation in adult women.  

PubMed

In recent years, numerous physical anthropologists have pointed out the need for regional standards for estimating age in various world populations. While investigating aging methods for East European populations, dramatic changes were noted in the pubic symphyseal morphology and structure of older adult female individuals. These changes were not captured in the typically used pubic symphysis aging methods. This paper defines and tests the need for a new phase, phase VII, that follows the Suchey-Brooks phase VI. In addition, Suchey-Brooks phases V and VI are redefined. Phase definitions, decision-making rules, and comparison graphics for the new method are presented. Balkan (n = 85) and Eastern Tennessee (n = 104) samples, totaling 189 individuals, were used in the analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients between four observers and a control seriation were strong, indicating ease of replicability between investigators. No statistically significant intra-observer error was detected. Summary statistics show that individuals in phase V were on average in the early 50s, while individuals in phase VI were in their mid 50s to mid 60s, and individuals in phase VII were in their mid 70s. Since linear regression models tend to under-age the elderly and over-age the young, transition analysis, using an unrestricted cumulative probit model, was undertaken to evaluate the phases and to produce point estimates for the ages-at-transition for the Balkan sample. The highest posterior density region point estimates with their associated upper and lower bounds can be used for predicting age for unknown forensic cases related to the Balkan sample. Further, the mean ages and standard deviations for phases V-VII for the Tennessee sample are presented for use in American forensic cases. PMID:18471199

Berg, Gregory E

2008-05-01

42

Physical activity and sexual function in middle-aged women.  

PubMed

Objective To investigate the relationship between physical activity level and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of 370 middle-aged women (40-65 years old), treated at public health care facilities in a Brazilian city. A questionnaire was used containing enquiries on sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short form, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results The average age of the women studied was 49.8 years (± 8.1), 67% of whom exhibited sexual dysfunction (FSFI ? 26.55). Sedentary women had a higher prevalence (78.9%) of sexual dysfunction when compared to active (57.6%) and moderately active (66.7%) females (p = 0.002). Physically active women obtained higher score in all FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain) and total FSFI score (20.9), indicating better sexual function than their moderately active (18.8) and sedentary (15.6) counterparts (p <0.05). Conclusion Physical activity appears to influence sexual function positively in middle-aged women. PMID:24918852

Cabral, Patrícia Uchôa Leitão; Canário, Ana Carla Gomes Md; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa; Eleutério, José Júnior; Giraldo, Paulo Cesar; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

2014-01-01

43

College-Educated Women’s Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Age Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adulthood encompasses a large time span and includes a series of psychosocial challenges (E. H. Erikson, 1950). Five aspects of personality (identity certainty, confident power, concern with aging, generativity, and personal distress) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of college-educated women who at the time of data collection were young adults (age: M = 26 years), middle-aged adults (age: M

Alyssa N. Zucker; Joan M. Ostrove; Abigail J. Stewart

2002-01-01

44

Psychological stress and reproductive aging among pre-menopausal women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Life history models suggest that biological preparation for current versus longer term reproduction is favored in environments of adversity. In this context, we present a model of reproductive aging in which environmental adversity is proposed to increase the number of growing follicles at the cost of hastening the depletion of the ovarian reserve over time. We evaluated this model by examining psychological stress in relation to reproductive aging indexed by antral follicle count (AFC), a marker of total ovarian reserve. We hypothesized that stress would be related to (i) higher AFC in younger women, reflecting greater reproductive readiness as well as (ii) greater AFC loss across women, reflecting more accelerated reproductive aging. METHODS In a multi-ethnic, community sample of 979 participants [ages 25–45 (mean (standard deviation) = 35.2 (5.5)); 27.5% Caucasian] in the Ovarian Aging study, an investigation of the correlates of reproductive aging, the interaction of age-x-stress was assessed in relation to AFC to determine whether AFC and AFC loss varied across women experiencing differing levels of stress. Stress was assessed by the perceived stress scale and AFC was assessed by summing the total number of antral follicles visible by transvaginal ultrasound. RESULTS In linear regression examining AFC as the dependent variable, covariates (race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, menarcheal age, hormone-containing medication for birth control, parity, cigarette smoking, bodymass index, waist-to-hip ratio) and age were entered on step 1, stress on step 2 and the interaction term (age-x-stress) on step 3. On step 3, significant main effects showed that older age was related to lower AFC (b = ?0.882, P = 0.000) and greater stress was related to higher AFC (b = 0.545, P = 0.005). Follow-up analyses showed that the main effect of stress on AFC was present in the younger women only. A significant interaction term (b = ?0.036, P = 0.031) showed the relationship between age and AFC varied as function of stress. When the sample was divided into tertiles of stress, the average follicle loss was ?0.781, ?0.842 and ?0.994 follicles/year in the low-, mid- and high-stress groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Psychological stress was related to higher AFC among younger women and greater AFC decline across women, suggesting that greater stress may enhance reproductive readiness in the short term at the cost of accelerating reproductive aging in the long term. Findings are preliminary, however, due to the cross-sectional nature of the current study.

Bleil, M.E.; Adler, N.E.; Pasch, L.A.; Sternfeld, B.; Gregorich, S.E.; Rosen, M.P.; Cedars, M.I.

2012-01-01

45

Quilting as age identity expression in traditional women.  

PubMed

A qualitative study using McCracken's (1988) multistage process for data analysis examined how women in three traditional cultures express themselves and their age identities in quilting. In semi-structured interviews, 10 Amish, 10 Appalachian, and 10 Latter-day Saint (Mormon) women discussed their quilting-related experiences, rewards that they receive from quilting, and the variety of ways in which quilting assists them in creating positive age identities. Results illustrated how quilting aided personal progress in building quilting-related skills and enlarging personal influence through owning quilting businesses, teaching and mentoring others, gaining respect as skilled artisans, and acting as guardians of family traditions. PMID:15612197

Cheek, Cheryl; Piercy, Kathleen W

2004-01-01

46

Screening for obesity in reproductive-aged women.  

PubMed

Although obesity screening and treatment are recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force, 1 in 5 women are obese when they conceive. Women are at risk for complications of untreated obesity particularly during the reproductive years and may benefit from targeted screening. Risks of obesity and potential benefits of intervention in this population are well characterized. Rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and stillbirth increase as maternal body mass index increases. Offspring risks include higher rates of congenital anomalies, abnormal intrauterine growth, and childhood obesity. Observational data suggest that weight loss may reduce risks of obesity-related pregnancy complications. Although obesity screening has not been studied in women of reproductive age, the effect of obesity and the potential for significant maternal and fetal benefits make screening of women during the childbearing years an essential part of the effort to reduce the impact of the obesity epidemic. PMID:22005618

Zera, Chloe; McGirr, Susan; Oken, Emily

2011-11-01

47

Femoral Expansion in Aging Women: Implications for Osteoporosis and Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In femoral radiographs of 2030 aging women, the diameter of the midshaft periosteum increased as cortical thickness declined. Since the cortical area enlarged, periosteal accretion exceeded endosteal resorption. Since the section modulus increased more than did cortical area, the ratio of flexural failure resistance to crush resistance increased, in apparent contrast to the changes observed in the femoral neck.

Richmond W. Smith Jr.; Richard R. Walker

1964-01-01

48

Restless Legs Syndrome among Working-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random sample of 200 women, aged 18–64 years, living in a county in mid-Sweden, was sent a questionnaire that included questions about sleep habits, symptoms of sleepiness and neuropsychiatric complaints. Standardized diagnostic criteria determined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were used to investigate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Possible associations between RLS and neuropsychiatric

Jan Ulfberg; Birgitta Nyström; Ned Carter; Christer Edling

2001-01-01

49

Personality Correlates of Age and Life Roles in Adult Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult, midlife, and older women from four role groups--homemaker, married career, single career, and student--were compared on a number of personality measures including achievement motivation, affiliation, autonomy, cultural sex role characteristics, self-esteem, and adjustment. Some significant age and role differences were found.…

Mellinger, Jeanne C.; Erdwins, Carol J.

1985-01-01

50

Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2008-01-01

51

Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age

Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

2009-01-01

52

Restless legs syndrome and hypertension in middle-aged women.  

PubMed

Limited research suggests a relationship between restless legs syndrome and hypertension. We, therefore, assessed the relationship between restless legs syndrome and hypertension among middle-aged women. This is a cross-sectional study including 65 544 women (aged 41-58 years) participating in Nurses' Health Study II. The participants with diabetes mellitus and arthritis were excluded, because these conditions can mimic restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire based on the International Restless Legs Study Group criteria. Information on diagnosis of hypertension and blood pressure values were collected via questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation between restless legs syndrome and hypertension, with adjustment for age, race, body mass index, physical activity, menopausal status, smoking, use of analgesics, and intake of alcohol, caffeine, folate, and iron. Compared with women with no restless legs symptoms, the multiple adjusted odds of having hypertension were 1.20 times (95% CI: 1.10-1.30; P<0.0001) higher among women with restless legs symptoms. The adjusted odds ratios for women who reported restless legs symptoms 5 to 14 times per month and ?15 times per month were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94-1.18) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.24-1.61) respectively, compared with those without the symptoms (P trend: <0.0001). Greater frequency of restless legs symptoms was associated with higher concurrent systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P trend: <0.0001 for both). Women with restless legs syndrome have a higher prevalence of hypertension, and this prevalence increases with more frequent restless legs symptoms. PMID:21986505

Batool-Anwar, Salma; Malhotra, Atul; Forman, John; Winkelman, John; Li, Yanping; Gao, Xiang

2011-11-01

53

RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME AND HYPERTENSION IN MIDDLE-AGE WOMEN  

PubMed Central

Limited research suggests a relationship between Restless Legs Syndrome and hypertension. We, therefore, assessed the relationship between restless legs syndrome and hypertension among middle-aged women. This is a cross-sectional study including 65,544 women (aged 41-58 years) participating in Nurses Health Study II. The participants with diabetes and arthritis were excluded as these conditions can mimic restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire based on the International Restless Legs Study Group criteria. Information on diagnosis of hypertension and blood pressure values were collected via questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation between restless legs syndrome and hypertension, with adjustment for age, race, body mass index, physical activity, menopausal status, smoking, use of analgesics, and intake of alcohol, caffeine, folate, and iron. Compared to women with no restless legs symptoms, the multiple adjusted odds of having hypertension were 1.20 (95% CI: 1.10-1.30; P<0.0001) times higher among women with restless legs symptoms. The adjusted odds ratios for women who reported restless legs symptoms 5-14 times/month and ?15 times/month were 1.06 (95% CI 0.94-1.18) and 1.41 (95% CI 1.24-1.61) respectively, compared to those without the symptoms (P trend <0.0001). Greater frequency of restless legs symptoms was associated with higher concurrent systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P trend<0.0001 for both). Women with restless legs syndrome have a higher prevalence of hypertension, and this prevalence increases with more frequent restless legs symptoms.

Batool-Anwar, Salma; Malhotra, Atul; Forman, John; Winkelman, John; Li, Yanping; Gao, Xiang

2011-01-01

54

Breast carcinoma in women 35 years of age or younger.  

PubMed Central

The relationship of the age at diagnosis and prognosis in breast carcinoma remains controversial. A widely held perception is that the disease has a particularly unfavorable prognosis in young women. To examine this question we have studied 166 women treated for primary operable breast carcinoma who were 35 years of age or younger at the time of diagnosis. Groups of patients treated consecutively in each of two time periods nearly a decade apart (1964-1970 and 1976-1979) have been studied. Differences between the patient groups in primary surgical treatment and postoperative adjuvant therapy were characterized in the 1970s by the increasing use of modified radical mastectomy and replacement of postoperative radiation therapy by systemic adjuvant chemotherapy. A trend to earlier stage of disease was found among patients treated in 1976 to 1979, but 5-year recurrence and survival rates were not significantly different from those of young women treated in the 1960s. Comparison of Stage II patients treated in 1964 to 1970 with postoperative radiotherapy with comparable women given adjuvant chemotherapy from 1976 to 1979 revealed no significant difference in disease-free survival in the first 3 years after surgery. It remains to be seen whether these changes in therapy will diminish the frequency of recurrences after 5 years, leading to an improvement in overall survival. When compared with historical controls from this and other institutions, the 5-year and 10-year survival rates of approximately 75% and 60%, respectively, found in this study of young women with primary operative disease were not appreciably different from those of women treated for breast cancer at a later age when the disease is more common.

Rosen, P P; Lesser, M L; Kinne, D W; Beattie, E J

1984-01-01

55

Antiepileptic drug use in women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

Research on antiepileptic drug (AED) teratogenesis has demonstrated an increased risk for valproate. The impact of these findings on current AED prescribing patterns for women of childbearing age with epilepsy is uncertain. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective multicenter observational investigation that enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on the most common AED monotherapies from October 1999 to February 2004 (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate, and phenytoin). A 2007 survey of AED use in women of childbearing age at eight NEAD centers found a total of 932 women of childbearing age with epilepsy (6% taking no AED, 53% monotherapy, 41% polytherapy). The most common monotherapies were lamotrigine or levetiracetam. Since 2004, prescriptions of carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate have decreased, whereas those for levetiracetam have increased. Except for the top two AED monotherapies, there were marked differences in other monotherapies and in polytherapies between U.S. and UK centers. Future investigations are needed to examine reasons for drug choice. PMID:19410654

Meador, Kimford J; Penovich, Patricia; Baker, Gus A; Pennell, Page B; Bromfield, Edward; Pack, Alison; Liporace, Joyce D; Sam, Maria; Kalayjian, Laura A; Thurman, David J; Moore, Eugene; Loring, David W

2009-07-01

56

DHEAS Levels and Mortality in Disabled Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Study I  

PubMed Central

Background Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is an endogenously produced sex steroid that has been hypothesized to have anti-aging effects. Low DHEAS levels are associated with mortality in older men, but the relationship between DHEAS levels and mortality in women is not clearly defined. Methods The relationship between serum DHEAS level and 5-year mortality was analyzed in a cohort of 539 disabled women aged 65–100 years enrolled in the Women’s Health and Aging Study I (WHAS I). Using Cox proportional hazard models, we calculated multivariate-adjusted mortality risks by DHEAS quartiles and by DHEAS continuously, allowing for a nonlinear relationship. We also examined cause-specific mortality. Results We found a U-shaped relationship between DHEAS level and mortality. After adjusting for multiple covariates, women in the top and bottom DHEAS quartiles had a more than 2-fold higher 5-year mortality than did those in the middle quartiles (hazard ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–3.98 for the top quartile and 2.05; 95% CI, 1.27–3.32 for the bottom quartile, each compared to the third quartile). Women with higher DHEAS levels tended to have greater cancer mortality, whereas those with lower DHEAS tended to have greater cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion Disabled older women with either low or high levels of DHEAS are at greater risk for death than are those with intermediate levels. More research is needed to determine if targeted dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation would provide clinical benefit to disabled older women.

Cappola, Anne R.; Xue, Qian-Li; Walston, Jeremy D.; Leng, Sean X.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack; Fried, Linda P.

2009-01-01

57

Neuroserpin polymorphisms and stroke risk in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. METHODS: A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224

John W Cole; Adam C Naj; Jeffrey R O'Connell; Oscar C Stine; John D Sorkin; Marcella A Wozniak; Barney J Stern; Manuel Yepes; Daniel A Lawrence; Laurie J Reinhart; Dudley K Strickland; Braxton D Mitchell; Steven J Kittner

2007-01-01

58

Further evaluation of physical fitness age versus physiological age in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to examine further whether adult women who are in a state of high physical fitness possess\\u000a high physiological functions, and also to investigate whether those who exercise regularly are able to maintain a high quality\\u000a of various physiological functions. The subjects of this study were 249 healthy Japanese adult women (aged 20–70 years). Of\\u000a these

Eitaro Nakamura; Toshio Moritani; Akio Kanetaka

1998-01-01

59

Deaths among young, single women in 2000-2001 in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories.  

PubMed

A study in 2000-2001 of causes of death of women of reproductive age (15-49) in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories, found that 154 of the 411 deceased women aged 15-49 with known marital status were single. Death notification forms for reported deaths were analysed and verbal autopsies carried out, where possible, with relatives of the deceased women. We found important differences in the age at death and causes of death among the single and married women, which can be attributed to the disadvantaged social status of single women in Palestinian society, exacerbated by the current unstable political situation. 41% of the deceased single women were under 25 years of age at death compared to 8% of the married women. The proportion of violent deaths and suicides among the single women was almost twice as high as among the married women, mainly in those below age 25. The single women were also more likely to die from medical conditions which indicated that they faced barriers to accessing health care. The fieldwork was conducted at the height of the Intifada and the Israeli military response, with heavy restrictions on mobility, limiting the possibility of probing deeper into the circumstances surrounding sensitive deaths. More research into the socio-cultural context of single women in Palestine society is needed as a basis for intervention. PMID:18513613

Al-Adili, Nadim; Shaheen, Mohammad; Bergström, Staffan; Johansson, Annika

2008-05-01

60

Social relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women  

PubMed Central

This study examined the interplay of social engagement, sleep quality, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a sample of aging women (n = 74, aged 61-90, M age = 73.4). Social engagement was assessed by questionnaire, sleep was assessed by using the NightCap in-home sleep monitoring system and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and blood samples were obtained for analysis of plasma levels of IL-6. Regarding subjective assessment, poorer sleep (higher scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) was associated with lower positive social relations scores. Multivariate regression analyses showed that lower levels of plasma IL-6 were predicted by greater sleep efficiency (P < 0.001), measured objectively and by more positive social relations (P < 0.05). A significant interaction showed that women with the highest IL-6 levels were those with both poor sleep efficiency and poor social relations (P < 0.05). However, those with low sleep efficiency but compensating good relationships as well as women with poor relationships but compensating high sleep efficiency had IL-6 levels comparable to those with the protective influences of both good social ties and good sleep.

Friedman, Elliot M.; Hayney, Mary S.; Love, Gayle D.; Urry, Heather L.; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; Davidson, Richard J.; Singer, Burton H.; Ryff, Carol D.

2005-01-01

61

Risk Factors for Falls in Older Disabled Women With Diabetes: The Women's Health and Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to determine whether older disabled women with diabetes have an increased risk of falls compared to women without diabetes and to identify fall risk factors among this high-risk subgroup of patients. Methods Data are from the Women’s Health and Aging Study I (n = 1002, age ? 65 years), a prospective, population-based cohort study of the one third most disabled women in the Baltimore (MD) urban community-dwelling population. Participants were followed semiannually for 3 years. Falls were ascertained at each interview. Diabetes was ascertained by means of a standardized algorithm using multiple sources of information. Results Baseline prevalence of diabetes was 15.5%. Of the 878 women who participated in at least one follow-up visit and were able to walk at baseline, 64.9% fell at least once during the study and 29.6% experienced two or more falls during a follow-up interval. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, women with diabetes had a higher probability of any fall (odds ratio [OR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.81) and of falling two or more times during a follow-up interval (OR 1.69; CI, 1.18–2.43), compared with women without diabetes. Among diabetic women, presence of widespread musculoskeletal pain (OR 5.58; CI, 1.89–16.5), insulin therapy (OR 2.02; CI, 1.10–3.71), overweight (OR 3.50; CI, 1.21–10.1), and poor lower-extremity performance (OR 7.76; CI, 1.03–58.8) were independently associated with increased likelihood of recurrent falls, after adjusting for major risk factors. There were synergistic effects of diabetes and lower-extremity pain and also diabetes and body mass index levels on the risk of falling (p for interactions < .05). Conclusion Even among disabled older women diabetes is associated with an increased risk of falling, independent of established fall risk factors. In this specific group of older women, pain, high body mass index, and poor lower-extremity performance are powerful predictors of falling.

Volpato, Stefano; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Blaum, Caroline; Fried, Linda P.; Guralnik, Jack M.

2008-01-01

62

Laterality and age-level differences between young women and elderly women in controlled force exertion (CFE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine laterality and age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE using women as subjects. The subjects were 50 young women (mean age 20.9±1.9 years) and 50 elderly women (mean age 72.9±6.6 years). The maximal handgrip strength was measured twice with a 1-min interval, and the larger value was used in this study. In the CFE

Hiroshi Kubota; Shinichi Demura; Haruka Kawabata

63

Phosphatidylethanol and Alcohol Consumption in Reproductive Age Women  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal alcohol disorders are preventable, but self-reported alcohol consumption can be misleading and impede effective treatment. Biomarkers represent an alternative method for assessing alcohol use, and this study evaluated the relationship between blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and alcohol use in a sample of reproductive age women. Methods Alcohol use was estimated by validated self-report methods in 80 non-pregnant women ages 18 to 35. PEth was measured by a contracted laboratory using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Regression methods appropriate for the distribution of PEth were used to define its relationship to alcohol consumption during the prior 2 weeks and explore the effects of drinking patterns on this association. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate the sensitivity of PEth for various drinking levels at 95% specific cutoffs. Results PEth had a positive linear association with grams of alcohol consumed (p<0.001), and was detectable in 93% of subjects consuming an average of 2 or more drinks per day. The relationship between total alcohol consumption and PEth may be stronger in women with recent heavy drinking days. The relationship between drinking and PEth varied considerably between individuals, and sensitivity for a certain amount of drinking was low at a highly specific cutoff concentration. Conclusions PEth is a highly sensitive indicator of moderate and heavy alcohol consumption in reproductive age women and may complement the use of self-report alcohol screens when additional objective markers of alcohol use are desirable. However, choosing a highly valid cutoff concentration for PEth to differentiate various levels of alcohol consumption may not be feasible.

Stewart, Scott H.; Law, Tameeka L.; Randall, Patrick K.; Newman, Roger

2009-01-01

64

Dyspareunia in Puerto Rican Middle-aged Women  

PubMed Central

Dyspareunia appears to be a common sexual dysfunction. There is a lack of studies that address female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in Puerto Rico. The present cross- sectional study characterized dyspareunia in a sample of Puerto Rican women aged 40–59 years and evaluated the relationship between reported dyspareunia with demographic, lifestyle and health factors. Nine-hundred and twenty Puerto Rican women participated in health fairs conducted in 22 municipalities between May 2000 and November 2001 where they filled out a questionnaire. Contingency table and chi-squarestatistics were used to evaluate the bivariate associations of dyspareunia with demographic, lifestyle and health factors. Crude and multivariate logistic regression model were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between dyspareunia and demographic, lifestyle and health factors. The overall prevalence of dyspareunia in this population was 18%. Dyspareunia was somewhat lower among women aged 40–49 years (17%) than among those aged 50–59 years(21%), not reaching statistical significance. Dyspareunia was associated to educational attainment, employment status, menopausal status, current hormone therapy use, genitourinary symptoms, and loss of libido (p < 0.05). Current cigarette smoking, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol use, parity, and ever use of oral contraceptives were not associated with dyspareunia in bivariate analysis (p>0.05). In the multivariate analysis, incontinence (POR=1.67, 95% CI=1.02–2.73), vaginal dryness (POR=3.97, 95% CI=2.49–6.31), vaginal itching (POR=2.44, 95% CI=1.55–3.83), loss of libido (POR=3.08, 95% CI=1.92–4.94) and partnership (POR=2.22, 95% CI=1.29–3.82) remained associated with dyspareunia. Our results agree with prior studies. Additional studies of FSD in Puerto Rican women are highly warranted.

Avellanet, Yaniris R.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Pando, Jose R.; Romaguera, Josefina

2009-01-01

65

Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women. PMID:11813766

Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

2000-01-01

66

HIV Infection Among Internally Displaced Women and Women Residing in River Populations Along the Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a reproductive health assessment among women aged 15–49 years residing in an internally displaced persons (IDP)\\u000a camp and surrounding river populations in the Democratic Republic of Congo. After providing informed consent, participants\\u000a were administered a behavioral questionnaire on demographics, sexual risk, reproductive health behavior, and a history of\\u000a gender based violence. Participants provided a blood specimen for HIV and

Andrea A. Kim; Faustin Malele; Reinhard Kaiser; Nicaise Mama; Timothée Kinkela; Jean-Caurent Mantshumba; Michelle Hynes; Stacy De Jesus; Godefoid Musema; Patrick K. Kayembe; Karen Hawkins Reed; Theresa Diaz

2009-01-01

67

Age at menarche predicts individual differences in women’s preferences for masculinized male voices in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although researchers have suggested that adult women who experienced early puberty may demonstrate particularly strong preferences for masculine men, evidence for such an association is equivocal. Here we show that adult women’s preferences for masculinized male voices (i.e., male voices with lowered pitch) are negatively associated with the age at which they experienced first menses (i.e., age at menarche). Moreover,

Benedict C. Jones; Lynda Boothroyd; David R. Feinberg; Lisa M. DeBruine

2010-01-01

68

Attitudes towards hormone replacement therapy among middle-aged women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To survey the attitudes of middle-aged women and men towards HRT and associated issues. Men were included because of the possible influence of their attitudes on womens decisions to use HRT. Methods: Two-hundred women and 311 men, (not wife and husbands), between 45 and 55 years of age, from a general population sample, were queried about their attitudes towards

Jacob Lomranz; Daniel Becker; Nitza Eyal; Amos Pines; Roberto Mester

2000-01-01

69

Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

2005-01-01

70

Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these findings.

Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

2014-01-01

71

Unheard Voices: American Women in the Emerging Industrial and Business Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Business School presents Unheard Voices: American Women in the Emerging Industrial and Business Age. This manuscript collection, housed at the Harvard's Baker Library, was extensively researched and surveyed in May 1999. Along with detailed descriptions of the collection, the site also offers a sample of digitized manuscripts. The collection is divided into four major categories: Women at Work, Women in Business, Women as Professionals, and Women's Personal Lives. An extensive bibliography offers related Websites along with print materials.

72

Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

Tooshi, Ali

73

Hormonal and Physiological Correlates of Energy Expenditure and Substrate Oxidation in Middle-Aged, Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the hormonal and physiological correlates of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in middle-aged women will increase our knowledge of factors that promote changes in energy balance and adiposity. We measured resting and postprandial energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in 59 middle-aged, premeno- pausal women (mean 6 SD age, 47 6 2 yr) to examine the hormonal and

MICHAEL J. TOTH; CYNTHIA K. SITES; ERIC T. POEHLMAN

74

Breast cancer and age in Black and White women in South East England.  

PubMed

Black women have lower age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates than White women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about such differences in risk in separate age groups. Records on female residents of South East England diagnosed with breast cancer between 1998 and 2003 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-specific incidence rates were calculated for each 5-year age group using 2001 Census population data for White, Black Caribbean and Black African women. Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients were younger than both the White patients and those with no ethnicity recorded. Black Caribbean and Black African women in the population also had a younger age profile than White women. The computed age-specific incidence rates in women aged under 50 were similar in the different ethnic groups, whereas in women aged 50 and over White women had higher rates. The younger age of Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients in South East England reflects the younger age of these populations, rather than an increased risk of disease at younger ages. PMID:21445965

Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Møller, Henrik

2012-03-01

75

Characteristics and screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer aged 20-29 years  

PubMed Central

Background: There was concern that failure to screen women aged 20–24 years would increase the number of cancers or advanced cancers in women aged 20–29 years. We describe the characteristics of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in England aged 20–29 years and examine the association between the period of diagnosis, screening history and FIGO stage. Methods: We used data on 1800 women diagnosed with cervical cancer between April 2007 and March 2012 at age 20–29 from the National Audit of Invasive Cervical Cancers. Results: The majority of cancers (995, or 62% of those with known stage) were stage 1A. Cancer at age 20–24 years was rare (12% of those aged 20–29 years), when compared with age 25 (24%) and age 26–29 years (63%); however, cancers in women aged 20–24 years tended to be more advanced and were more often of a rare histological type. For 59% of women under age 30, the cervical cancer was screen detected, most of them (61%) as a result of their first screening test. A three-fold increase in the number of cancers diagnosed at age 25 years was seen since the start of the study period. Conclusion: Cervical cancer at age 20–24 years is rare. Most cancers in women under age 30 years are screen detected as microinvasive cancer.

Castanon, A; Leung, V M W; Landy, R; Lim, A W W; Sasieni, P

2013-01-01

76

Understanding Women's Breast Screening Behaviour: A Study Carried out in South East London, with Women Aged 50-64 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To understand low uptake of breast cancer screening through exploring the personal reasoning underlying women's attendance or non-attendance, and identifying differences between those who attend and those who decline. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community and home environments of women eligible for breast screening aged

Barter-Godfrey, Sarah; Taket, Ann

2007-01-01

77

Predicting the Risk of Mobility Difficulty in Older Women With Screening Nomograms: The Women's Health and Aging Study II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: We conducted a population-based prospec- tive study using data from 266 high physically and cognitively functioning older women, aged 70 to 80 years, who were free of mobility disability at the base- line evaluation of the Women's Health and Aging Study II. The outcome measure was incident mobility disability within 18 months, defined as self-reported difficulty walking 0.8 km,

Paulo H. M. Chaves; Elizabeth S. Garrett; Linda P. Fried

2000-01-01

78

Predicting the Risk of Mobility Difficulty in Older Women With Screening Nomograms The Women's Health and Aging Study II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: We conducted a population-based prospec- tive study using data from 266 high physically and cognitively functioning older women, aged 70 to 80 years, who were free of mobility disability at the base- line evaluation of the Women's Health and Aging Study II. The outcome measure was incident mobility disability within 18 months, defined as self-reported difficulty walking 0.8 km,

Paulo H. M. Chaves; Elizabeth S. Garrett; Linda P. Fried

79

Motor performance of women as a function of age and physical activity level.  

PubMed

In Study 1, simple and choice reaction time, balance, sit and reach flexibility, shoulder flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active women on all measures were significantly better than for older inactive women, and much more like those of the younger women. In Study 2, scores of avid women golfers were compared with the older active and inactive women from Study 1. On all variables, the scores of golfers were significantly better than those of the older inactive women, but not significantly different from the older active women. Findings were consistent with previous research on men, indicating that motor performance tends to be more highly related to lifelong physical activity level than to age. PMID:3745821

Rikli, R; Busch, S

1986-09-01

80

Sexual problems among married Nigerian women.  

PubMed

We interviewed and examined 293 married women, 15-49 years of age, seeking primary care at a teaching hospital in central Nigeria. One or more sexual problems were identified in 71% of women. The proportion of specific sexual problems was 39% for a desire problem, 40% for an arousal problem, 31% for a sex pain problem and 55% for an orgasmic problem. Poor marital communication, lack of foreplay, Islamic religion and advancing age were independently associated with a desire problem. Absence of foreplay was independently associated with an arousal problem. Lack of foreplay, lower abdominal pain, gynaecological conditions, working outside the home and younger age were independently associated with a sex pain problem. The absence of foreplay, poor marital communication and being a housewife were independently associated with an orgasmic problem. Sexual problems are common among married Nigerian women seeking outpatient care. PMID:17066072

Ojomu, F; Thacher, T; Obadofin, M

2007-01-01

81

THE IMAGE OF MIDDLE?AGED AND OLDER WOMEN IN MAGAZINE ADVERTISEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturers and retailers have discovered the potential “older” market, but do magazine ads reflect this discovery? The images of older women in advertisements in 1987 issues of Good Housekeeping, JAMA, and Time were examined on several measures. Good Housekeeping printed more ads featuring women, and a greater proportion of its “person pictorial” ads featured women. An age bias was found

William T. Bailey; Diane R. Harrell; Laura E. Anderson

1993-01-01

82

Urogenital Symptoms and Resulting Discomfort in Non-Institutionalized Dutch Women Aged 50–75 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of urogenital symptoms in non-institutionalized Dutch women aged 50–75\\u000a years, and the degree of discomfort suffered as a result. A questionnaire was sent to 2157 women, a sample representative\\u000a of the female population aged 50–75 years with respect to age, marital status, level of education and menopausal age. The

J. M. van Geelen; H. Th. Arnolds

2000-01-01

83

Effects of gender, anthropometric variables, and aging on the evolution of hip strength in men and women aged over 65  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gender differences in fall rates may partly explain the higher prevalence of fractures in elderly women than men, male bones may also be intrinsically stronger or suffer less structural degradation with age than those of women. We used hip structural analysis (HSA) to study gender differences in hip geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) as they evolved over time

Stephen Kaptoge; Nichola Dalzell; Nigel Loveridge; Thomas J Beck; Kay-Tee Khaw; Jonathan Reeve

2003-01-01

84

Reference data for ultrasonic bone measurement: variation with age in 2087 Caucasian women aged 16-93 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the measurement of broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS), using the Lunar Achilles ultrasonic densitometer, were collected for Caucasian women from five centres in the United Kingdom (Leeds, London, Nottingham, Lincoln and Sheeld). After correcting for machine variability at each site, the data were combined into a central reference database comprising 2087 women aged 16-93

J G TRUSCOTT

85

Changes in age at marriage of women in rural north India.  

PubMed

There has been a dramatic increase in age at marriage for women in a rural area of north India. Age at marriage rose from under 12 years before 1930 to about 19 years in 1988, mainly as a result of socioeconomic development and advances in education of women. PMID:1737808

Singh, M

1992-01-01

86

Voices of Transformational Learning: Life Experiences of Women Aged Eighty and above in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research study examined the lived experiences and stories of dynamic women over 80 years of age. Their contribution to transformational and lifelong learning may offer a blueprint for baby boomers to age successfully. The exploration disclosed common patterns of the individual lives. The interviews revealed that the women were…

Morgan, Lorri A.

2010-01-01

87

To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

Eriksen, Shelley J.

2012-01-01

88

Interactive Effects of Gender Ideology and Age at First Marriage on Women's Marital Disruption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of ever-married women from the NLSY79 is analyzed to examine the effects of age at first marriage and gender ideology on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption. The authors hypothesize that age at first marriage will have no effect on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption for non-traditional women, but that there…

Davis, Shannon N.; Greenstein, Theodore N.

2004-01-01

89

Why men age faster but reproduce longer than women: mTOR and evolutionary perspectives  

PubMed Central

Women live longer than men. Yet, it is believed that men do not age faster than women but simply are weaker at every age. In contrast, I discuss that men age faster. From evolutionary perspective, high accidental death rate in young males is compatible with fast aging. Mechanistically, hyper-activated mTOR (Target of Rapamycin) may render young males robust at the cost of accelerated aging. But if women age slower, why then is it women who have menopause? Some believe that menopause is programmed and purposeful (grandmother theory). In contrast, I discuss how menopause is not programmed but rather is an aimless continuation of the same program that initially starts reproduction at puberty. This quasi-program causes over-activation of female reproductive system, which is very vulnerable to over-activation. Mechanisms of aging and menopause are discussed.

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

2010-01-01

90

Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities.

Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

91

Aging enhances autonomic support of blood pressure in women.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in both acute and chronic blood pressure regulation in humans. The activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is positively associated with peripheral resistance, an important determinant of mean arterial pressure in men. In contrast, there is no association between sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral resistance in women before menopause, yet a positive association after menopause. We hypothesized that autonomic support of blood pressure is higher after menopause in women. We examined the effect of ganglionic blockade on arterial blood pressure and how this relates to baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity in 12 young (25±1 years) and 12 older postmenopausal (61±2 years) women. The women were studied before and during autonomic blockade using trimethaphan camsylate. At baseline, muscle sympathetic nerve activity burst frequency and burst incidence were higher in the older women (33±3 versus 15±1 bursts/min; 57±5 versus 25±2 bursts/100 heartbeats, respectively; P<0.05). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity bursts were abolished by trimethaphan within minutes. Older women had a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure (-29±2 versus -9±2 mm?Hg; P<0.01) and total peripheral resistance (-10±1 versus -5±1 mm?Hg/L per minute; P<0.01) during trimethaphan. Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity was associated with the decrease in mean arterial pressure during trimethaphan (r=-0.74; P<0.05). In summary, our results suggest that autonomic support of blood pressure is greater in older women compared with young women and that elevated sympathetic nerve activity in older women contributes importantly to the increased incidence of hypertension after menopause. PMID:24324040

Barnes, Jill N; Hart, Emma C; Curry, Timothy B; Nicholson, Wayne T; Eisenach, John H; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha; Joyner, Michael J

2014-02-01

92

Menopause negatively impacts sexual lives of middle-aged Iranian women: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The study aimed to explore associations between sexual function, demographic variables, health and menopausal status among middle-aged Iranian women. Participants were 200 Iranian middle-aged women (40-65 years). All women completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Brief Profile of Female Sexual Function. Data were analyzed using a Pearson correlation statistical test, a one-way analysis of variance, an independent t test, and a linear regression analysis. Advanced age, lower education, and socioeconomic status were significantly correlated with the lower scores on the Female Sexual Function Index. Lower scores on the Female Sexual Function Index were associated with being retired; having a hysterectomy or oophorectomy; and presence of hot flashes, vaginal dryness, health problems, prescription drug use, and cold sweats. There were no significant associations between middle-aged women's sexual function and ethnicity, body mass index, alcohol consumption, severity of hot flashes, and hot flash frequency. Sexual desire was decreased or absent in 94.5% of the postmenopausal respondents. Our findings appear that sexual function is associated with sociodemographic characteristics of Iranian middle-aged women. Gender-sensitive counseling and medical services for aging Iranian women can improve the quality of women's sexual lives. PMID:24308863

Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Sheikhan, Fatemeh; Shamsalizadeh, Neda; Haghani, Hamid; Yousofnia Pasha, Yousof Reza; Killeen, Therese

2014-01-01

93

Perinatal outcomes and risk factors in adolescent and advanced age pregnancies: comparison with normal reproductive age women.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to analyse and compare demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes of pregnancies in adolescent, advanced age and normal reproductive age women. All completed pregnancies in a 6-month period, registered by the family practitioners in Denizli province, were included into the study. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants were asked for demographic information, pregnancy outcome and obstetric history, obstetric and neonatal problems. Overall 5,882 pregnancies in different age groups: 296 (5%) adolescent (< 20-years-old); 4,957 (84.3%) normal reproductive age (20-35-years-old) and 629 (10.7%) advanced age (> 35-years-old ) (group III), were included into the study. Adolescent women had a lower educational status (p < 0.01), and family played a major role in decision of marriage (p < 0.01). Birth weight of the baby was lower in adolescents (p < 0.01). While adolescents tended to deliver vaginally (OR = 1.9, p < 0.01), elderly women were more prone to operative delivery (OR = 1.2, p < 0.05). Risk of caesarean section rate was higher in elderly nulliparous women (OR = 2.2, p 0.01). The number of spontaneous and induced abortions were increased with age (p < 0.01). Antenatal problems were seen least frequently in normal reproductive age women. Both antenatal (OR = 1.7, p < 0.01) and neonatal problems (OR = 1.5, p < 0.05), were significantly higher in advanced age pregnancy. It was concluded that with sufficient antenatal care, adolescent pregnancy is not associated with an increase in adverse pregnancy outcome, except low birth weights. Advanced maternal age is more likely to be associated with increased obstetric, maternal and neonatal complications. PMID:23654312

Karabulut, A; Ozkan, S; Bozkurt, A I; Karahan, T; Kayan, S

2013-05-01

94

Transformations and Self-Discovery: Mature-Age Women's Reflections on Returning to University Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has highlighted the challenges that women face as mature-age students in higher education. The challenges are particularly acute when a woman is the first in her family to go to university. Many women begin their journey as students with considerable self-doubt and lack of confidence. They may also face an ongoing struggle to find a way…

O'Shea, S.; Stone, C.

2011-01-01

95

Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

2004-01-01

96

Appraisal Support Predicts Age-Related Differences in Cardiovascular Function in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of appraisal support on age-related differences in cardiovascular function was examined. Resting assessments of heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period were obtained from 45 young and 20 elderly women. Consistent with prior research, results revealed that the elderly women had higher blood pressure and lower RSA than

Bert N. Uchino; John T. Cacioppo; William Malarkey; Ronald Glaser; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

1995-01-01

97

Future Time Perspective according to women's age and social role during adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to describe the kind of transformation Future Time Perspective (FTP) undergoes during adulthood and to investigate the differences that may occur in the extension and the content of goals of women according to their age groups and social roles (homemakers, students, and careerwomen). With a sentence completion technique, 622 Caucasian French-Canadian women (20

Léandre Bouffard; Etienne Bastin; Sylvie Lapierre

1996-01-01

98

Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention for College-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention to two control conditions in terms of increasing walking behavior in college-aged women. Women (N=112) from a public university in the southwest were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The 4-week intervention featured an experimental, repeated…

Ornes, Lynne; Ransdell, Lynda B.

2007-01-01

99

Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Iron Deficiency in Women of Childbearing Age.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides guidelines, developed by an expert panel, for the assessment and management of iron deficiency during the reproductive years. Maintenance of adequate iron stores in women of childbearing age is a health issue for women in the U.S. The ...

S. A. Anderson

1991-01-01

100

Age-specific prevalence of human papilloma virus infection among Nigerian women  

PubMed Central

Background Inconsistent trends in HPV prevalence by age have been described in Africa. We examined the age prevalence pattern and distribution of 37 HPV-DNA types among urban Nigerian women. Methods The study population was a sample of 278 women who presented to cervical cancer screening programs in Abuja, Nigeria, between April and August 2012. Using a nurse administered questionnaire, information on demographic characteristics and risk factors of cervical cancer was collected and samples of cervical exfoliated cells were obtained from all participants. Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test® was used to characterize prevalent HPV and log-binomial regression models were used to examine the association between potential correlates and the prevalence of HPV infection. Results The mean age (SD) of the women enrolled was 38 (8) years. The overall prevalence of HPV was 37%. HPV 35 was the most prevalent HPV type in the study population. Among women age ? 30 years, 52% had HPV infection compared to 23% of those women who were older than 45 years (p = 0.006). We observed a significant linear association between age and the prevalence of HPV infections. The prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (1.17, 4.34) for any HPV infection, 3.83 (1.23, 11.94) for Group 1 HPV (definite carcinogens), and 2.19 (0.99, 4.84) for Group 2a or 2b HPV (probable or possible carcinogens) types, among women aged 18–30 years, compared to women who were older than 45 years. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection was highest among younger women and decreased steadily with age among this population of urban Nigerian women.

2014-01-01

101

Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.  

PubMed

Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening. PMID:23282861

2013-01-01

102

Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?  

PubMed Central

We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited.

Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

2010-01-01

103

Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (?) and SE(?) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P < 0.00001); that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P < 0.00001), that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P = 0.001), that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women.

Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W.; Cavelaars, Adrienne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamas; van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

2012-01-01

104

Cytogenetic perspective of ageing and longevity in men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of relationships between the ageing cell phenotype and the age of cell donors is one of the ways towards understanding\\u000a the link between cellular and organismal ageing. Cytogenetically, ageing is associated with a number of gross cellular changes,\\u000a including altered size and morphology, genomic instability, and changes in expression and proliferation. Genomic instability\\u000a can be easily assessed by analyzing

E. Zi?tkiewicz; A. Wojda; M. Witt

2009-01-01

105

Middle Aging in Women: Patterns of Personality Change from the 30s to the 50s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This three-sample study focused on changes in four key features of women's personalities (identity, generativity, confident power, and concern about aging) over the course of middle age. Based on women's retrospective and concurrent feelings about their lives in their 30s, 40s, and 50s, scales were developed and validated for the four themes. We found that identity certainty, generativity, confident power,

Abigail J. Stewart; Joan M. Ostrove; Ravenna Helson

2001-01-01

106

Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 days of Creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in college-aged women. Fifteen healthy college-aged women (mean ± SD = 22.3 ± 1.7 yrs) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into either placebo (PL – 10 g of flavored dextrose

Abbie E Smith; Ashley A Walter; Trent J Herda; Eric D Ryan; Jordan R Moon; Joel T Cramer; Jeffrey R Stout

2007-01-01

107

A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

Perez, Shireese Redmond

2011-01-01

108

Comprehensive Cancer Screening among Unmarried Women Aged 40-75 Years: Results from the Cancer Screening Project for Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives We explored self-reported rates of individual on-schedule breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screenings, as well as an aggregate measure of comprehensive screenings, among unmarried women aged 40–75 years. We compared women who partner with women (WPW) or with women and men (WPWM) to women who partner exclusively with men (WPM). We also compared barriers to on-schedule cancer screenings between WPW/WPWM and WPM. Methods Comparable targeted and respondent-driven sampling methods were used to enroll 213 WPW/WPWM and 417 WPM (n?=?630). Logistic regression models were computed to determine if partner gender was associated with each measure of on-schedule screening after controlling for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and cancer-related experiences. Results Overall, 74.3% of women reported on-schedule breast screening, 78.3% reported on-schedule cervical screening, 66.5% reported on-schedule colorectal screening, and 56.7% reported being on-schedule for comprehensive screening. Partner gender was not associated with any of the measures of on-schedule screening in multivariable analyses. However, women who reported ever putting off, avoiding, or changing the place of screenings because of sexual orientation were less likely to be on-schedule for comprehensive screening. Women who reported barriers associated with taking time from work and body image concerns were also less likely to be on-schedule for comprehensive screening. Conclusions Barriers to cancer screening were comparable across types of examinations as well as between WPW/WPWM and WPM. Developing health promotion programs for unmarried women that address concomitant detection and prevention behaviors may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare delivery and ultimately assist in reducing multiple disease risks.

Rogers, Michelle L.; Armstrong, Gene F.; Rakowski, William; Bowen, Deborah J.; Hughes, Tonda; McGarry, Kelly A.

2009-01-01

109

Overweight and obesity among Jordanian women and their social determinants.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the social determinants associated with obesity among Jordanian women using the national data from the Jordan Population and Family Health Survey 2009. We found the overall prevalence of overweight was 30% and obesity was 38.8% among Jordanian women aged 15-49 years. Results of multivariate analysis showed that age; residing in the south region of Jordan, marriage at an early age, parity, wealth status and smoking were statistically significant predictors of overweight and obesity among women in Jordan. Our results show that there is an urgent need to implement health programmes to prevent and control overweight and obesity at the national level. Social determinants should be taking into consideration in designing. and implementing these programmes. PMID:24684099

Al Nsour, M; Al Kayyali, Gh; Naffa, S

2013-12-01

110

Proximal femoral density distribution and structure in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women  

PubMed Central

Hip fracture risk rises exponentially with age, but there is little knowledge about how fracture-related alterations in hip structure differ from those of aging. We employed computed tomography (CT) imaging to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip in relation to age- and incident hip fracture. We used inter-subject image registration to integrate 3D hip CT images into a statistical atlas comprising women aged 21-97 years (n=349) and a group of women with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture 4-7 years after their imaging session. Voxel-based morphometry was used to generate Student’s t-test statistical maps from the atlas, which indicated regions that were significantly associated with age or with incident hip fracture. Scaling factors derived from inter-subject image registration were employed as measures of bone size. BMD comparisons of young, middle-aged, and older American women showed preservation of load-bearing cortical and trabecular structures with aging, whereas extensive bone loss was observed in other trabecular and cortical regions. In contrast, comparisons of older Icelandic fracture women with age-matched controls showed that hip fracture was associated with a global cortical bone deficit, including both the superior cortical margin and the load-bearing inferior cortex. Bone size comparisons showed larger dimensions in older compared to younger American women and in older Icelandic fracture women compared to controls. The results indicate that older Icelandic women who sustain incident hip fracture have a structural phenotype that cannot be described as an accelerated pattern of normal age-related loss. The fracture-related cortical deficit noted in this study may provide a biomarker of increased hip fracture risk that may be translatable to DXA and other clinical images.

Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Therneau, Terry M.; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L. Joseph; Keyak, Joyce; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B.; Lang, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

111

Proximal femoral density distribution and structure in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.  

PubMed

Hip fracture risk rises exponentially with age, but there is little knowledge about how fracture-related alterations in hip structure differ from those of aging. We employed computed tomography (CT) imaging to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip in relation to age and incident hip fracture. We used intersubject image registration to integrate 3D hip CT images into a statistical atlas comprising women aged 21 to 97 years (n?=?349) and a group of women with (n?=?74) and without (n?=?148) incident hip fracture 4 to 7 years after their imaging session. Voxel-based morphometry was used to generate Student's t test statistical maps from the atlas, which indicated regions that were significantly associated with age or with incident hip fracture. Scaling factors derived from intersubject image registration were employed as measures of bone size. BMD comparisons of young, middle-aged, and older American women showed preservation of load-bearing cortical and trabecular structures with aging, whereas extensive bone loss was observed in other trabecular and cortical regions. In contrast, comparisons of older Icelandic fracture women with age-matched controls showed that hip fracture was associated with a global cortical bone deficit, including both the superior cortical margin and the load-bearing inferior cortex. Bone size comparisons showed larger dimensions in older compared to younger American women and in older Icelandic fracture women compared to controls. The results indicate that older Icelandic women who sustain incident hip fracture have a structural phenotype that cannot be described as an accelerated pattern of normal age-related loss. The fracture-related cortical deficit noted in this study may provide a biomarker of increased hip fracture risk that may be translatable to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and other clinical images. PMID:23109068

Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L Joseph; Keyak, Joyce; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B; Lang, Thomas F

2013-03-01

112

Thyroid function: comparison of women in late pregnancy with control women of reproductive age in regions of dietary iodine excess.  

PubMed

Three hundred pregnant women and 300 women of reproductive age (controls) were selected from regions with a dietary iodine excess to evaluate thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions. Fasting morning urine and venous blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration, serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) levels were determined. Iodine levels were excessive in 83.7% of pregnant women and 80.7% of the control women. The former showed lower rates of total thyroid disease and subclinical hypothyroidism than the latter (21.7% vs 29.7%, P < 0.05; 19.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.05). The FT3 level, FT4 level, and TGAb positive rate of pregnant women were lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Thus, both excessive iodine intake and pregnancy can influence the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions of women. PMID:23858522

Du, Quxiao; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Li

2013-07-01

113

Mentoring college-age women: a relational approach.  

PubMed

Despite the popularity of mentoring programs, the relational dimension of mentoring has not been elucidated. Traditional conceptions of mentoring may exclude factors that are particularly important for women and girls, thus limiting the efficacy of mentoring programs for female adolescents. We suggest that the presence of relational qualities in the mentoring relationship (e.g., empathy, engagement, authenticity, and empowerment) strongly influences the success of mentoring in the lives of young women. In this study, we use a promising new measure of mentoring, the Relational Health Index - Mentor, to explore the impact of relational aspects of mentoring in female college students. We found that mentoring relationships high in relational qualities were associated with higher self-esteem and less loneliness PMID:12002246

Liang, Belle; Tracy, Allison J; Taylor, Catherine A; Williams, Linda M

2002-04-01

114

Method to Determine Age Individual Women Should Begin Mammogram Screening  

Cancer.gov

A paper in the September issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology by two investigators from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Mitchell Gail, M.D., Ph.D., of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Barbara Rimer, Dr.P.H., of the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, provides two methods to assist women and their physicians in making a decision about when to initiate regular mammograms.

115

Perceptions of Tetanus-diphteria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) Vaccination among Korean Women of Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Background The number of cases of pertussis reported has increased gradually in the last decade. Pertussis vaccination is the most effective strategy for the prevention of infection. Despite the fact that young infants are at the highest risk for pertussis, the rate of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination is presumed to be very low among women of childbearing age in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of women of childbearing age regarding Tdap vaccination in Korea. Materials and Methods Women of childbearing age, who visited the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at 3 University hospitals in the Seoul and Gyeonggi-do provinces of Korea, were surveyed. Individual questionnaires were administered from April to May 2012. Demographic data, Tdap vaccination history, general knowledge about pertussis, and information on factors associated with decision on vaccination were collected. Results Of the 500 reproductive-age women enrolled, only 4 (0.8%) had received the Tdap. The most common reason for non-vaccination was the lack of awareness of pertussis and information about the Tdap. Totally, 171 (34.2%) responded that they would receive a Tdap vaccination in the future. By multivariate analysis, general confidence in the effectiveness of the vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17 to 3.01) was indicated as an important factor for deciding whether to receive the Tdap vaccine (P < 0.01). Conclusions The coverage of Tdap vaccination of women of childbearing age, including pregnant women, is very low because of the lack of awareness of pertussis and the Tdap. Education of women of childbearing age about pertussis is very important to increase Tdap vaccination rates among these women, particularly during the perinatal period.

Kim, In Seon; Seo, Yu Bin; Hong, Kyung-Wook; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Cho, Geum Joon; Oh, Min Jeong; Kim, Hai Joong; Hong, Soon Choul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Woo Joo

2013-01-01

116

Medicaid Reforms In Oregon And Suboptimal Utilization Of Dental Care by Women of Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Background The authors studied dental services used by women of childbearing age who were in Medicaid in Oregon during the early 2000’s, a period of reforms to expand coverage. They compared claims for pregnant women, non-pregnant women with children, and non-pregnant women without children. They compared differences in claims for women enrolled in managed care and fee-for-service plans. Methods The authors computed the proportion of women for whom a dental claim was submitted in 6-month spans for 2000, 2001, 2002 (before reform) and 2005 (after reform). Results Before and after reforms, average utilization of pregnant women, adjusted for proportion of the period covered, dropped from .36 (SD=.025) to .22 (SD=.028). Among non-pregnant women with children, average adjusted rates dropped from .49 (SD=.201) to .21 (SD=.078). The pattern was similar among women with no children: rates dropped from .50 (SD=.028) to .19 (SD=.078). Claims for diagnostic services were most frequent. No difference was found between women enrolled in managed care or fee-for-service. Conclusions Contrary to the intention, reforms were detrimental to the vulnerable populations Medicaid is intended to serve. Clinical Implications Dental care is important for maternal and child health. Utilization is unlikely to improve without changes in Medicaid and care delivery.

Milgrom, Peter; Lee, Rosanna S-Y; Huebner, Colleen E.; Conrad, Douglas A.

2013-01-01

117

Age variations in adiposity and body fat composition among older Bengalee Hindu women of Calcutta, India.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of 279 older (50+ years) urban Bengalee Hindu women was undertaken to study age variations in adiposity, body composition, obesity and central fat distribution. The women were divided into three groups: Group I (G I, 50-59 years), Group II (G II, 60-69 years) and Group III (G III, 70+ years). A significant decreasing age trend was observed in adiposity and body fat composition measures. Women in G I had significantly higher means compared with those in G III. Individuals in G II had intermediate values. However, there was no significant age trend in muscle measures and indices of central body fat distribution. The results revealed that significantly more women in G III (45.8%) were malnourished (BMI < 18.5), while significantly more women in G I (28.7%) were obese (BMI > or = 25). The levels of malnourishment (21.6%) and obesity (24.5%) in G II were intermediate between G I and G III. Age had significant negative correlations with measures of adiposity and body fat composition. Regression analysis revealed that age had significant negative effect on these anthropometric measures. This significant negative impact of age remained even after controlling for the effect of BMI. In conclusion, the present investigation revealed that among older Bengalee Hindu women, there is a significant inverse age trend in adiposity and body fat composition, which is independent of overall adiposity (BMI). However, with ageing, muscle and central body fat distribution remain the same. Furthermore, with increasing age, there is a trend of increasing levels of malnourishment and decreasing levels of obesity. PMID:14524004

Bose, K; Chaudhuri, A B

2003-09-01

118

Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

1994-01-01

119

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

120

Achievement and Identity in College-Age vs. Adult Women Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between Fear of Success (FOS) and Identity Status. Two groups of women, regular college age (18-23) and adult (over 30) were interviewed and completed measures of FOS. The hypothesis that adult students would exhibit less FOS than their college age counterparts was confirmed. (DWH)

Freilino, Mary Kay; Hummel, Raymond

1985-01-01

121

Oocyte or embryo donation to women of advanced age: a committee opinion.  

PubMed

Physicians should obtain a complete medical evaluation before deciding to attempt transfer of embryos to any woman over age 50. Embryo transfer should be strongly discouraged or denied to any woman over age 50 with underlying issues that could increase or further obstetrical risks and discouraged in women over age 55 without such issues. This statement replaces the earlier ASRM Ethics Committee statement titled, "Oocyte donation to postmenopausal women," last published in 2004 (Fertil Steril 2004;82:S254-5). PMID:23472948

2013-08-01

122

Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age--United States, 2006-2010.  

PubMed

Alcohol use during pregnancy is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. Alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), which result in neurodevelopmental deficits and lifelong disability. In 2005, the Surgeon General issued an advisory urging women who are pregnant or who might become pregnant to abstain from alcohol use. Healthy People 2020 set specific targets for abstinence from alcohol use (MICH-11.1) and binge drinking (MICH-11.2) for pregnant women. To estimate the prevalence of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days among women aged 18-44 years, CDC analyzed 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Based on their self-reports, an estimated 51.5% of nonpregnant women used alcohol, as did 7.6% of pregnant women. The prevalence of binge drinking was 15.0% among nonpregnant women and 1.4% among pregnant women. Among pregnant women, the highest prevalence estimates of reported alcohol use were among those who were aged 35-44 years (14.3%), white (8.3%), college graduates (10.0%), or employed (9.6%). Among binge drinkers, the average frequency and intensity of binge episodes were similar, approximately three times per month and six drinks on an occasion, among those who were pregnant and those who were not. Clinical practices that advise women about the dangers associated with drinking while pregnant, coupled with community-level interventions that reduce alcohol-related harms, are necessary to mitigate AEP risk among women of childbearing age and to achieve the Healthy People 2020 objectives. PMID:22810267

2012-07-20

123

Increased hematuria following hypergravic exposure in middle-aged women  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of simulated weightlessness on orthostatic tolerance were studied in 9 women (55 to 65 years old) who underwent acceleration and lower body negative pressure before and after 10 days of horizontal bed rest. The results of this study show the first known association of microscopic hematuria with hypergravic and orthostatic stress which suggests similarities to the 'stress hematuria syndrome' previously seen with heavy exercise (Boileau et al., 1980). In addition, the sporadic occurrence of this phenomenon indicates a multifactorial etiology in predisposed individuals. Bedrest or weightlessness simulation per se does not seem to significantly alter renal function, but may decrease microscopic hematuria with an orthostatic component.

Goldwater, D. J.; Ohara, D. B.; Sandler, H.

1982-01-01

124

HIV status and age at first marriage among women in Cameroon.  

PubMed

Recent research has highlighted the risk of HIV infection for married teenage women compared with their unmarried counterparts (Clark, 2004). This study assesses whether a relationship exists, for women who have completed their adolescence (age 20-29 years), between HIV status with age at first marriage and the length of time between first sex and first marriage. Multivariate analysis utilizing the nationally representative 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey shows that late-marrying women and those with a longer period of pre-marital sex have the highest risk of HIV. Although women in urban areas overall marry later than their rural counterparts, the positive relationship between age at marriage and HIV risk is stronger in rural areas. The higher wealth status and greater number of lifetime sexual partners of late-marrying women contribute to their higher HIV risk. Given that the age at first marriage and the gap between first marriage and first sex have increased in recent years, focusing preventive efforts on late-marrying women will be of much importance in reducing HIV prevalence among females. PMID:17988430

Adair, Timothy

2008-09-01

125

Sex differences in soleus strength may predispose middle age women to falls.  

PubMed

This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age. PMID:23222092

Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T

2013-09-01

126

Factors that modify the association between knee pain and mobility limitation in older women: the Women's Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate the influence of pain severity, knee extensor muscle weakness, obesity, depression, and activity on the association between recent knee pain and limitation of usual and fast paced walking, and ability to rise from a chair.METHODSA cross sectional analysis of 769 older women (mean age 77.8, range 65–101) with physical disability, but no severe cognitive impairment. Severity of knee

S E Lamb; J M Guralnik; D M Buchner; L M Ferrucci; M C Hochberg; E M Simonsick; L P Fried

2000-01-01

127

Effect of aging on carotid baroreflex control of blood pressure and leg vascular conductance in women.  

PubMed

Recent work suggests that ?-adrenergic vasodilation offsets ?-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, but this effect is lost after menopause. Given these age-related vascular changes, we tested the hypothesis that older women would exhibit a greater change in vascular conductance following baroreflex perturbation compared with young women. In 10 young (21 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (62 ± 2 yr) women, mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO; Modelflow), total vascular conductance (TVC), and leg vascular conductance (LVC, duplex-Doppler ultrasound) were continuously measured in response to 5-s pulses of neck suction (NS; -60 Torr) and neck pressure (NP; +40 Torr) to simulate carotid hypertension and hypotension, respectively. Following NS, decreases in MAP were similar between groups; however, MAP peak response latency was slower in older women (P < 0.05). Moreover, at the time of peak MAP, increases in LVC (young, -11.5 ± 3.9%LVC vs. older, +19.1 ± 7.0%LVC; P < 0.05) and TVC were greater in older women, whereas young women exhibited larger decreases in HR and CO (young, -10 ± 3% CO vs. older, +0.8 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05). Following NP, increases in MAP were blunted (young, +14 ± 1 mmHg vs. older, +8 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05) in older women, whereas MAP response latencies were similar. Interestingly, decreases in LVC and TVC were similar between groups, but HR and CO (young, +7.0 ± 2% CO vs. older, -4.0 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05) responses were attenuated in older women. These findings suggest that older women have greater reliance on vascular conductance to modulate MAP via carotid baroreflex, whereas young women rely more on cardiac responsiveness. Furthermore, older women demonstrate a blunted ability to increase MAP to hypotensive stimuli. PMID:24682393

Credeur, Daniel P; Holwerda, Seth W; Boyle, Leryn J; Vianna, Lauro C; Jensen, Areum K; Fadel, Paul J

2014-05-15

128

The Effects of Age and Estrogen on Stress Responsivity in Older Women  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have shown that estradiol improves mood in women around the menopause transition [1, 2] but does not improve mood for older postmenopausal women (Morrison et al. 2004). Newhouse et al. [3] have previously shown that estradiol treatment in non-depressed women resulted in increased negative mood after psychosocial stress. The current study examined whether age after menopause impacted the effect of estradiol on mood after a psychosocial stress manipulation. Participants were 22 postmenopausal women placed on either oral placebo or 17?-estradiol (1 mg/day for 1 month, then 2 mg/day for 2 months). At the end of the 3 month treatment phase they performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) followed by mood ratings. To examine the effects of age on the estrogen-stress interaction, we performed a median split on age and created four groups of participants: younger-placebo (mean age 55.5), younger-estradiol (mean age 55.5), older-placebo (mean age 73.0), and older-estradiol (mean age 76.8). The results showed that both older and younger estradiol-treated participants exhibited a significant and similar increase in negative mood after psychosocial stress compared to placebo-treated women. These results suggest that estradiol may play a significant role in modulating emotional reactivity to stressful events and that this effect persists in older women. Furthermore, responsivity to estradiol effects on emotional processing appears to be intact even years after menopause in contrast to other cognitive and behavioral effects of estradiol which may be limited to the early postmenopausal years.

Dumas, Julie A.; Albert, Kimberly M.; Naylor, Magdalena R.; Sites, Cynthia K.; Benkelfat, Chawki; Newhouse, Paul A.

2012-01-01

129

Trends in folic acid supplement intake among women of reproductive age--California, 2002-2006.  

PubMed

Daily intake of 400 microg of folic acid before conception can reduce by approximately 80% the risk for having an infant with a neural tube defect (NTD) such as spina bifida or anencephaly. Although other risk factors for NTDs exist, such as diabetes, obesity, and family history of NTDs, prevention measures have focused predominantly on promoting folic acid consumption. Women can ensure they are consuming the recommended amount of folic acid by eating one serving of breakfast cereal fortified with 100% of the recommended daily value of folic acid or by taking a supplement with 400 microg folic acid daily. Annual surveys conducted for the March of Dimes (MOD) Birth Defects Foundation indicate that 40% of all U.S. women of reproductive age (i.e., aged 15-45 years) took supplements containing folic acid in 2007 (MOD, unpublished data, 2007), up from 28% in 1995. To analyze trends in folic acid-containing supplement intake among California women aged 18-44 years during 2002-2006, the California Department of Public Health conducted trend analyses of data from the California Women's Health Survey (CWHS). This report summarizes the results of those analyses, which indicated that although the overall prevalence of intake of folic acid-containing supplements remained stable from 2002 (40%) to 2006 (41%) in California, use of such supplements decreased among Hispanic women and women with less education. Downward trends among Hispanic women are of particular concern because 1) Hispanic women are at increased risk for having a fetus or an infant with an NTD compared with women of other races/ethnicities, 2) the number of births to Hispanics in California increased during 1993-2003, and 3) Hispanics accounted for nearly 52% of all births in California in 2005 (California Department of Public Health, unpublished data, 2005). Development of additional targeted and evidence-based public health interventions for increasing folic acid intake among these populations is needed. PMID:17962802

2007-10-26

130

The effect of joint contraceptive decisions on the use of Injectables, Long-Acting and Permanent Methods (ILAPMs) among married female (15-49) contraceptive users in Zambia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Zambia’s fertility rate and unmet need for family planning are still high. This is in spite of the progress reported from 1992 to 2007 of the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate from 15% to 41% and use of modern methods of family planning from 9% to 33%. However, partner disapproval of family planning has been cited by many women in many countries including Zambia. Given the effectiveness of long-acting and permanent methods of family planning (ILAPMs) in fertility regulation, this paper sought to examine the relationship between contraceptive decision-making and use of ILAPMs among married women in Zambia. Methods This paper uses data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. The analysis is based on married women (15–49) who reported using a method of family planning at the time of the survey. Out of the 7,146 women interviewed, only 1,630 women were valid for this analysis. Cross-tabulations and binary logistic regressions with Chi-square were used to analyse associations and the predictors of use of ILAPMs of contraception, respectively. A confidence interval of .95 was used in determining relationships between independent and dependent variables. Results Two thirds of women made joint decisions regarding contraception and 29% of the women were using ILAPMs. Women who made joint contraceptive decisions are significantly more likely to use ILAPMs than women who did not involve their husband in contraceptive decisions. However, the most significant predictor is the wealth index. Women from rich households are more likely to use ILAPMs than women from medium rich and poor households. Results also show that women of North Western ethnicities and those from Region 3 had higher odds of using ILAPMs than Tonga women and women from Region 2, respectively. Conclusion Joint contraceptive decision-making between spouses is key to use of ILAPMs in Zambia. Our findings have also shown that the wealth index is actually the strongest factor determining use of these methods. As such, family planning programmes directed at increasing use of LAPMs ought to not only encourage spousal communication but should also consider rolling out interventions that incorporate economic empowerment.

2014-01-01

131

Slower immune system aging in women versus men in the Japanese population  

PubMed Central

Background Gender-related differences in humans are commonly observed in behaviour, physical activity, disease, and lifespan. However, the notion that age-related changes in the immune system differ between men and women remains controversial. To elucidate the relationship between immunological changes and lifespan, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy Japanese subjects (age range: 20–90 years; N?=?356) were analysed by using three-colour flow cytometry. The proliferative activities and cytokine-producing capacities of T cells in response to anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody stimulation were also assessed. Results An age-related decline in the number of T cells, certain subpopulations of T cells (including CD8+ T cells, CD4+CDRA+ T cells, and CD8+CD28+ T cells), and B cells, and in the proliferative capacity of T cells was noted. The rate of decline in these immunological parameters, except for the number of CD8+ T cells, was greater in men than in women (p?age-related increase or increasing trend in the number of CD4+ T cells, CD4+CDRO+ T cells, and natural killer (CD56+CD16+) cells, as well as in the CD4+ T cell/CD8+ T cell ratio. The rate of increase of these immunological parameters was greater in women than in men (p?age-related decline that was greater in men than in women (p?age-related decline that was greater in men than in women (p?age-related decreases was observed in IFN?, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 production, when lymphocytes were cultured with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody stimulation. The rate of decline in IL-6 and IL-10 production was greater in men than in women (p?Age-related changes in various immunological parameters differ between men and women. Our findings indicate that the slower rate of decline in these immunological parameters in women than that in men is consistent with the fact that women live longer than do men.

2013-01-01

132

Selected Body Measurements of Women Aged Sixty-five and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred fourteen white and 91 black women volunteers from Tallahassee, Florida, senior citizen's activity centers were studied to determine if elderly ambulatory women are adequately represented in the garment-sizing system. Thirty-three body measurements were taken on each subject, whose ages ranged from 65 to 96, with a mean of 73.912. Statistical analyses of these 33 measurements used descriptive statistics, t-tests,

Carol A. Patterson; Jessie Warden

1983-01-01

133

Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Diabetes in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWaist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsData on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer

Tina Landsvig Berentzen; Marianne Uhre Jakobsen; Jytte Halkjaer; Anne Tjønneland; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen; Kim Overvad

2011-01-01

134

Seroprevalence of rubella among women of childbearing age in Taiwan after nationwide vaccination.  

PubMed

Taiwan initiated a nationwide program in 1986 to have all 15-year-old schoolgirls vaccinated against rubella and another program in 1992 to encourage all women of childbearing age to receive rubella vaccination. To assess the immunity among women after the implementation of these programs, we conduct a serosurvey. We recruited women who were 15-44 years old and received pre-employment health examinations at the clinic of an industrial park from January 1 to June 30, 2000. Anti-rubella antibody titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays. All 1,087 women who fit the selection criteria agreed to participate, and the overall susceptible (seronegative) rate was 5.7%. The susceptible rate was much lower among women who were covered by both programs than women who were not (4% versus 23%, P < 0.001). The nationwide vaccination programs were effective, but a substantial proportion of childbearing-age women were still susceptible and need booster vaccination. PMID:12479561

Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran

2002-11-01

135

Sexual activity and perceived health among Finnish middle-aged women  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS) and performance impairment (PI) are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. Methods Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response) stratified according to age (42–46 and 52–56 years). In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well. Results Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42–46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Conclusion NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women.

Ojanlatva, Ansa; Makinen, Juha; Helenius, Hans; Korkeila, Katariina; Sundell, Jari; Rautava, Paivi

2006-01-01

136

Predictive Risk Factors for Impaired Quality of Life in Middle-Aged Women with Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Purpose Urinary incontinence (UI) has substantial and important impacts on quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to identify the associated risk factors of QoL in middle-aged women with UI. Methods The participants were 127 women aged 40-64 years who experienced UI. Data were collected from October to November, 2008 using a self-reported questionnaires. The data were analyzed through t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe test, and multiple linear regression with SPSS ver. 16.0 program. Results The distribution of UI severity was mild 18.1%, moderate 40.2% and severe 41.7%. In univariate analysis, differences in the score for QoL according to participants' characteristics were statistically significant on the type of delivery, number of births and severity of UI. In multiple linear regression analysis after adjustment of other variables, the most powerful predictor of QoL is severity of UI. Number of births was also significant predictor. These two variables explained 25% of variance in QoL of women with UI. Conclusions UI is highly prevalent and causes suffering and impaired QoL among middle-aged women, but it stands beyond our attention. The results of this study suggest that women with moderate to severe UI should be screened for QoL by health care providers regularly. Further research is needed to determine comprehensive factors including psychosocial factors predicting the QoL for incontinent women.

Son, Youn-Jung

2010-01-01

137

Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Perceived Facial Age in Chinese Women  

PubMed Central

Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with ‘looking young for one’s age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25–70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age) identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001), fewer household members (p?=?0.027), menopausal status (p?=?0.020), frequency of visiting one's doctor (p?=?0.013), working indoors (p<0.001), spending less time in the sun (p?=?0.015), moderate levels of physical activity (p?=?0.004), higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001) and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001); moisturiser (p?=?0.016) or night cream (p?=?0.016). Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations.

Mayes, Andrew E.; Murray, Peter G.; Gunn, David A.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Catt, Sharon D.; Wen, Yi B.; Zhou, Li P.; Wang, Hong Q.; Catt, Michael; Granger, Stewart P.

2010-01-01

138

Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women  

PubMed Central

Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (<12 years) as compared to late onset (>13 years) was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30). Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend <0.01) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P for trend = 0.01), but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02). However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions.

2012-01-01

139

Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

2004-06-01

140

Reference data for ultrasonic bone measurement: variation with age in 2087 Caucasian women aged 16-93 years.  

PubMed

Data from the measurement of broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS), using the Lunar Achilles ultrasonic densitometer, were collected for Caucasian women from five centres in the United Kingdom (Leeds, London, Nottingham, Lincoln and Sheffield). After correcting for machine variability at each site, the data were combined into a central reference database comprising 2087 women aged 16-93 years. The data are presented in 5-year bands and show a mean fall of 0.36% per year for BUA and 0.08% per year for SOS in the 60 years following the attainment of peak bone mass. This fall in BUA compares with that observed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of 0.32% per year and 0.44% per year, respectively, for the age range 25-65 years. PMID:9404204

Truscott, J G

1997-10-01

141

A Population-Based Study of Factors Associated With Nocturia in Reproductive-Aged Turkish Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of nocturia according to the International Continence Society (ICS) definition in Turkish women and to determine the associated risk factors and the correlation of other voiding symptoms with nocturia. Materials and Methods A prospective epidemiological study was carried out by use of self-reported questionnaires in 4,250 reproductive-aged women from January 2013 to May 2013. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form and a questionnaire developed by the researchers according to the ICS were administered to define nocturia and other lower urinary tract symptoms. Other physical, reproductive, and health characteristics were also recorded concurrently. Results Overall, 1,636 women were included in the final analyses. The women had an average age of 34.4±5.26 years. The overall prevalence of nocturia was 34.7% (567 of 1,636 women). Women with nocturia were older (p<0.001), had a higher body mass index (p=0.026), and had more children (p<0.001). Nocturia occurred more frequently in women with a history of nocturnal enuresis (p<0.001). Three or more pregnancies, 3 or more deliveries, and age >40 years were significant risk factors for nocturia. We also found that other lower urinary tract symptoms correlated significantly (p<0.001) with nocturia. Conclusions Although the prevalence of nocturia is higher with increasing age, younger adults are also affected. Nocturia may cause sleep disorders, mood disturbances, reduced quality of life, and distractibility. Thus, even if one void nightly causes a patient to experience bother, nocturia should be queried about and should be treated if necessary according to the cause of the disease.

Telli, Onur; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Eroglu, Muzaffer; Bozkurt, Selen

2014-01-01

142

A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women's loss of reproductive value  

PubMed Central

Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual’s overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35–50 years and 51–65 years, respectively) and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: (1) that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; (2) that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and (3) that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female) middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources.

Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Traficonte, Daniel M.; Wilson, M. Claire

2014-01-01

143

Age at Menarche and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Singaporean Chinese Women: The Singapore Chinese Health Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine whether menarcheal age was inversely associated with CVD mortality in Singaporean Chinese women. Methods 34,022 Chinese women aged 45–74 at enrollment (1993–1998), with complete data on study variables, were followed prospectively through 2009 for primary cause of death due to CVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CERE). Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality were computed across menarcheal age categories and adjusted for potential confounders and BMI. Results Over 460,374 person-years of follow-up, 1,852 women died from CVD; 998 of them from CHD and 557 from CERE. There was a significant interaction between menarcheal age and smoking (p<0.05). In nonsmokers, menarcheal age was inversely associated with risk for CVD and CHD mortality. HRs (and 95% CI) for CVD mortality across menarcheal age categories (?12, 13–14, 15–16, ?17) were: 1.06 (0.87–1.29), 1 (referent), 0.89 (0.79–1.00), and 0.80 (0.69–0.93), respectively (ptrend<0.001); HRs for CHD mortality were: 1.06 (0.80–1.34), 1 (referent), 0.76 (0.65–0.90), and 0.72 (0.58–0.88), respectively (ptrend<0.001). In nonsmokers there was no association between menarcheal age and CERE mortality. Among smokers, menarcheal age was not associated with CVD, CHD or CERE mortality. Conclusion Menarcheal age was inversely associated with risk of CVD mortality in nonsmoking Chinese women.

Mueller, NT; Odegaard, AO; Gross, MD; Koh, WP; Yuan, JM; Pereira, MA

2012-01-01

144

Causes of Death among Women Aged 10-50 Years in Bangladesh, 1996-1997  

PubMed Central

Limited information is available at the national and district levels on causes of death among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. During 1996–1997, health-service functionaries in facilities providing obstetric and maternal and child-heath services were interviewed on their knowledge of deaths of women aged 10–50 years in the past 12 months. In addition, case reports were abstracted from medical records in facilities with in-patient services. The study covered 4,751 health facilities in Bangladesh. Of 28,998 deaths reported, 13,502 (46.6%) occurred due to medical causes, 8,562 (29.5%) due to pregnancy-related causes, 6,168 (21.3%) due to injuries, and 425 (1.5%) and 259 (0.9%) due to injuries and medical causes during pregnancy respectively. Cardiac problems (11.7%), infectious diseases (11.3%), and system disorders (9.1%) were the major medical causes of deaths. Pregnancy-associated causes included direct maternal deaths (20.1%), abortion (5.1%), and indirect maternal deaths (4.3%). The highest proportion of deaths among women aged 10–19 years was due to injuries (39.3%) with suicides accounting for 21.7%. The largest proportion of direct obstetric deaths occurred among women aged 20–29 years (30.5%). At least one quarter (24.3%) of women (n=28,998) did not receive any treatment prior to death, and 47.8% received treatment either from a registered physician or in a facility. More focus is needed on all causes of deaths among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh.

Yusuf, Hussain R.; Akhter, Halida H.; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rochat, Roger W.

2007-01-01

145

Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition. PMID:23624642

Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

2014-06-01

146

Still penalized? Parity, age at first birth and women's income in later life.  

PubMed

Despite policies aimed at decreasing old-age income inequality, such as Social Security and Supplemental Security Income, research consistently finds that later-life poverty is highly concentrated among women. While the early-life economic disadvantages of motherhood are well established, little work has examined whether these disadvantages persist into later life. Life course research consistently demonstrates the relationship between early-life choices and later-life inequality, but few studies have examined whether the reproductive phase of a woman's life is associated with her later-life income. Using data from the 2003 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women cohort, this research examines whether women's age at first birth and parity are associated with her later-life income within the context of marriage. From a set of multivariate analyses, I find that despite a marginal statistically significant effect, substantively for the women in this cohort the effects of childbearing are not particularly consequential for later-life income. The results suggest that as women age the economic penalties associated with motherhood are less important to financial well-being than are other factors. PMID:22757761

Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna

2012-01-01

147

The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health.

2012-01-01

148

The Concepts and Consequences of Early Ovarian Ageing: A Caveat to Women's Health  

PubMed Central

Apparent rise in the incidence of infertility in females and the trend shifting towards delayed child bearing brought up the concept of ovarian ageing. Women in their early thirties show poor ovarian reserve which is an entity named as early ovarian ageing. Early ovarian ageing is mostly genetically determined, but acquired modifiable factors like smoking, or ovarian surgery have some roles. Infertility and subfertility are the only clinical recognizable sequelae in the early ovarian ageing. The worrisome fact is that the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques is also not that much encouraging. Even if ovarian priming with DHEA has raised hope in the assisted reproductive techniques for these patients, but more randomized trials are needed to support this. Screening of these women with antimullerian hormone, antral follicle count and genetic analysis may be useful for recommendation at appropriate biological time regarding conception or fertility preservation.

Subrat, Panda; Santa, Singh A.; Vandana, Jha

2013-01-01

149

Change-of-life anticipations, attitudes, and experiences among middle-aged Danish women.  

PubMed

The meaning of the lay concept "the change of life" and the possible impact of the change of life on women's perceptions of health, aging, and sexuality in relation to this event was studied in a Danish general population. Longitudinal analyses were based on data from three cross-sectional studies carried out in 1976, 1981, and 1987 on a cohort of Danish women born in 1936. Of the original population of 621 women, 474 (76%) participated in all three studies. In a subsample (n = 336) consisting of women who assessed themselves as having experienced the change of life, the majority did not report loss of health, youth, or sexuality in relation to the climacterium. Social, cultural, and psychological factors unrelated to hormonal changes were of significant importance for the quality of health and sexuality during this period. PMID:1989954

Køster, A

1991-01-01

150

[Body density assessment utilizing skinfold thickness and age in Japanese women].  

PubMed

A study was conducted to investigate the validity of skinfold-based prediction equations for body density (g/ml) by Nagamine and Suzuki (1964), and to formulate more convenient and more useful equations for predicting body density from skinfold and age in women. Subjects of the study were 512 healthy women aged 18-66 years in or near Nagasaki City. The dependent variable in the multiple regression equation, body density, was determined by hydrostatic weighing. Independent variables included eight skinfolds, the sum of two skinfolds (triceps, subscapular), the sum of three skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, and abdominal), age, and body surface area. Skinfolds were measured with an Eiken-model skinfold caliper. Age (mean 30.1, range 18-66 yrs.), weight (mean 52.6, range 38.0-83.3 kg), height (mean 157.0, range 142.0-172.0 cm), and body density, (mean 1.04125, range 0.98806-1.08650 g/ml) were also recorded. Percent body fat was calculated using the formula by Brozek et al. and ranged from 6.4% to 48.3%. Multiple correlation coefficients (MR) and standard error (SE) of 10 regression equations (A-J) for predicting body density in women were compared. The best-fitting and the most convenient prediction equation for body density was equation-E. The regression equation developed for predicting body density was: body density = 1.07931-0.00059 x sum of three skinfolds(mm)-0.00015 x age (MR = 0.77 and SE = 0.0089). The equation was cross-validated on a different sample of 46 women. The correlation coefficient between predicted and hydrostatically determined body density was 0.813 (p < 0.001). Equation-E (Tahara's equation) appears to be useful in body density analysis particularly when the subjects are Japanese women, aged 18-50 yrs, with percent body fat 17 to 34%. PMID:7718912

Tahara, Y; Yukawa, K; Tsunawake, N; Saeki, S; Nishiyama, K; Urata, H; Katsuno, K; Fukuyama, Y; Michimukou, R; Moji, K

1995-02-01

151

Equivocal and weakly positive hybrid capture 2 tests in women aged 50 and older.  

PubMed

The performance of the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test for human papilloma virus (HPV) detection depends on the prevalence of infection. However, the current HC2 manufacturer recommended interpretative algorithm is the same for all women. This test, which may be particularly useful in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women given the morphologic complexity of their Pap tests, could be affected by the overall lower prevalence of HPV infection in this age group. We investigated HC2 equivocal and weakly positive HPV tests in women 50 years and older and the detection of high-grade dysplasia (CIN2+) on their follow-up specimens. All HC2 test data from 1,067 consecutive specimens and 85 additional specimens from women ? 50-years-old with equivocal and weakly positive HC2 were analyzed. Follow-up specimens from women with HC2 tests within these ranges were reviewed. No CIN2+ was found on follow-up of 49 cases of women ? 50 with equivocal or weakly positive HC2 results. The current HC2 algorithm resulted in "positive" reports in 63% of specimens with initial equivocal HC2 due to retests mostly within the equivocal range. These results suggest that women 50 years and older may benefit from higher HC2 thresholds. The test could also be reported as HC2 values (RLU/CO) to be interpreted in view of risk factors. PMID:21557535

de Vries, Christiaan Erik; Shen, Rulong; Stephens, Julie; Suarez, Adrian A

2012-08-01

152

Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.  

PubMed

The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. PMID:1739168

Minkowski, W L

1992-02-01

153

Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40-45 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40–45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years.

Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

2013-01-01

154

Decision making and counseling around mammography screening for women aged 80 or older  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite uncertain benefit, many women over age 80 (oldest-old) receive screening mammography.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To explore decision-making and physician counseling of oldest-old women around mammography screening.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Qualitative research using in-depth semi-structured interviews.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three women aged 80 or older who received care at a large academic primary care practice (13 had undergone mammography\\u000a screening in the past 2 years)

Mara A. Schonberg; Radhika A. Ramanan; Ellen P. McCarthy; Edward R. Marcantonio

2006-01-01

155

Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the tapajós river basin, Amazon.  

PubMed

Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 ?g/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ?10 ?g/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (?10 ?g/g) in 2012. PMID:24789525

de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Erika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

2014-07-01

156

Favourable prognostic factors of subsequent screen-detected breast cancers among women aged 50-69.  

PubMed

Most studies reporting more favourable biological features of screen-detected breast cancers compared with symptomatic or interval cancers include initial or prevalent screens and therefore may not indicate the real benefit of screening on breast cancer mortality. We conducted case-case comparisons within a cohort of eligible women (N=771 715) who were aged 50-69 between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2003. A randomly selected sample of breast cancers (N=1848) diagnosed among these women were compared by detection method. Tumour characteristics of interval cancers (N=362) diagnosed after 6-24 months of a negative screen or symptomatic breast cancers (N=491) were compared with subsequent screen-detected breast cancers diagnosed within 6 months of a positive screen (N=995) using polytomous logistic regression. Tumours were evaluated for clinical presentation, histology and expression of hormone receptors. Women with symptomatic detected [odds ratio (OR)=7.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)=5.38-10.38] and interval cancers (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.56-3.10) were more often diagnosed at stage III-IV versus I than women with rescreen-detected cancers. After adjusting for tumour size, women with symptomatic cancers had tumours of higher grade (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.05-2.15) and mitotic score (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.15-2.49) and women with interval cancers had tumours of higher mitotic score (OR=1.52, 95% CI=1.01-2.28) compared with women diagnosed at screening. Subsequent screen-detected cancers are not only detected at an earlier stage but are also less aggressive, leading to a better prognosis. As long-term mortality reduction for breast screening may depend on subsequent screens, our study indicates that mammography screening can be effective in women aged 50-69. PMID:22273849

Chiarelli, Anna M; Edwards, Sarah A; Sheppard, Amanda J; Mirea, Lucia; Chong, Nelson; Paszat, Lawrence; Shumak, Rene S; O?malley, Frances P

2012-11-01

157

Relationships Among Career Orientation, Employment Status, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction of Women: An Analysis of Age Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1977 the Center for Continuing Education of Women (CEW) at the University of Michigan initiated a study of the lives of women who had gone to CEW during 1964-73. Effects of the transition from the traditional wife-mother-homemaker role to employment were examined among women of different ages and points of the life cycle, with particular…

Manis, Jean Denby

158

Clinical management of women with metastatic breast cancer: a descriptive study according to age group  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The primary aim of treatment of a patient who has developed metastatic disease is palliation. The objectives of the current study are to describe and quantify the clinical management of women with metastatic breast cancer from the diagnosis of metastatic disease until death and to analyze differences between age groups. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical files of

Klaartje Manders; Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse; Geert-Jan Creemers; Gerard Vreugdenhil; Maurice JC van der Sangen; Grard AP Nieuwenhuijzen; Rudi MH Roumen; Adri C Voogd

2006-01-01

159

Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.  

PubMed

Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

2014-06-15

160

Screening women aged less than 50 years with a family history of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family history is an important breast cancer risk factor and is a common reason for referral to specialist breast clinics for consideration of breast screening. The aims of this study were to determine cancer detection rates and prognostic features of breast cancers identified in women aged less than 50 years at increased risk of breast cancer who attend a Family

J Kollias; D. M Sibbering; R. W Blamey; P. A. M Holland; Z Obuszko; A. R. M Wilson; A. J Evans; I. O Ellis; C. W Elston

1998-01-01

161

The Relationship of Impulse Control to Cognitive and Adjustment Among Institutionalized Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several dimensions of impulse control (i.e., delay of gratification, reflectivity, and motor control) were related to intelligence, mental status, and adjustment among 91 institutionalized aged women. The findings suggest that impulse control in its various forms has a consistent and significant relationship with indices of adaptation. (Author)

Kahana, Boaz; Kahana, Eva

1975-01-01

162

Nontraditional-Aged Women and the Dissertation: A Case Study Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case-study methodology was used to investigate factors that promote or inhibit the completion of the doctoral dissertation among nontraditional-aged women students (five students with all requirements but the dissertation and six doctoral graduates) in education or science. The study's conceptual framework, methods, population, and results are…

Lenz, Kathryn S.

1997-01-01

163

In-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in women aged 40 years and over.  

PubMed

The decline of fertility with age and its possible causes are discussed; in particular the effect of ageing of oocytes and the uterus, and the effect of the ageing processes on the results of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer in women aged > or =40 years. The role of prestimulation testing in older women is considered together with the importance of screening and counselling these patients about the likelihood of achieving a live birth. The potential problems that they may face should they become pregnant are reviewed, together with the role of oocyte donation as an alternative treatment for patients with reduced ovarian reserve. Possible ways of improving the chances of achieving a live birth in older women using their own oocytes are reviewed, including the use of more effective stimulation protocols, assisted embryo hatching and co-culture and high order embryo transfer. The outcome of pregnancies in older women and some of the ethical problems relating to their treatment are also discussed. PMID:9111181

Marcus, S F; Brinsden, P R

1996-01-01

164

Older and Aging Cape Verdean Women: Sense of Self, Health, and Customs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For older women of color with immigrant status migration to the United States means facing different and sometimes difficult circumstances, language differences, resettlement, learning new and different ways of relating, and other transnational issues. Their life circumstances are further compound by the aging process, which is influenced by when and where they were born, life experiences, losses and gains, and

Anna Martin-Jearld

2006-01-01

165

Nutrition and Depression: Implications for Improving Mental Health Among Childbearing-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate nutrition is needed for countless aspects of brain functioning. Poor diet quality, ubiquitous in the United States, may be a modifiable risk factor for depression. The objective was to review and synthesize the current knowledge of the role of nutrition in depression, and address implications for childbearing-aged women. Poor omega-3 fatty acid status increases the risk of depression. Fish

Lisa M. Bodnar; Katherine L. Wisner

2005-01-01

166

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20-65 Years of Age (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our ?ndings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145–150;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707

Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

2013-01-01

167

Differential expression of cathepsins K, S and V between young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis.  

PubMed

Cutaneous aging translates drastic structural and functional alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Multiple mechanisms are involved, including changes in protease levels. We investigated the age-related protein expression and activity of cysteine cathepsins and the expression of two endogenous protein inhibitors in young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that the expression of cathepsins K, S and V, as well as cystatins A and M/E within keratinocytes is reduced in photoprotected skin of aged women. Furthermore, the overall endopeptidase activity of cysteine cathepsins in epidermis lysates decreased with age. Albeit dermal elastic fiber and laminin expression is reduced in aged skin, staining of nidogen-1, a key protein in BM assembly that is sensitive to proteolysis by cysteine, metallo- and serine proteases, has a similar pattern in both young and aged skin. Since cathepsins contribute to the hydrolysis and turnover of ECM/basement membrane components, the abnormal protein degradation and deposition during aging process may be related in part to a decline of lysosomal/endosomal cathepsin K, S and V activity. PMID:23871919

Sage, Juliette; De Quéral, Delphine; Leblanc-Noblesse, Emmanuelle; Kurfurst, Robin; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Nizard, Carine; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lecaille, Fabien

2014-01-01

168

Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Methods Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Results Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR?=?11.53, p?=?0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR?=?12.00, p?=?0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR?=?3.19, p?=?0.010). Conclusions Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women.

2014-01-01

169

Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

1994-01-01

170

Duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Longer intervals between consecutive births decrease the number of children a woman can have. This results in beneficial effects on population size and on the health status of mothers and children. Therefore, understanding the practice of birth interval and its determinants is helpful to design evidence based strategies for interventions. The objective of this study was to determine duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Lemo district, southern Ethiopia in March 2010. Methods A community based cross sectional study design with stratified multistage sampling technique was employed. A sample of 844 women of child bearing age were selected by using simple random sampling technique after complete census was conducted in selected kebeles prior to data collection. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Actual birth interval was measured with the respondents' memory since majority of the women or their children in the area had no birth certificate. Results Majority (57%) of women were practicing short birth interval length with the median birth interval length of 33 months. Actual birth interval length is significantly shorter than preferred birth interval length. Birth interval showed significant variation by contraceptive use, residence, wealth index, breast feeding and occupation of husbands. Conclusion low proportion of optimal birth spacing practices with short actual birth interval length and longer preferred birth interval lengths were evident among the study subjects. Hence interventions to enhance contraceptive utilization behaviors among women in Lemo district would be helpful to narrow the gap between optimal and actual birth spacing.

2011-01-01

171

[History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].  

PubMed

This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology. PMID:23350338

Cruz y Hermida, Julio

2011-01-01

172

Body weight and colorectal cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish women: relation varies by age and cancer site  

PubMed Central

The relation between relative body weight and colorectal cancer among women is unclear. In a large prospective cohort study, we found a positive association only for distal cancers among younger women that became attenuated at older ages. These results support previous reports in which results were stratified by age or colorectal cancer site. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

P; Giovannucci, E; Bergkvist, L; Holmberg, L; Wolk, A

2001-01-01

173

Prognosis for surgically treated gastric cancer patients is poorer for women than men in all patients under age 50  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1965 to 1983, 1031 patients (689 men and 342 women) with advanced gastric cancer underwent gastric resection in our department. A retrospective study was done with special reference to the sex of the patients. The age, tumour size and location, Borrmann type, and histology were considered as the sex-related associations. The survival rate of women under age 50 years

Y Maehara; A Watanabe; Y Kakeji; Y Emi; S Moriguchi; H Anai; K Sugimachi

1992-01-01

174

INFLUENCE OF AGE AND SPINAL CURVATURE ON MUSCLE STRENGTH AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN ELDERLY WOMEN Å  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal curvature caused by osteoporosis is believed to be common among elderly women. In the present study we analyzed spinal curvature as an indicator of age?related change and determined the effect of age and spinal curvature on muscle strength and quality of life among 68 elderly women in order to provide the basic data for understanding the physical psychological and

Nobuko AIDA; Toshiko MIZUNO; Momoe KONAGAYA

175

Association of age, race, and obstetric history with urinary symptoms among women in the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to better understand associations among age, race, obstetric history, and urinary incontinence in women.STUDY DESIGN: Race and obstetric history were assessed through the use of biennial mailed questionnaires from 1976 to 1996 among participants of the Nurses' Health Study. In 1996, 83,168 women aged 50 to 75 years reported their frequency of leaking

Francine Grodstein; Ruth Fretts; Karen Lifford; Neil Resnick; Gary Curhan

2003-01-01

176

Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease Is Independently Associated With Impaired Lower Extremity Functioning The Women's Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We report the implications of asymptomatic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) for lower extremity functioning among participants in the Women's Health and Aging Study, an observational study of disabled women $65 years of age living in and around Baltimore. Methods and Results—The ankle brachial index (ABI) and measures of upper and lower extremity functioning were measured among study participants.

Mary McGrae McDermott; Linda Fried; Eleanor Simonsick; Shari Ling; Jack M. Guralnik

2010-01-01

177

Rationale for annual screening mammography for women ages 40-49 years.  

PubMed

Proof of the benefit for mammographic screening of women ages 40-49 years is now available. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Gothenburg and Malmo, Sweden have shown statistically significant breast cancer mortality reductions of 36% and 45% respectively. A meta-analysis of all five Swedish trials has found a statistically significant mortality reduction of 29% for woman in this age group. Substantially greater reductions in mortality would likely have resulted if women in these trials had been screened annually. Because the benefits are substantial, and the risks from screening are relatively small and acceptable, screening mammography beginning at age 40 is now recommended by the American Cancer Society, as well as the National Cancer Institute. PMID:15687560

Feig, S A; Kopans, D B; Sickles, E A; Jackson, V P; Monsees, B

1998-08-01

178

Who gets a mammogram amongst European women aged 50-69 years?  

PubMed Central

On the basis of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE), we analyse the determinants of who engages in mammography screening focusing on European women aged 50-69 years. A special emphasis is put on the measurement error of subjective life expectancy and on the measurement and impact of physician quality. Our main findings are that physician quality, better education, having a partner, younger age and better health are associated with higher rates of receipt. The impact of subjective life expectancy on screening decision substantially increases after taking measurement error into account. JEL Classification C 36, I 11, I 18

2012-01-01

179

Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women  

PubMed Central

Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed.

Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

2011-01-01

180

Sources of Food Affect Dietary Adequacy of Inuit Women of Childbearing Age in Arctic Canada  

PubMed Central

Dietary transition in the Arctic is associated with decreased quality of diet, which is of particular concern for women of childbearing age due to the potential impact of maternal nutrition status on the next generation. The study assessed dietary intake and adequacy among Inuit women of childbearing age living in three communities in Nunavut, Canada. A culturally-appropriate quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 106 Inuit women aged 19-44 years. Sources of key foods, energy and nutrient intakes were determined; dietary adequacy was determined by comparing nutrient intakes with recommendations. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was >70%, and many consumed inadequate dietary fibre, folate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A, D, E, and K. Non-nutrient-dense foods were primary sources of fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes and contributed >30% of energy. Traditional foods accounted for 21% of energy and >50% of protein and iron intakes. Strategies to improve weight status and nutrient intake are needed among Inuit women in this important life stage.

Schaefer, Sara E.; Erber, Eva; Trzaskos, Janel P.; Roache, Cindy; Osborne, Geraldine

2011-01-01

181

6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging  

PubMed Central

Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy.

Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

2009-01-01

182

Does women's age influence zona pellucida birefringence of metaphase ?? oocytes in in-vitro maturation program?  

PubMed Central

Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) is a promising treatment option for certain infertile women. Nowadays, with the aid of PolScope, it has become possible to evaluate zona pellucida (ZP) characteristics as a parameter of oocyte quality. Moreover, quality of oocytes can be influenced by many factors, such as patient’s age. The PolScope system is a non-invasive technique to assess birefringent structures such as the meiotic spindle and ZP in living oocytes. Objective: The aim was to determine the influence of the woman's age on ZP birefringence, a sign of oocyte quality, and morphology of in-vitro matured human oocytes using non-invasive polarized light (PolScope) microscopy. Materials and Methods: ZP birefringence and morphology were determined in 105 retrieved oocytes from 58 women undergoing ICSI in two age groups (?30 years and <30 years). The immature oocytes were selected and after IVM, the quality of metaphase ?? (MII) oocytes was assessed. The oocytes abnormalities were classified as intracytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic abnormalities. Results: Oocyte maturation rates were significantly reduced in ?30 year’s women (56%) in comparison with other age group (80.7%). In addition, the ZP birefringence was significantly higher in MII oocytes in the younger group compared with the older group (76.2% vs. 38.1%; p=0.00). Following morphologic assessment, the rates of oocytes with extracytoplasmic (p=0.02) and both abnormalities (extra- and intracytoplasmic) (p=0.01) were higher in aged versus the younger women. Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between advanced maternal age with decreased ZP birefringence and oocyte morphological quality in in-vitro matured human oocytes.

Omidi, Marjan; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Nahangi, Hossein; Ashourzadeh, Sareh; Rahimipour, Marzieh

2013-01-01

183

HIV infection among internally displaced women and women residing in river populations along the Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

We conducted a reproductive health assessment among women aged 15-49 years residing in an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp and surrounding river populations in the Democratic Republic of Congo. After providing informed consent, participants were administered a behavioral questionnaire on demographics, sexual risk, reproductive health behavior, and a history of gender based violence. Participants provided a blood specimen for HIV and syphilis testing and were referred to HIV counseling and testing services established for this study to learn their HIV status. HIV prevalence was significantly higher among women in the IDP population compared to women in the river population. Sexually transmitted infection symptoms in the past 12 months and a history of sexual violence during the conflict were associated with HIV infection the river and IDP population, respectively. Targeted prevention, care, and treatment services are urgently needed for the IDP population and surrounding host communities during displacement and resettlement. PMID:19319674

Kim, Andrea A; Malele, Faustin; Kaiser, Reinhard; Mama, Nicaise; Kinkela, Timothée; Mantshumba, Jean-Caurent; Hynes, Michelle; De Jesus, Stacy; Musema, Godefoid; Kayembe, Patrick K; Hawkins Reed, Karen; Diaz, Theresa

2009-10-01

184

Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed. PMID:18458007

Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

2008-06-01

185

An evolutionary model of stature, age at first birth and reproductive success in Gambian women.  

PubMed Central

We have built a model to predict optimal age at first birth for women in a natural fertility population. The only existing fully evolutionary model, based on Ache hunter-gatherers, argues that as women gain weight, their fertility (rate of giving birth) increases-thus age at first birth represents a trade-off between time allocated to weight gain and greater fertility when mature. We identify the life-history implications of female age at first birth in a Gambian population, using uniquely detailed longitudinal data collected from 1950 to date. We use height rather than weight as an indicator of growth as it is more strongly correlated with age at first birth. Stature does not greatly influence fertility in this population but has a significant effect on offspring mortality. We model age at first reproduction as a trade-off between the time spent growing and reduced infant mortality after maturation. Parameters derived from this population are fitted to show that the predicted optimal mean age of first birth, which maximizes reproductive success, is 18 years, very close to that observed. The reaction norm associated with variation in growth rate during childhood also satisfactorily predicts the variation in age at first birth.

Allal, N.; Sear, R.; Prentice, A. M.; Mace, R.

2004-01-01

186

Letter in response: breast cancer screening of women aged 70-74 years.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to critically appraise the claim by Nickson et al. [1] that they have evidence supporting the Australian Government's recent decision to extend the national free invitation for biennial mammography program (BreastScreen) to women aged 70-74 years. Since their claim was made on the basis of a significant difference in the incidence of larger primary breast cancers between women in this age group who are already participating in BreastScreen versus those who are not, an analysis of the stage at diagnosis of breast cancer in the USA versus mammographic screening over 30 years, evidence from breast cancer adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy (adjuvant therapy) trials and data from an evaluation of BreastScreen and adjuvant therapy use in Australia were examined. By 1999, most Australian women aged 40-79 years were receiving adjuvant therapy that could cure breast cancer no matter what the size of the primary cancer. Further, the incidence primary breast cancers of all sizes had doubled in the USA during 30 years of mammographic screening, but the incidence of more advanced breast cancers had almost remained constant, indicating that adjuvant therapy, not mammographic screening, was the main cause of the 28 % reduction in breast cancer mortality that had been observed. In conclusion, the claim by Nickson et al. is not supported by available evidence. Further, BreastScreen should not have been extended to these older women before the UK trial, which is testing the efficacy of mammographic screening of women aged 70-74 years [8], had reported its results. PMID:24756185

Burton, Robert

2014-06-01

187

Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity  

SciTech Connect

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2010-07-15

188

Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity.  

PubMed

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

Mijal, Renée S; Holzman, Claudia B

2010-07-01

189

A prospective study of age differences in consequences of emotional control in women referred to clinical mammography.  

PubMed

Age differences in emotional control and their consequences were examined in women referred to mammography on the suspicion of breast cancer but with benign results of the examination. Under natural experimental conditions, the levels of emotional control and distress were measured 1 week prior to the examination as well as 4 and 12 weeks after the examination in 717 younger women (ages 19-39), middle-aged women (ages 40-59), and older women (ages 60-85). A higher level of emotional control was found in the older women; this indicates that, in these birth cohorts, emotion-focused coping is more prevalent in old age than in young adulthood, even when similar stressors are experienced. The analyses revealed an interaction between age and emotional control; higher levels of control were related to a reduction in distress during the course of the study in older women, whereas emotional control was unrelated to changes in distress in younger and middle-aged women. The findings support the life span theory of control, which suggests that secondary control strategies are more adaptive in old age. PMID:19485654

Mehlsen, Mimi; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Christensen, Søren; Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Lassesen, Berit; Zachariae, Robert

2009-06-01

190

Immune Activation in HIV-Infected Aging Women on Antiretrovirals--Implications for Age-Associated Comorbidities: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent immune activation and microbial translocation associated with HIV infection likely place HIV-infected aging women at high risk of developing chronic age-related diseases. We investigated immune activation and microbial translocation in HIV-infected aging women in the post-menopausal ages. Methods Twenty-seven post-menopausal women with HIV infection receiving antiretroviral treatment with documented viral suppression and 15 HIV-negative age-matched controls were enrolled. Levels of immune activation markers (T cell immune phenotype, sCD25, sCD14, sCD163), microbial translocation (LPS) and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and impaired cognitive function (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and CXCL10) were evaluated. Results T cell activation and exhaustion, monocyte/macrophage activation, and microbial translocation were significantly higher in HIV-infected women when compared to uninfected controls. Microbial translocation correlated with T cell and monocyte/macrophage activation. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and impaired cognition were elevated in women with HIV infection and correlated with immune activation. Conclusions HIV-infected antiretroviral-treated aging women who achieved viral suppression are in a generalized status of immune activation and therefore are at an increased risk of age-associated end-organ diseases compared to uninfected age-matched controls.

Pallikkuth, Suresh; Roach, Margaret; Freguja, Riccardo; Negra, Marina Della; Bolivar, Hector; Fischl, Margaret A.; Pahwa, Savita

2013-01-01

191

Mortality from sexually transmitted diseases in reproductive-aged women: United States, 1999-2010.  

PubMed

Objectives. I estimated the sexually transmitted disease-related mortality among US reproductive-aged women from 1999 to 2010. Methods. I estimated mortality from National Center for Health Statistics' Multiple Cause of Death data. I defined reproductive age as 15 to 44 years. For diseases partially caused by sexual transmission, I estimated the proportion attributable to sexual transmission from the literature. To calculate mortality rates, I estimated number of deaths from each disease and Census Bureau population for reproductive-aged women for 1999 to 2010. Results. From 1999 to 2010, the cumulative sexually transmitted disease-related mortality rate decreased by 49%, from 5.3 to 2.7 deaths per 100?000. The primary contributors were HIV and human papilloma virus infections. Mortality from sexually transmitted HIV infection decreased by 62%, from 3.4 to 1.3 deaths per 100?000. Mortality from human papilloma virus-associated gynecologic cancers decreased by 19%, from 1.6 deaths per 100?000 in 1999 to 1.3 deaths per 100?000 in 2010. Conclusions. Screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases may reduce mortality. Research is needed to determine whether sexually transmitted disease-related morbidity among reproductive-aged women has decreased over the past decade. PMID:24922169

McElligott, Kara A

2014-08-01

192

Prevalence of insomnia and its relationship to menopausal status in middle-aged Korean women.  

PubMed

Although the prevalence of insomnia and the association of insomnia with menopause have been well reported, not much work has been conducted in population-based research on insomnia and menopause in Korea. The purpose of the present report was to determine overall and different prevalence of insomnia by menopausal status, and the relationship between insomnia and menopause in a population-based sample of middle-aged Korean women. A total of 96.1% of 2497 randomly selected middle-aged Korean women participated. Insomnia was defined as occurring three times a week or more in the previous month. Subjects were categorized into three groups: premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause. The overall prevalence of insomnia in middle-aged Korean women was 14.3%. The most common symptom of insomnia was difficulty maintaining sleep (9.7%), followed by difficulty initiating sleep (7.9%), and early morning awakening (7.5%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that menopause was independently associated with insomnia after adjusting for confounding factors such as age, income, and depression. Perimenopause was significantly associated with a dramatic increase in the risk of insomnia, but there was no significant association for postmenopause. The major finding is that insomnia is significantly associated with the menopausal transition. The prevalence of insomnia increases significantly by the transition from premenopause to perimenopause, but not to postmenopause. A further prospective study is needed to investigate the influence of menopause on insomnia. PMID:16048444

Shin, Chol; Lee, Sangyeol; Lee, Taewook; Shin, Kyungrim; Yi, Hyeryeon; Kimm, Kuchan; Cho, Namhan

2005-08-01

193

Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation  

PubMed Central

Background The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Methods Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Results Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Conclusion Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident.

de Lima, Gustavo Glotz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Simao, Mariana Fernandez; Rios, Matheus N.; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

2013-01-01

194

Low Serum Selenium Is Associated with Anemia Among Older Women Living in the Community: The Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II  

PubMed Central

Anemia is common among older adults, and a substantial proportion of anemia in the older population is of indeterminate cause. Low selenium levels have been associated with anemia in animals, but this relationship has not been well characterized in humans. The objective was to determine whether low serum selenium concentrations are associated with anemia among older women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of participants in the Women’s Health and Aging Studies, a population-based sample of women living in the community in Baltimore, MD, USA. Of 632 women, aged 70–79 yr, 14.1% of women were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L). The prevalence of anemia among women in the lowest to highest quartile of serum selenium was 22.4%, 14.6%, 11.9% and 6.6%, respectively (p < 0.0001). An increase in loge selenium was associated with a reduced risk of anemia (odds ratio per 1 SD increase = 0.63, 95% confidence interval = 0.47–0.84), adjusting for age, education, chronic diseases, iron status, and serum interleukin-6. We conclude that low serum selenium is independently associated with anemia among older women living in the community.

Semba, Richard D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cappola, Anne R.; Ricks, Michelle O.; Ray, Amanda L.; Xue, Qian-Li; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fried, Linda P.

2009-01-01

195

Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 women of reproductive age. Data were collected using questionnaires on sociodemographic factors and perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2). The relationship between the dependent variable (perceived social support) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Results The mean score of social support was 134.3?±?17.9. Women scored highest in the “worth” dimension and lowest in the “social integration” dimension. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that the variables of education, spouse’s occupation, Sufficiency of income for expenses and primary support source were significantly related to the perceived social support. Conclusion Sociodemographic factors affect social support and could be considered in planning interventions to improve social support for Iranian women.

2012-01-01

196

Prevalence of Anemia and Correlated Factors in the Reproductive Age Women in Rural Areas of Tabas  

PubMed Central

Objective To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis. Results The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35) and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31) were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. Conclusion Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women) groups.

Sadeghian, Majid; Lesanpezeshki, Mohammad; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

2013-01-01

197

Benefit of screening mammography in women aged 40-49: a new meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of screening mammography have been conducted involving women aged 40-49 at entry. Current data are now available from these trials at 10.5 to 18 years of follow-up (average follow-up time: 12.7 years). Meta-analysis has been performed using a Mantel-Haenszel estimator method to combine current follow-up data from the eight RCTs of mammography that included women aged 40-49 at entry, including new follow-up data presented at the NIH Consensus Development Conference held January 21-23, 1997. Combining the most recent follow-up data on women aged 40-49 at entry into all eight RCTs yields a statistically significant 18% mortality reduction among women invited to screening mammography (relative risk: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.95). Combining all current follow-up data on women aged 40-49 at entry into the five Swedish RCTs yields a statistically significantly 29% mortality reduction among women invited to screening (relative risk: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.89). Meta-analysis including the most recent follow-up data from all eight RCTs involving women aged 40-49 at entry demonstrates for the first time a statistically significant mortality reduction due to regular screening mammography in women of this age group. PMID:9709282

Hendrick, R E; Smith, R A; Rutledge, J H; Smart, C R

1997-01-01

198

Functional brain asymmetry, handedness and age characteristics of climacterium in women.  

PubMed

A total of 1985 women aged between 55 and 65 were distributed into two groups (145 left-handers and 1840 right-handers). They were asked to complete a questionnaire on the appearance of menopause, duration of menopausal transition and age of menopause. In left-handed women a significantly earlier appearance of premenopause was established together with a shorter menopause transition and an earlier occurrence of menopause. These results give grounds for a correlation between handedness, functional brain asymmetry, respectively and the genetically determined fading away of ovary steroidogenesis associated with the appearance and progression of the climacterium. In light of the available literature we assume that progressive reduction in ovarian function during climacterium is coupled with possible specific functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, dependent on the type of hemispheric asymmetry. PMID:8828067

Nikolova, P; Negrev, N; Stoyanov, Z; Nikolova, R

1996-07-01

199

Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young\\u000a and middle-aged Chinese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health\\u000a checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and

Xin Ying; Zhen-ya Song; Chang-jun Zhao; Yan Jiang

2010-01-01

200

Changes in aerobic power of women, ages 20-64 yr  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak) of women. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 409 healthy women, ages 20-64 yr. The 43 women of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 3.7 (+/-2.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill test. The zero-order correlation of -0.742 between VO2peak and %fat was significantly (P < 0.05) higher then the SR-PA (r = 0.626) and age correlations (r = -0.633). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.537 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.851) showed that adding %fat and SR-PA and their interaction to the regression model reduced the age regression weight of -0.537, to -0.265 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results. These findings are consistent with men's data from the same lab showing that about 50% of the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak was due to %fat and SR-PA.

Jackson, A. S.; Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Beard, E. F.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

1996-01-01

201

Trajectories of positive aging: observations from the women's health initiative study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the longitudinal trajectories and bidirectional relationships of the physical-social and emotional functioning (EF) dimensions of positive aging and to identify their baseline characteristics. Methods: Women age 65 and older who enrolled in one or more Women's Health Initiative clinical trials (WHI CTs) and who had positive aging indicators measured at baseline and years 1, 3, 6, and 9 were included in these analyses (N = 2281). Analytic strategies included latent class growth modeling to identify longitudinal trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to examine the effects of baseline predictors on these trajectories. Results: A five-trajectory model was chosen to best represent the data. For Physical-Social Functioning (PSF), trajectory groups included Low Maintainer (8.3%), Mid-Low Improver (10.4%), Medium Decliner (10.7%), Mid-High Maintainer (31.2%), and High Maintainer (39.4%); for EF, trajectories included Low Maintainer (3%), Mid-Low Improver (9%), Medium Decliner (7.7%), Mid-High Maintainer (22.8%), and High Maintainer (57.5%). Cross-classification of the groups of trajectories demonstrated that the impact of a high and stable EF on PSF might be greater than the reverse. Low depression symptoms, low pain, and high social support were the most consistent predictors of high EF trajectories. Conclusion: Aging women are heterogeneous in terms of positive aging indicators for up to 9 years of follow-up. Interventions aimed at promoting sustainable EF might have diffused effects on other domains of healthy aging. PMID:24739218

Zaslavsky, Oleg; Cochrane, Barbara B; Woods, Nancy Fugate; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Liu, Jingmin; Herting, Jerald R; Goveas, Joseph S; Johnson, Karen C; Kuller, Lewis H; Martin, Lisa W; Michael, Yvonne L; Robinson, Jennifer G; Stefanick, Marcia; Tinker, Lesley F

2014-08-01

202

Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in European women aged over 80 years.  

PubMed

Inadequate vitamin D status is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover and bone loss, which in turn increases fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status in European women aged over 80 years. Assessments of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) were performed on 8532 European women with osteoporosis or osteopenia of which 1984 were aged over 80 years. European countries included in the study were: France, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany. Two cut-offs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed: <75nmol/L (30ng/ml) and <50nmol/L (20ng/ml). Mean (SD) age of the patients was 83.4 (2.9) years, body mass index was 25.0 (4.0)kg/m(2) and level of 25(OH)D was 53.3 (26.7)nmol/L (21.4 [10.7]ng/ml). There was a highly significant difference of 25(OH)D level across European countries (p<0.0001). In these women aged over 80 years, the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 80.9% and 44.5% when considering cut-offs of 75 and 50nmol/L, respectively. In the 397 (20.0%) patients taking supplemental vitamin D with or without supplemental calcium, the mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher than in the other patients (65.2 (29.2)nmol/L vs. 50.3 (25.2)nmol/L; P<0.001). This study indicates a high prevalence of vitamin D (25(OH)D) inadequacy in old European women. The prevalence could be even higher in some particular countries. PMID:24784761

Bruyère, Olivier; Slomian, Justine; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Cavalier, Etienne; Gillain, Sophie; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves

2014-01-01

203

Waist Circumference, BMI, Smoking, and Mortality in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Measurement of waist circumference alone as a proxy of abdominal fat mass has been suggested as a simple clinical alternative to BMI for detecting adults with possible health risks due to obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: From 1993 to 1997, 27,178 men and 29,875 women, born in Denmark, 50 to 64 years of age, were recruited in the Danish prospective

Janne Bigaard; Anne Tjønneland; Birthe Lykke Thomsen; Kim Overvad; Berit Lilienthal Heitmann; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen

2003-01-01

204

Screening mammography in women aged 40-49: Is it time to change?  

PubMed Central

There is little doubt that significant benefits can accrue from carrying out screening mammography of women aged 40–49 in the setting of a highly quality assured service delivery. This will best be achieved using digital mammography to maximise detection rates and trained and high volume reading expert radiologists to apply economic cushions of optimising specificity as well as sensitivity in addition to utilising modern and accurate assessment and tissue sampling techniques that have evolved.

Helme, S; Perry, N; Mokbel, K

2006-01-01

205

Care of HIV-positive women aged 50 and over - can we do better?  

PubMed

A sample of 123 HIV-positive women aged 50 years and over showed high rates of late diagnosis with CD4 count <350 (71%), significant co-morbidities (90%), high rates of premature menopause (6.8%) and early menopause (6.8%) and cervical cytological abnormalities (47%). Specific interventions to improve care in this group should include yearly cervical cytology, early counselling with regard to reproductive options, menopause management and screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). PMID:24047886

Samuel, M I; Welch, J; Tenant-Flowers, M; Poulton, M; Campbell, L; Taylor, C

2014-03-01

206

Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers.

Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

2013-01-01

207

Longitudinal Predictors of Attitudes toward Aging among Women with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to explore the impact of change in functional limitation (FL), controlling for social support (SS), on attitudes toward aging using longitudinal survey data collected over a 7-year period. The 503 women with MS (age, M=57 years, SD= 10.25) were mostly Anglo (93%) and married (69%). First, growth models were specified to identify a suitable model for change in FL. A quadratic growth model best described change. Next, SS was considered a time-varying covariate of FL to assess both within- and between-individual effects of SS on FL over time. Within individuals, higher FL levels were associated with lower SS levels. Between individuals, level of but not change in FL was associated with average SS level. Finally, average SS and response level and change in FL were studied as predictors of attitudes toward aging, accounting for 38% of the variance. Women with higher FL and lower SS scores had more negative views of aging. Negative views of aging may have long-term consequences for health outcomes as well as the quality of their later years.

Harrison, Tracie; Blozis, Shelley; Stuifbergen, Alexa

2009-01-01

208

Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of childbearing age of Isfahan, Iran: A population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background: We conducted an epidemiological survey on seroprevalence of toxoplasma infection in women of childbearing age in Isfahan Province. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 2010, 217 women in the age range of 10–50 years were randomly selected. The blood samples examined for the presence of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody by a commercial ELISA kit (Dia-Pro, Milan, Italy). Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were employed to examine the antibody status in different age, marriage, education, and residence groups. Results: The overall prevalence was 47.5% (103/217). The peak age of infection acquisition was in the range 30–40 years in rural areas and 20–30 years in urban districts. There was no significant association between residence, education, and marriage groups on the one hand and chance of T. gondii infection on the other hand. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest a moderate prevalence of T. gondii infection, but a high prevalence in ages of high reproductive activities.

Mostafavi, Nasser; Ataei, Behrooz; Nokhodian, Zari; Monfared, Leila J; Yaran, Majid; Ataie, Mehdi; Babak, Anahita

2012-01-01

209

Low serum carotenoids and development of severe walking disability among older women living in the community: the Women's Health and Aging Study I  

PubMed Central

Objective to determine whether low serum carotenoid levels, an indicator of low intake of fruits and vegetables, are associated with the progression of disability in older women. Design longitudinal analysis in a population-based cohort. Setting moderately–severely disabled women, ?65 years, living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland (the Women’s Health and Aging Study I). Participants 554 women without severe walking disability (inability to walk or walking speed <0.4 m/s) at baseline. Main outcome measure incidence of severe walking disability assessed every 6 months over 3 years. Results 155 women (27.9%) developed severe walking disability during follow-up. Rates of development of severe walking disability per 100 person-years among women in the lowest and in the three upper quartiles of total carotenoids were, respectively, 13.8 versus 10.9 (P = 0.0017). Adjusting for confounders, women in the lowest quartile of total carotenoids were more likely to develop severe walking disability (hazards ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.24–2.00, P = 0.0002) compared with women in the three upper quartiles. Conclusion low serum carotenoid levels, an indicator of low intake of fruits and vegetables, are independent predictors of the progression towards severe walking disability among older women living in the community.

Semba, Richard D.; Varadhan, Ravi; Bartali, Benedetta; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ricks, Michelle O.; Blaum, Caroline; Fried, Linda P.

2009-01-01

210

Factors related to induced abortion among young women in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest death rate from induced abortion in the world, and young women in southern Nigeria are particularly likely to terminate their pregnancies. This study assesses the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among 602 young women aged 15-24 who were surveyed in Edo State, Nigeria, in 2002. We find that 41 percent of all pregnancies reported by the young women surveyed were terminated, and we estimate the age-specific abortion rate for 15-19-year-olds in Edo State at 49 abortions per 1,000 women, which is slightly higher than previous local estimates and nearly double the countrywide estimate for women aged 15-49. We construct explanatory multivariate models to predict the likelihood that a young woman has experienced sexual intercourse, has become pregnant, and has undergone an induced abortion, controlling for important demographic and risk-behavior factors. Young women unmarried at the time of the interview are found to be significantly more likely than married women to have had an abortion. Young women who have experienced transactional or forced sex are also significantly more likely to report ever having had an abortion, as are young women who have experienced more than one pregnancy. We conclude with suggestions for modifying the content and target populations of behavioral change messages and programs in the area. PMID:17209283

Murray, Nancy; Winfrey, William; Chatterji, Minki; Moreland, Scott; Dougherty, Leanne; Okonofua, Friday

2006-12-01

211

Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80)?g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12?g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17)?fL, 26.37 (±6.21)?pg, 32.36 (±4.91)?g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia.

AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

2013-01-01

212

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study.

Samieri, Cecilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

2013-01-01

213

Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal femur are the most devastating outcome of osteoporosis. It is generally understood that age-related changes in hip structure confer increased risk, but there have been few explicit comparisons of such changes in healthy subjects to those with hip fracture. In this study, we used quantitative computed tomography and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to identify three-dimensional internal structural patterns of the proximal femur associated with age and with incident hip fracture. A population-based cohort of 349 women representing a broad age range (21-97years) was included in this study, along with a cohort of 222 older women (mean age 79±7years) with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture. Images were spatially normalized to a standardized space, and age- and fracture-specific morphometric features were identified based on statistical maps of shape features described as local changes of bone volume. Morphometric features were visualized as maps of local contractions and expansions, and significance was displayed as Student's t-test statistical maps. Significant age-related changes included local expansions of regions low in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and local contractions of regions high in vBMD. Some significant fracture-related features resembled an accentuated aging process, including local expansion of the superior aspect of the trabecular bone compartment in the femoral neck, with contraction of the adjoining cortical bone. However, other features were observed only in the comparison of hip fracture subjects with age-matched controls including focal contractions of the cortical bone at the superior aspect of the femoral neck, the lateral cortical bone just inferior to the greater trochanter, and the anterior intertrochanteric region. Results of this study support the idea that the spatial distribution of morphometric features is relevant to age-related changes in bone and independent to fracture risk. In women, the identification by TBM of fracture-specific morphometric alterations of the proximal femur, in conjunction with vBMD and clinical risk factors, may improve hip fracture prediction. PMID:23981658

Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L Joseph; Keyak, Joyce H; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B; Lang, Thomas F

2013-11-01

214

Ovarian Aging and Hormone Replacement Therapy: Hormonal Levels, Symptoms, and Attitudes of African-American and White Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To characterize reproductive hormone levels, symptoms, and attitudes related to menopause among healthy, menstruating\\u000a white and African-American women aged 44 to 49 years. DESIGN: Pilot study; cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Community-based\\u000a convenience sample of women in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three African-American and 35 white\\u000a women. MEASUREMENTS: The survey instrument collected demographic data, medical and reproductive history, health practices

Kim-Thu C. Pham; Jeane Ann Grisso; Ellen W. Freeman

1997-01-01

215

Influence of age on concentric isokinetic torque and passive extensibility variables of the calf muscles of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of age on concentric isokinetic torque (CIT) and passive extensibility (PE) variables of the calf muscles of healthy women. Ten younger women [31.9 (SD 6.1) years] and ten older women [71.1 (SD 6.6) years] were tested using a KIN-COM 500H dynamometer. The PE was tested by stretching the muscles from

Richard L. Gajdosik; Darl W. Vander Linden; Ann K. Williams

1996-01-01

216

Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Gain Among Reproductive Age Women with Migraine  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between migraine and pre-gravid obesity; and to assess the risk of adult weight gain among women with history of a pediatric diagnosis of migraine. Background Obesity, comorbid with pain disorders including migraine, shares common pathophysiological characteristics including systemic inflammation, and derangements in adipose-tissue derived cytokines. Despite biochemical and epidemiological commonalities, obesity-migraine associations have been inconsistently observed. Methods A cohort of 3,733 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained participants’ self-reported history of physician-diagnosed migraine and collected self-reported information about pre-gravid weight, adult height and net weight change from age 18 to the 3-monthsperiodpriorto pregnancy. Using pre-gravid body mass index, we categorized participants as follows: lean (<18.5 kg/m2); normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2); overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), obese (30–34.9 kg/m2), severely obese (35–39.9 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (? 40 kg/m2). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results After adjusting for confounders, relative to normal weight women, obese women had a 1.48-fold increased odds of migraine(OR=1.48; 95%CI 1.12–1.96). Severely obese (OR=2.07; 95%CI 1.27–3.39) and morbidly obese (OR=2.75; 95%CI 1.60–4.70) had the highest odds of migraines. Women with a history of diagnosed pediatric migraine had a 1.67-fold higher odds of gaining ?10.0 kg above their weight at age 18, as compared with non-migraineurs (OR=1.67; 95%CI 1.13–2.47). Conclusion These data support earlier observations of migraine-obesity association among women, and extend the literature to include evidence of adult weight gain among women with a history of pediatric migraine.

Vo, Michelle; Ainalem, Abinnet; Qiu, Chunfang; Peterlin, B. Lee; Aurora, Sheena K.; Williams, Michelle A.

2011-01-01

217

Occupational mortality of women aged 15-59 years at death in England and Wales.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to analyse occupational mortality differences among women using follow up data from a large nationally representative sample. DESIGN--Occupational information was obtained from the 1971 census records of women in the Longitudinal Study carried out by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) and related to their subsequent mortality in the period between the 1971 and 1981 censuses. SETTING--In the Longitudinal Study, census, vital statistics, and other OPCS records are linked for a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. The women studied in this paper were drawn from the 513,071 persons in the 1971 census who were included in the Longitudinal Study and whose entries were traced at the National Health Service Central Register by 1977. PARTICIPANTS--The analysis was based on 77,081 women aged 15-59 years in the Longitudinal Study for whom occupational information was collected in the 1971 census (99% of whom were in paid employment in the week before the census). There were 1553 deaths among these women in the follow up period analysed here. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Numbers of deaths in each occupational group at census were compared to those expected on the basis of age specific death rates among all women in the study. "Professional, technical workers, and artists" had significantly low mortality while "Engineering and allied trades workers nec" had significantly high mortality. Among the latter, cancer mortality of electrical production process workers was extremely high. A number of other cause specific associations (which appear to confirm proportionate Decennial Supplement analyses) were suggested by the data; examples include high levels of mortality from ischaemic heart disease among cooks, lung cancer and respiratory disease among charwomen and cleaners, and accidents, poisonings, and violence among several groups of professional and technical workers. CONCLUSIONS--By using prospective follow up from the census, occupational differences in mortality can be identified among women in paid employment. As follow up of this study continues, numbers of deaths available for analysis will increase, allowing increasingly comprehensive analyses to be undertaken.

Moser, K A; Goldblatt, P O

1991-01-01

218

The Prevalence of Using Iodine-Containing Supplements Is Low among Reproductive-Age Women, NHANES 1999-200612  

PubMed Central

During pregnancy, the iodine requirement rises to meet demands for neurological development and fetal growth. If these requirements are not met, irreversible pathological cognitive and behavioral changes to the fetus may ensue. This study estimated the prevalence of iodine-containing dietary supplement (DS) use and intakes of iodine from DSs among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–39 y) who were interviewed and examined in NHANES 1999–2006 (n = 6404). Although 77.5% of pregnant women reported taking one or more DSs in the past 30 d, only 22.3% consumed an iodine-containing supplement. Most pregnant women reported using one DS and reported taking this product daily. The vast majority of iodine-containing DSs reported by pregnant women claimed an iodine content of 150 ?g iodine/serving on the label. Pregnant women using at least one DS containing iodine had a mean daily iodine intake of 122 ?g/d from supplements; the median value was 144 ?g/d. Median urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant women in the population aged 15–39 y. The median UIC was 148 ?g/L for pregnant women and 133 ?g/L for nonpregnant women. The WHO has established a cutoff for insufficient iodine intake at <150 ?g/L for pregnant women and <100 mg/L for those who are not pregnant. This suggests that as a population, we may not be meeting adequate intakes of iodine for pregnant women. More research is needed on the iodine intakes of pregnant women and women of reproductive age on their total iodine intake from all sources, not just DSs.

Gahche, Jaime J.; Bailey, Regan L.; Mirel, Lisa B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

2013-01-01

219

Estimating 5-year risk of CIN3+ to guide the management of women aged 21-24  

PubMed Central

Objective Current US national guidelines recommend beginning screening at age 21 using Pap tests only, with cotesting starting at age 30. To inform the management of Pap test abnormalities among women aged 21–24, who have extremely low cancer risks, we compared risks of CIN3+ for women aged 21–24 versus 25–29 or 30–64. Methods We estimated 5-year risks of CIN3+ for Pap test results, with HPV triage of ASC-US, for 133,947 women aged 21–24, compared with 135,382 women age 25–29 and 965,360 women age 30–64, between 2003–2010 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Results There were 3 cancers diagnosed during follow-up in women aged 21–24. Following high-grade Pap results (0.6% of Pap results), 5-year CIN3+ risks for women aged 21–24 were comparable to those aged 25–29 and 30–64 (AGC: 6.9% vs. 14% vs. 8.5%, p=0.8; ASC-H: 16% vs. 24% vs. 18%, p=0.8; HSIL: 28% vs. 28% vs. 47%, p=0.4). Following LSIL, 5-year CIN3+ risk was lower for ages 21–24 (3.0%) than ages 25–29 (5.0%, p=0.01) or ages 30–64 (5.2%, p=0.0002). Although 5-year CIN3+ risk for HPV-negative/ASC-US was similar across all 3 groups (0.57% vs. 0.59% vs. 0.43%, p=1), risk for HPV-positive/ASC-US was lower for age 21–24 (4.4%) than 25–29 (7.1%, p<0.0001) or 30–64 (6.8%, p<0.0001). Conclusions Women aged 21–24 had almost zero cancer risk, and positive Pap test results predicted low CIN3+ risk except for the 0.6% of Pap results that were high-grade. The generally low risk supports conservative management of women aged 21–24.

Katki, Hormuzd A.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E.; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C.; Raine-Bennett, Tina; Gage, Julia C.; Kinney, Walter K.

2013-01-01

220

Isokinematic muscle mechanics in four groups of women of increasing age.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age on dynamic muscle attributes of the knee extensors and flexors in postmenopausal women. Young healthy women (3rd decade, n = 15; 4th decade, n = 5) and older healthy women (6th decade, n = 9; 7th decade, n = 6) were tested at six angular velocities from 60 degrees.s-1 to 400 degrees.s-1. The 3rd and 4th decade groups produced greater extensor and flexor values for strength related variables at all angular velocities (peak torque, angle specific torque, work, power) than both the 6th and 7th decade groups (P < 0.05). However, relative changes in these variables, with increments in angular velocity, were equivalent among the groups. Analysis of the flexor: extensor ratios for these variables demonstrated a differential loss in flexor function with increased age, perhaps indicative of type II motor unit loss or muscle fibre atrophy. It is suggested that such changes may be present even within 4th decade subjects. PMID:8472701

Stanley, S N; Taylor, N A

1993-01-01

221

Prevalence and Correlates of Recent and Repeat Mammography Among California Women Ages 55-79  

PubMed Central

Objective Data on repeat mammography rates are less available than for recent screening. Two large, population-based state surveys provide the opportunity to investigate repeat and recent mammography prevalence and correlates among California’s diverse population. Methods Data were from women aged 55–79, using the 2001 and 2005 California Health Interview Surveys. The study assessed the prevalence and correlates of recent mammography (within the past two years) and repeat mammography (mammogram within the past two years and 3–11 mammograms within the past 6 years). Results Prevalence was 82.4% (recent) and 73.8% (repeat) in 2001, and 87.1% (recent) and 77.5% (repeat) in 2005. Correlates of lower rates were insurance status, no usual source of care, being a smoker, age 65–79, being Asian with no English proficiency, being never married, and lower absolute risk for breast cancer. Especially low ratios of repeat-to-recent mammography existed for the uninsured, and those using the emergency room or with no source of care. Unexpected findings in which unadjusted results were inconsistent with multivariable adjusted results occurred for Latinas with no English proficiency and women at 200–299% of poverty level. Conclusions Several groups of women in California remain at-risk of lower mammography utilization. However, investigators should also be alert for instances where multivariable analyses seem particularly discrepant with crude rates.

Rakowski, William; Wyn, Roberta; Breen, Nancy; Meissner, Helen; Clark, Melissa A.

2010-01-01

222

The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.  

PubMed

Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

Dai, K

1991-03-01

223

Valproic acid use in psychiatry: issues in treating women of reproductive age.  

PubMed Central

Valproic acid, a well known anticonvulsant, is being used by psychiatrists increasingly to manage bipolar and other affective disorders. Because of the demographics of the population affected by such psychiatric conditions, more women of childbearing age are likely to be exposed to this teratogenic drug. Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common of the major anomalies associated with in utero valproic acid exposure, and are estimated to occur in 1% to 2% of exposed fetuses. Other teratogenic effects include facial dysmorphism, congenital cardiac defects, limb reduction defects and other skeletal anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis, in particular maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening and targeted ultrasonography, should be offered to all pregnant women exposed to valproic acid and couples need to be aware of the prenatal diagnostic options available to them. Periconceptual prophylaxis with high doses of folic acid is recommended for all women on valproic acid and counselling should also emphasize planning pregnancy to optimize folic acid supplementation. Psychiatrists should be aware of the teratogenic potential of valproic acid and know how to counsel their patients of reproductive age.

Kennedy, D; Koren, G

1998-01-01

224

USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711) In the United States, sampling women o...

225

Feasibility of power-type strength training for middle aged men and women: self perception, musculoskeletal symptoms, and injury rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the feasibility of a power-type strength training programme for middle aged men and women, the impact of the training programme on perceived health and fitness and on knee and low back symptoms, and the rate of exercise induced injuries.Methods: A total of 154 voluntary, healthy, sedentary men and women participated in a training programme lasting about four

J Surakka; S Aunola; T Nordblad; S-L Karppi; E Alanen

2003-01-01

226

Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

1990-01-01

227

Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

2010-01-01

228

Energy and nutrient consumption in Mexican women 12-49 years of age: analysis of the National Nutrition Survey 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the reported energy and nutrient intake and adequacies in Mexican women. Material and Methods. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to obtain nu- trient intake in a representative sub-sample of 2 630 women from 12 to 49 years of age from the National Nutrition Survey 1999. Nutrient adequacies were estimated using the Dietary Reference Intakes and stratified

Simón Barquera; Juan A Rivera; Juan Espinosa-Montero; Margarita Safdie; Fabricio Campirano; Eric A Monterrubio

2003-01-01

229

Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

2012-01-01

230

Smoking and dietary inadequacy among Inuvialuit women of child bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada  

PubMed Central

Objective The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal Canadians is higher than non-Aboriginal Canadians, a behavior that also tends to alter dietary patterns. Compared with the general Canadian population, maternal smoking rates are almost twice as high. The aim of this study was to compare dietary adequacy of Inuvialuit women of childbearing age comparing smokers versus non-smokers. Research methods & procedures A cross-sectional study, where participants completed a culturally specific quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare mean nutrient intake, dietary inadequacy and differences in nutrient density among smokers and non-smokers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for key nutrients inadequacy and smoking status. Data was collected from three communities in the Beaufort Delta region of the Northwest Territories, Canada from randomly selected Inuvialuit women of childbearing age (19-44 years). Results Of 92 participants, 75% reported being smokers. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, marital status, education, number of people in household working and/or number of self employed, and physical activity between smokers and non-smokers. Non-parametric analysis showed no differences in nutrient intake between smokers and non-smokers. Logistic regression however revealed there was a positive association between smoking and inadequacies of vitamin C (OR?=?2.91, 95% CI, 1.17-5.25), iron (OR?=?3.16, 95% CI, 1.27-5.90), and zinc (OR?=?2.78, 95% CI, 1.12-4.94). A high percentage of women (>60%), regardless of smoking status, did not meet the dietary recommendations for fiber, vitamin D, E and potassium. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of childbearing age regardless of smoking behavior.

2013-01-01

231

Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups.

Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

2009-01-01

232

Sexual and reproductive behaviour among single women aged 15–24 in eight Latin American countries: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of exposure to sexual activity, contraceptive use, conceptions, and pregnancy resolutions among single women aged 15–24 in eight Latin American countries is presented. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys complete contraceptive and reproductive histories are constructed for single women aged 15–24 during the 5 year period preceding each survey. Pre-marital conception rates and overall and cause-specific

Mohamed M. Ali; John Cleland

2005-01-01

233

RTI/STI prevalence among urban and rural women of Surat: A community-based study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RTI/STI among women in urban and rural areas of Surat and analyze the influence of socioeconomic, socio-demographic and other determinants possibly related to RTI/STI. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study. Women aged 15-49 years (n = 102) were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination. Specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis. Results: Out of 51 women in rural areas, 27 (53%) and among 51 women in urban areas, 35 (69%) were identified having RTI/STI. In total, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was found to be 41% by culture, 22% by wet mount, and 16% by Gram staining among urban women, while trichomoniasis among rural women was found to be 27% by culture, 18% by wet mount, and 14% by Gram staining. The prevalence of candidiasis was found to be 14% among urban women and 12% among rural women. By using Gram staining Nugent's criteria, the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was found to be 24% among urban women and 25% among rural women. The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by VDRL both among urban as well rural women.

Kosambiya, J. K.; Desai, Vikas K.; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Chakraborty, Tanuja

2009-01-01

234

Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.

Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

2014-01-01

235

Lognormal distributions for total water intake and tap water intake by pregnant and lactating women in the United States.  

PubMed

Using probability plots and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), we fit lognormal distributions to data compiled by Ershow et al. for daily intake of total water and tap water by three groups of women (controls, pregnant, and lactating; all between 15-49 years of age) in the United States. We also develop bivariate lognormal distributions for the joint distribution of water ingestion and body weight for these three groups. Overall, we recommend the marginal distributions for water intake as fit by MLE for use in human health risk assessments. PMID:9637077

Burmaster, D E

1998-04-01

236

Quantifying the risks and benefits of efavirenz use in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives We quantified the benefits (life expectancy gains) and harms (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States. Methods We used data from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100,000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women. Results Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100,000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100,000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women. Conclusions Use of non-efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a tradeoff between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers.

Hsu, HE; Rydzak, CE; Cotich, KL; Wang, B; Sax, PE; Losina, E; Freedberg, KA; Goldie, SJ; Lu, Z; Walensky, RP

2010-01-01

237

Hyperandrogenism sensitizes mononuclear cells to promote glucose-induced inflammation in lean reproductive-age women  

PubMed Central

Hyperandrogenism and chronic low-grade inflammation are related in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but it is unknown whether hyperandrogenemia can activate inflammation. We determined the effect of oral androgen administration on fasting and glucose-stimulated nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation and expression and related markers of inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of lean reproductive-age women. Sixteen lean, ovulatory reproductive-age women were treated with 130 mg of DHEA or placebo (n = 8 each) for 5 days in a randomized, controlled, double-blind fashion. Nuclear activation of NF-?B, p65 and p105 NF-?B subunit RNA, TNF? and IL-1? mRNA, and NF-?B p65 and inhibitory-?B (I?B) protein were quantified from MNC obtained while fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion, before and after DHEA or placebo administration. Before treatment, subjects receiving DHEA or placebo exhibited no differences in androgens or any inflammatory markers while fasting and after glucose ingestion. Compared with placebo, DHEA administration raised levels of testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEA-S, increased the percent change in fasting and glucose-challenged activated NF-?B, p65, p105, TNF?, and IL-1? RNA and p65 protein, and decreased the percent change in fasting and glucose-challenged I?B protein. We conclude that elevation of circulating androgens to the range observed in PCOS upregulates the NF-?B inflammation pathway in lean reproductive-age women. Thus, hyperandrogenemia activates and sensitizes MNC to glucose in this population.

Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Daniels, Janice K.; Basal, Eati; Schimke, Jill M.

2012-01-01

238

Hyperandrogenism sensitizes mononuclear cells to promote glucose-induced inflammation in lean reproductive-age women.  

PubMed

Hyperandrogenism and chronic low-grade inflammation are related in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but it is unknown whether hyperandrogenemia can activate inflammation. We determined the effect of oral androgen administration on fasting and glucose-stimulated nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation and expression and related markers of inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of lean reproductive-age women. Sixteen lean, ovulatory reproductive-age women were treated with 130 mg of DHEA or placebo (n = 8 each) for 5 days in a randomized, controlled, double-blind fashion. Nuclear activation of NF-?B, p65 and p105 NF-?B subunit RNA, TNF? and IL-1? mRNA, and NF-?B p65 and inhibitory-?B (I?B) protein were quantified from MNC obtained while fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion, before and after DHEA or placebo administration. Before treatment, subjects receiving DHEA or placebo exhibited no differences in androgens or any inflammatory markers while fasting and after glucose ingestion. Compared with placebo, DHEA administration raised levels of testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEA-S, increased the percent change in fasting and glucose-challenged activated NF-?B, p65, p105, TNF?, and IL-1? RNA and p65 protein, and decreased the percent change in fasting and glucose-challenged I?B protein. We conclude that elevation of circulating androgens to the range observed in PCOS upregulates the NF-?B inflammation pathway in lean reproductive-age women. Thus, hyperandrogenemia activates and sensitizes MNC to glucose in this population. PMID:22045316

González, Frank; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Daniels, Janice K; Basal, Eati; Schimke, Jill M

2012-02-01

239

Alcohol Consumption, Weight Gain, and Risk of Becoming Overweight in Middle-aged and Older Women  

PubMed Central

Background The obesity epidemic is a major health problem in the US. Alcohol consumption is a source of energy intake that may contribute to body weight gain and development of obesity. However, previous studies on this relation have been limited and inconsistent. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among 19,220 US women aged ?39 years, free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes, and having a normal baseline body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-<25 kg/m2. Alcoholic beverage consumption was reported on a baseline questionnaire. Body weight was self-reported on baseline and eight annual follow-up questionnaires. Results There was an inverse association between amount of alcohol consumed at baseline and weight gained over 12.9 years of follow-up. A total of 7,942 initially normal-weight women became overweight or obese (BMI ?25 kg/m2) and 732 became obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2). After adjusting for age, baseline BMI, smoking status, non-alcohol energy intake, physical activity, and other lifestyle and dietary factors, the relative risks (RRs) of becoming overweight or obese across total alcohol intake of 0, >0-<5, 5-<15, 15-<30, and ?30 g/day were 1.00, 0.96, 0.86, 0.70, and 0.73, respectively (Ptrend <0.0001). The corresponding RRs of becoming obese were 1.00, 0.75, 0.43, 0.39, and 0.29 (Ptrend <0.0001). The associations were consistent by subgroups of age, smoking status, physical activity, and baseline BMI. Conclusion Compared with non-drinkers, initially normal-weight women that consumed light-to-moderate amount of alcohol experienced smaller weight gain and lower risk of becoming overweight and/or obese during 12.9 years of follow-up.

Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Sesso, Howard D.

2009-01-01

240

Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance.

Milanovic, Zoran; Pantelic, Sasa; Trajkovic, Nebojsa; Sporis, Goran; Kostic, Radmila; James, Nic

2013-01-01

241

Women Under-estimate the Age of their Partners during Survey Interviews: Implications for HIV Risk associated with Age Mixing in Northern Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Age mixing may explain differences in HIV prevalence across populations in sub-Saharan countries, but the validity of survey data on age mixing is unknown. Methods Age differences between partners are frequently estimated indirectly, by asking respondents to report their partner’s age. Partner age can also be assessed directly, by tracing partners and asking them to report their own age. We use data from 519 relationships, collected in Likoma (Malawi), in which both partners were interviewed and tested for HIV. In these relationships age differences were assessed both indirectly and directly, and estimates could thus be compared. We calculate the specificity and sensitivity of the indirect method in identifying age-homogenous/age-disparate relationships in which the male partner is less/more than 5 or 10 years older than the respondent. Results Women were accurate in identifying age-homogenous relationships, but not in identifying age-disparate relationships (specificity ? 90%, sensitivity = 24.3%). The sensitivity of the indirect method was even lower in detecting partners older than the respondent by 10 + years (9.6%). Among 43 relationships with an HIV-infected partner included in this study, there were close to 3 times more age-disparate relationships according to direct measures of partner age than according to women’s reports of their partner’s age (17% vs. 46%). Conclusions Survey reports of partner age significantly under-estimate the extent of and the HIV risk associated with age mixing in this population. Future studies of the impact of sexual mixing pattern son HIV risk in sub-Saharan countries should take reporting biases into account.

Kohler, Hans-Peter; Mkandawire, James

2011-01-01

242

Impact of back muscle strength and aging on locomotive syndrome in community living Japanese women.  

PubMed

The Japanese Orthopaedic Association has proposed the term locomotive syndrome (LS) to designate a condition of individuals in high-risk groups with musculoskeletal disease who are highly likely to require nursing care. This study investigates the influence of spinal factors on LS in Japanese females. A total of 187 women > or =50 years old were enrolled in the study. Those answering yes to least one of the 7 categories in the self-assessment checklist for LS were defined as having LS. We evaluated lateral lumbar radiographs, sagittal parameters, sagittal balance using the spinal inclination angle (SIA) as an index, spinal range of motion (ROM) as determined with SpinalMouse, back muscle strength (BMS), and body mass index (BMI). Age, BMI, BMS, SIA, sacral slope angle (SSA), and lumbar spinal ROM showed significant correlations with LS. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that an increase in age (OR 1.054, p<0.05) and a decrease in BMS (OR 0.968, p<0.01) were significantly associated with LS. Age had significant negative correlations with BMS, SSA, thoracic and lumbar spinal ROM, and it had positive correlations with BMI, SIA, and lumbar kyphosis. BMS had significant negative correlations with age, SIA, thoracic and lumbar kyphosis, and it had positive correlations with SSA, lumbar and total spinal ROM. An increase in age and a decrease in BMS may be the most important risk factors for LS in Japanese women. Back muscle strengthening and spinal ROM exercises could be useful for improving the status of an individual suffering from LS. PMID:23544268

Hirano, Kenichi; Imagama, Shiro; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Wakao, Norimitsu; Muramoto, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki

2013-02-01

243

Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births  

PubMed Central

Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery workforce assessments conducted in collaboration with the respective Ministries of Health and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to identify disparities between population needs, health infrastructure and workforce supply. The datasets are available to the respective Ministries as part of the UNFPA programme to inform midwifery workforce planning and also publicly available through the WorldPop population mapping project.

2014-01-01

244

Internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle of middle-aged women: A qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background: A healthy lifestyle is one of the basic health-promotion strategies. Several factors are involved in shaping health-promotion behaviors. The internal barriers are the opinion and feelings that surround the individual and are the reasons that complicate the change of behavior. The aim of this study was to identify internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle in middle-aged Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 21 middle-aged women in the city of Yazd, who were selected using purposeful sampling approach. The interviews continued until data saturation was reached; and the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed exactly. The transcripts were analyzed. Results: Five main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: Women’s knowledge of health-promoting behaviors, importance of health and healthy behavior of women, affliction or fear of affliction to chronic disease and its consequences, responsibilities of women in the family and society, and skills of life management in women. Conclusion: The findings suggest that empowering individual participants in health promotion is the most important factor determining their health. Thus, designing appropriate programs for education and empowerment of people is essential to promoting health. Health policy makers, with knowledge of these factors, can design comprehensive, socialization programs to promote women’s health.

Enjezab, Behnaz; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Taleghani, Fariba; Aflatoonian, Abbas

2012-01-01

245

HPV prevalence at enrollment and baseline results from the Carolina Women's Care Study, a longitudinal study of HPV persistence in women of college age  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical dysplasia and cancer. The Carolina Women’s Care Study (CWCS) was conducted to explore the biological, genetic, and lifestyle determinants of persistent HPV infection in college-aged European American and African American women. This paper presents the initial results of the CWCS, based upon data obtained at enrollment. Methods Freshman female students attending the University of South Carolina were enrolled in the CWCS and followed until graduation with biannual visits, including two Papanicolaou tests, cervical mucus collection, and a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors. We recruited 467 women, 293 of whom completed four or more visits for a total of 2274 visits. Results and conclusion CWCS participants were 70% European American, 24% African American, 3% Latina/Hispanic, and 3% Asian. At enrollment, 32% tested positive for any HPV. HPV16 infection was the most common (18% of infections). Together, HPV16, 66, 51, 52, and 18 accounted for 58% of all HPV infections. Sixty-four percent of all HPV-positive samples contained more than one HPV type, with an average of 2.2 HPV types per HPV-positive participant. We found differences between African American and European American women in the prevalence of HPV infection (38.1% African American, 30.7% European American) and abnormal Papanicolaou test results (9.8% African-American, 5.8% European American). While these differences did not reach statistical significance at enrollment, as the longitudinal data of this cohort are analyzed, the sample size will allow us to confirm these results and compare the natural history of HPV infection in college-aged African American and European American women.

Banister, Carolyn E; Messersmith, Amy R; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Wang, Yinding; Spiryda, Lisa B; Glover, Saundra H; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

2013-01-01

246

Influence of Body Weight, Ethnicity, Oral Contraceptives, and Pregnancy on the Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Women of Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Women of childbearing age commonly receive azithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including during pregnancy. This study determined azithromycin pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women and identified covariates contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. Plasma samples were collected by using a sparse-sampling strategy from pregnant women at a gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks and from nonpregnant women of childbearing age receiving oral azithromycin for the treatment of an infection. Pharmacokinetic data from extensive sampling conducted on 12 healthy women were also included. Plasma samples were assayed for azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population analysis included 53 pregnant and 25 nonpregnant women. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time provided the best fit of the data. Lean body weight, pregnancy, ethnicity, and the coadministration of oral contraceptives were covariates identified as significantly influencing the oral clearance of azithromycin and, except for oral contraceptive use, intercompartmental clearance between the central and second peripheral compartments. No other covariate relationships were identified. Compared to nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives, a 21% to 42% higher dose-adjusted azithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) occurred in non-African American women who were pregnant or receiving oral contraceptives. Conversely, azithromycin AUCs were similar between pregnant African American women and nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives. Although higher levels of maternal and fetal azithromycin exposure suggest that lower doses be administered to non-African American women during pregnancy, the consideration of azithromycin pharmacodynamics during pregnancy should guide any dose adjustments.

Habibi, Mitra; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Tuomala, Ruth E.; Shier, Janice M.; Wollett, Lori; Fischer, Patricia A.; Khorana, Kinnari S.; Rodvold, Keith A.

2012-01-01

247

Seroprevalence and Coinfections of Toxoplasma gondii in Childbearing Age Women in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: Our aim was to detect the rate of Toxoplasma gondii infections and the coinfections in childbearing age women in Turkey accompanying using seroprevalence data from a multicenter hospital setting. Methods: Overal, 17751 childbearing age women through 16–45 years were included to the study between 2004 and 2010. The clinical samples of the patients were collected from 16 hospitals and medical centers mostly from Istanbul and three other cities from Turkey. Enzyme immunoassay tests were performed in our central laboratory in Istanbul to investigate T. gondii with other TORCH infections or Epstein Barr virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Human Immunodificiency virus as accompanying infections. Results: Among the tested sera 1.34% of the women were IgM and 24.61% were IgG positive for T. gondii. The coinfection rate was 3.36% among the IgM positive patients. CMV, EBV, HCV and rubella were detected as coinfections. IgM seropositivities of those infection agents were accepted as acute infection. CMV and EBV were detected as 1.26% and HCV and rubella were detected as 0.42%. Conclusion: Turkish female population was found infected with T. gondii in high rates. Some of the seropositive patients also had accompanying CMV, EBV, HCV and rubella infections. Our aim was to detect Toxoplasma seropositivity and the accompanying infections with their rates. While coinfections worsen the situation unless they are detected, it is important to determine exact situation of the patient for the management of the therapy.

Akyar, I

2011-01-01

248

Persistent organic pollutants and transthyretin-bound thyroxin in plasma of Inuit women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

The Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada) is highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through their traditional diet. Some POPs, i.e., hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), compete with thyroxin (T4) for binding sites on transthyretin (TTR), a T4 transport protein found in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. We tested the hypothesis that these TTR-binding compounds decrease circulating concentrations of T4 bound to TTR (T4-TTR) in Inuit women of reproductive age. We measured the concentration of T4-TTR in plasma samples obtained from 120 Inuit women (18-39 years old) by combining native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques. Total T4, TTR, and thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations were also determined, while POPs levels had been previously measured. The mean T4-TTR concentration was 8.4 nmol/L (SD = 2.4) with values ranging from 2.9 to 14.4 nmol/L. Linear regression analysis revealed that TTR, TBG, and total T4 concentrations were significant predictors (p < 0.002) of T4-TTR levels (total adjusted R-squared = 0.26, p < 0.0001) but not levels of OH-PCBs, chlorophenols, or PFOS. Our results suggest that circulating levels of these TTR-binding compounds in Inuit women of childbearing age are not high enough to affect TTR-mediated thyroid hormone transport. The possibility of increased delivery of these compounds to the developing brain requires further investigation. PMID:24160776

Audet-Delage, Y; Ouellet, N; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

2013-11-19

249

Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. Results: At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as ‘positive’ for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). Conclusion: These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further.

Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

2012-01-01

250

Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week?¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and ?-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial compliance were also significantly increased (p < 0.05), while ?-stiffness was markedly decreased (p < 0.01) after the intervention. On the other hand, there was no change in the parameters tested in the control group. This study demonstrates that regular aerobic exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women. PMID:22784030

Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

2012-10-01

251

Sexual Dimorphism of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Immunoreactive Neurons in the Infundibular Nucleus of Aged Men and Women  

PubMed Central

The secretory output of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons is critically influenced by peptidergic neurons synthesizing kisspeptins (KP) and neurokinin B (NKB) in the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (Inf). These cells mediate negative feedback effects of sex steroids on the reproductive axis. While negative feedback is lost in postmenopausal women, it is partly preserved by the sustained testosterone secretion in aged men. We hypothesized that the different reproductive physiology of aged men and women is reflected in morphological differences of KP and NKB neurons. This sexual dimorphism was studied with immunohistochemistry in hypothalamic sections of aged human male (?50?years) and female (>55?years) subjects. KP and NKB cell bodies of the Inf were larger in females. The number of KP cell bodies, the density of KP fibers, and the incidence of their contacts on GnRH neurons were much higher in aged women compared with men. The number of NKB cell bodies was only slightly higher in women and there was no sexual dimorphism in the regional density of NKB fibers and the incidence of their appositions onto GnRH cells. The incidences of NKB cell bodies, fibers, and appositions onto GnRH neurons exceeded several-fold those of KP-IR elements in men. More NKB than KP inputs to GnRH cells were also present in women. Immunofluorescent studies identified only partial overlap between KP and NKB axons. KP and NKB were colocalized in higher percentages of afferents to GnRH neurons in women compared with men. Most of these sex differences might be explained with the lack of estrogen negative feedback in aged women, whereas testosterone can continue to suppress KP, and to a lesser extent, NKB synthesis in men. Overall, sex differences in reproductive physiology of aged humans were reflected in the dramatic sexual dimorphism of the KP system, with significantly higher incidences of KP-IR neurons, fibers and inputs to GnRH neurons in aged females vs. males.

Hrabovszky, Erik; Molnar, Csilla S.; Sipos, Mate T.; Vida, Barbara; Ciofi, Philippe; Borsay, Beata A.; Sarkadi, Laszlo; Herczeg, Laszlo; Bloom, Stephen R.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Dhillo, Waljit S.; Kallo, Imre; Liposits, Zsolt

2011-01-01

252

The role of the number of replaced embryos on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome in women over the age of 40  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine if the transfer of more than three embryos has any beneficial effect on the outcome of intra- cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in women aged >40 years, a retrospective analysis was made of all the ICSI cycles which were performed in this age group from 1 October 1991 to 31 December 1995. A total of 525

G. Adonakis; M. Camus; M. Vandervorst; A. Van Steirteghem; P. Devroey

1997-01-01

253

Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in

S. Gowachirapant; P. Winichagoon; L. Wyss; B. Tong; J. Baumgartner; A. Melse-Boonstra; M. B. Zimmermann

2009-01-01

254

Complement protein C3 and coronary artery calcium in middle-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls.  

PubMed

Abstract Circulating complement protein C3 (C3) levels have been associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, but have yet to be evaluated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to determine whether C3 levels were elevated in women with PCOS compared to controls and to quantify the association of C3 with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and CAC and if PCOS modified this association. This cross-sectional analysis included 132 women with PCOS and 155 controls, 35-62 years old, from the third visit of a case-control study. CAC was measured during the study visit, and circulating C3 was measured in stored sera. The presence of CAC and CAC categories (Agatston score 0, 1-9.9 and ?10) were used for logistic and ordinal regression analysis, respectively. C3 levels were not significantly different between women with PCOS and controls. Among all women, C3 was associated with the presence of CAC and increasing CAC groups after adjusting for age, PCOS status and insulin or body mass index (BMI), all p?age, PCOS status, BMI, insulin and African American race, p?=?0.049. PCOS status did not modify these associations. In conclusion, circulating C3 levels may prove beneficial in identifying women at risk of CVD in women with PCOS and the general population. PMID:24592986

Snyder, Michelle L; Shields, Kelly J; Korytkowski, Mary T; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Talbott, Evelyn O

2014-07-01

255

Assessment and significance of 24-h energy intake patterns among young and aged non-affluent southern US women.  

PubMed

Energy intake patterns that may impact health status among non-affluent southern U.S. women from small urban communities have not been evaluated extensively. Usual intake estimates are confounded by factors such as validity of intake methods and socioeconomic status. Typical 24-h energy intakes were reported by Caucasian (CA, n=149) and African-American (AA, n=110) women; at 43% of this sub-population, AA women are appropriately and proportionately represented. Daily energy intake was examined for these non-pregnant females, 24 to 93 y of age, to define typical energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. Study groups were: 24-29 y, 30-39 y, 40-49 y, 50-59 y, 60-69 y, 70-79 y, and 80-93 y. Statistical comparisons of nutrient variables by age were made by least squares means between groups. Body mass index (BMI) calculations accounted for differences in height and relative body mass. Both races reported similar energy intakes and significant (P<0.05) decreases with age were noted. Energy intakes were 15-40% below recommended levels, similar to reported values; senior lunch programs ameliorated declines among some women >60 y. More daily calories (52-62%) were provided by carbohydrates, followed by fat (26-35%) and protein (14-17%) findings in close agreement with health recommendations. Time-of-day intake patterns suggest women >59 y consume larger noon meals. BMI for AA women was greater (P<0.05) than that of CA women between 30-59 y. At 24-29 y, AA women had lowest BMI values; BMI decreases occurred in CA women after 80 y. These factors may impact the health of non-affluent southern AA and CA women, particularly the elderly who may require guidance for diet planning and intake intervention programs. PMID:12679826

Lewis, S M; Mayhugh, M A; Freni, S C; Cardoso, S S; Buffington, C; Jairaj, K; Turturro, A; Feuers, R J

2003-01-01

256

Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ?1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors.

Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

2013-01-01

257

Preconception health of reproductive aged women of the Mississippi River delta.  

PubMed

Optimal preconception health (PCH) may improve maternal and infant outcomes, priority issues in Mississippi (MS). Our study objective was to compare the PCH of women in the MS Delta to other regions. We analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2005, 2007, and 2009, and limited analyses to 171,612 non-pregnant black and white women 18-44 years of age. Region was defined as 14 MS Delta counties (MS Delta), remainder of MS (MS non-Delta), Delta states (LA, AR, TN), and non-Delta US states. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) to assess associations between region and 16 indicators of optimal PCH, controlling for demographic characteristics. Healthy PCH factors such as consuming ?5 fruits and vegetables daily and normal body mass index (18.5 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2)), respectively, were more prevalent in the MS non-Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.7 and aPR = 1.2; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.4), non-MS Delta (aPR = 1.5; 95 % CI: 1.2,2.0 and aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.5) and non-Delta states (aPR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.3,2.2 and aPR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.2,1.6) compared to the MS Delta. Physical activity levels were higher among non-Delta US states compared to the MS Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.4). Household income and race confounded the associations between region and PCH. Reproductive aged women in the MS Delta had poorer PCH, particularly for physical activity and nutrition, than women in other regions. MS Delta service providers and public health practitioners should consider implementing or enhancing lifestyle, nutrition, and physical activity interventions, with a special focus on reducing income-based and racial disparities. PMID:23099798

Bish, Connie L; Farr, Sherry; Johnson, Dick; McAnally, Ron

2012-12-01

258

The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n?=?28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n?=?26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led intervention will achieve better weight control in pre-menopausal women than a self-directed intervention. The results will add to the scant body of literature on obesity prevention methods at an under-researched high-risk life stage, and inform the development of population-based interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000064909

2013-01-01

259

Effects of Aging on Perceived Exertion and Pain During Arm Cranking in Women 70 to 80 YEARS OLD  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on perceived exertion (PE) and perceived arm pain (PaP) at the end of a maximal graded arm test in 70- to 80-year -old women. Twelve healthy young (mean age 22.9 ± 3.3 years), and 12 healthy elderly (mean age 74.6 ± 3.7 years) women performed a maximal graded test (GXT) on an arm crank ergometer until exhaustion. The results revealed no significant difference between both groups concerning PE (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.62) and when heart rate (HR) was expressed as a theoretical maximal heart rate (THRmax) (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.17). Nevertheless, PaP was significantly lower (p < 0.05; Effect Size = 2.95) in the elderly compared to the young group. In conclusion, these results suggest that, at the end of GXT, PE is not influenced, whereas PaP may be altered by aging of the women tested in the present study. Therefore, it appears difficult to use PaP in these elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program. Key Points At the end of a maximal graded arm test, perceived exertion is not influenced, whereas perceived arm pain may be altered by aging. It appears difficult to use perceived arm pain in elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program.

Groslambert, Alain; Grange, Celine C.; Perrey, Stephane; Maire, Jerome; Tordi, Nicolas; Rouillon, Jean Denis

2006-01-01

260

Postural sway reduction in aging men and women: Relation to brain structure, cognitive status, and stabilizing factors  

PubMed Central

Postural stability becomes compromised with advancing age, but the neural mechanisms contributing to instability have not been fully explicated. Accordingly, this quantitative physiological and MRI study of sex differences across the adult age range examined the association between components of postural control and the integrity of brain structure and function under different conditions of sensory input and stance stabilization manipulation. The groups comprised 28 healthy men (age 30–73 years) and 38 healthy women (age 34–74 years), who completed balance platform testing, cognitive assessment, and structural MRI. The results supported the hypothesis that excessive postural sway would be greater in older than younger healthy individuals when standing without sensory or stance aids, and that introduction of such aids would reduce sway in both principal directions (anterior–posterior and medial–lateral) and in both the open-loop and closed-loop components of postural control even in older individuals. Sway reduction with stance stabilization, that is, standing with feet apart, was greater in men than women, probably because older men were less stable than women when standing with their feet together. Greater sway was related to evidence for greater brain structural involutional changes, indexed as ventricular and sulcal enlargement and white matter hyperintensity burden. In women, poorer cognitive test performance related to less sway reduction with the use of sensory aids. Thus, aging men and women were shown to have diminished postural control, associated with cognitive and brain structural involution, in unstable stance conditions and with diminished sensory input.

Sullivan, Edith V.; Rose, Jessica; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

2009-01-01

261

Prospective study of solar exposure, dietary vitamin D intake, and risk of breast cancer among middle-aged women.  

PubMed

The relationship between solar exposure or dietary vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk has not been fully elucidated. These associations were studied within the Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study, a cohort of 49,259 Swedish women ages 30 to 50 years at baseline (1991-1992). Women were asked about solar exposure and completed a food frequency questionnaire and were followed-up through linkages to national registries until December 2004. In the current analyses, 41,889 women were included, 840 of whom were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up. Breast cancer risk was not related to solar exposure variables, including sun sensitivity, annual number of sunburns, time spent on sunbathing vacations, or solarium use at any age period of exposure. There was also no association with dietary vitamin D intake or supplementary multivitamin use. These relationships were not modified after stratifying by estrogen or progesterone receptor status. PMID:19690185

Kuper, Hannah; Yang, Ling; Sandin, Sven; Lof, Marie; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

2009-09-01

262

Beyond pregnancy - the neglected burden of mortality in young women of reproductive age in Bangladesh: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe proportionate mortality and causes of death unrelated to pregnancy. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Rural northwest Bangladesh. Population A cohort of 133 617 married women of reproductive age. Methods Verbal autopsies were conducted for women who died whilst under surveillance in the cohort trial. Physician-assigned causes of death based on verbal autopsies were used to categorise deaths. Main outcome measures The proportion of deaths due to non-communicable diseases, infectious diseases, injury or pregnancy. Results Of the 1107 deaths occurring among women between 2001 and 2007, 48% were attributed to non-communicable diseases, 22% to pregnancy, 17% to infections, 9% to injury and 4% to other causes. Conclusions Although focus on pregnancy-related mortality remains important, more attention is warranted on non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age.

Labrique, AB; Sikder, SS; Wu, L; Rashid, M; Ali, H; Ullah, B; Shamim, AA; Mehra, S; Klemm, R; Banu, H; West, KP; Christian, P

2013-01-01

263

Results from Ad Hoc and Routinely Collected Data among Celiac Women with Infertility or Pregnancy Related Disorders: Italy, 2001-2011  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune illness triggered by gluten consumption in genetically predisposed individuals. Worldwide, CD prevalence is approximately 1%. Several studies suggest a higher prevalence of undiagnosed CD in patients with infertility. We described reproductive disorders and assessed the frequency of hospital admissions for infertility among celiac women aged 15–49. We conducted two surveys enrolling a convenient sample of celiac women, residing in Apulia or in Basilicata (Italy). Moreover, we selected hospital discharge records (HDRs) of celiac women and women with an exemption for CD, and matched the lists with HDRs for reproductive disorders. In the surveys we included 91 celiac women; 61.5% of them reported menstrual cycle disorders. 47/91 reported at least one pregnancy and 70.2% of them reported problems during pregnancy. From the HDRs and the registry of exemption, we selected 4,070 women with CD; the proportion of women hospitalized for infertility was higher among celiac women than among resident women in childbearing age (1.2% versus 0.2%). Our findings highlight a higher prevalence of reproductive disorders among celiac women than in the general population suggesting that clinicians might consider testing for CD women presenting with pregnancy disorders or infertility.

2014-01-01

264

Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.  

PubMed

A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes. PMID:19875639

Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

2010-06-01

265

Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999-2006  

PubMed Central

Objectives Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ?3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.

2014-01-01

266

An Intervention Study on Screening for Breast Cancer among Single African-American Women Aged 65 and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Older African-American women with single marital status are least likely to use screening procedures. This study aimed to evaluate a breast screening intervention program conducted in this population.Methods. Ten public housing complexes were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. African-American women aged 65 and over were recruited into the study if they were widowed, divorced,

Kangmin Zhu; Sandra Hunter; Louis J. Bernard; Kathleen Payne-Wilks; Chanel L. Roland; Lloyd C. Elam; Ziding Feng; Robert S. Levine

2002-01-01

267

Affective Responses to Increasing Levels of Exercise Intensity in Normal-weight, Overweight, and Obese Middle-aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 60 min of daily physical activity (PA) are recommended for weight control, a target achieved by only 3% of obese (OB) women. The purposes of this study were to examine (i) the affective responses of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB middle-aged sedentary women to exercise of increasing intensity and (ii) the relationship of affective responses to self-efficacy

Panteleimon Ekkekakis; Erik Lind; Spiridoula Vazou

2010-01-01

268

Physiological and perceptual responses to Nordic walking in obese middle-aged women in comparison with the normal walk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare physiological and perceptual responses to Nordic walking (NW) in obese women to those of walking\\u000a (W), and to assess if these responses were modified by a learning period of NW technique. Eleven middle-aged obese women completed\\u000a exercise trials (5 min each) at 4 km\\/h, inclinations of ?5, 0 and +5%, with and without poles. Ventilation $$ \\\\left(

H. Figard-Fabre; N. Fabre; A. Leonardi; F. Schena

2010-01-01

269

Physical Activity Behavior Change in Middle-aged and Older Women: The Role of Barriers and of Environmental Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of North American women are insufficiently active. Using an ecological approach to examine physical activity\\u000a behavior in a sample of middle-aged and older women, this study aimed to (1) describe barriers to physical activity behavior\\u000a change as well as environmental characteristics present in their neighborhoods, (2) examine relationships between barriers\\u000a and physical activity behavior change, and (3) investigate

John Kowal; Michelle Sheila Fortier

2007-01-01

270

Association between leisure time physical activity and 10-year body mass change among working-aged men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether habitual leisure time physical activity and body mass change of working-aged men and women are associated. DESIGN: Prospective 10 y follow-up study. SUBJECTS: A regionally representative cohort of 19–63 y old men (n=2564) and women (n=2695) in three municipalities in Finland. MEASUREMENTS: The main outcome measures were average body mass change during the 10 y of

N Haapanen; S Miilunpalo; M Pasanen; P Oja; I Vuori

1997-01-01

271

Association Between Combined Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein Levels and Pulmonary Function in Older Women: Results from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine whether combined higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with lower pulmonary function levels in older women, accounting for chronic inflammatory diseases, physical function, and other factors associated with inflammation. DESIGN Cross-sectional study using data from two prospective cohorts. SETTING Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS Eight hundred forty disabled and 332 higher-functioning community-dwelling women aged 65 and older from the Women’s Health and Aging Studies (WHAS) I and II, respectively. MEASUREMENTS IL-6 and CRP, combined according to their tertile concentrations, and pulmonary function measures, assessed according to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). RESULTS In WHAS I and II, similar dose-response trends were observed between combined higher IL-6 and CRP levels and lower pulmonary function levels. In WHAS I (disabled women), the combined highest IL-6 and CRP levels were associated with the lowest levels of FEV1 (mean 137.0 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 128.4–145.7 mL) and FVC (mean 191.7 mL, 95% CI = 180.4–202.9 mL). Similarly, in WHAS II (higher-functioning women), the combined highest IL-6 and CRP levels were associated with the lowest levels of FEV1 (mean 158.3 mL, 95% CI = 146.3–170.4 mL) and FVC (mean 224.2 mL, 95% CI = 209.9–238.5 mL). CONCLUSION Combined elevations in IL-6 and CRP were associated with the lowest pulmonary function levels in older women. These findings suggest that high IL-6 and CRP levels may be an indication of prevalent impaired pulmonary function. Future studies should determine whether measurement of IL-6 and CRP could enhance current methods of monitoring respiratory diseases beyond that provided by pulmonary function measures.

Chang, Sandy S.; Fragoso, Carlos A. Vaz; Van Ness, Peter H.; Fried, Linda P.; Tinetti, Mary E.

2014-01-01

272

Validation of the Diagnostic Score for Acute Lower Abdominal Pain in Women of Reproductive Age  

PubMed Central

Background. The differential diagnoses of acute appendicitis obstetrics, and gynecological conditions (OB-GYNc) or nonspecific abdominal pain in young adult females with lower abdominal pain are clinically challenging. The present study aimed to validate the recently developed clinical score for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominal pain in female of reproductive age. Method. Medical records of reproductive age women (15–50 years) who were admitted for acute lower abdominal pain were collected. Validation data were obtained from patients admitted during a different period from the development data. Result. There were 302 patients in the validation cohort. For appendicitis, the score had a sensitivity of 91.9%, a specificity of 79.0%, and a positive likelihood ratio of 4.39. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio in diagnosis of OB-GYNc were 73.0%, 91.6%, and 8.73, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating curves (ROC), the positive likelihood ratios, for appendicitis and OB-GYNc in the validation data were not significantly different from the development data, implying similar performances. Conclusion. The clinical score developed for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominal pain in female of reproductive age may be applied to guide differential diagnoses in these patients.

Jearwattanakanok, Kijja; Yamada, Sirikan; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin; Smuthtai, Waratsuda; Patumanond, Jayanton

2014-01-01

273

Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age Estonian Women  

PubMed Central

The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs.

Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspollu, Anu; Vain, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis

2013-01-01

274

Older homebound women's perceived risk of being unable to reach help quickly: influence of situations involving age-peers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this facet of a longitudinal descriptive phenomenological study of the experience of reaching help quickly for older homebound women was to explore the personal-social context (life-world) of situations when age-peers had needed to reach help quickly (RHQ). Twenty-five women aged 85-95 (13 subscribers to a personal emergency response system and 12 non-subscribers) reported 80 peer situations. Life-world was characterized by sharing with peers the risk of being unable to RHQ. Knowledge of peer situations had varying degrees of influence on participants' decisions to adopt and use RHQ devices. Findings support the need for healthcare professionals to explore the influences of age-peer RHQ situations upon adoption and use of devices to RHQ by older homebound women. PMID:23070958

Porter, Eileen J; Lasiter, Sue

2012-12-01

275

Cardiovascular Disease, Interleukin6, and Risk of Mortality in Older Women The Women's Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Systemic chronic inflammation has been found to be related to all-cause mortality risk in older persons. We investigated whether specific chronic conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), affect the association between high interleukin (IL)-6 level and mortality in a sample of disabled older women. Methods and Results—IL-6 serum level was measured at baseline in 620 women $65 years old. The presence

Stefano Volpato; Jack M. Guralnik; Luigi Ferrucci; Jennifer Balfour; Paulo Chaves; Linda P. Fried; Tamara B. Harris

2010-01-01

276

Dietary intake and blood folate levels in Honduran women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects are common birth defects, the frequency of which appears to be reduced by maternal supplementation and/or fortification of folic acid. Latin Americans have a high incidence of neural tube defects. We surveyed the dietary intake of Honduran women of childbearing age using a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire in inner-city, town, and country areas. We randomly checked blood folate in the surveyed population to compare to the normal range for the US population. Normal US recommended dietary allowance intake of folate was documented in association with a low intake of many other essential nutrients. There also were significant differences for nutrient intakes in city, town, and country areas. Blood folate levels in all locations were in the low normal range when compared to the presupplementation/prefortification US population. Our data support using an established folic acid fortification public health initiative to decrease the prevalence of neural tube defects in Honduras. PMID:12150580

Holden, Kenton R; Collins, Julianne S; Greene, Jennifer F; Hinkle, Sara; Nave, Amanda F; Portillo, J Manuel; Page, Grier P; Stevenson, Roger E

2002-05-01

277

Experiences and Status of Chinese Rural Women: Differences among Three Age Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Old China, working women had no rights in such matters as politics, economy, culture, society, and family life. Women were governed by the Chinese feudal society tradition. When "new" China was founded in 1949, working women made up the 7.5 percent of the total work force. By 1983, the number of working women had increased to 36.5 percent. In…

Slimmer, Virginia M.; Kejing, Dai

278

Epidemiology of intimate partner homicide-suicide events among women of childbearing age in Maryland, 1994-2003.  

PubMed

Intimate partner homicide-suicide (IPH-IPS) among women during the childbearing years leaves irreversible outcomes that are devastating and have lasting repercussions for surviving children, families, and communities. An estimated one-third of all intimate partner homicides of women aged 15 to 50 end in suicide. The purpose of this study was to describe the temporal trends and characteristics of both victims of IPH-IPS. Data were collected using a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of medical examiner records for women aged 10 to 50 in Maryland, during 1994-2003. Seventy-five IPH-IPS incidents were identified over the 10-year period. Of those, 94.7% were a female homicide followed by a male suicide. The average rate of IPH-IPS was 0.52 per 100,000 women aged 10 to 50. About half of the couples were within 5 years of the age of each other, married or separated and the same race. Eleven percent of the women were pregnant/1-year postpartum when they died. The findings presented represent a significant public health problem that has a unique pattern compared with other populations studied. Understanding this problem involves a more comprehensive assessment of both victims. There is a need for a national surveillance system that identifies IPH-IPS events and provides information on both victims that includes individual and relationship characteristics. PMID:19901804

Krulewitch, Cara J

2009-12-01

279

Associations between Vaginal Pathogenic Community and Bacterial Vaginosis in Chinese Reproductive-Age Women  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common urogenital infections among women of reproductive age that represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. The aim of our study was to evalute the diagnostic values of Gardnerella, Atopobium, Eggerthella, Megasphaera typeI, Leptotrichia/Sneathia and Prevotella, defined as a vaginal pathogenic community for BV and their associations with vaginal pH and Nugent scores. Methods and Findings We investigated the vaginal pathogenic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. with species-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 50 BV-positive and 50 BV-negative Chinese women of reproductive age. Relative to BV-negative subjects, a siginificant decline in Lactobacillus and an obvious increase in bacteria in the vaginal pathogenic community were observed in BV-postive subjects (P<0.05). With the exception of Megasphaera typeI, other vaginal pathogenic bacteria were highly predictable for BV with a better sensitivity and specificity. The vaginal pathogenic community was positively associated with vaginal pH and Nugent scores, while Lactobacillus spp., such as L. iners and L. crispatus was negatively associated with them (P<0.05). Conclusions Our data implied that the prevalance of vaginal pathogenic bacteria as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Vaginal microbiota shifts, especially the overgrowth of the vaginal pathogenic community, showed well diagnostic values in predicting BV. Postive correlations between those vaginal pathogenic bacteria and vaginal pH, Nugent score indicated the vaginal pathogenic community rather than a single vaginal microorganism, was participated in the onset of BV directly.

Luo, Yueqiu; Wu, Xiaoxing; Yuan, Li; Tong, Xiaojuan; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

2013-01-01

280

Alterations in gait speed and age do not fully explain the changes in gait mechanics associated with healthy older women.  

PubMed

Older adults exhibit modified gait patterns compared to the young, adopting movement strategies in response to changes in musculoskeletal function. Investigating the functional mobility of older women is particularly important because of their increased life expectancy and greater falls risk compared to men. We explored the relationships between gait parameters and age in healthy older women whilst accounting for declining gait speeds. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-nine women (60-83 years) whilst walking at a comfortable cadence. Regression analysis assessed the capacity of gait speed and age to explain the variance in gait associated with older age. Speed explained the majority of variance in many gait parameters. By including age in the regression, the total explained variance (R2) for foot clearance (70%), ankle plantarflexion angle (30%), peak ankle plantarflexor moment (58%), and hip power generation (56%) were significantly (p<0.05) greater than for speed alone. Nonetheless, changes in speed and age did not fully explain the variance in gait mechanics associated with older age and other contributing factors must exist. Losses of 1.2%/year in gait speed were predicted by age, exceeding previous predictions of -0.7%/year. Furthermore, the accumulation of apparently small decreases of 0.2 cm/year in peak foot-to-ground clearance has clinical implications and offers insight into the mechanisms by which gait becomes hazardous in older age. PMID:23122897

Alcock, L; Vanicek, N; O'Brien, T D

2013-04-01

281

Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups.

Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

2014-01-01

282

Reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for estimating dietary vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men\\u000a and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  The subjects were 132 men and 130 women aged 40–69 years, selected from participants in cardiovascular risk surveys conducted\\u000a in 4 communities. The reproducibility of the 24-hour dietary recall was tested by comparing nutrient and food intake for two

Y. Kubota; K. Maruyama; S. Sato; Y. Ishikawa; T. Shimamoto; M. Inagawa; M. Ohshima; S. Murai; Hiroyasu Iso

2010-01-01

283

Reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for estimating dietary vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men\\u000a and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  The subjects were 132 men and 130 women aged 40–69 years, selected from participants in cardiovascular risk surveys conducted\\u000a in 4 communities. The reproducibility of the 24-hour dietary recall was tested by comparing nutrient and food intake for two

Y. Kubota; K. Maruyama; S. Sato; Y. Ishikawa; T. Shimamoto; M. Inagawa; M. Ohshima; S. Murai; Hiroyasu Iso

284

Effect of undertreatment on the disparity in age-related breast cancer-specific survival among older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Assess the relationship between age and breast cancer-specific survival among older women and determine whether the observed\\u000a age-related disparities in survival is explained by differences in breast cancer treatments received.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Women ?65 years old at diagnosis with stage I–IIIA breast cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 1998 were recruited from four\\u000a regions of the United States and followed prospectively for 5 years after

Cynthia Owusu; Timothy L. Lash; Rebecca A. Silliman

2007-01-01

285

Age-related bone turnover markers and osteoporotic risk in native Chinese women  

PubMed Central

Background The rate of bone turnover is closely related to osteoporosis risk. We investigated the correlation between bone turnover markers and BMD at various skeletal sites in healthy native Chinese women, and to study the effect of changes in the levels of bone turnover markers on the risk of osteoporosis. Methods A cross-section study of 891 healthy Chinese women aged 20–80 years was conducted. The levels of serum osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), serum cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (sNTX), cross-linked C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (sCTX), urinary NTX (uNTX), urinary CTX (uCTX) and total urinary deoxypyridinoline (uDPD) were determined. BMD at the posteroanterior spine and the hip was measured using DXA. Results Pearson’s correlation coefficient found significant negative correlation between bone turnover marker and BMD T-score at different skeletal sites (r?=??0.08 to ?0.52, all P?=?0.038–0.000). After adjustments for age and body mass index, the partial correlation coefficients between the OC, BAP, sNTX, sCTX and uCTX, and the T-scores at various skeletal sites were still significant. After adjustment of height and weight, the correlation coefficients between most BTMs and PA lumbar spine BMD were also significant. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that bone turnover markers were negative determinants of T-scores. BAP and OC accounted for 33.1% and 7.8% of the variations in the T-scores of the PA spine, respectively. Serum OC, BAP, uDPD, and sNTX accounted for 0.4–21.9% of the variations in the femoral neck and total hip T-scores. The bone turnover marker levels were grouped as per quartile intervals, and the T-scores, osteoporosis prevalence and risk were found to markedly and increase with increase in bone turnover marker levels. Conclusions This study clarified the relationship between bone turnover markers and osteoporosis risk in native Chinese women. Bone turnover marker levels were found to be important determinants of BMD T-scores. Furthermore, osteoporotic risk significantly increased with increase in the levels of bone turnover markers.

2014-01-01

286

Hostility is associated with Visceral, but not Subcutaneous, Fat in Middle-Aged African-American and White women  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study was designed to examine the cross-sectional association between hostility and measures of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in middle-aged African-American and white women. Because fat-patterning characteristics are known to differ by race,we were particularly interested in examining whether these associations were similar for women of both racial/ethnic groups. Methods Participants were 418 (45% African-American, 55% white) middle-aged women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Visceral and Subcutaneous fat were measured by Computed Tomographic Scans and hostility was assessed via questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted to test associations among race/ethnicity, hostility and measures of abdominal fat. Results In models adjusted for race/ethnicity and total percent fat, higher levels of hostility were associated with a greater amount of visceral fat (B=1.8, s.e.=.69, p=.01). This association remained significant after further adjustments for age, education, and multiple coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Hostility was not associated with subcutaneous fat (p=.8). Although there were significant racial/ethnic differences in hostility (p<.001) and the amount of total body (p<.001), subcutaneous (p<.001) and visceral fat (p<.001), the associations between hostility and measures of abdominal fat did not differ for African-American compared to white women (race/ethnicity*hostility interaction p=.67 for visceral, p=.85 for subcutaneous). Conclusions Hostility may affect CHD risk in women via the accumulation of visceral fat. Despite significant black-white differences in fat patterning and overall CHD risk, the association between hostilty and visceral fat appears to be similar for both African-American and white women.

Lewis, Tene T.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Janssen, Imke; Wesley, Deidre; Powell, Lynda H.

2010-01-01

287

Reproductive health decision making among Ghanaian women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women’s reproductive health decision-making and choices, including engaging in sexual intercourse and condom use, are essential for good reproductive health. However, issues concerning sexual intercourse and condom use are shrouded in secrecy in many sub-Saharan African countries. This study investigates factors that affect decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom among women aged 15–49. Method A nationally representative sample (N = 3124) data collected in the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study the association between women’s economic and socio-demographic characteristics and their decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom. Results One out of five women reported that they could not refuse their partners’ request for sexual intercourse while one out of four indicated that they could not demand the use of condoms by their partners. Women aged 35–49 were more likely to make decision on engaging in sexual intercourse (OR?=?1.35) compared to those aged 15–24. Furthermore, the higher a woman’s education, the more likely that she would make decision regarding condom use. Also, if a woman had primary (OR?=?1.37) or secondary (OR?=?1.55) education, she is more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse compared to a woman who had no formal education. Compared to women in the Greater Accra region (the capital city region), women in the Western region (OR?=?2.10), Central region (OR?=?2.35), Brong Ahafo (OR?=?1.70), Upper East (OR?=?7.71) and Upper West (OR?=?3.56) were more likely to make decision regarding the use of condom. Women who were in the richest, rich and middle wealth index categories were more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse as well as condom use compared to the poorest. Conclusion Interventions and policies geared at empowering women to take charge of their reproductive health should focus particularly on women from less wealthy backgrounds and those with low educational attainments.

2014-01-01

288

Biologic markers of ovarian reserve and reproductive aging: application in a cohort study of HIV infection in women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) levels in serum obtained during the early follicular phase to those obtained randomly during the menstrual cycle. To determine if HIV infection influences early follicular MIS levels, an early marker of ovarian aging. Design A cross-sectional study Setting Women’s Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter prospective study Patients Serum samples obtained from 263 (187 HIV infected and 76 uninfected) participants of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study who reported menstrual bleeding during the preceding 6 months and who were not taking exogenous hormones. Interventions Early follicular (cycle day 2–5) MIS samples were compared with serum samples that had been obtained without regard to menstrual cycle phase. Comparison samples were obtained within 6 weeks prior to and/or within 3 to 6 months after the early follicular samples. Early follicular FSH, estradiol, inhibin B and MIS levels were also compared between the HIV infected and uninfected women. Main Outcomes Correlation between early follicular MIS and prior and subsequent samples. Comparison of serum markers of ovarian reserve between HIV positive and negative women. Results MIS values from early follicular and other random cycle phases were highly correlated with each other (r>0.93, p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, increased age and FSH level and lower inhibin B levels were associated with lower MIS level; MIS values did not vary by HIV serostatus. Conclusions MIS without regard to cycle phase was similar during early follicular phase and highly correlated with early follicular FSH and inhibin B in women with and without HIV. Measurement of serum MIS offers a simplified method of determining ovarian reserve using specimens obtained without menstrual phase timing. Furthermore, using biologic measures of reproductive aging, we found no evidence that HIV infection influences ovarian aging.

Seifer, David B.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Springer, Gayle; Holman, Susan; Moxley, Michael; Cejtin, Helen; Nathwani, Niyati; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Greenblatt, Ruth M.

2009-01-01

289

Fertility intentions among HIV positive women aged 18-49 years in Addis Ababa Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Given the degree of HIV epidemic among women and the current antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale up in Ethiopia; considering the issue of fertility is vital to ensure the delivery of integrated reproductive health along with prevention services provided to positive women. This study was aimed to assess fertility intentions of women living with HIV attending public health institutions (hospitals & health centers) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional survey was conducted, among 1855 HIV positive, women aged 18–49 years selected from different public health facilities in Addis Ababa; from June to October 2012. Information was gathered by using interviewer administered questionnaires. Data were double entered in EPI Info version 3.5.2 software, cleaned finally exported to IBM SPSS statistics version 20 for analysis. Logistic regression models were used to predict the association of study variables and adjusted for possible confounders. Result Overall, 44% of women reported fertility intention. ART users had higher fertility intention (AOR; 1.26, 95%CI; 1.01 to 1.60) than ART naïve. In addition to this, having partner being on sexual relationship, young age, being single and having fewer or no children were found to be predictors of fertility intentions. The presence of ART, improvement of health condition and the influence of husband were the main reasons for childbearing intentions of women in the study area. Conclusion A considerable proportion of women reported fertility intention. There was an association between fertility intentions and ART use. It is important for health care providers and policy makers to strengthen the fertility need of HIV positive women along with HIV care so that women may decide freely and responsibly on their fertility issues.

2014-01-01

290

Age and ethnic differences in volumetric breast density in new zealand women: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer incidence differs by ethnicity in New Zealand (NZ) with M?ori (the indigenous people) women having the highest rates followed by Pakeha (people primarily of British/European descent), Pacific and Asian women, who experience the lowest rates. The reasons for these differences are unclear. Breast density, an important risk factor for breast cancer, has not previously been studied here. We used an automated system, Volpara™, to measure breast density volume from the medio-lateral oblique view of digital mammograms, by age (?50 years and >50 years) and ethnicity (Pakeha/M?ori/Pacific/Asian) using routine data from the national screening programme: age; x-ray system and mammography details for 3,091 Pakeha, 716 M?ori, 170 Pacific and 662 Asian (total n?=?4,239) women. Linear regression of the natural logarithm of absolute and percent density values was used, back-transformed and expressed as the ratio of the geometric means. Covariates were age, x-ray system and, for absolute density, the natural log of the volume of non-dense tissue (a proxy for body mass index). Median age for Pakeha women was 55 years; M?ori 53 years; and Pacific and Asian women, 52 years. Compared to Pakeha women (reference), M?ori had higher absolute volumetric density (1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.15) which remained following adjustment (1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12) and was stronger for older compared to younger M?ori women. Asian women had the greatest risk of high percentage breast density (1.35; 95% CI 1.27-1.43) while Pacific women in both the ?50 and >50 year age groups (0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.92 and 0.81; 95% CI 0.71-0.93 respectively) had the lowest percentage breast density compared to Pakeha. As well as expected age differences, we found differential patterns of breast density by ethnicity consistent with ethnic differences seen in breast cancer risk. Breast density may be a contributing factor to NZ's well-known, but poorly explained, inequalities in breast cancer incidence. PMID:23936166

Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; McKenzie, Fiona; Highnam, Ralph; Cave, Andrew; Walker, Jenny; Jeffreys, Mona

2013-01-01

291

Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.  

PubMed

The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P < 0.001), indicating optimal iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P < 0.01). A higher frequency of seafood meals was a significant predictor of UI in both groups, but household use of iodized salt was not. These data suggest the median UI in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored. PMID:19403711

Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

2009-06-01

292

Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N?=?15,437) compared with those 35 and over (N?=?2,387) who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks), low Apgar score (5 min.), small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4%) than younger women (6.4%). They had more prior terminations (<0.001), were more likely to have a body mass index (BMI) >25 (<0.001), had more in vitro fertilization (IVF) (<0.001) and other fertility treatments (<0.001) and a higher incidence of maternal diabetes (<0.001) and chronic hypertension (<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that women of AMA had higher rates of: preterm delivery before 37 weeks 19.2% (OR 1.39 CI 1.24 to 1.56) and before 34 weeks 8.7% (OR 1.68 CI 1.43 to 2.00) low Apgar scores at 5 min. 7.1% (OR 1.37 CI 1.00 to 1.88), Small-for-Gestational Age (SGA) 26.5% (OR 1.42 CI 1.28 to 1.57), Asphyxia 12.1% (OR 1.54 CI 1.34 to 1.77), Caesarean delivery 50% (OR 2.02 CI 1.84 to 2.20) and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) 31.6% (OR 1.45 CI 1.32 to 1.60). Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia.

2012-01-01

293

Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Fighting for Equality on All Fronts" (Fromont); "Three Questions for Mrs. Lucille Caron"; "Women Shoulder the Burden of Cambodia's Economy" (Roess); and "Renewing Their Relationship with the Land" (Mehra-Kerpelman). (SK)

Fromont, Michel; And Others

1994-01-01

294

Benefits of family planning: an assessment of women's knowledge in rural Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The last two decades have seen an increase in literature reporting an increase in knowledge and use of contraceptives among individuals and couples in Kenya, as in the rest of Africa, but there is a dearth of information regarding knowledge about benefits of family planning (FP) in Kenya. Objectives To assess the factors associated with knowledge about the benefits of FP for women and children, among women in rural Western Kenya. Methods Data are drawn from the Packard Western Kenya Project Baseline Survey, which collected data from rural women (aged 15–49 years). Ordinal regression was used on 923 women to determine levels of knowledge and associated factors regarding benefits of FP. Results Women in rural Western Kenya have low levels of knowledge about benefits of FP and are more knowledgeable about benefits for the mother rather than for the child. Only age, spousal communication and type of contraceptive method used are significant. Conclusions Women's level of knowledge about benefits of FP is quite low and may be one of the reasons why fertility is still high in Western Kenya. Therefore, FP programmes need to focus on increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of FP in this region.

Mutombo, Namuunda; Bakibinga, Pauline; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva

2014-01-01

295

Association between adolescent marriage and marital violence among young adult women in India  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether a history of adolescent marriage (<18 years) places women in young adulthood in India at increased risk of physical or sexual marital violence. Methods Cross-sectional analysis was performed on data from a nationally representative household study of 124 385 Indian women aged 15–49 years collected in 2005–2006. The analyses were restricted to married women aged 20–24 years who participated in the marital violence (MV) survey module (n=10 514). Simple regression models and models adjusted for participant demographics were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between adolescent marriage and MV. Results Over half (58%) of the participants were married before 18 years of age; 35% of the women had experienced physical or sexual violence in their marriage; and 27% reported such abuse in the last year. Adjusted regression analyses revealed that women married as minors were significantly more likely than those married as adults to report ever experiencing MV (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.61–1.95) and in the last 12 months (adjusted OR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.36–1.67). Conclusions Women who were married as adolescents remain at increased risk of MV into young adulthood.

Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Lawrence, Danielle; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G.

2010-01-01

296

Impact of Reproductive Status and Age on Response of Depressed Women to Cognitive Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Previous research suggests that reproductive hormones are potential affective modulators in mood disorders and may influence response to antidepressant medications. To our knowledge, there are no data on relationships between hormonal status and response to psychotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods At two sites, female outpatients (n=353), aged 18–70, with recurrent MDD received 12–14 weeks of cognitive therapy (CT). Menopausal status and age were based on self-report. In the parent study, nonresponse to therapy was defined as persistence of a major depressive episode (MDE) as defined by the DSM-IV or a final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17-Item (HRSD17) score of ? 12 or both. More traditional definitions of response (at least a 50% reduction in pretreatment HRSD17) and remission (a final HRSD17 ? 6) were also examined. Results Controlling for pretreatment HRSD17 scores, there were no significant differences found in the rates of response to CT or symptom status among premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Conclusions We found no support for the hypotheses that response to CT or the rates of change in depressive symptoms are moderated by reproductive status. The findings, however, are limited by the absence of early follicular phase serum sampling/analysis to estimate hormone levels and the reliance on self-report to establish menopausal status. These data motivate a full investigation of the effects of reproductive status on response to psychosocial interventions.

Minhajuddin, Abu; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

2013-01-01

297

Acute right lower abdominal pain in women of reproductive age: Clinical clues  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study possible gynecological organ pathologies in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower abdominal pain in patients of reproductive age. METHODS: Following Clinical Trials Ethical Committee approval, the retrospective data consisting of physical examination and laboratory findings in 290 patients with sudden onset right lower abdominal pain who used the emergency surgery service between April 2009 and September 2013, and underwent surgery and general anesthesia with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were collated. RESULTS: Total data on 290 patients were obtained. Two hundred and twenty-four (77.2%) patients had acute appendicitis, whereas 29 (10%) had perforated appendicitis and 37 (12.8%) had gynecological organ pathologies. Of the latter, 21 (7.2%) had ovarian cyst rupture, 12 (4.2%) had corpus hemorrhagicum cyst rupture and 4 (1.4%) had adnexal torsion. Defense, Rovsing’s sign, increased body temperature and increased leukocyte count were found to be statistically significant in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and gynecological organ pathologies. CONCLUSION: Gynecological pathologies in women of reproductive age are misleading in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

Hatipoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

2014-01-01

298

Lower body osteoarticular pain and dose of analgesic medications in older disabled women: the Women's Health and Aging Study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed use and dosage of analgesic medications in relation to severity of osteoarticular pain. METHODS: The type and dose of analgesic medication and the severity of pain in the lower back, hips, knees, or feet of 1002 older disabled women were assessed. RESULTS: Severe pain and the use of analgesic medications were reported by 48.5% and 78.8% of women, respectively. Among those who had severe pain, 41.2% were using less than 20% of the maximum analgesic dose. Overall, 6.6% of women were using more than 100% of the maximum dose. CONCLUSIONS: Severe pain is common. Additional, more effective, and safe analgesic treatments are needed for controlling pain in older persons.

Pahor, M; Guralnik, J M; Wan, J Y; Ferrucci, L; Penninx, B W; Lyles, A; Ling, S; Fried, L P

1999-01-01

299

Do reports of sleep disturbance relate to coronary and aortic calcification in healthy middle-aged women?: Study of Women's Health across the Nation  

PubMed Central

Background Poor sleep may be associated with the cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is less clear if poor sleep is associated with subclinical CVD. We evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported sleep disturbance and duration and calcification in the coronary arteries (CAC) and aorta (AC) in healthy mid-life women. Methods 512 black and white women enrolled in the SWAN Heart Study underwent a computed tomography protocol for measurement of CAC and AC and completed questionnaires about their sleep. Linear and partial proportional logit regression analyses adjusted for site, race, age, body mass index, and the Framingham risk score (model 1). Additional covariates of education, perceived health, hypnotic medication and alcohol use were evaluated (model 2), plus depressive symptoms (model 3). Results AC was related to higher levels of trouble falling asleep, waking earlier than planned, overall poor sleep quality, and cough/snoring and shorter sleep duration in linear regression analyses (model 1). Adjustment for additional covariates showed that poor sleep quality and waking earlier than planned remained associated with higher AC (models 2, 3). CAC was unrelated to sleep characteristics. Conclusions Poor sleep quality is related to AC in middle-aged women. Sleep quality should routinely be assessed in mid-life women.

Matthews, Karen A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Lee, Laisze; Janssen, Imke; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

2013-01-01

300

Estimates of nondisclosure of cigarette smoking among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the United States.  

PubMed

Although clinic-based studies have used biochemical validation to estimate the percentage of pregnant women who deny smoking but are actually smokers, a population-based estimate of nondisclosure of smoking status in US pregnant women has not been calculated. The authors analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and estimated the percentage of 994 pregnant and 3,203 nonpregnant women 20-44 years of age who did not report smoking but had serum cotinine levels that exceeded the defined cut point for active smoking (nondisclosure). Active smoking was defined as self-reporting smoking or having a serum cotinine concentration that exceeded the cut point for active smoking. Overall, 13.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.8, 17.1) of pregnant women and 29.7% (95% CI: 27.3, 32.1) of nonpregnant women were active smokers. Nondisclosure was higher among pregnant active smokers (22.9%, 95% CI: 11.8, 34.6) than among nonpregnant smokers (9.2%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.2). Among pregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with younger age (20-24 years). Among nonpregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with Mexican-American and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity. Studies and surveillance systems that rely on self-reported smoking status are subject to underestimation of smoking prevalence, especially among pregnant women, and underreporting may vary by demographic characteristics. PMID:21178103

Dietz, Patricia M; Homa, David; England, Lucinda J; Burley, Kim; Tong, Van T; Dube, Shanta R; Bernert, John T

2011-02-01

301

Aging and Hormones of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axis: gonadotropic axis in men and somatotropic axes in men and women  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrinology of the aging (male) gonadal and (male and female) somatotropic axes will be reviewed. A companion chapter (see J.E. Hall) discusses reproductive hormonal changes in aging women. Both the gonadal and growth-hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF-I) axes function as ensembles. The ensembles comprise tripartite interactions among the brain (hypothalamus), anterior pituitary gland (gonadotrope and somatotrope cells) and target organs (testis, liver, muscle, fat and brain). Compelling evidence indicates that combined hypothalamic and gonadal adaptations operate in the reproductive axis of older men, and multiple hypothalamic adaptations prevail in the GH axis of elderly men and women. Evolving investigative methods allow more precise parsing of the particular mechanisms that subserve such age-related changes, and suggest novel interventional strategies to evaluate the physiological impact of the dynamic alterations discerned in aging individuals.

Veldhuis, Johannes D.

2008-01-01

302

Women's experience with postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device use in India  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices (PPIUCD) are increasingly included in many national postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs, but satisfaction of women who have adopted PPIUCD and complication rates need further characterization. Our specific aims were to describe women who accepted PPIUCD, their experience and satisfaction with their choice, and complication of expulsion or infection. Methods We studied 2,733 married women, aged 15–49 years, who received PPIUCD in sixteen health facilities, located in eight states and the national capital territory of India, at the time of IUCD insertion and six weeks later. The satisfaction of women who received IUCD during the postpartum period and problems and complications following insertion were assessed using standardized questionnaires. Results Mean (SD) age of women accepting PPIUCD was 24 (4) years. Over half of women had parity of one, and nearly one-quarter had no formal schooling. Nearly all women (99.6%) reported that they were satisfied with IUCD at the time of insertion and 92% reported satisfaction at the six-week follow-up visit. The rate of expulsion of IUCD was 3.6% by six weeks of follow-up. There were large variations in rates of problems and complications that were largely attributable to the individual hospitals implementing the study. Conclusions Women who receive PPIUCD show a high level of satisfaction with this choice of contraception, and the rates of expulsion were low enough such that the benefits of contraceptive protection outweigh the potential inconvenience of needing to return for care for that subset of women.

2014-01-01

303

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa.

2013-01-01

304

Trends in age at first hospital admission in relation to trends in life expectancy in Swedish men and women above the age of 60  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether the first admission to hospital after the age of 60 has been postponed to higher ages for men and women in Sweden, in line with the shift in mortality. Design This nationwide observational study was based on data obtained from national registries in Sweden. The study cohort was created by linking the Register of the Total Population in Sweden with the National Patient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Setting The entire Swedish population born between 1895 and 1950 was followed up between 1987 and 2010 with respect to hospital admissions and deaths using the national registry data. Primary outcome measures The time from age 60 until the first admission to the hospital, regardless of the diagnosis, and the time from age 60 until death (remaining life expectancy, LE) were estimated for the years 1995–2010. The difference between these two measures was also estimated for the same period. Results Between 1995 and 2010 mortality as well as first hospital admission shifted to higher ages. The average time from age 60, 70, 80 and 90 until the first hospital admission increased at all ages. The remaining LE at age 60, 70 and 80 increased for men and women. For the 90-year-olds it was stable. Conclusions In Sweden, the first hospital admission after the age of 60 has been pushed to higher ages in line with mortality for the ages 60 and above. First admission to the hospital could indicate the onset of first severe morbidity; however, the reorganisation of healthcare may also have influenced the observed trends.

Karampampa, Korinna; Drefahl, Sven; Andersson, Tomas; Ahlbom, Anders; Modig, Karin

2013-01-01

305

Body mass index of married Bangladeshi women: trends and association with socio-demographic factors.  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI) is a good indicator of nutritional status in a population. In underdeveloped countries like Bangladesh, this indicator provides a method that can assist intervention to help eradicate many preventable diseases. This study aimed to report on changes in the BMI of married Bangladeshi women who were born in the past three decades and its association with socio-demographic factors. Data for 10,115 married and currently non-pregnant Bangladeshi women were extracted from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). The age range of the sample was 15-49 years. The mean BMI was 20.85 ± 3.66 kg/m(2), and a decreasing tendency in BMI was found among birth year cohorts from 1972 to 1992. It was found that the proportion of underweight females has been increasing in those born during the last 20 years of the study period (1972 to 1992). Body mass index increased with increasing age, education level of the woman and her husband, wealth index, age at first marriage and age at first delivery, and decreased with increasing number of ever-born children. Lower BMI was especially pronounced among women who were living in rural areas, non-Muslims, employed women, women not living with their husbands (separated) or those who had delivered at home or non-Caesarean delivery. PMID:22340969

Hossain, M G; Bharati, P; Aik, Saw; Lestrel, Pete E; Abeer, Almasri; Kamarul, T

2012-07-01

306

Women's awareness and periconceptional use of folic acid: data from a large European survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the awareness and use of folic acid in European women of child-bearing age, particularly in the setting of pregnancy and pregnancy planning. Methods Between November 2009 and December 2009, women aged 15–49 years old from 18 European countries completed a 30-minute structured questionnaire either online or via face-to-face interviews. To achieve nationally representative samples for each country quotas were set for age, education, income, and regional distribution. Results A total of 22,925 women participated in the survey. Of the respondents, 58% had at least one biological child, and of these 38% reported that their first pregnancy was not planned. Nearly 60% of women who planned their pregnancy indicated that they had stopped using their method of contraception without first consulting a doctor or another health care professional. Overall, 70% reported that they had heard of folic acid and 40% stated that they knew the benefits of folic acid. However, when prompted to indicate which diseases and/or birth defects folic acid can protect against, only 17% knew that folic acid can reduce the risk of neural tube defects/spina bifida. Conclusions A large proportion of European women of child-bearing age in this survey were unaware that periconceptional folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of birth defects.

Bitzer, Johannes; von Stenglin, Ariane; Bannemerschult, Ralf

2013-01-01

307

Latitude and ultraviolet radiation dose in the birthplace in relation to menarcheal age in a large cohort of French women  

PubMed Central

Background Age at menarche is an important determinant of hormonal-related neoplasia and other chronic diseases. Spatial and temporal variations in age at menarche have been observed in industrialised countries and several environmental factors were reported to have an influence. Method We examined geographical variations in self-reported age at menarche and explored the effects of both latitude and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dose on the onset of menarche in 88 278 women from the French E3N cohort (aged 40–65 years at inclusion). Results The mean age at menarche was 12.8 years. After adjustment for potential confounders (birth cohort, prematurity, birth weight and length, father’s income index, body silhouette in childhood, food deprivation during World War II, population of birthplace, number of siblings, breastfeeding exposure and indoor exposure to passive smoking during childhood), latitude and UVR dose (annual or spring/summer) in county of birth were significantly associated with age at menarche (Ptrend < 0.0001). Women born at lower latitudes or in regions with higher annual or spring/summer UVR dose had a 3- to 4-month earlier menarche than women born at higher latitudes or in regions with lower UVR. On a continuous scale, a 1° increment in latitude resulted in a 0.04-year older age at menarche [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.05], whereas a 1-kJ/m2 increment in annual UVR dose resulted in a 0.42-year younger age at menarche (95% CI: ?0.55, ?0.29). Conclusion These data further suggest that light exposure in childhood may influence sexual maturation in women.

Dossus, Laure; Kvaskoff, Marina; Bijon, Anne; Engel, Pierre; Verdebout, Jean; Fervers, Beatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Mesrine, Sylvie

2013-01-01

308

Fertility Desires and Intentions of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Improvements in life expectancy and quality of life for HIV-positive women coupled with reduced vertical transmission will likely lead numerous HIV-positive women to consider becoming pregnant. In order to clarify the demand, and aid with appropriate health services planning for this population, our study aims to assess the fertility desires and intentions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario, Canada. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study with recruitment stratified to match the geographic distribution of HIV-positive women of reproductive age (18–52) living in Ontario was carried out. Women were recruited from 38 sites between October 2007 and April 2009 and invited to complete a 189-item self-administered survey entitled “The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire” designed to assess fertility desires, intentions and actions. Logistic regression models were fit to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of significant predictors of fertility intentions. The median age of the 490 participating HIV-positive women was 38 (IQR, 32–43) and 61%, 52%, 47% and 74% were born outside of Canada, living in Toronto, of African ethnicity and currently on antiretroviral therapy, respectively. Of total respondents, 69% (95% CI, 64%–73%) desired to give birth and 57% (95% CI, 53%–62%) intended to give birth in the future. In the multivariable model, the significant predictors of fertility intentions were: younger age (age<40) (p<0.0001), African ethnicity (p<0.0001), living in Toronto (p?=?0.002), and a lower number of lifetime births (p?=?0.02). Conclusions/Significance The proportions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario desiring and intending pregnancy were higher than reported in earlier North American studies. Proportions were more similar to those reported from African populations. Healthcare providers and policy makers need to consider increasing services and support for pregnancy planning for HIV-positive women. This may be particularly significant in jurisdictions with high levels of African immigration.

Loutfy, Mona R.; Hart, Trevor A.; Mohammed, Saira S.; Su, DeSheng; Ralph, Edward D.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Soje, Lena C.; Muchenje, Marvelous; Rachlis, Anita R.; Smaill, Fiona M.; Angel, Jonathan B.; Raboud, Janet M.; Silverman, Michael S.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Gough, Kevin; Yudin, Mark H.

2009-01-01

309

Women's autonomy, education and contraception use in Pakistan: a national study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been proposed that the autonomy of women is one of the mechanisms of how education influences contraceptive use in developing countries. We tested this hypothesis in a national sample of women in Pakistan. Methods We used the 2000 Pakistan Reproductive Health and Family Planning Survey, which interviewed a national sample of ever married women aged 15–49 years (n = 6579). Women's decision autonomy was estimated from 9 questions on who makes decisions at home; movement autonomy was based on 6 questions on whether women need permission to visit places outside home. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in multivariate analysis to investigate the independent association between autonomy and lifetime and current contraception use and to assess the extent to which autonomy mediates the association between education and contraception use. Results Decision autonomy was significantly associated with both lifetime and current contraception use; after controlling for covariates, the odds ratios for the highest vs. the lowest quintile were 1.8 (1.4–2.4) and 2.0 (1.4–2.8), respectively. Movement autonomy was not consistently associated with contraceptive use. Contraceptive use was strongly associated with women's education but this relation was not mediated by women's autonomy. Conclusion Women's decision autonomy is significantly associated with contraceptive use but it does not appear to mediate the link between woman's education and contraception.

Saleem, Shabana; Bobak, Martin

2005-01-01

310

Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

311

Age-specific effects of estrogen receptors' polymorphisms on the bone traits in healthy fertile women: the BONTURNO study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Skeletal characteristics such as height (Ht), bone mineral density (BMD) or bone turnover markers are strongly inherited. Common variants in the genes encoding for estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2) are proposed as candidates for influencing bone phenotypes at the population level. METHODS: We studied 641 healthy premenopausal women aged 20–50 years (yrs) participating into the BONTURNO study.

Francesco Massart; Francesca Marini; Gerolamo Bianchi; Salvatore Minisola; Giovanni Luisetto; Antonella Pirazzoli; Sara Salvi; Dino Micheli; Laura Masi; Maria Luisa Brandi

2009-01-01

312

Influences of player nationality, playing position, and height on relative age effects at women's under-17 FIFA World Cup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that young male soccer players who are born early in a cohort are overrepresented on elite soccer teams. Selection advantages such as this have been termed ‘relative age effects’ (RAEs). Few studies have examined RAEs in elite women's youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of RAEs in the Fédération

Michael Romann; Jörg Fuchslocher

2012-01-01

313

Are Men Aging as Oaks and Women as Reeds? A Behavioral Hypothesis to Explain the Gender Paradox of French Centenarians  

PubMed Central

Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as “oaks,” seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as “reeds,” seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits.

Balard, Frederic; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

2011-01-01

314

An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

Gorman, Charlotte

2001-01-01

315

USE OF COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY FOR OBTAINING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Using Commercial Telephone Directories to Obtain a Population-Based Sample for Mail Survey of Women of Reproductive Age Danelle T. Lobdella, Germaine M. Buckb, John M. Weinerc, Pauline Mendolaa aUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and ...

316

Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

1985-01-01

317

Identification of At-Risk Drinking and Intervention with Women of Childbearing Age: A Guide for Primary-Care Providers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide provides clinicians with office-based screening and intervention protocols to reduce drinking in women of childbearing age and to prevent maternal alcohol use during the perinatal period. A protocol is also provided for the detection of fetal a...

M. Fleming

2000-01-01

318

Intervention Study on Screening for Breast Cancer Among Single African-American Women Aged 65 and Older.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The past year was the second year of our intervention study that aims to improve the breast screening behavior among single (windowed, divorced, separated or never-married) African-American women ages 65 and older. During the period, we successfully (1) f...

K. Zhu

1998-01-01

319

Factors influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women: a qualitative study to inform clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background About half of women decrease their regular exercise during middle age. Concurrently, they experience a reduction in basal metabolic rate and loss of lean muscle as they transition to menopause. The combined effects place these women at increased risk for body weight gain and associated co-morbidities. Further research is required to better assess their barriers to regular exercise and to develop more applied knowledge aimed to improve the applicability of clinical interventions aimed at this population. The main aim of this study was to identify enablers and barriers influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women who exercise. Methods An interpretive description qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. The two key questions were focused on planning to engage in physical activity and succeeding or planning to engage in physical activity and not succeeding. Inductive content analysis was used. Results Fifty-three women interviewed were aged 40–62 years and experiencing mild to moderate menopausal symptoms. Six broad themes influencing adhering to regular exercise were: routine, intrinsic motivation, biophysical issues, psychosocial commitments, environmental factors, and resources. Common sub-themes were identified as enabling factors: daily structure that incorporated physical activity (broad theme routine), anticipated positive feelings associated with physical activity (intrinsic), and accountability to others (psychosocial). Other common sub-themes identified as barriers were disruptions in daily structure (routine), competing demands (routine) and self-sacrifice (psychosocial). Conclusions The most common barrier middle-aged women describe as interfering with adhering to regular exercise was attributable to the demands of this life stage at home and with others. Lack of time and menopausal symptoms were not identified as the common barriers. To support women to adhere to regular exercise, healthcare professionals should consider a narrative approach to assessing barriers and focus on enablers to overcoming identified barriers.

2014-01-01

320

Bone mass and structure at the hip in men and women over the age of 60 years.  

PubMed

Bone mass and structure at the proximal femur are important predictors of hip fracture. The aims of this study were to compare in a large sample of elderly men and women the precision of measurements of bone mass and structure at multiple sites at the proximal femur, to examine their interrelationships, to establish their relationships with age and body size, and to examine criteria for defining geometric and architectural variables in bone structure. Women (n = 336) and men (n = 141) over the age of 60 years were studied cross-sectionally. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the proximal femur were measured in duplicate by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Shaft and total upper femur (hip) sites in addition to femoral neck, Ward's triangle and trochanter were measured. Structural variables, measured from radiographs and from DXA images, including cortical thickness at calcar femorale, lateral cotex and midfemur, width of the femur and medulla, Singh grade, hip and femoral axis length, femoral head and neck width and the center of mass of the femoral neck. BMD and BMC had high reproducibility and there were significant differences in reproducibility across sites. Among sites, total upper femur and shaft had the highest reproducibility. Duplicate measurements substantially improved reliability of the measurement and are recommended when the value is close to a diagnostic level or when it will be used to establish rates of change. Reproducibility of structural variables was also high except for the lateral cortex, center of mass and Singh grade. Variance due to measurement error did not change with either age or gender. Women were significantly different from men, after controlling for differences in body size, in all variables except Singh grade and medulla width. BMD and BMC were negatively related to age and positively to body size. Structural variables examined in relation to age and body size fell into two categories. The first comprised variables that were not age-related but were body-size-related suggesting that they could be classified as geometric variables. The second comprised variables that were both body-size-related and age-related, suggesting that they could be classified as architectural variables. Using these criteria, calcar and lateral cortex were architectural variables, whereas shaft width, hip and femoral axis length, femoral head and neck width, and center of mass were geometric in both men and women. In women, shaft cortex width and medulla width were age-related, whereas in men they were not. Singh grade showed no consistent pattern with age or body size in women and men. PMID:9797907

Peacock, M; Liu, G; Carey, M; Ambrosius, W; Turner, C H; Hui, S; Johnston, C C

1998-01-01

321

Age and Sleep Disturbances Among American Men And Women: Data From the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Explore the prevalence of sleep-related complaints across age groups, examining effects of sex, general health, and depressed mood. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: Complete-case analysis included 155,877 participants who responded to questions related to Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance (SLEEPDIST) and Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy (TIREDNESS). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Outcomes were self-reported complaints in response to survey questions assessing SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS, dichotomized as reporting a complaint < 6 versus ? 6 nights or days, respectively, in a 2-wk period. Predictors were age, general health, and depressed mood. All analyses were adjusted for race/ethnicity, income, education, and time since last medical checkup. Across all age groups, women reported more SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Poor general health, mild depressed mood, and moderate/severe depressed mood were associated with SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Both SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS generally declined across the life span, with fewest endorsements in respondents older than 80 yr. For SLEEPDIST, odds ratios (ORs, reference = 80+) declined from age 18-54 yr, rose slightly, and then declined again after age 59 yr in men. The pattern was similar for women, except a more marked rise was noted from age 40-59 yr. The pattern was similar for TIREDNESS. Conclusions: Advancing age was not associated with increased Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance or Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy. These results suggest that the often-reported increase in sleep problems with age is a nonlinear phenomenon, mediated by factors other than physiologic aging. Citation: Grandner MA; Martin JL; Patel NP; Jackson NJ; Gehrman PR; Pien G; Perlis ML; Xie D; Sha D; Weaver T; Gooneratne NS. Age and sleep disturbances among American men and women: data from the U.S. behavioral risk factor surveillance system. SLEEP 2012;35(3):395-406.

Grandner, Michael A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jackson, Nicholas J.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Pien, Grace; Perlis, Michael L.; Xie, Dawei; Sha, Daohang; Weaver, Terri; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

2012-01-01

322

Fertility of Men and Women Aged 15-44 Years in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 15–44 years who ever had a biological child: United States, 2006–2010 Women Men Characteristic ... n April 12, 2012 Table 4. Number of biological children fathered by men aged 15–44 years: ...

323

Exercise: An Active Route to Healthy Aging Physical Activity Participation by Presence and Type of Functional Deficits in Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Physical activity is important for maintaining functional independence of older persons, especially for those with existing functional deficits. Since such deficits may pose barriers to activity, it would be instructive to examine activity patterns in relation to specific types of deficits to determine the amount and type of physical activity older women pursue. This study sought to identify categories

Gerald J. Jerome; Thomas A. Glass; Michelle Mielke; Qian-Li Xue; Ross E. Andersen; Linda P. Fried

324

Mutual Information Analysis of EEG Signals Indicates Age-Related Changes in Cortical Interdependence during Sleep in Middle-aged vs. Elderly Women  

PubMed Central

Elderly subjects exhibit declining sleep efficiency parameters with longer time spent awake at night and greater sleep fragmentation. In this paper, we report on the changes in cortical interdependence during sleep stages between 15 middle aged (range: 42-50 years) and 15 elderly (range: 71-86 years) women subjects. Cortical interdependence assessed from EEG signals typically exhibits increasing levels of correlation as human subjects progress from wake to deeper stages of sleep. EEG signals acquired from previously existing polysomnogram data sets were subjected to mutual information (MI) analysis to detect changes in information transmission associated with change in sleep stage and to understand how age affects the interdependence values. We observed a significant reduction in the interdependence between central EEG signals of elderly subjects in NREM and REM stage sleep in comparison to middle-aged subjects (age group effect: elderly vs. middle aged p<0.001, sleep stage effect: p<0.001, interaction effect between age group and sleep stage: p=0.007). A narrow band analysis revealed that the reduction in MI was present in delta, theta and sigma frequencies. These findings suggest that the lowered cortical interdependence in sleep of elderly subjects may indicate independently evolving dynamic neural activities at multiple cortical sites. The loss of synchronization between neural activities during sleep in the elderly may make these women more susceptible to localized disturbances that could lead to frequent arousals.

Ramanand, Pravitha; Bruce, Margaret C.; Bruce, Eugene N.

2010-01-01

325

Taking It One Day at a Time: African American Women Aging with HIV and Co-Morbidities.  

PubMed

Abstract Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies. PMID:24933093

Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

2014-07-01

326

Immunogenicity and tolerability of an HPV16\\/18 AS04-adjuvanted prophylactic cervical cancer vaccine in women aged 15–55 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunogenicity and safety of an HPV-16\\/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were assessed in women aged 26–55 years and compared with women aged 15–25 years in a Phase III, non-randomised, open-label, age-stratified study. Overall the vaccine was well tolerated and 100% seropositivity was achieved 1 month after the third dose in all age groups. There was a high correlation between HPV-16 and

Tino F. Schwarz; Marek Spaczynski; Achim Schneider; Jacek Wysocki; Andrzej Galaj; Pamela Perona; Sylviane Poncelet; Toufik Zahaf; Karin Hardt; Dominique Descamps; Gary Dubin

2009-01-01

327

Reproductive Health Rights of Women in the Rural Areas of Meherpur District in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the reproductive health rights, women empowerment and gender equity in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods Three hundred married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Meherpur District, Bangladesh were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and purposing sampling techniques. The logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominating factors affecting reproductive health rights. To fulfill the objectives of the study the two main factors, age at marriage and family planning acceptance of the respondents, were regarded as the determinants. Results The study results revealed that almost all the respondents were housewives (82.3%), one-third (31.0%) did not avail any modern facility, and their yearly income was very low. Moreover, about half of the women (52.7%) were very young (?30 years), most of them (79.0%) had married early (<18 years) and about half of them (53.3%) had taken contraceptives based on their husbands’ choice. Finally, multi-variate analysis identified the relationship between the profession of the respondents, yearly income, number of family members, and the availability of modern facilities with age at marriage (Model 1). The study also identified the relationship between the age of respondents, education, occupation, yearly income, and the total number of family members with family planning acceptance (Model 2). Conclusion Regarding the results of this study, women's reproductive health rights, marriage after the age of 18 and family planning acceptance among couples needs to be enhanced in Mehrpur District in Bangladesh.

Hossain, Md Kamal; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Akter, Mst Nazniz

2011-01-01

328

Risk Factors for Falling in Home-Dwelling Older Women With Stroke The Women's Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Much of our knowledge of risk factors for falls comes from studies of the general population. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of falling associated with commonly accepted and stroke-specific factors in a home-dwelling stroke population. Methods—This study included an analysis of prospective fall reports in 124 women with confirmed stroke over 1 year.

S. E. Lamb; L. Ferrucci; S. Volapto; L. P. Fried; J. M. Guralnik

2010-01-01

329

Different effects of age, adiposity and physical activity on the risk of ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

While increasing age, decreasing body mass index (BMI), and physical inactivity are known to increase hip fracture risk, whether these factors have similar effects on other common fractures is not well established. We used prospectively-collected data from a large cohort to examine the role of these factors on the risk of incident ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. 1,155,304 postmenopausal participants in the Million Women Study with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years, provided information about lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors at recruitment in 1996–2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service cause-specific hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions. During follow-up for an average of 8.3 years per woman, 6807 women had an incident ankle fracture, 9733 an incident wrist fracture, and 5267 an incident hip fracture. Adjusted absolute and relative risks (RRs) for incident ankle, wrist, and hip fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. Age-specific rates for wrist and hip fractures increased sharply with age, whereas rates for ankle fracture did not. Cumulative absolute risks from ages 50 to 84 years per 100 women were 2.5 (95%CI 2.2–2.8) for ankle fracture, 5.0 (95%CI 4.4–5.5) for wrist fracture, and 6.2 (95%CI 5.5–7.0) for hip fracture. Compared with lean women (BMI < 20 kg/m2), obese women (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) had a three-fold increased risk of ankle fracture (RR = 3.07; 95%CI 2.53–3.74), but a substantially reduced risk of wrist fracture and especially of hip fracture (RR = 0.57; 0.51–0.64 and 0.23; 0.21–0.27, respectively). Physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture but was not associated with ankle or wrist fracture risk. Ankle, wrist and hip fractures are extremely common in postmenopausal women, but the associations with age, adiposity, and physical activity differ substantially between the three fracture sites.

Armstrong, Miranda E.G.; Cairns, Benjamin J.; Banks, Emily; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.; Beral, Valerie

2012-01-01

330

Biosocial factors affecting vitamin D status of women of childbearing age in the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

Low serum 25-OHD in female Arab subjects, which may predispose their infants to hypocalcaemia, has been suggested to be due to inadequate sunshine exposure, but may include other sociobiological factors. The effects of duration of sunshine exposure--weighted against the magnitude of clothing (UV exposure) and other sociobiological variables such as age, education and living accommodation--on serum 25-OHD and mineral status of 33 UAE national women of childbearing age were compared with those of 25 non-Gulf Arabs and seventeen Europeans. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone among the groups were not significantly different. The serum concentration of 25-OHD in UAE nationals was 8.6 ng/ml (4.5-17.4), mean +/- 1 SD, and in non-Gulf Arabs 12.6 ng/ml (6.0-26.4); both these values were significantly lower (p = < 0.0001) than the 64.3 ng/ml (49-84.3) found in Europeans. Compared with Europeans, the UAE and non-Gulf Arabs in this study were younger, had fewer years of education and had significantly lower clothing and UV scores (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.59425) between serum 25-OHD and UV score, but not with length of exposure. After adjusting for other confounding variables, nationality, clothing and UV scores remained major determinants of serum 25-OHD (p < 0.0001). Therefore, limited skin exposure to sunlight appears to be an important determinant of vitamin D status in our subjects. Strategies to increase vitamin D stores should include vitamin D supplementation or advice on effective sunlight exposure. PMID:9818552

Dawodu, A; Absood, G; Patel, M; Agarwal, M; Ezimokhai, M; Abdulrazzaq, Y; Khalayli, G

1998-10-01

331

Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

332

Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

2009-01-01

333

The Impact of Maternal Age on Clinical Pregnancy an Spontaneous Abortion in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization and Gamete IntraFallopian Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age at which women should be advised against proceeding with initial or further infertility treatment is one of the many unresolved questions in this area of women's health and was the subject of investigation in this study. One of the major diffi culties in determining the impact of maternal age on outcomes is the practice of researchers (publishing in

Dianna T. Kenny

1994-01-01

334

Volumetric and Areal Bone Mineral Density Measures Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Men and Women: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations of volumetric (vBMD) and areal (aBMD) bone mineral density measures with prevalent cardiovascular disease\\u000a (CVD) and subclinical peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were investigated in a cohort of older men and women enrolled in the\\u000a Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Participants were 3,075 well-functioning white and black men and women (42% black,\\u000a 51% women), aged 68–80 years. Total

G. N. Farhat; E. S. Strotmeyer; A. B. Newman; K. Sutton-Tyrrell; D. C. Bauer; T. Harris; K. C. Johnson; D. R. Taaffe; J. A. Cauley

2006-01-01

335

Correlations between bone mineral density and demographic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables in community-dwelling Japanese women 69 years of age and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  A few epidemiologic studies have comprehensively attempted to identify risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Asian women. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, lifestyle, and biochemical factors correlated with BMD in elderly Japanese women 69 years of age and over.Methods  The study design was cross-sectional. The subjects were 583 ambulatory women aged 69 years and over,

K. Nakamura; T. Saito; T. Nishiwaki; K. Ueno; M. Nashimoto; Y. Okuda; Y. Tsuchiya; R. Oshiki; M. Yamamoto

2006-01-01

336

Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women  

PubMed Central

Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo.

White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

2012-01-01

337

Psychological functioning of recently bereaved, middle-aged women: the first 13 months.  

PubMed

This study examined the natural course of psychological functioning in recently bereaved middle-aged women. 69 widows were assessed four times (T1-T4) between the period of 4 to 13 mo. after the loss and were compared to a matched nonwidowed group of 57. Of the SCL-90 feelings of depression, agoraphobic behavior, anxiety, hostility, somatization, feelings of insufficiency, and sleep disorders were heightened at 4 mo. after bereavement compared to the norm group. Significantly higher psychological dysfunctioning was found on all SCL-90 subscales than for non-widows. Over time, a decrease in psychological dysfunction was found for most widows; however, not every widow appeared to recover psychologically, and 17% of the widows showed severe psychological dysfunctioning at 13 mo. postbereavement (T4). With respect to the predictive value of the Total score on the SCL-90, at 13 mo., 27% of these widows had scores indicating severe psychological dysfunctioning; these were comparable to their scores at 4 mo. postbereavement. PMID:11026420

Beem, E E; Maes, S; Cleiren, M; Schut, H A; Garssen, B

2000-08-01

338

Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women  

PubMed Central

Background Gut microbiota is regarded as one of the major factors involved in the control of body weight. The antiobesity effects of ginseng and its main constituents have been demonstrated, but the effects on gut microbiota are still unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of ginseng on gut microbiota, 10 obese middle-aged Korean women took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk and assessment of body composition parameters, metabolic biomarkers, and gut microbiota composition was performed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing at baseline and at 8 wk. Significant changes were observed in body weight and body mass index; however, slight changes were observed in gut microbiota. We divided the participants into two groups, the effective and the ineffective weight loss groups, depending on weight loss effect, in order to determine whether the antiobesity effect was influenced by the composition of gut microbiota, and the composition of gut microbiota was compared between the two groups. Results Prior to ginseng intake, significant differences of gut microbiota were observed between both at phyla and genera and the gut microbiota of the effective and ineffective weight loss groups was segregated on a principal coordinate analysis plot. Conclusion Results of this study indicate that ginseng exerted a weight loss effect and slight effects on gut microbiota in all participants. In addition, its antiobesity effects differed depending on the composition of gut microbiota prior to ginseng intake.

Song, Mi-Young; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hojun

2014-01-01

339

Association between Vitamin D Insufficiency and Elevated Serum Uric Acid among Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Han Women  

PubMed Central

Background Association between vitamin D insufficiency and hyperuricemia has not been reported so far. We aimed to study the association of vitamin D insufficiency with elevated serum uric acid among middle-aged and elderly Chinese Han women. Methods We collected data from participants residing in Jinchang district of Suzhou from January to May, 2010. Serum uric acid, 25-hydroxy vitamin D and other traditional biomarkers including fasting plasma glucose and blood lipids were determined in 1726 women aged above 30 years. Association between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated uric acid was analyzed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Results Among postmenopausal women, 25-hydroxy vitamin D level of participants with elevated uric acid was lower than that of those with normal uric acid (median [interquartile range]: 35[28–57] vs 40[32–58], µg/L; P?=?0.006). Elevated uric acid was more prevalent in participants with vitamin D insufficiency compared to those without vitamin D insufficiency (16.50% vs 8.08%; P<0.001). Association between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated uric acid was not significant among premenopausal women. However, participants with vitamin D insufficiency were more likely to have elevated uric acid compared with those without vitamin D insufficiency among postmenopausal women (OR, 95% CI: 2.38, 1.47–3.87). Moreover, after excluding individuals with diabetes and/or hypertension, the association of vitamin D insufficiency with elevated uric acid was still significant (OR, 95% CI: 2.48, 1.17–5.44). Conclusions Vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with elevated uric acid among postmenopausal Chinese Han women. This study suggested that a clinical trial should be conducted to confirm the association of vitamin D insufficiency with hyperuricemia.

Li, Chao; Chao, Xiangqin; Zhang, Qiu; Zhang, Yonghong

2013-01-01

340

Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49-79  

PubMed Central

Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p?=?0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p?=?0.0027. p?=?0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p?=?0.0050, P?=?0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P?=?0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P?=?0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P?=?0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P?=?0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities –frequent attendance clubs/lodges/groups”, and with ‘a little’ vs. ‘none’ or ‘great deal’ of strength and comfort from religion.

Wyshak, Grace

2014-01-01

341

The clinical content of preconception care: the use of medications and supplements among women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

The use of prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements are common among women of reproductive age. For medications, little information about the teratogenic risks or safety is available, as pregnant women are traditionally excluded from clinical trials, and premarketing animal studies do not necessarily predict the effects of treatment in human pregnancy. Even less is typically known about the effects of dietary supplements on pregnancy outcomes, as they are not held to the same rigorous safety and efficacy standards as prescription medications. Congenital anomalies associated with medication use are potentially preventable, because they are linked with modifiable maternal exposures during the period of organogenesis. However, as women of reproductive age experience acute and chronic conditions that can result in adverse outcomes for the woman and her offspring, the benefits of use of a particular medication before or early in pregnancy may outweigh the risks. Resources and principles outlined in this article will aid healthcare providers in selecting appropriate medication regimens for women of reproductive age, particularly those with chronic health conditions, those who are planning a pregnancy, and those who may become pregnant. PMID:19081432

Dunlop, Anne L; Gardiner, Paula M; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Menard, M Kathryn; McDiarmid, Melissa A

2008-12-01

342

Age-associated prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 8281 pregnant women in Poland between 2004 and 2012.  

PubMed

This study aimed to describe Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in Polish pregnant women and the incidence rates of congenital infections in their neonates observed between 2004 and 2012. Serological tests for T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were performed on serum samples of 8281 pregnant women treated at the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute in Lodz. The yearly seroconversion rate for T. gondii IgG antibodies was estimated using a mathematical model to determine the dependency between age and prevalence. Mean prevalence of IgG antibodies between 2004 and 2012 in pregnant women was 40·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39·6-41·7] and increased with age with a yearly seroconversion rate of 0·8% (95% CI 0·6-1·0, P<0·001). Assuming a T. gondii materno-fetal transmission rate of 30% gave an estimate of 1·80/1000 neonates as congenitally infected. The increased mean age (28·7 vs 26·7 years, P<0·001) of pregnant women was probably the most important factor in abolishing the effect of falling prevalence rates. PMID:23721799

Nowakowska, D; Wujcicka, W; Sobala, W; Spiewak, E; Gaj, Z; Wilczy?ski, J

2014-03-01

343

Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ? skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women.

Ramos-Jimenez, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Munoz-Daw, Maria DJ; Torres-Duran, Patricia V; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco A

2009-01-01

344

Educational level, prevalence of hysterectomy, and age at amenorrhoea: a cross-sectional analysis of 9536 women from six population-based cohort studies in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Hysterectomy prevalence has been shown to vary by education level. Hysterectomy influences age at amenorrhoea. The aim of this study was to examine these associations in Germany within population-based data sets. Methods Baseline assessments in six population-based cohorts took place from 1997 through 2006 and included 9,548 women aged 20–84 years. All studies assessed hysterectomy history, school and professional degrees. Degrees were categorized into three levels each. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Prevalences were higher in West Germany than East Germany, increased by age, and leveled off starting at 55–64 years. The age- and study-adjusted prevalence ratio (lowest versus highest school level) was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.28-5.30), 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.81), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80-1.28) for women aged 20–45, 45–64, and 65 and more years respectively. The estimated adjusted prevalence ratios per one unit decrement of the educational qualification score (range 1?=?lowest, 8?=?highest) were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02-1.64), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.12), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.03) for women aged 20–44, 45–64, and 65–84 years respectively. Age at amenorrhoea was on average 6.2 years lower (43.5 years versus 49.7 years) among women with a history of hysterectomy than those without. Conclusions Lower educational level was associated with a higher hysterectomy prevalence among women aged 20–64 years. Several mediators associated with educational level and hysterectomy including women’s disease risk, women’s treatment preference, and women’s access to uterus-preserving treatment may explain this association. At population level, hysterectomy decreases the age of amenorrhoea on average by 6.2 years.

2014-01-01

345

Deficiencies of the Microelements, Folate and Vitamin B12 in Women of the Child Bearing Ages in Gorgan, Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: The deficiencies of folic acid, vitamin B12, and microelements during pregnancy may affect the health of newborns. Objectives: To assess the serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc and copper in healthy women of the childbearing ages in Gorgan, northern Iran. Methodology: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 women of childbearing ages in northern Iran during November 2007-March 2008. The serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, iron, copper and zinc were evaluated by laboratory tests. Results: Iron, copper , folate, vitamin B12 deficiencies and folate with vitamin B12 deficiency were detected in 13%, 32% , 13% , 32% and 11% women of the childbearing ages, respectively . According to the ethnicity, vitamin B12, folate and iron deficiencies in the Sistani group were observed in 38.3%, 12.9% and 12.9% of the women, respectively. In the native Fars group, the above mentioned deficiencies were found in 31.1%, 13.4% and 7.5% of the subjects. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were observed in the urban habitant in 32.7% and 11.5 % of the subjects as compared to those in the rural habitant (in 30.4% and 15.2%of the subjects respectively). The folate deficiencies in the under and above 18 years old subjects were 22.2% and 9.9%, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that the deficiency of the micronutrients was considerable in women of the childbearing ages in Gorgan, northern Iran.

Sedehi, Maliheh; Behnampour, Naser; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

2013-01-01

346

Deficiencies of the microelements, folate and vitamin B12 in women of the child bearing ages in gorgan, northern iran.  

PubMed

Background: The deficiencies of folic acid, vitamin B12, and microelements during pregnancy may affect the health of newborns. Objectives: To assess the serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc and copper in healthy women of the childbearing ages in Gorgan, northern Iran. Methodology: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 women of childbearing ages in northern Iran during November 2007-March 2008. The serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, iron, copper and zinc were evaluated by laboratory tests. Results: Iron, copper , folate, vitamin B12 deficiencies and folate with vitamin B12 deficiency were detected in 13%, 32% , 13% , 32% and 11% women of the childbearing ages, respectively . According to the ethnicity, vitamin B12, folate and iron deficiencies in the Sistani group were observed in 38.3%, 12.9% and 12.9% of the women, respectively. In the native Fars group, the above mentioned deficiencies were found in 31.1%, 13.4% and 7.5% of the subjects. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were observed in the urban habitant in 32.7% and 11.5 % of the subjects as compared to those in the rural habitant (in 30.4% and 15.2%of the subjects respectively). The folate deficiencies in the under and above 18 years old subjects were 22.2% and 9.9%, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that the deficiency of the micronutrients was considerable in women of the childbearing ages in Gorgan, northern Iran. PMID:23905113

Sedehi, Maliheh; Behnampour, Naser; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

2013-06-01

347

Determinants of Institutional Delivery among Childbearing Age Women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: Unmatched Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Results Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI))?=?2.754(1.510–8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI)?=?.454(.209–.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI)?=?3.822 (1.766–8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI)?=?2.914(1.105–7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI)?=?.136(.054–.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI)?=?9.995(2.101–47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI)?=?6.957(2.422–19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI)?=?3.541(1.732–7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI)?=?.665(.173–.954)], respondents’ awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI)?=?2.454 (1.663–6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI)?=?.258(.122–.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions and Recommendations Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have to consider the predictors of institutional delivery like education, birth order, antenatal care utilization and residence to improve institutional delivery in the area.

Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero

2014-01-01

348

Prevalence and Clinical Predictors of Insulin Resistance in Reproductive-Aged Thai Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To determine the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and its predictors in reproductive-aged Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2007 to January 2009. Participants were 250?Thai women with PCOS. Information regarding medical history and physical examination and results of 75 gram OGTT were recorded. Results. The overall prevalence of IR was 20.0%, comprising the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetic mellitus of 3.2%, 13.6%, and 5.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent predictors for IR were age of ?30 years old, waist circumference (WC) of ?80?cm, presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN), and dyslipidemia with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 2.14 (1.01–4.52), 3.53 (1.28–9.75), 2.63 (1.17–5.88), and 3.07 (1.16–8.11), respectively. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of IR in reproductive-aged Thai women with PCOS is 20.0%. Age ?30 years old, WC ?80?cm, the presence of AN, and dyslipidemia are the significant clinical predictors.

Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Leerasiri, Pichai; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Tanmahasamut, Prasong; Angsuwathana, Surasak; Dangrat, Chongdee

2012-01-01

349

The benefit of myomectomy in women aged 40 years and above: Experience in an urban teaching hospital in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Abdominal myomectomy remains the mainstay of surgical management of uterine fibroids in our environment. However, its benefit in women aged 40 years and above remains debatable. Materials and Methods: An 11-year prospective study was conducted involving 98 women, aged 40 years and above, who had abdominal myomectomy for the treatment of uterine fibroid at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri. They were followed up regularly for 1–6 years to detect conception, resolution of symptoms and obstetrics performance. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.6±2.9 years and 77 (78.6%) of them were nulliparous. Lower abdominal swelling was the commonest clinical presentation and the mean uterine size was 18.6±8.5 weeks. Infertility with uterine fibroids was the indication for myomectomy in majority of the cases [48 (48.9%)], while pregnancy complications accounted for 11.2% (11) of the cases Fertility restoration was 10.4% among the infertile patients. There was complete resolution of symptoms in 35.9% of those who required symptomatic relief, and term pregnancies were recorded in 72.7% of patients with pregnancy complications. Conclusion: Myomectomy is the recommended treatment of uterine fibroids in women aged 40 years and above with infertility and who wish to become pregnant. If there is no need for further fertility preservation, hysterectomy should be offered.

Obed, Jesse Y.; Bako, Babagana; Kadas, Saidu; Usman, Joshua D.; Kullima, Abubakar A.; Moruppa, Joel Y.

2011-01-01

350

Age and Axillary Lymph Node Ratio in Postmenopausal Women with T1-T2 Node Positive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between age and lymph node ratio (LNR, number of positive nodes divided by number of examined nodes), and to determine their effects on breast cancer (BC) and overall mortality. Methods. Women aged ?50 years, diagnosed in 1988–1997 with a unilateral histologically confirmed T1-T2 node positive surgically treated primary nonmetastatic BC, were selected from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) were used to evaluate the age-LNR relationship. Cumulative incidence functions and multivariate competing risks analysis based on model selection by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) were used to examine the effect of age and LNR on mortality. Low LNR was defined as ?0.20, mid-LNR 0.21–0.65, and high LNR >0.65. Results. GAMLSS showed a nonlinear LNR-age relationship, increasing from mean LNR 0.26–0.28 at age 50–70 years to 0.30 at 80 years and 0.40 at 90 years. Compared with a 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8%–10.8%] risk of BC death at 5 years in women aged 50–59 years with low LNR, the risk in women ?80 years with low LNR was 12.6% [95% CI 10.1%–15.0%], mid-LNR 18.1% [13.9%–22.1%], high LNR 29.8% [22.7%–36.1%]. Five-years overall risk of death increased from 40.8% [37.5%–43.9%] by low LNR to 67.4% [61.4%–72.4%] by high LNR. The overall mortality hazard ratio for age ?80 years with high LNR was 7.49 [6.54–8.59], as compared with women aged 50–59 years with low LNR. Conclusion. High LNR combined with older age was associated with a threefold increased risk of BC death and a sevenfold increased hazard ratio of overall mortality.

Joseph, Sue A.; Coutty, Nadege; Ly, Bevan Hong; Vlastos, Georges; Nguyen, Nam Phong

2010-01-01

351

What constitutes clinically significant binge eating? Association between binge features and clinical validators in college-age women  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between binge features and clinical validators. Method The Eating Disorder Examination assessed binge features in a sample of 549 college-age women: loss of control (LOC) presence, binge frequency, binge size, indicators of impaired control, and LOC severity. Clinical validators were self-reported clinical impairment and current psychiatric comorbidity, as determined via a semistructured interview. Results Compared with women without LOC, those with LOC had significantly greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and comorbidity (ps < 0.001). Among women with LOC (n = 252), the indicators of impaired control and LOC severity, but not binge size or frequency, were associated with greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and/or comorbidity (ps < 0.05). Discussion Findings confirm that the presence of LOC may be the hallmark feature of binge eating. Further, dimensional ratings about the LOC experience—and possibly the indicators of impaired control—may improve reliable identification of clinically significant binge eating.

Vannucci, Anna; Theim, Kelly R.; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Genkin, Brooke; Rizk, Marianne; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki O.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Aspen, Vandana; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

2013-01-01

352

The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

353

Determinants of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Methylmercury Exposure in Inuit Women of Childbearing Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to to identify maternal characteristics associated with traditional food consumption and to examine food items associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury body burden in pregnant Inuit women from Northern Québec. We interviewed women from three communities at mid-pregnancy and at 1 and 11 months postpartum. We mea- sured PCBs, Hg, and selenium in

Gina Muckle; Pierre Ayotte; Éric Dewailly; Sandra W. Jacobson; Joseph L. Jacobson

2001-01-01

354

Purpose in Life among Men and Women Aged 85 Years and Older  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate purpose in life in relation to psychological well-being, social relations, and physical and psychological symptoms among very old women (n = 120) and men (n = 69). Their purpose in life was evaluated using the Purpose in Life (PIL) scale. Women scored lower on this PIL scale than men (102 vs. 108 p =…

Hedberg, Pia; Gustafson, Yngve; Brulin, Christine

2010-01-01

355

Attitudes toward Wife Beating among Palestinian Women of Reproductive Age from Three Cities in West Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 450 women were interviewed in Mother and Child Health Care Centers in three cities in West Bank, Palestine, to assess attitudes toward wife beating. Overall, women perceived wife beating to be justified if a wife insults her husband (59%), if she disobeys her husband (49%), if she neglects her children (37%), if she goes out without…

Dhaher, Enas A.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Maxwell, Annette E.; Kramer, Alexander

2010-01-01

356

Factors Predicting Consumption of Fonio Grain ("Digitaria exilis") among Urban Malian Women of Reproductive Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify factors influencing intention to consume an indigenous nutritious grain, fonio ("Digitaria exilis"), among women in Mali. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model. Setting and Participants: One hundred and eight women (31.5 plus or minus 10.5 years),…

Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; van Dam, Bianca; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain A. M.; Brouwer, Inge D.

2011-01-01

357

Food Customs of Alaska Women of Childbearing Age: The Alaska WIC Healthy Moms Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 60 rural, 62 urban Alaska women (64% Alaska Native) indicated positive dietary and lifestyle habits. Diets were characterized by boiled meats, high intakes of omega-3 fish, sea mammals and few desserts. Food insecurity reported by 39% rural and 7% of urban. Hunger was reported by 16% of rural and 5% of urban women. Traditional activities were walking,

Janell Smith; Paulette Johnson; Penelope Easton; Dennis Wiedman; Emma G. Widmark

2008-01-01

358

Estrogen replacement in middle-aged women: thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat.  

PubMed

Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and body fluid responses during exercise in the heat were tested in five middle-aged (48 +/- 2 yr) women before and after 14-23 days of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The heat and exercise challenge consisted of a 40-min rest period followed by semirecumbent cycle exercise (approximately 40% maximal O2 uptake) for 60 min. At rest, the ambient temperature was elevated from a thermoneutral (dry bulb temperature 25 degrees C; wet bulb temperature 17.5 degrees C) to a warm humid (dry bulb temperature 36 degrees C; wet bulb temperature 27.5 degrees C) environment. Esophageal (Tes) and rectal (Tre) temperatures were measured to estimate body core temperature while arm blood flow and sweating rate were measured to assess the heat loss response. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were measured to evaluate the cardiovascular response. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin ([Hb]), plasma 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), protein, and electrolyte concentrations. Plasma [E2] was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated by ERT without affecting the plasma [P4] levels. After ERT, Tes and Tre were significantly (P < 0.05) depressed by approximately 0.5 degrees C, and the Tes threshold for the onset of arm blood flow and sweating rate was significantly (P < 0.05) lower during exercise. After ERT, heart rate during exercise was significantly lower (P < 0.05) without notable variation in mean arterial pressure. Isotonic hemodilution occurred with ERT evident by significant (P < 0.05) reductions in Hct and [Hb], whereas plasma tonicity remained unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1447065

Tankersley, C G; Nicholas, W C; Deaver, D R; Mikita, D; Kenney, W L

1992-10-01

359

Predictors of contraceptive use among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine some socioeconomic factors that are associated with family planning practice in a metropolitan area of a developing country, namely Malaysia. Data collected during the 1977 Family and Health Survey in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya is utilized. The study population comprised currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, the 2 densely populated, rapidly expanding and adjoining metropolitan areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The study population was selected using a 2-stage systematic sampling technique from specifically defined areas in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya. These areas were selected accourding to socioeconomic criteria, namely, the squatter or slum areas, the new villages located on the periphery of the metropolitan area, other Kuala Lumpur and other Petaling Jaya. Family planning behavior, specifically, contraceptive use is also associated with socioeconomic variables. It is determined that the best predictors of contraceptive use, in order of importance are ethnicity, age and area. However, the relationship between age and contraceptive use varies across ethnic groups. In particular, among Malay and Chinese women, contraceptive use decreases as age increases, but among Indian women usage is not related to age. For the Malay women, usage decreases rapidly after age 24 years but the decline is more gradual for the Chinese women. In general, Chinese women are more likely to be current users in comparison to Malays, while the Indians occupy an intermediate position. The probability of usage is higher for women residing in Petaling Jaya and squatter areas in comparison to those residing in Kuala Lumpur and new villages. PMID:12314885

Salleh, N M; Tan Boon Ann; Arshat, H

1986-12-01

360

Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation  

SciTech Connect

American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

2009-08-15

361

Improvements in Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuate Age-related Weight Gain in Healthy Men and Women: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the longitudinal relation of change in cardiopulmonary fitness to subsequent change in body weight in a cohort of healthy middle-aged adults.DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.SUBJECTS: Participants were 4599 men and 724 women (43±9 y) receiving at least three medical examinations between 1970 and 1994. Examinations included assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness by maximal exercise tests and measurement of body

L DiPietro; HW Kohl; CE Barlow; SN Blair

1998-01-01

362

Validation of a New Brief Physical Activity Survey among Men and Women Aged 60-69 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS), a new two-item physical activity survey, and the Stanford Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire were administered to men and women, aged 60-69 years, in the Atherosclerotic Disease VAscular functioN and genetiC Epidemiology (ADVANCE) Study. Frequency distributions of SBAS activity levels, as well as a receiver operating curve, were calculated to determine if the

Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae; Linda C. Norton; William L. Haskell; Mohammed H. Mahbouda; Joan M. Fair; Carlos Iribarren; Mark A. Hlatky; Alan S. Go; Stephen P. Fortmann

2006-01-01

363

The effect of age, movement direction, and target size on the maximum speed of targeted COP movements in healthy women.  

PubMed

Rapid center of pressure (COP) movements are often required to avoid falls. Little is known about the effect of age on rapid and accurate volitional COP movements. We hypothesized that COP movements to a target would be slower and exhibit more submovements in older versus younger adults, particularly in posterior versus anterior movements. Healthy older (N=12, mean age=76 years) and young women (N=13, mean age=23 years) performed anterior and posterior lean movements while standing on a force plate, and were instructed to move their COP 'as fast and as accurately as possible' using visual feedback. The results showed that rapid posterior COP movements were slower and had an increased number of submovements and ratio of peak-to-average velocity, in comparison to anterior movements (p<.005). Moreover, older compared to younger adults were 27% slower and utilized nearly twice as many compensatory submovements (p<.005), particularly when moving posteriorly (p<.05). Older women also had higher ratios of peak-to-average COP velocity than young (p<.05). Thus, despite moving more slowly, older women needed to take more frequent submovements to maintain COP accuracy, particularly posteriorly, thereby providing evidence of a compensatory strategy that may be used for preventing backward falls. PMID:22225924

Hernandez, Manuel E; Ashton-Miller, James A; Alexander, Neil B

2012-10-01

364

Influence of Second-Trimester Ultrasound Markers for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women of Advanced Maternal Age  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ? 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3%) presented markers and 758 (82.7%) did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P < 0.001) and structural malformation (P < 0.001) were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age.

Rumi Kataguiri, Mariza; Silva Bussamra, Luiz Claudio; Machado Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes; Fernandes Moron, Antonio

2014-01-01

365

The Hordaland Women's Cohort: A prospective cohort study of incontinence, other urinary tract symptoms and related health issues in middle-aged women  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent symptom in middle-aged women, but data on incidence is limited and rarely reported. In order to analyze incidence, remission, or development patterns of severity and types of UI, we have established a 15-year prospective cohort (1997–2012). Methods The Cohort is based on the national collection of health data gathered from county studies (CONOR). Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) is one of them from Hordaland County. Each of the county studies may have local sub-studies and our Cohort is one of them. The Cohort included women aged 40–45 in order to have a broad approach to women's health including UI and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A onefifth random sampling from HUSK was used to create the Cohort in 1997–1999. For the necessary sample size a preliminary power calculation, based on a 70% response rate at inclusion and 5% annual attrition rates was used. The Cohort is planned to collect data through questionnaires every second year for the 15-year period from 1997–2012. Discussion The Cohort represents a relatively large random sample (N = 2,230) of about 15% of the total population of women born between 1953–57 in the county of Hordaland. Our data shows that the cohort population is very similar to the source population. The baseline demographic, social and medical characteristics of the Cohort are compared with the rest of women in HUSK (N = 7,746) and there were no significant differences between them except for the level of education (P = 0.001) and yearly income (P = 0.018), which were higher in the Cohort population. Urological characteristics of participants from the Cohort (N = 1,920) were also compared with the other participants (N = 3,400). There were no significant statistical differences except for somewhat more urinary continence (P = 0.04), more stress incontinence (P = 0.048) and smaller amount of leakage (P = 0.015) in the Cohort. In conclusion, the Cohort ispopulation-based, with little selection bias, and thus is a rather unique study forinvestigating UI and LUTS in comparison with many other projects with similar purposes.

Jahanlu, David; Qureshi, Samera Azeem; Hunskaar, Steinar

2008-01-01

366

Daily activities mediate the relationship between personality and quality of life in middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to test a model proposing that the relationship between personality factors and women’s quality\\u000a of life (QoL) is mediated by degree of depression and the way in which every day activity and general health were appraised.\\u000a Specifically, the paper addressed the mediating contribution of activity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A sample of 488 women, 38 or 50 years old,

Mona Eklund; Martin Bäckström; Lauren Lissner; Cecilia Björkelund; Ulla Sonn

2010-01-01

367

Modelling the overdiagnosis of breast cancer due to mammography screening in women aged 40 to 49 in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Introduction Overdiagnosis of breast cancer due to mammography screening, defined as the diagnosis of screen-detected cancers that would not have presented clinically in a women's lifetime in the absence of screening, has emerged as a highly contentious issue, as harm caused may question the benefit of mammographic screening. Most studies included women over 50 years old and little information is available for younger women. Methods We estimated the overdiagnosis of breast cancer due to screening in women aged 40 to 49 years using data from a randomised trial of annual mammographic screening starting at age 40 conducted in the UK. A six-state Markov model was constructed to estimate the sensitivity of mammography for invasive and in situ breast cancer and the screen-detectable mean sojourn time for non-progressive in situ, progressive in situ, and invasive breast cancer. Then, a 10-state simulation model of cancer progression, screening, and death, was developed to estimate overdiagnosis attributable to screening. Results The sensitivity of mammography for invasive and in situ breast cancers was 90% (95% CI, 72 to 99) and 82% (43 to 99), respectively. The screen-detectable mean sojourn time of preclinical non-progressive and progressive in situ cancers was 1.3 (0.4 to 3.4) and 0.11 (0.05 to 0.19) years, respectively, and 0.8 years (0.6 to 1.2) for preclinical invasive breast cancer. The proportion of screen-detected in situ cancers that were non-progressive was 55% (25 to 77) for the first and 40% (22 to 60) for subsequent screens. In our main analysis, overdiagnosis was estimated as 0.7% of screen-detected cancers. A sensitivity analysis, covering a wide range of alternative scenarios, yielded a range of 0.5% to 2.9%. Conclusion Although a high proportion of screen-detected in situ cancers were non-progressive, a majority of these would have presented clinically in the absence of screening. The extent of overdiagnosis due to screening in women aged 40 to 49 was small. Results also suggest annual screening is most suitable for women aged 40 to 49 in the United Kingdom due to short cancer sojourn times.

2012-01-01

368

Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over  

MedlinePLUS

... and essential hypertension was more common among women. Keywords : home health care • home and community-based services • ... C.)(11) and SUDAAN version 9.0 (RTI, Research Triangle Park, N.C.)(12). Results Rate of ...

369

Correlates of intimate partner physical violence among young reproductive age women in Mysore, India.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) in south India. This article examines the frequency and correlates of IPPV among 898 young married women from urban, rural, and periurban areas of Mysore, India. Most (69.2%) of the participants were Hindus and 28.7% were Muslims. Overall, 50% of participants reported some type of IPPV. Factors that were independently associated with IPPV included being younger than 18 years at the time of marriage, contributing some household income, having anal sex, reporting sexual violence, and having a sex partner who drinks alcohol and smokes cigarettes. Women with skilled occupation were at reduced odds of experiencing IPPV compared with women who did not work. These findings suggest that IPPV is highly prevalent in this setting and that additional interventions are needed to reduce morbidity particularly among young women. These data also suggest that more studies are needed among men who perpetrate IPPV in south India. PMID:22186382

Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur

2014-03-01

370

Attitudes toward wife beating among Palestinian women of reproductive age from three cities in West Bank.  

PubMed

A total of 450 women were interviewed in Mother and Child Health Care Centers in three cities in West Bank, Palestine, to assess attitudes toward wife beating. Overall, women perceived wife beating to be justified if a wife insults her husband (59%), if she disobeys her husband (49%), if she neglects her children (37%), if she goes out without telling her husband (25%), if she argues with her husband (11%), and if she burns the food (5%). Sixty-five percent of women agreed with at least one reason for wife beating, but there were statistically significant regional differences: Wife beating was most accepted in Jenin (73% acceptance of at least one reason) and least accepted in Hebron (55%). Lower level of education, not being employed, having more than one child, being married for fewer than 10 years, and making few household decisions were all associated with women's acceptance of wife beating. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:19494245

Dhaher, Enas A; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Maxwell, Annette E; Krämer, Alexander

2010-03-01

371

Carotid intima-media thickness in mainly non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome and age-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Objective Metabolic disturbances are well-recognized clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CIMT in women with PCOS has been investigated in many studies, but there has been only one report in the Korean population. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in young untreated Korean women with PCOS and age-matched controls, specifically by measuring their CIMT. Methods CIMT was measured by one radiologist in 56 PCOS patients and 56 controls. To compare the CIMT according to PCOS phenotypes, women with PCOS were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of hyperandrogenism. Results Although PCOS patients were more obese and had higher blood pressure and insulin resistance index than the age-matched controls, the CIMT was not different between the two groups (0.49 ± 0.09 mm in PCOS patients vs. 0.50 ± 0.11 mm in controls, respectively, p = 0.562). When the CIMT in the control group was compared with hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS groups, also no significant differences were found. Conclusion Despite the significant differences in some vascular risk factors between women with PCOS and controls, PCOS patients did not have a significantly higher CIMT (even in the hyperandrogenic subgroups). Although our study did not show the increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in PCOS patients, the role of CIMT continues to be investigated considering the importance of screening and monitoring CVD risk factors in women with PCOS.

Kim, Jin Ju; Kang, Jin Hwa; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Chae, Soo Jin; Kim, Sun Mie; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

2013-01-01

372

The optimal value of BMI for the lowest risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women aged 40-88 years.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to establish the optimal values of the body mass index (BMI) which would indicate the most favourable preservation of the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. The material consists of the data of 369 healthy women aged between 40 and 88 years (mean age 67.84, SD=6.70) inhabitants of Wroc?aw, which were followed up between 2001 and 2006. The absolute measure of bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), expressed in g/(100mm(2)) and was transformed to T-score values. According to the value of BMI, the women were divided into eight groups, the reference group with value between 18.0 and 21.9kg/m(2) and seven other groups beginning with the value 22.0 with a 2-point interval. Postmenopausal status was defined according to the occurrence of menstruation within the last 360 days. The women with osteopenia and osteoporosis were pooled together and comprised the risk group, whereas the other women comprised the normal group (T-score values above -1.0). The adjusted odds ratio showed the highest value for intervals between 24.0 and 25.9units of BMI, and the lowest value for interval 26.0-27.9units of BMI. The Youden index showed the lowest value in the 26.0-27.9BMIkg/m(2) interval. For our sample the optimal value of BMI, with the lowest risk of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was the value of 26.9kg/m(2). A further increase of BMI does not result in a favourable effect on the bones, it rather intensifies negative phenomena in the body resulting in the onset of many diseases. PMID:24794462

Skrzek, A; Kozie?, S; Ignasiak, Z

2014-06-01

373

Progressive Changes in Cortical State Before and After Spontaneous Arousals from Sleep in Elderly and Middle-aged Women  

PubMed Central

Arousals are often considered to be events which have an abrupt onset and offset, indicating abrupt changes in the state of the cortex. We hypothesized that cortical state, as reflected in EEG signals, exhibits progressive systematic changes before and after a spontaneous, isolated arousal and that the time courses of the spectral components of the EEG before and after an arousal would differ between healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects. We analyzed the power spectrum and Sample Entropy of the C3A2 EEG before and after isolated arousals from 20 middle-aged (47.2+/?2.0 yrs) and 20 elderly (78.4+/?3.8 yrs) women using polysomnograms from the Sleep Heart Health Study database. In middle-aged women, all EEG spectral band powers <16 Hz exhibited a significant increase relative to baseline at some time in the 21 sec before an arousal, but only low- (0.2–2.0 Hz) and high-frequency (2.0–4.0 Hz) delta increased in elderly and only during the last 7 sec pre-arousal. Post-arousal, all frequency bands below 12 Hz transiently fell below pre-arousal baseline in both age groups. Consistent with these findings, Sample Entropy decreased steadily before an arousal, increased markedly during the arousal, and remained above pre-arousal baseline levels for ~30 sec after the arousal. In middle-aged, but not in elderly, women the presence of early pre-arousal low delta power was associated with shorter arousals. We propose that this attenuation of the effect of the arousing stimulus may be related to the slow (<1 Hz) cortical state oscillation, and that prolonged alterations of cortical state due to arousals may contribute to the poor correlation between indices of arousals and indices of sleepiness or impaired cognitive function.

Bruce, Eugene N.; Bruce, Margaret C.; Ramanand, Pravitha; Hayes, Don

2010-01-01

374

Prediction of peak oxygen uptake from age and power output at RPE 15 in obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, convenient and indirect method for predicting peak oxygen uptake ($$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{O}}_{{2{\\\\text{peak}}}} $$) from a sub-maximal graded exercise test (GXT), in obese women. Thirty obese women performed GXT to volitional exhaustion.\\u000a During GXT, oxygen uptake and the power at RPE 15 ($$ P_{{{\\\\text{RPE}}\\\\;15}} $$) were measured, and $$ \\\\dot{V}{\\\\text{O}}_{{2{\\\\text{peak}}}} $$ was

Jérémy B. J. Coquart; Roger G. Eston; Jean-Marie Grosbois; Christine Lemaire; Alain-Eric Dubart; David-Pol Luttenbacher; Murielle Garcin

2010-01-01

375

Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

A wide variety of strategies were used to recruit women into an acupuncture trial. The investigators collected data on the numbers of study inquiries (telephone calls and e-mail messages) received from women in the study area and sorted them by recruitment method. Posters, flyers, and direct mailings proved to be the most effective methods. However, maximizing study exposure through active recruitment using multiple methods was necessary to reach accrual goals.

376

Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Methods The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high). Results High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P?women with low CRF. Conclusions Overall, Chinese middle-aged women demonstrated a moderate level of CRF. CRF was independently associated with CVD risk factors, including overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, arterial stiffness, and abnormal ECG during exercise, with the least fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors.

2014-01-01

377

Pre-treatment fertility counseling and fertility preservation improve quality of life in reproductive age women with cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The post-treatment quality of life (QOL) impacts of receiving pre-cancer-treatment infertility counseling and of pursuing fertility preservation have not been described in large-scale studies of reproductive age women with cancer. Methods 1041 women diagnosed between the ages of 18 and 40 responded to a retrospective survey and reported whether they received infertility counseling before cancer treatment and whether they took action to preserve fertility. Five cancer types were included: leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Validated QOL scales were used: Decision Regret Score (DRS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and World Health Organization QOL BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). Results 560 women (61%) whose treatment could affect fertility were counseled by the oncology team, 45 (5%) were counseled by fertility specialists, 36 (4%) took action to preserve fertility. Pre-treatment infertility counseling by a fertility specialist and an oncologist resulted in lower regret than counseling by an oncologist alone (8.4 vs. 11.0, P<0.0001). The addition of fertility preservation (6.6 vs. 11.0, P<0.0001) was also associated with even lower regret scores than counseling by an oncologist alone.. Further improvements were similarly seen in SWLS with the addition of fertility specialist counseling (23.0 vs. 19.8, P=0.09) or preserving fertility (24.0 vs. 19.0, P=0.05). Conclusions Receiving specialized counseling about reproductive loss and pursuing fertility preservation is associated with less regret and greater QOL for survivors, yet few patients are exposed to this potential benefit. Reproductive aged women should have expert counseling and be given the opportunity to make active decisions about preserving fertility.

Letourneau, Joseph M; Ebbel, Erin E; Katz, Patricia P; Katz, Audra; Ai, Wei Z; Chien, A Jo; Melisko, Michelle E; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

2011-01-01

378

Influence of brisk walking on the broadband ultrasonic attenuation of the calcaneus in previously sedentary women aged 30–61 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The amount and type of exercise needed to maintain or increase bone density in women is unclear. The purpose of the present\\u000a study was to examine the influence of brisk walking on broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) values for the calcaneus in\\u000a formerly sedentary women aged 30–61 years (mean 44). Twenty-five women followed the program of brisk walking for 1 year

Peter R. M. Jones; Adrianne E. Hardman; Annette Hudson; Nicholas G. Norgan

1991-01-01

379

Social capital in association with health status of women in reproductive age: study protocol for a sequential explanatory mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background Women’s health is a general health priority. Preserving and improving women’s health is not only a basic human right, but it is also essential for the health of all nations. Women’s health in Reproductive age affects long-term health of theirs, their family members, and community. Origins of health inequalities are very complicated. Health outcomes are influenced by biological, social and political factors, so to improve women’s health it is necessary to recognize all these factors. Social capital is one of the social determinants of health that might play a considerable role in health inequalities. The association between social capital and health varies according on the sample studied, the type of health outcome and the context in which it is studied. This mixed methods study was designed to determine and explore of relationship between social capital and health status of women of reproductive age in Tehran (capital city of Iran) with its specific social-cultural characteristics. Methods/design This study is sequential explanatory mixed methods study, follow-up explanations variant, with two strands (phases). This design will be implemented in two distinct phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age residing in any of the 22 municipal districts across Tehran. Based on a need to further understand the quantitative results, researchers will implement a second qualitative phase that is designed to help explain the initial quantitative results. Finally, the researchers will present an interpretation about explanation of quantitative results using the qualitative data. Discussion This study promotes women’s health by determining the priorities and designing evidence-based interventions founded on the basic and insightful information provided on social capital and the status of the health of women.

2014-01-01

380

Early life stress, negative paternal relationships, and chemical intolerance in middle-aged women: support for a neural sensitization model.  

PubMed

This study (ntotal = 35) compared early life stress ratings, parental relationships, and health status, notably orthostatic blood pressures, of middle-aged women with low-level chemical intolerance (CI group) and depression, depressives without CI (DEP group), and normals. Environmental chemical intolerance is a symptom of several controversial conditions in which women are overrepresented, that is, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia. Previous investigators have postulated that people with CI have variants of somatization disorder, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) initiated by childhood abuse or a toxic exposure event. One neurobehavioral model for CI, somatization disorder, recurrent depression, and PTSD is neural sensitization, that is, the progressive amplification of host responses (e.g., behavioral, neurochemical) to repeated intermittent stimuli (e.g., drugs, chemicals, endogenous mediators, stressors). Females are more vulnerable to sensitization than are males. Limbic and mesolimbic pathways mediate central nervous system sensitization. Although both CI and DEP groups had high levels of life stress and past abuse, the CI group had the most dista