Sample records for women aged 15-49

  1. Health screening - women - ages 40 - 64

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 - 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Yearly exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 - 64; Women’s health - ages 40 - 64; Preventive care - women - ages 40 - ...

  2. Health screening - women - ages 18 - 39

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 - 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Yearly exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 - 39; Women's health - ages 18 - 39; Preventive care - women - ages 18 - ...

  3. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  4. Women, Work and Age Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGooyer, Janice

    Millions of older women who work face combined age and sex discrimination. Fifty percent more women aged 45-54 (3.5 million) will enter the job market in the next two decades and face the same problems. Illegal discriminatory practices encountered by older women when job hunting include exclusion from a job opportunity because of a male selecting…

  5. Illness and Women's Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Anne-Linda

    When a woman defines herself as old is a complex phenomenon reflecting, among other variables, cultural attitudes, environmental constraints, and health status. In the later years, self-perceived age lags behind chronological age, but alters with the progressive contracting of life space, changes in health status, and decreases in perceived…

  6. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  7. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  8. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nabukalu, Dorean; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Herbst, Kobus; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo) were determined for females (aged 15–49 years) resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown). Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95% CI) was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1), peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1) and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.4–10.9). Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.2–11.1), accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR), 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05), self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15), and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82); external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.79–3.75). Conclusion HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment in the area from 2004. Women's age, external migration status and HIV-positive status were significantly associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:24360403

  9. Intimate Partner Violence of Rural Aging Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.; Dugar, Tyler A.

    2006-01-01

    Although reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) decrease with age, a significant number of aging women experience IPV in their relationships. The structure and culture of rural environments may inadvertently conceal violence against aging women and inhibit prevention and treatment efforts. Guided by an ecological community framework, 3 focus…

  10. Knowledge on uterine prolapse among married women of reproductive age in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binjwala; Devkota, Bhimsen; Khadka, Badri Bahadur; Choulagai, Bishnu; Pahari, Durga Prasad; Onta, Sharad; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Uterine prolapse (UP), which affects about 10% of women of reproductive age in Nepal, is the most frequently reported cause of poor health in women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. Currently, women’s awareness of UP is unknown, and attempts to unravel the UP problem are inadequate. This study aims to assess UP knowledge among married reproductive women, and determine the association between UP knowledge and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods Our cross-sectional descriptive study investigated 25 districts representing all five administrative regions, three ecological zones, and urban and rural settings. We used structured questionnaires to interview 4,693 married women aged 15–49 years. We assessed UP knowledge by asking women whether they had ever heard about UP, followed by specific questions about symptoms and preventive measures. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population regarding socioeconomic status, assessed how many participants had ever heard about UP, and determined UP knowledge level among participants who had heard about the condition. Simple regression analysis identified a possible association between socioeconomic characteristics, ever heard about UP, and level of UP knowledge. Results Mean age of participants was 30 years (SD [standard deviation] 7.4), 67.5% were educated, 48% belonged to the advantaged Brahmin and Chhetri groups, and 22.2% were Janajati from the hill and terai zones. Fifty-three percent had never heard about UP. Among women who had heard about UP, 37.5% had satisfactory knowledge. Any knowledge about UP was associated with both urban and rural settings, age group, and education level. However, satisfactory knowledge about UP was associated with administrative region, ecological zones, caste/ethnic group, and age group of women. Conclusion Fifty-three percent of participants had never heard about UP, and UP knowledge level was satisfactory in 37.% of those who had ever heard about UP. Any knowledge was associated with urban/rural setting, age group, and education level, whereas satisfactory knowledge was associated with geography, caste/ethnic group, and age group. UP-related health promotion programs should target women from all caste/ethnic groups, age groups, and education levels, including urban and rural communities. PMID:25152633

  11. Work Related Injury among Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  12. Work related injury among aging women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  13. Obstructive Defecation in Middle-aged Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhulika G. Varma; Stacey L. Hart; Jeanette S. Brown; Jennifer M. Creasman; Stephen K. Van Den Eeden; David H. Thom

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive defecation, a significant contributor to constipation, is frequently reported in middle-aged women, yet few population-based\\u000a studies have established prevalence in this group. We analyzed data from the Reproductive Risks for Incontinence Study at\\u000a Kaiser, a population-based cohort of racially diverse women, 40–69 years old, to describe the prevalence of obstructive defecation\\u000a and identify associated risk factors. The Reproductive Risks for

  14. European Perspectives on Healthy Aging in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Robine; Carol Jagger; Emmanuelle Cambois

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the 1994 European Community Household Panel, we compare active life expectancy differentials at age 65 years between women and men in 12 European countries. We seek to explain the extent to which differences are a reflection of gender differentials in life expectancy at 65 years or reflect differences in active life expectancy earlier in life. Considerable variation

  15. Candies in hell: women’s experiences of violence in Nicaragua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ellsberg; Rodolfo Peña; Andrés Herrera; Jerker Liljestrand; Anna Winkvist

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of domestic violence against women in León, Nicaragua. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 488 women between the ages of 15–49. The physical aggression sub-scale of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to identify women suffering abuse. In-depth interviews with formerly battered women were performed and

  16. Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23256530

  17. Pregnancy in women aged 40 and older.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Green, C; Cohen, W R

    1993-06-01

    Counseling patients about pregnancy at advanced maternal age is a difficult process. This is true both because our knowledge of the attendant risks is incomplete and still evolving, and because of the difficulties of assigning risks and addressing counterbalancing benefits for individual patients. There are a number of social and personal considerations involved in a decision to become a parent after the age of 40. Generally, older parents tend to be more mature, to be in stable and healthy marriages, and to have more financial and family resources to assist with the process of child rearing. Parents in their fifth decade, however, may complain of having less energy to devote to young children or may be at a stage in their careers in which they have less time for family participation than when they were younger. Also, grandparents, who can play a critical role in early childhood development, often have become too old to participate in that role or have died. All of these issues must be considered by parents contemplating late childbearing. A great deal has been written, much of it positive, even enthusiastic, about the quality of pregnancy and childbirth among older women. Nevertheless, much of the literature is difficult to interpret because of problems in controlling for confounding variables. In addition, much of the focus on so-called older women has been on those older than 35 years. In fact, the great majority of the medical literature concerning late childbearing relates to women between the ages of 35 and 40. The data that directly concern women in their fifth decade suggest that risks that began to accelerate after the age of 35 become considerably greater and increase more rapidly after the age of 40. Obviously, couples must decide what risks they are willing to accept and how these potential risks might be countervailed by the presumed advantages of parenthood relatively late in the reproductive years. There is convincing evidence to show that fecundity is decreased with advancing maternal age, and various forms of early pregnancy loss are increased. Thus, to delay childbearing results in a significant decrease in the likelihood of becoming pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to term. The possibility of genetic disorders is, as has been discussed previously, relatively easy to quantitate, and most age-related anomalies are amenable to prenatal diagnosis. It seems clear that women with underlying medical diseases, particularly hypertension and diabetes mellitus, contribute heavily to the excess morbidity and mortality associated with late childbearing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8367134

  18. Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43

    Cancer.gov

    Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Toronto, Canada (2006) lawrence.paszat@ices.on.ca Selection criteria All women age 40 – 43 resident in Ontario on January 1, 1995 - OHIP (medicare)

  19. Women's Bodies AgingCulture, Context, and Social Work Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie L. McCormick

    2008-01-01

    Women's bodies at every age are expressions of self and culture. In a culture that values slender, taut-skinned youth, the embodied selves of postmenopausal women are dismissed and devalued, jeopardizing self-esteem and increasing the potential for depression and anxiety. Drawing from a qualitative research project on aging and embodied womanhood, this article describes the lived experience of women aging in

  20. Women, aging, and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; Fischer-Elber, Kimberly; Al-Otaiba, Zayed

    2007-01-01

    The increase in prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in younger versus older cohorts of female drinkers is many times higher than the corresponding increase in prevalence rates for male drinkers. Thus, the number and impact of older female drinkers is expected to increase over the next 20 years as the disparity between men's and women's drinking rates decrease. Due to differences in metabolism of alcohol, women of all ages compared to men are at higher risk for negative physical, medical, social, and psychological consequences associated with at-risk and higher levels of alcohol consumption. Aging women face new sets of antecedents related to challenges in the middle and older adult phases of life, such as menopause, retirement, "empty nest," limited mobility, and illness. As women age, they are subject to an even greater physiological susceptibility to alcohol's effect, as well as to a risk of synergistic effects of alcohol in combination with prescription drugs. On the other hand, there is mixed research indicating that older women may benefit from the buffering effect of low levels of alcohol on hormonal declines associated with menopause, perhaps serving as a protective factor against Coronary Heart Disease and osteoporosis. However, with heavier drinking, these benefits are either reversed or eclipsed. In addition, any alcohol consumption increases the risk for breast cancer in older women. The possible beneficial effects of alcohol must be weighed with the fact that the research does not typically establish causality, that low-risk drinking equates to one standard drink per day, that there is a risk of progression towards alcohol dependence, and that there are alternate methods to gain the same benefits without the associated risks. Older women also experience unique barriers to detection of and treatment for alcohol problems. Current treatment options specifically for older women are limited, though researchers are beginning to address differential treatment response of older women, as well as development of elder women-specific treatment approaches. Treatment options include self-help/mutual peer support, which provides ancillary advantages, brief interventions in primary care settings, which have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing drinking levels, and cognitive behavioral techniques, which have been demonstrated to be useful; but more studies and larger samples are needed. Elder-specific treatments need to be appropriate in terms of content, to address the challenges associated with life stage, such as the loss of the parental role and widowhood, and in terms of process, such as delivery in a respectful therapeutic style and at a slower pace. Future directions in research should address the lack of assessment instruments, the risks of simultaneous use of alcohol and prescription medications, and the under-representation of older women in randomized trials of alcohol treatments. PMID:17588878

  1. Predictors of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies among women of childbearing age in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While unintended pregnancies pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of families globally, characteristics of Tanzanian women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. This analysis identifies factors associated with unintended pregnancies—both mistimed and unwanted—in three rural districts of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2,183 random households was conducted in three Tanzanian districts of Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga in 2011 to assess women’s health behavior and service utilization patterns. These households produced 3,127 women age 15+?years from which 2,199 gravid women aged 15–49 were selected for the current analysis. Unintended pregnancies were identified as either mistimed (wanted later) or unwanted (not wanted at all). Correlates of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies were identified through Chi-squared tests to assess associations and multinomial logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results Mean age of the participants was 32.1 years. While 54.1% of the participants reported that their most recent pregnancy was intended, 32.5% indicated their most recent pregnancy as mistimed and 13.4% as unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (<20 years), and single marital status were significant predictors of both mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Lack of inter-partner communication about family planning increased the risk of mistimed pregnancy significantly, and multi-gravidity was shown to significantly increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Conclusions About one half of women in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania conceive unintentionally. Women, especially the most vulnerable should be empowered to avoid pregnancy at their own will and discretion. PMID:25102924

  2. Domestic violence against women in Egypt—wife beating and health outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nafissatou Diop-Sidibé; Jacquelyn C. Campbell; Stan Becker

    2006-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that a woman is more likely to be abused by an intimate partner than by any other person. Many negative health consequences to the victims have been associated with domestic violence against women. Data from the 1995 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative household survey, were analyzed for 6566 currently married women age 15–49

  3. Aging women's journey toward wholeness: new visions and directions.

    PubMed

    Harris, Margaret T C

    2008-01-01

    Through a postmodern/feminist exploration of postmenopausal women's narratives, set against a backdrop of a discourse analysis of pivotal biomedical texts, we revealed women's menopausal and postmenopausal aging life-cycle journey as a dynamic, positive, empowering women's process. Based on my analysis of themes in women's narratives I argue that the phenomenon of menopause is limited by a reductionist model and that a wholisitic model is more appropriate for women as they negotiate this significant aging life-cycle process to postmenopausal status. Finally, directions for supporting women to develop a wholistic approach to positive adult development, and how the aging woman can be given status, are suggested. PMID:18821209

  4. MIDDLE?AGED AND OLDER WOMEN IN PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Hollenshead; Berit Ingersoll

    1982-01-01

    This study examined images of aging women as depicted in advertisements from three periodicals during a ten?year period. Five major variables were considered in this content analysis: the frequency with which aging women appeared, the types of products involved, the setting, the value orientation, and the change in the image of older women over time. Differences between time periods and

  5. Determinants of Institutional Delivery Among Women of Childbearing Age in Rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Khan, Maria R; Striley, Catherine W; Boldon, Ellen; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Saint-Fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Clermont, Miliane

    2014-11-25

    Institutional delivery is an important factor associated with reduced maternal mortality rate (MMR). MMR in Haiti is high (350 per 100,000) and institutional delivery is low-just over 25 % of women delivered at a health facility in 2010. There also exists substantial rural-urban disparity in delivery with more hospital deliveries in urban than in rural areas. We aimed to study the prevalence and determinants of institutional delivery in a sample of women of childbearing age in rural Haiti. The study took place in Fond des Blancs and Villa, as part of a baseline assessment undertaken prior to implementation of a maternal, child health, nutrition, and water and sanitation program. From October to November 2011, women 15-49 years old (N = 575) were selected using a cross-sectional two-stage sampling strategy. We used descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with institutional delivery. The prevalence of institutional delivery was 45.4 %; a rate higher than the national average of 25 %. In adjusted analyses, correlates of institutional delivery were younger maternal age (25 years and younger) (OR 1.82; CI 1.15, 2.90; P = 0.0112), antenatal care receipt (OR 3.70; CI 1.84, 7.43; P = 0.0003) and those who were poor according to our poverty index score classification (OR 2.04; CI 1.13, 3.69; P = 0.0187). This study shows that increased hospital delivery is likely explained by accessibility to antenatal care. Programs that improve access to antenatal care, with concurrent efforts to address structural inequalities that drive socio-economic deprivation, are likely critical to increasing institutional delivery. PMID:25418752

  6. Many Women of Childbearing Age Take Narcotic Painkillers: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enable JavaScript. Many Women of Childbearing Age Take Narcotic Painkillers: CDC If they become pregnant, birth defects ... 2015) Thursday, January 22, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Pain Relievers Pregnancy and Medicines Women's Health THURSDAY, Jan. 22, ...

  7. Secular trends in menarcheal age among Ghanaian women in Accra.

    PubMed

    Adanu, R M K; Hill, A G; Seffah, J D; Darko, R; Anarfi, J K; Duda, R B

    2006-08-01

    The Women's Health Study of Accra is a population-based cross-sectional survey that was conducted between March and September 2003 to assess the burden of disease in women in Accra. In addition to data relating to general health and living conditions, data on age at first menstruation was collected during the survey. A retrospective cohort analysis of the reported age at menarche was conducted using data from 2,644 women aged between 18 and 100 years. The median age of first menstruation of the entire cohort was 15.5 years and the median age of first menstruation among those aged <20 was 14.5 years. There was a statistically significant difference in median age at menstruation among the different age and socioeconomic groups. Multiple linear regression showed a significant decline of 0.2 years per decade in the mean age at menarche among Ghanaian women. PMID:17000505

  8. Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Lam, Nguyen Thi; Skeaff, C Murray; Todd, Joanne; McLean, Judy M; Green, Timothy J

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region. PMID:22117931

  9. Women at Midlife: An Exploration of Chronological Age, Subjective Age, Wellness, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degges-White, Suzanne; Myers, Jane E.

    2006-01-01

    Women (N = 224) between 35 and 65 years old participated in a study that examined the relationship among chronological age, subjective age, wellness, and life satisfaction. Women whose subjective age was less than or equal to their chronological age reported greater wellness; total wellness was a significant predictor of life satisfaction.…

  10. Toward a Positive Aging Phenotype for Older Women: Observations From the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Barbara B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Liu, Jingmin; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Brunner, Robert L.; Espeland, Mark A.; Goveas, Joseph S; Lane, Dorothy S.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Mouton, Charles P.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Tinker, Lesley F.

    2012-01-01

    Background. To develop a positive aging phenotype, we undertook analyses to describe multiple dimensions of positive aging and their relationships to one another in women 65 years of age and older and evaluate the performance of individual indicators and composite factors of this phenotype as predictors of time to death, years of healthy living, and years of independent living. Methods. Data from Women’s Health Initiative clinical trial and observational study participants ages 65 years and older at baseline, including follow-up observations up to 8 years later, were analyzed using descriptive statistics and principal components analysis to identify the factor structure of a positive aging phenotype. The factors were used to predict time to death, years of healthy living (without hospitalization or diagnosis of a serious health condition), and years of independent living (without nursing home admission or use of special services). Results. We identified a multidimensional phenotype of positive aging that included two factors: Physical–Social Functioning and Emotional Functioning. Both factors were predictive of each of the outcomes, but Physical–Social Functioning was the strongest predictor. Each standard deviation of increase in Physical–Social Functioning was accompanied by a 23.7% reduction in mortality risk, a 19.4% reduction in risk of major health conditions or hospitalizations, and a 26.3% reduction in risk of dependent living. Conclusions. Physical–Social Functioning and Emotional Functioning constitute important components of a positive aging phenotype. Physical–Social Functioning was the strongest predictor of outcomes related to positive aging, including years of healthy living, years of independent living, and time to mortality. PMID:22518819

  11. Sexual dysfunction among middle aged women in the community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madeline Osborn; Keith Hawton; Dennis Gath

    1988-01-01

    In a community survey of women aged 35-59 sexual functioning was studied in the 436 women with partners. One third of these women had operationally defined sexual dysfunction: impaired sexual interest was identified in 17% of women (68\\/406), vaginal dryness in 17% (73\\/434), infrequency of orgasm in 16% (60\\/379), and dyspareunia in 8% (30\\/379). Sexual dysfunctions were statistically significantly associated

  12. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence among 12 393 rural women of childbearing age in Hainan Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic in China and it threats human health seriously. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence among women of childbearing age plays an important role in mother to child transmission of HBV, as 30% ~50% of chronic carriers can be attributed to maternal-infantile transmission. However, there are few studies which have reported on the prevalence of HBsAg among women of childbearing age in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBsAg and its associated risk factors among rural women of childbearing age in Hainan, which is the highest hepatitis B virus endemic province in China. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 12393 rural women aged 15 ~ 49 years, enrolled by a multistage stratified cluster sampling, was carried out in Hainan province, China, from November 2007 to December 2008. Blood samples were obtained from each study participant, and screened for HBsAg. Results The overall HBsAg prevalence of childbearing age women was 9.51%. Risk factors for HBsAg positivity among rural women were: lower education level (OR=1.206), lower family monthly income (OR=1.233), having an HBsAg-positive family member (OR=1.300), without an immunization history (OR=1.243), tattooing (OR=1.190), body piercing (OR=1.293), vaginoscopy history (OR=1.103) and history of induced abortion (OR=1.142). Conclusions There is a high HBsAg seroprevalence rate among rural women of childbearing age in Hainan province. Hence, it is necessary to take preventive measures to reduce the seroprevalence of HBsAg and to control its associated risk factors. PMID:23332007

  13. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  14. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence among Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    DANFORTH, Kim N.; TOWNSEND, Mary K.; LIFFORD, Karen; CURHAN, Gary C.; RESNICK, Neil M.; GRODSTEIN, Francine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Identify risk factors for urinary incontinence in middle-aged women. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 83,355 Nurses' Health Study II participants. Since 1989, women have provided health information on mailed questionnaires; in 2001, at age 37-54 years, information on urinary incontinence was requested. We examined adjusted odds ratios of incontinence using logistic regression. Results: 43% of women reported incontinence. After adjustment, African-American (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.40-0.60) and Asian-American women (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.46-0.72) were at reduced odds of severe incontinence compared to Caucasians. Increased age, body mass index, and parity were all positively associated with incontinence, as were current smoking, type 2 diabetes, and hysterectomy. Women aged 50-54 years had 1.81 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to women <40 years (95% CI 1.66-1.97); women with BMI ? 30 kg/m2 had 3.10 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to BMI 22-24 kg/m2 (95% CI 2.91-3.30). Conclusions: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent among these middle-aged women. Potential risk factors include age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking, diabetes, and hysterectomy. PMID:16458626

  15. Disability, physical activity, and muscle strength in older women: The women's health and aging study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taina Rantanen; Jack M. Guralnik; Ritva Sakari-Rantala; Suzanne Leveille; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Shari Ling; Linda P. Fried

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study associations of motor disability, physical activity, and muscle strength in older women, in particular to investigate whether model of spiraling decrease is expressed in the data.Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from the base-line measurements of The Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS).Setting: Participants' homes.Participants: A total of 1,002 disabled women aged 65 years and older living in

  16. Perception on prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV among women of reproductive age group in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga-Bello, AI; Adebimpe, WO; Osundina, FF; Abdulsalam, ST

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The fastest growing group of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is women. As more women contract the virus, the number of children infected in utero, intra-partum, and during breastfeeding has been growing. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of women of child bearing age towards the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Materials and methods This is a descriptive cross sectional survey of 420 women of the reproductive age group (15–49 years) selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using interviewer-administered, pretested, semistructured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15. Results A high level of awareness about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was observed among the respondents (99.8%). The knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV was high, 92.1% and 91.4%, respectively. However, a significant portion (71.27%) of the study population had poor attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS, and good knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV/AIDS among the respondents, the attitude towards PMTCT is poor. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and attitude of prevention of MTCT of HIV among women. PMID:23874124

  17. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in the country. PMID:24917067

  18. Person-Environment Interventions With Aging Depressed Women in Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Janice Wood

    The rationale for psychosocial micro and macro interventions for the prevention and treatment of depression in aging women is conceptually based upon empirical research. The investigator's person-environment incongruence model of depression, applied to a study of 50 depressed and 50 non-depressed white women for the purpose of exploring possible…

  19. Recent mammography in women aged 35 and older: Predisposing variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Champion; Anna M. Miller

    1996-01-01

    Early detection through regular mammography screening is the most effective way to decrease mortality from breast cancer. Our purpose in writing this report was to identify factors that influenced women to adhere to mammography guidelines within the year prior to the study. A sample of 581 women aged 35 years and older was used. Data were collected during in?home interviews

  20. Middle-Aged and Older Women in Print Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenshead, Carol; Ingersoll, Berit

    1982-01-01

    Examined images of aging women depicted in periodical advertising over a 10-year period. Analyzed content for frequency, products involved, setting, value orientation, and change over time. Found older women in less than 1% of the advertisements, and no significant changes from 1967-1977. (Author/JAC)

  1. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Eddy; V. Hasselblad; W. McGivney; W. Hendee

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next

  2. Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

  3. Age and HIV Sexual Risk among Women in Methadone Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malitta Engstrom; Tazuko Shibusawa; Nabila El-Bassel; Louisa Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between age and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a random sample of 372 women in methadone\\u000a treatment in New York City. Logistic regression results indicate that women of all ages are at risk for HIV through inconsistent\\u000a condom use. Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and HIV-negative status are associated with inconsistent\\u000a condom

  4. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  5. Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?

    PubMed Central

    Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 release. The thromboxane A2 pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The “Timing Hypothesis,” which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

  6. Determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with high fertility and fast population growth rate. It is also one of the countries with high maternal and child mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa Family planning is a crucial strategy to halt the fast population growth, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health (Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 15 to September 1, 2010 among married women aged 15–49 years in Debre Birhan District. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 851 study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for gathering data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. Results Modern contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married women was 46.9%. Injectable contraceptives were the most frequently used methods (62.9%), followed by intrauterine device (16.8%), pills (14%), norplant (4.3%), male condom (1.2%) and female sterilization (0.8%). Multiple logistic regression model revealed that the need for more children (AOR 9.27, 95% CI 5.43-15.84), husband approve (AOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.67-4.80), couple’s discussion about family planning issues (AOR 7.32, 95% CI 3.60-14.86). Similarly, monthly family income and number of living children were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion Modern contraceptive use was high in the district. Couple’s discussion and husband approval of contraceptives use were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Therefore, district health office and concerned stakeholders should focus on couples to encourage communication and male involvement for family planning. PMID:24490810

  7. Barriers to Middle-Aged Women’s Mental Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Khadijeh; Anoosheh, Monireh; Foroughan, Mahshid; Kazemnejad, Anushirvan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Middle-aged women encounter some barriers to their mental health, putting them at great risk for developing mental disorders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers to middle-aged women’s mental health. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study conducted in 2013 in Kashan, Iran. A purposive, maximum variation sample of 23 middle-aged women was recruited to the study. Data were collected by conducting semi-structured individual interviews. We employed the conventional qualitative content analysis approach for data analysis. Results: Barriers to middle-aged women’s mental health fell into two main themes including ‘increased life concerns’ and ‘physical and psychological tensions’. The two sub-categories of the first theme included having mental concerns and increased burden of roles. The second main theme also consisted of two categories including perceived undesirable physical changes and perceived undesirable psychological changes. Conclusions: Experiences of middle-aged women showed that culturally appropriate interventions to alleviate the concerns of life, physical and mental stress is essential to preserve stability of mental health. PMID:25068059

  8. Menarcheal age for Norwegian women born 1830-1960.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M

    1991-01-01

    Data from birth records from the maternity hospitals in the three main cities in Norway have been used to study the trend in menarcheal age for women born from about 1830 to about 1960. The investigation is based on a sample of 200-300 records around every 10th year from each of the three clinics in partly overlapping time periods relating to a total of 9152 women. The recollected age at menarche fell from just above 16 years for women born around 1830 to just above 13 years for those born around 1960, the decrease being not totally linear. These results correspond closely with a previously published investigation from Oslo from about the same period of time (Brudevoll, Liestøl and Walløe, 1979), but our results, which cover more of Norway, show a more linearily shaped curve than the results covering only Oslo. We have also analysed the relationships of several independent variables to menarcheal age, using multivariate linear regression methods. Besides the woman's year of birth, which was the most important variable throughout the whole period of time, various geographical variables were found to be of moderate importance. Being born in the countryside and in towns other than Oslo and Bergen led to a slightly higher age at menarche. No significant difference between Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim was detected except for the period up to about 1880 where the Bergen women had about 2.6 months earlier menarche than the Oslo women. Married women amongst the sample had experienced menarche a little earlier than the unmarried, and among married women there was an association between occupation and menarcheal age, women from the lowest social classes having the latest ages at menarche. The importance of these socially related parameters declined with time, and for women born after 1945 the difference seemed to have disappeared. The age at menarche was found to be positively related to a woman's age at first birth; the further back in time the stronger the relation. In addition, delayed age at menarche was also found to be associated with irregularities in the menstrual cycles in later life. PMID:1877808

  9. Age at Menopause and Its Main Predictors among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Nazari, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background Since time of menopause is influenced by a variety of racial, environmental, and physiological factors, determining age at natural menopause and its main indicators seems to be necessary. The present study attempted to determine average age at menopause and its main predictors among Iranian women. Materials and Methods This descriptive-analytic study was carried out on 400 postmenopausal women aged 43 to 65 years attending the health centers in Hamadan, Hamadan Province, Iran, during 2013. Due to potential effects of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) on age of menopause, we considered two groups of women with and without OCP use using cluster sampling method. Data were collected through individual interviews at the health centers. Results The findings showed significant univariate relationships between age at menopause with some baseline variables including mother’s age at menopause (p<0.001), mother and spouse with high educational level (p<0.001), passive cigarette smoking (p<0.001), weekly physical activity (p<0.001), and high family income (p<001). Adversely, smoking was associated with early menopause. Conclusion The postmenopausal women doing intense weekly physical activity, having mothers with late menopause, having higher monthly income, and experiencing later-age pregnancy are likely to reach menopause later than their contemporaries, while smokers have an early menopause. PMID:25379155

  10. College-Aged Women and Leadership: Understanding the Variables Impacting College-Aged Women Student Leaders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Duckett

    Attending college offers many women the opportunity to take on a variety of leadership positions. As women take on more leadership roles today while in college, barriers inhibiting their involvement still exist. The campus climate and societal expectations are two such barriers that can deter women from taking on leadership posi- tions. This paper examines the history and perpetuation of

  11. College-Educated Women’s Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Age Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyssa N. Zucker; Joan M. Ostrove; Abigail J. Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Adulthood encompasses a large time span and includes a series of psychosocial challenges (E. H. Erikson, 1950). Five aspects of personality (identity certainty, confident power, concern with aging, generativity, and personal distress) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of college-educated women who at the time of data collection were young adults (age: M = 26 years), middle-aged adults (age: M

  12. Breast cancer in Australian women under the age of 40

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret R. E. McCredie; Gillian S. Dite; Graham G. Giles; John L. Hopper

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: A case-control-family study of breast cancer in women under the age of 40 was carried out in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia, from 1992 to 1995 to determine the risk factors for these women. Subjects included 467 incident cases identified by state cancer registries and 408 population-based controls. Methods: All participants completed a structured risk-factor questionnaire and family pedigree during

  13. A Proactive Approach to Aging Well for Women Over 45

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June N. Sheriff; Lynn Chenoweth

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory two-group, pre- and posttest design study, which employed data triangulation with a convenience sample (n = 120) of women over 45 years aged between 45 and 83 years, living and\\/or working within the South East Sydney and Illawarra areas of New South Wales. Sixty-nine women recorded the Health Check Log (HCL) (33 were health

  14. Charcot's Women: Bodies of Knowledge at the Interface of Aging Studies and Women's Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Katz

    1997-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot's Clinical Lectures on the Diseases of Old Age is recognized as a pioneering, nineteenth-century scientific text on old age. Less acknowledged in gerontology are the elderly women of Paris's Salpêtrière Hospital who were Charcot's research subjects. Looking at the feminist research on Charcot, hysteria, and the history of the Salpêtrière, and critically examining Charcot's text in light of

  15. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age

  16. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women

  17. Use of family planning methods by women in the municipality of Nis (Serbia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Radulovic; M. Nikolic; C. Sagric; Lj. Stosic; A. Stankovic; S. Milutinovic

    2007-01-01

    The use of family planning methods reduces maternal mortality, prevents unwanted and high-risk pregnancies, the need for (un)safe\\u000a abortion and protects from sexually transmitted diseases. The objective of the study was to assess the use of family planning\\u000a methods by women in the municipality of Nis. We applied an observational cohort study that included 1,584 women age 15–49\\u000a who lived

  18. Narratives of Desire in Mid-Age Women With and Without Arousal Difficulties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Brotto; Julia R. Heiman; Deborah L. Tolman

    2009-01-01

    There is controversy about the nature of women's sexual desire. The aim was to explore narrative descriptions of sexual desire among mid-aged women in hopes of clarifying how women define and experience sexual desire, and how these might differ among women with and without female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Mid-aged women without (age: M = 45, n = 12) and with (age: M = 55, n = 10)

  19. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  20. Femoral Expansion in Aging Women: Implications for Osteoporosis and Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richmond W. Smith Jr.; Richard R. Walker

    1964-01-01

    In femoral radiographs of 2030 aging women, the diameter of the midshaft periosteum increased as cortical thickness declined. Since the cortical area enlarged, periosteal accretion exceeded endosteal resorption. Since the section modulus increased more than did cortical area, the ratio of flexural failure resistance to crush resistance increased, in apparent contrast to the changes observed in the femoral neck.

  1. Allostatic Load of Men and Women in Early Middle Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja-Liisa Kinnunen; Jaakko Kaprio; Lea Pulkkinen

    2005-01-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated three aspects of allostatic load, a long-term negative consequence of physical responses to stress: (1) sex differences in allostatic load in early middle age, (2) associations between career stability history and allostatic load, and (3) relationships between allostatic load and health problems. Participants consisted of 62 men and 55 women from the ongoing Jyväskylä Longitudinal

  2. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality.

  3. Associations between socioeconomic status, aging and functionality among older women.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Gladys; Cases, Tania; Bunout, Daniel; de la Maza, María Pía; Leiva, Laura; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel; Hirsch, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    To assess if there is an association between socioeconomic status and quality of life, functional status and markers of aging, we studied 86 women aged 73 ± 7 years, who answered the WHO Qol Bref quality of life survey. Mini mental state examination, timed up and go test, 12 minutes' walk, hand grip and quadriceps strength, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), carotid intima-media thickness and telomere length in peripheral leukocytes were measured. Successful aging was defined as a walking speed, handgrip strength, appendicular lean body mass, timed up and go and minimental values above cutoff points for disability. Participants with successful aging had a higher quality of life score and were more likely to live in rich municipalities. There was a positive correlation between telomere length, right handgrip strength and total fat free mass. Therefore, there is an association between socioeconomic status, successful aging and quality of life. PMID:25288053

  4. What Characterises Women Vulnerable to Chronic Energy Deficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavi Kumar, K. S.; Ramachandran, Maithili; Viswanathan, Brinda

    2009-01-01

    Weight-for-squared height or body mass index (BMI) is often considered as an effective predictor of morbidity and mortality rates. This study uses BMI data from a sample of ever-married women in the age group of 15-49 years in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh for the year 1998-1999, to analyse the determinants of chronic energy deficiency…

  5. Older women with intellectual disability and the meaning of aging.

    PubMed

    David, Niry; Duvdevani, Ilana; Doron, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Aging with intellectual disability has become an important topic in light of the significant increase in life expectancy of this population. More specifically, the combination of gender, age, and intellectual disability raises unique social issues. The aim of this research was to capture and analyze the aging experience of women with intellectual disability from their own voice and viewpoint within the Israeli experience. A phenomenological qualitative method was used in this study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Four key themes arose from the interviews: (a) the importance of work and reluctance to retire, (b) ageism and the fear of getting old, (c) the importance of a significant partner in old age, and (d) today's positive self-perception. A meaningful aging process can be constructed within the context of gender and disability. It was manifested in this study as a disability-neutral experience. However, ageism and negative attitudes toward old age still need to be addressed. PMID:25853785

  6. Aging and Creating Families: Never-Married Heterosexual Women Over Forty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tandace McDill; Sharon K. Hall; Susan C. Turell

    2006-01-01

    An examination of women over age forty who had never married was conducted. The women completed a structured questionnaire about their aging and their self-esteem was assessed with a standard measure. The participants were women from across the United States. Descriptive analyses of the data were ordered with ecological systems theory and findings revealed that the women are self-satisfied, socially

  7. The women's health questionnaire: A measure of mid-aged women's perceptions of their emotional and physical health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myra Hunter

    1992-01-01

    When assessing mood and general health of mid-aged women, the effects of hormonal changes (and resulting symptoms such as hot flushes) and changes associated with age (such as in sleep patterns) can confound the results. A questionnaire was specifically developed to measure subjective reports of emotional and physical well-being of women aged 45 to 65 years. The relationships between symptoms

  8. Bone involution decrease in exercising middle-aged women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Everett L. Smith; Patricia E. Smith; Cynthia J. Ensign; Marianne M. Shea

    1984-01-01

    Summary  Physical activity is an important stimulus in the prevention of bone involution. Bilateral bone mineral mass and width of\\u000a the radius, ulna, and humerus were measured by single photon absorptiometry on 200 women between the ages of 35 and 65 over\\u000a a 3–4 year period. Two groups were formed: 80 in a control group and 120 in a physical activity

  9. Genetic and environmental factors affecting menarcheal age in Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrés, A

    1997-03-01

    Genetic and environmental contributions to menarcheal age were studied in 267 Spanish girls and women born between 1948 and 1981, and their mothers born between 1922 and 1959 (n = 200). Recalled age at menarche, as well as family environment characteristics (family size, birth order, father's occupation and father's educational level) were obtained from each woman. Mean age at menarche in mothers (13.45 years; SD = 1.51) was significantly (p < 0.01) greater than in daughters (13.03 +/- 1.28 years). Year of birth and family size accounted for a significant amount of the variation in age at menarche in both mothers and daughters, whereas occupation of the father only appeared related to menarcheal age in the mothers subsample. Birth order and father's educational level did not contribute significantly to the age at menarche. The mother-daughter and sister-sister correlations (maximum likelihood estimates) for age at menarche were 0.30 and 0.35, respectively (both significant at p < 0.001). This supports the genetic and environmental contribution to the age at menarche, even though the influence of environmental variables may change over time. PMID:9161683

  10. Female scarcity reduces women's marital ages and increases variance in men's marital ages.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns. PMID:22947810

  11. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  12. Redefining intimate partner violence: women’s experiences with physical violence and non-physical abuse by age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy J. Mezey; Lori A. Post; Christopher D. Maxwell

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, physical violence and non-physical abuse within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). It tests the hypothesis that while the prevalence of physical violence is lower among older women, other forms of intimate partner violence are not related to age. The study uses data from the Michigan Violence Against Women Survey to measure

  13. Heart Rate Variability and Exercise in Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Our group has shown a positive dose-response in maximal cardiorespiratory exercise capacity (VO2max) and heart rate variability (HRV) to 6 months of exercise training but no improvement in VO2max for women ?60 years. Here, we examine the HRV response to exercise training in postmenopausal women younger and older than 60 years. Methods We examined 365 sedentary, overweight, hypertensive, postmenopausal women randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups exercising at 50% (4?kcal/kg/week, [KKW]), 100% (8 KKW) and 150% (12 KKW) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Panel physical activity guidelines. Primary outcomes included time and frequency domain indices of HRV. Results Overall, our analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in parasympathetic tone (rMSSD and high frequency power) for both age strata at 8 KKW and 12 KKW. For rMSSD, the age-stratified responses were: control, <60 years, 0.20?ms, 95% confidence interval (CI)?2.40, 2.81; ?60 years, 0.07?ms, 95% CI ?3.64, 3.79; 4 KKW, <60 years, 3.67?ms, 95% CI 1.55, 5.79; ?60 years, 1.20?ms, 95% CI ?1.82, 4.22; 8-KKW, <60 years, 3.61?ms, 95% CI 0.88, 6.34; ?60 years, 5.75?ms, 95% CI 1.89, 9.61; and 12-KKW, <60 years, 5.07?ms, 95% CI 2.53, 7.60; ?60 years, 4.28?ms, 95% CI 0.42, 8.14. Conclusions VO2max and HRV are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Despite no improvement in VO2max, parasympathetic indices of HRV increased in women ?60 years. This is clinically important, as HRV has important CVD risk and neurovisceral implications beyond cardiorespiratory function. PMID:21967166

  14. Virginie PRIVAS -BRAUT The Trinity of a new Age: Three struggling Women in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - BRÉAUTÉ halshs-00817203,version1-24Apr2013 #12;2 strategically reversing the roles of men and women, she1 Virginie PRIVAS - BRÉAUTÉ The Trinity of a new Age: Three struggling Women in Anne Devlin Belfast Catholic women, Frieda, Josie and Donna, who bespeak women's physical involvement in the conflict

  15. Knowledge and attitudes towards use of long acting reversible contraceptives among women of reproductive age in Lubaga division, Kampala district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. Her high fertility is mainly attributed to the high unmet need for family planning. Use of Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) is low (13%) in Uganda yet they are the most cost-effective contraceptives. This study aimed to assess the reproductive aged women’s knowledge, attitudes, and factors associated with use of LARC. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 565 women (15–49 years) attending private and public health facilities in Lubaga division, Kampala district. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and factors associated with use of LARC; Intra-Uterine Devices, Implants and Injectables. The outcome variable was current use of LARC. A generalized linear regression model was run in STATA version12.0. Prevalence Risk Ratios for associations between current LARC use and independent factors were obtained and regarded significant at 95% CI with p?age (SD) and current use of LARC was 26.34 (5.35) and 31.7% respectively. Factors associated with current use of LARC were; previous use adj.PRR 2.89; (95% CI 2.29, 3.81), knowledge of implant administration site adj.PRR 1.83; (95% CI 1.17, 2.87), and perception that; male partner decisions positively influence their contraceptive choices adj.PRR 1.49; (95% CI 1.18, 1.88). Contrary, perception that LARC should be used by married women was negatively associated with use of LARC adj.PRR 0.63; (95% CI 0.44, 0.90). Conclusion Knowledge about site of administration, previous use of LARC and women’s attitude that male partners’ choice influence their contraceptive decisions were positively associated with current use of LARC. Contrary, the attitude that LARC was for married women was negatively associated with its use. This study suggests a need to strengthen client education about LARC to dispel possible myths and to consider integrating male partner’s decision making in contraceptive choices for women. PMID:24636154

  16. Prospective Predictors of Mental Health after the Development of Breast Cancer in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the prospective predictors of mental health after breast cancer diagnosis among mid-aged Australian women (initially aged 45-50 years). Two waves of data collected 2 years apart from a longitudinal population-based survey of 12,177 women identified a group of 63 women who reported onset of BC between T1 (T1) and Time 2…

  17. Use of Emergency Contraception among Women Aged 15-44: United States, 2006-2010

    MedlinePLUS

    ... age, marital status, Hispanic origin and race, and education. Figure 2. Percentage of sexually experienced women aged ... occurred by age, Hispanic origin and race, and education. Figure 3. Use of emergency contraception due to ...

  18. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these findings. PMID:24769856

  19. Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among Black Women and the Relevance of the Strong Black Woman Archetype.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2014-11-21

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  20. Screening and recording of alcohol use among women of child-bearing age and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Moumita; Burnett, Margaret; Carrière, Sarah; Cox, Lori Vitale; Dell, Colleen Ann; Gammon, Holly; Geller, Brian; Koren, Gideon; Lee, Lily; Midmer, Deana; Mousmanis, Patricia; Schuurmans, Nan; Senikas, Vyta; Soucy, Danielle; Wood, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    A woman's alcohol use during pregnancy is one of the top preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities that are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The social and economic burden of FASD is substantial. Lifetime direct tangible costs per individual related to health care, education and social services in Canada have been estimated to be $1.4 million. Screening women of child-bearing age and pregnant women and recording their alcohol consumption is a practical process to identify and evaluate women at-risk and to identify potentially exposed infants. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes the following three levels of screenings which should be done on consenting women: Level I screening involves practice-based approaches that can be used by health care providers when talking to women about alcohol use, such as motivational interviewing and supportive dialogue. Level II screening includes a number of structured questionnaires that can be used with direct questioning (TLFB) or indirect /masked screening (AUDIT, BMAST / SMAST, CAGE, CRAFFT, T-ACE, TWEAK). Level III screening includes laboratory-based tools that can be used to confirm the presence of a drug, its level of exposure and determine the presence of multiple drugs. There are challenges and limitations in the use of the screening and assessment tools outlined. For example, the single question about alcohol use and the various questionnaires rely on a woman to provide details about her alcohol use. There is no consensus on the appropriate screening to use across Canada as each provincial / territorial jurisdiction, health care organization and healthcare provider uses a variety of formal and informal screening tool. In addition, there are inconsistent processes across Canada for the recording of the alcohol use in a woman's chart and the transfer of the information to the infant and the child's health records. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes eleven recommendations to improve the screening and recording processes for alcohol use in women of child-bearing age and pregnant women. PMID:19372602

  1. Financial difficulty in acquiring food among elderly disabled women: results from the Women's Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klesges, L M; Pahor, M; Shorr, R I; Wan, J Y; Williamson, J D; Guralnik, J M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study described the prevalence and characteristics of financial difficulty acquiring food and its relation to nutritional biomarkers in older disabled women. METHODS: Baseline data were analyzed from the Women's Health and Aging Study, a population-based survey of 1002 community-dwelling, disabled women 65 years and older from Baltimore, Md. RESULTS: Minority women (49.5%) were more likely than White women (13.4%) to report financial difficulty acquiring food (odds ratio [OR] = 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5, 8.6). Of the women reporting financial difficulty acquiring food, only 19.3% received food stamps and fewer than 7% participated in food assistance programs. Women reporting financial difficulty acquiring food had higher levels of psychologic depression than women not reporting such difficulty. Greater likelihood of financial difficulty acquiring food was associated with poorer quality of life and physical performance among White women and with more medical conditions among minority women. Finally, anemia (hemoglobin < 120 g/L) was associated with financial difficulty acquiring food (age-adjusted OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.9, 4.3). CONCLUSIONS: Financial difficulty acquiring food was common, and receipt of nutritional services was rare, in community-dwelling, older disabled women. Nutrition assistance programs for the elderly should reexamine their effectiveness in preventing nutritional deficits in older disabled women. PMID:11189828

  2. The Malignant Potential of Small Cystic Ovarian Tumors in Women over 50 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Bailey; F. R. Ueland; G. L. Land; P. D. DePriest; H. H. Gallion; R. J. Kryscio; J. R. van Nagell

    1998-01-01

    Objective.The aim of this study was to determine the risk of malignancy in cystic ovarian tumors <10 cm in diameter in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age.Methods.All cystic ovarian tumors detected by transvaginal sonography screening in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age were evaluated with respect to size and morphology. Histology was recorded on

  3. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception of Chinese and Caucasian faces. Résumé Objectifs Le vieillissement entraine des changements caractéristiques de l'apparence de la peau du visage. Parmi ces changements on distingue les éléments topographiques (relâchement de la peau et rides), les taches brunes et les cernes sur le contour de l'œil. Bien que ces modifications cutanées avec l'âge soient similaires pour les visages caucasiens et chinois; leur âge d'apparition et leur degré de sévérité varient entre ces deux populations. Il y a très peu d'informations disponibles liées à l'influence du vieillissement cutané sur la perception des visages féminins par les femmes chinoises. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer la contribution des différents signes de vieillissement à la perception de l'âge et d'attirance chez ces femmes. Methodes Des photos de visages de femmes caucasiennes et chinoises d'environ 60 ans ont été manipulées de façon à réduire séparément les signes suivants: (i) le relâchement de la peau et les rides, (ii) les taches brunes, et (iii) les cernes. Enfin, tous les signes ont été atténués ensemble (iv). Des participantes chinoises ont estimé, à partir de ces photos, l'écart d'âge entre la version originale et chaque version modifiée; elles ont également évalué l'attirance des visages originaux et modifiés. Resultats Les femmes chinoises ont jugé les visages chinois plus jeunes après correction des taches qu'après correction des rides/relâchement, alors que les visages caucasiens ont été perçus les plus jeunes après correction des rides/relâchement. Les femmes chinoises ont jugé que les visages avec correction des taches étaient les plus attirants quelle que soit l'origine du visage. La manipulation des cernes a entraîné un rajeunissement des 2 types de visages et les a rendus plus attirants, m

  4. Unheard Voices: American Women in the Emerging Industrial and Business Age

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Harvard Business School presents Unheard Voices: American Women in the Emerging Industrial and Business Age. This manuscript collection, housed at the Harvard's Baker Library, was extensively researched and surveyed in May 1999. Along with detailed descriptions of the collection, the site also offers a sample of digitized manuscripts. The collection is divided into four major categories: Women at Work, Women in Business, Women as Professionals, and Women's Personal Lives. An extensive bibliography offers related Websites along with print materials.

  5. Physiologic Markers of Chronic Stress in Premenopausal, Middle-Aged Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LYNDA H. POWELL; WILLIAM R. LOVALLO; KAREN A. MATTHEWS; PETER MEYER; A. REES MIDGLEY; ANDREW BAUM; ARTHUR A. STONE; LYNN UNDERWOOD; JUDITH J. MCCANN; KRISTI JANIKULA HERRO; MARCIA G. ORY

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify physiological markers of chronic stress in middle-aged women that can be assessed simply and are thus feasible for introduction into large-scale, epidemiologic studies of aging. Methods: Subjects were 40 nonsmoking, premenopausal women between the ages of 42 and 52 years, 20 of whom were chronically stressed because of undergoing a divorce

  6. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  7. Age, Wage, and Job Placement: Older Women's Experiences Entering the Retail Sector.

    PubMed

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality. PMID:25607421

  8. Women's strategic responses to violence in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.?DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.?SETTING—León, Nicaragua.?PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.?MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.?CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.???Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011

  9. Micronutrient Intakes among Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Nguyen, Hieu; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Copeland, Erika; Strizich, Garrett; Lowe, Alyssa; Pham, Hoa; Truong, Truong V.; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. Methods The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA) participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. Results Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively) with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively). The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with educational programs and social development are needed. PMID:24586831

  10. Characteristics and screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer aged 20–29 years

    PubMed Central

    Castanon, A; Leung, V M W; Landy, R; Lim, A W W; Sasieni, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: There was concern that failure to screen women aged 20–24 years would increase the number of cancers or advanced cancers in women aged 20–29 years. We describe the characteristics of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in England aged 20–29 years and examine the association between the period of diagnosis, screening history and FIGO stage. Methods: We used data on 1800 women diagnosed with cervical cancer between April 2007 and March 2012 at age 20–29 from the National Audit of Invasive Cervical Cancers. Results: The majority of cancers (995, or 62% of those with known stage) were stage 1A. Cancer at age 20–24 years was rare (12% of those aged 20–29 years), when compared with age 25 (24%) and age 26–29 years (63%); however, cancers in women aged 20–24 years tended to be more advanced and were more often of a rare histological type. For 59% of women under age 30, the cervical cancer was screen detected, most of them (61%) as a result of their first screening test. A three-fold increase in the number of cancers diagnosed at age 25 years was seen since the start of the study period. Conclusion: Cervical cancer at age 20–24 years is rare. Most cancers in women under age 30 years are screen detected as microinvasive cancer. PMID:23820257

  11. Incomplete and biased perpetrator coding among hospitalized assaults for women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, H; Ismailov, R; Lawrence, B; Miller, T

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Hospital discharge data for 1997 were solicited from states with good E coding completeness. Data were received from 19 states (51.9% of women in the United States, ages 15–49). For assaulted women, a regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with perpetrator code assignment using age, payment source, pregnancy status, race, and severity as covariates. Results: Among 137 887 injured hospitalized women age 15–49, there were 7402 assaults (5.4%). Among all assaults to women, perpetrator coding was poor (8.8%). Among those that were perpetrator coded, 83.7% were spouse/partner related. Age was positively associated with probability of having a perpetrator code (p<0.001). Those paid by a private source were 42.9% more likely to have a perpetrator code (p = 0.007). Pregnant women were seven times more likely to have a perpetrator code (p<0.001). Non-white women were 66.8% less likely to have a perpetrator code (p<0.001) than white women. Conclusions: The poor use of perpetrator codes in hospital discharge data minimizes their usefulness for surveillance of serious injury from intimate partner violence. An implication of this research is the need to understand the gaps and strengthen the completeness of perpetrator documentation and coding. The findings suggest caution when interpreting the results from existing hospital discharge data based intimate partner violence surveillance systems. PMID:15066979

  12. Hydronephrosis due to ureteral endometriosis in women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Yan-Yuan; Jin, Bai-Ye; Xia, Dan; Wang, Shuo; Pan, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of ureteral endometriosis, and remind the clinics to be highly suspicious of it in women of reproductive age with hydronephrosis without evidence of stones and malignancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on a database of 82 patients who underwent surgery for hydronephrosis due to ureteral endometriosis between Jan. 2007 and Apr. 2014. Results: All patients evaluated in this study were divided into three groups: Group A consisted of patients between 20-30 years (n = 12), Group B comprised of patients between 31-40 years (n = 29), Group C consisted of patients between 41-50 years (n = 41). Patients in Group C had a greater prevalence of pelvic pain compared with patients in Group A and Group B (P < 0.05). However there were no differences with respect to the prevalence of other non-specific genitourinary symptoms and the urinary symptoms. Infertility was found to occur more frequently in patients in Group A compared with patients in Group B and Group C (P < 0.05). Because of the lack of specific symptoms, ureteral endometriosis was diagnosed (20.1 ± 10.3) months on average after the patients suffered from mild hydronephrosis or mild loin pain. Preoperative examinations showed different degree of hydronephrosis, but lack of specificity. All patients underwent surgery by laparotomy or laparoscopy, such as ureterectomy with ureteroureterostomy or ureterocystoneostomy. The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis. Conclusion: The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis is elusive and relies heavily on clinical suspicion. Hence, women in the reproductive age, especially with infertility and pelvic pain, who have hydronephrosis without evidence of stones and malignance, should be adequately assessed via imaging techniques or diagnostic laparoscopy or cystoscopy to highly suspect the diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis.

  13. Designing a Community Study of Moderately to Severely Disabled Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUDITH D. KASPER; SAM SHAPIRO; JACK M. GURALNIK; KAREN J. BANDEEN-ROCHE; LINDA P. FRIED

    PURPOSE: This paper reports on the design of a community-based study focusing on the effects of prevalent and incident disease and other modifying influences, on changes in functioning among moderately and severely disabled elderly women over a 3-year period (the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS)). METHODS: An approach to conceptualizing and assessing disability which captured functional diffi- culty across

  14. Determinants of modern family planning use among women of reproductive age in the Nkwanta district of Ghana: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Average contraceptive prevalence rate in the Nkwanta district of Ghana was estimated to be 6.2% relative to the national average at the time, of 19%. While several efforts had been made to improve family planning in the country, the district still had very low use of modern family planning methods. This study sought to determine the factors that influenced modern family planning use in general and specifically, the factors that determined the consistently low use of modern family planning methods in the district. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Nkwanta district of Ghana to determine socio-economic, socio-cultural and service delivery factors influencing family planning usage. One hundred and thirty cases and 260 controls made up of women aged 15–49 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires. A logistic regression was fitted. Results Awareness and knowledge of modern family planning methods were high among cases and controls (over 90%). Lack of formal education among women, socio-cultural beliefs and spousal communication were found to influence modern family planning use. Furthermore, favourable opening hours of the facilities and distance to health facilities influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion While modern family planning seemed to be common knowledge among these women, actual use of such contraceptives was limited. There is need to improve use of modern family planning methods in the district. In addition to providing health facilities and consolidating close-to-client service initiatives in the district, policies directed towards improving modern family planning method use need to consider the influence of formal education. Promoting basic education, especially among females, will be a crucial step as the district is faced with high levels of school dropout and illiteracy rates. PMID:25117887

  15. THE IMAGE OF MIDDLE?AGED AND OLDER WOMEN IN MAGAZINE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Bailey; Diane R. Harrell; Laura E. Anderson

    1993-01-01

    Manufacturers and retailers have discovered the potential “older” market, but do magazine ads reflect this discovery? The images of older women in advertisements in 1987 issues of Good Housekeeping, JAMA, and Time were examined on several measures. Good Housekeeping printed more ads featuring women, and a greater proportion of its “person pictorial” ads featured women. An age bias was found

  16. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

  17. Effects of Three Bridging Exercises on Local and Global Muscles of Middle Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ji Kyeng; Lim, Hee Sung; Shin, Sung Rae; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Suk Min

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the muscle activity differences of three different lumbar stabilization exercises in a comparison of middle-aged and young women. [Subjects] Seventeen middle-aged women and fifteen young women were enrolled in this study. Patients with a history of any neurologic disorders, orthopedic disorders, or cardiopulmonary problems that would have affected their lumbar stabilization exercise performance were excluded. [Methods] All subjects performed 3 exercises while the surface electromographic activity was recorded of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, multifidus, and iliocostalis lumbolum. The mean electromyographic amplitudes obtained during the exercise were normalized to the amplitude of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) to produce an inter-individually comparable muscle activity index. [Results] The highest muscle activity of middle-aged women was observed in the ring bridging exercise. The middle-aged women had higher levels of all muscle activaties than the young women, particularly in the multifidus muscle and iliocostalis lumborum. No significant difference in muscle activity ratio was observed between the local muscles and global muscles in the three different exercises, though the muscle activity ratio was the highest in the ring bridging exercise. The young women group showed a higher ratio of the internal oblique/rectus abdominus than the middle aged women in the bridging exercise. [Conclusion] The ring bridging exercise should be used for stabilizing the lumbar area because the young women showed a higher ratio than the middle aged women. PMID:24259869

  18. Impact of screening mammography on mortality from breast cancer before age 60 in women 40 to 49 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Narod, S.A.; Sun, P.; Wall, C.; Baines, C.; Miller, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether screening mammography programs should include women in their 40s is controversial. In Canada, screening of women aged 40–49 years has not been shown to reduce mortality from breast cancer. Given that screening mammography reduces mean tumour size and that tumour size is inversely associated with survival, the lack of benefit seen with screening is puzzling and suggests a possible adverse effect on mortality of mammography or subsequent treatment (or both) that counterbalances the expected benefit derived from downstaging. Methods We followed 50,436 women 40–49 years of age until age 60 for mortality from breast cancer. Of those women, one half had been randomly assigned to annual mammography and one half to no mammography. The impact of mammography on breast cancer mortality was estimated using a left-censored Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 256 deaths from breast cancer recorded in the study cohort, 134 occurred in women allocated to mammography, and 122 occurred in those receiving usual care and not allocated to mammography. The cumulative risk of death from breast cancer to age 60 was 0.53% for women assigned to mammography and 0.48% for women not so assigned. The hazard ratio for breast cancer–specific death associated with 1 or more screening mammograms before age 50 was 1.10 (95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 1.40). Conclusions Mammography in women 40–49 years of age is associated with a small but nonsignificant increase in the risk of dying of breast cancer before age 60. Caution should be exercised when recommending mammographic screening to women before age 50. PMID:25302030

  19. 10 CFR 15.49 - Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the debtor and the Government. 15.49 Section...REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES...the compromised debt in consideration...amount. (2) The Government and its officials...action against the Government and its officials...the compromised debt. [67 FR...

  20. Voices of Transformational Learning: Life Experiences of Women Aged Eighty and above in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lorri A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the lived experiences and stories of dynamic women over 80 years of age. Their contribution to transformational and lifelong learning may offer a blueprint for baby boomers to age successfully. The exploration disclosed common patterns of the individual lives. The interviews revealed that the women were…

  1. Changes in age at marriage of women in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1992-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in age at marriage for women in a rural area of north India. Age at marriage rose from under 12 years before 1930 to about 19 years in 1988, mainly as a result of socioeconomic development and advances in education of women. PMID:1737808

  2. Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Madhivanan; K Krupp; V Chandrasekaran; C Karat; A Arun; CR Cohen; AL Reingold; JD Klausner

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of childbearing age and is associated with STI\\/HIV and adverse birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of BV among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India. Methods: Between October 2005 and December 2006, 898 sexually active

  3. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

  4. Racial and ethnic differences in mammography use among U.S. women younger than age 40

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Kapp; A. Blythe Ryerson; Steven S. Coughlin; Trevor D. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    Objective Evidence-based recommendations for routine breast cancer screening suggest that women begin mammography at age 40, although\\u000a some women receive a mammogram before that age. Little is known about mammography use among younger women, especially with\\u000a respect to race and ethnicity. Methods We used data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey to examine racial\\/ethnic differences in mammography use among

  5. Women and Substance Abuse: Gender, Age, and Cultural Considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally J. Stevens; Rosi A. C. Andrade; Bridget S. Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society,

  6. Images of powerful women in the age of ‘choice feminism’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Hatton; Mary Nell Trautner

    2012-01-01

    A number of scholars and journalists have argued that Western culture has become ‘sexualized’. Both women and men, they maintain, are highly sexualized in popular media. At the same time, scholars have examined the sexualization of women as part of a broader cultural ‘backlash’ against the gains of second-wave feminism and women's increasing power in society. We contribute to both

  7. Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:24327996

  8. Effects of the Kampo Formula Tokishakuyakusan on Headaches and Concomitant Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Terauchi, Masakazu; Hiramitsu, Shiro; Akiyoshi, Mihoko; Owa, Yoko; Kato, Kiyoko; Obayashi, Satoshi; Matsushima, Eisuke; Kubota, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the correlates of headaches in middle-aged women and investigate the effects of Tokishakuyakusan (TJ-23), a formula of traditional Japanese herbal therapy Kampo, on headache and concomitant depression. Methods. We examined cross-sectionally the baseline records of 345 women aged 40–59 years who visited our menopause clinic. Among them, 37 women with headaches were treated with either hormone therapy (HT) or TJ-23; the data of these women were retrospectively analyzed to compare the effects of the treatment. Results. The women were classified into 4 groups on the basis of their headache frequency, and no significant intergroup differences were noted in the physical or lifestyle factors, except age. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant contributors to the women's headaches were their age (adjusted OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.88–0.97)) and their depressive symptoms (adjusted OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.39–2.16)). Compared to women treated with HT, women treated with TJ-23 reported relief from headaches (65% versus 29%) and concomitant depression (60% versus 24%) more frequently. Improvement in the scores of headaches and depression correlated significantly with TJ-23 treatment. Conclusions. Headache in middle-aged women is significantly associated with depression; TJ-23 could be effective for treating both of these symptoms. PMID:24648849

  9. Correlates of total physical activity among middle-aged and elderly women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Orsini; Rino Bellocco; Matteo Bottai; Marcello Pagano; Alicja Wolk

    2007-01-01

    Information on correlates of total physical activity (PA) levels among middle-aged and elderly women is limited. This article aims to investigate whether total daily PA levels are associated with age, body mass index, smoking, drinking status, and sociodemographic factors. In a cross-sectional study of 38,988 women between the ages of 48 and 83 years residing in central Sweden, information on

  10. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN HPV POSITIVITY AND ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY DIFFERS BY AGE AMONG PERIMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Silver, Michelle I.; Burke, Anne; Viscidi, Raphael; Chang, Kathryn; Duke, Cindy M. P.; Shen, Wen; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We explored the age-stratified correlates and correlations between HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities in perimenopausal women. Materials and methods HPV testing and Pap smear screening were performed at baseline on 841 routinely screened women age 35–60 years in the HPV in Perimenopause (HIP) cohort. Demographic, behavioral and medical information was collected through telephone administered questionnaires. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the correlation between HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities by age. Logistic regression was used to determine correlates of HPV and abnormalities in women under and over 45 years of age. Results The prevalence of HPV, HR-HPV and cervical abnormalities decreased significantly with increasing age, as did the correlation between HR-HPV and cervical abnormalities. The prevalence of HR-HPV was 50% among younger women with abnormalities but this decreased steadily to 20% HR-HPV detection among 50–54 year old, and no abnormalities were detected in 55–60 year old women. Different correlates of HR-HPV infection and abnormalities were observed in women ?45 years, a pattern not seen in the younger women. Conclusions Although the relative proportion of low and high-grade abnormalities did not change with age, we saw a loss of concordance between HR-HPV detection and cytological abnormalities with increasing age. Current guidelines for cervical cancer screening group together all women age 30 and above. Our data raise important questions about the interpretation of HPV and Pap test results in this age group and suggest that ongoing surveillance of HPV and cytology in cervical cancer screening programs consider a third age stratification among older women. PMID:22885643

  11. Risk Factors for Mortality in Middle-aged Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Tice; Alka Kanaya; Trisha Hue; Susan Rubin; Diana S. M. Buist; Andrea LaCroix; Jane A. Cauley; Stephanie Litwack; Louise A. Brinton; Douglas C. Bauer

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many factors contribute to mortality in older women, but their relative importance and inde- pendent contribution have been poorly characterized. Methods: From 1990 to 1992, we assessed demograph- ics, lifestyle measures, prevalent disease, medication use, anthropometrics,vitalsigns,andphysicalfunctionin17748 postmenopausal women. We used proportional hazards modeling to evaluate their association with mortality. Results: During 9 years of follow-up, 1886 women (10.6%) died.

  12. Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynne C Giles; Gary FV Glonek; Vivienne M Moore; Michael J Davies; Mary A Luszcz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of

  13. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  14. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women – all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors – as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  15. The Middle Ages: Change in Women's Personalities and Social Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women

  16. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

  17. Parity-related mortality: shape of association among middle-aged and elderly men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dena H. Jaffe; Yehuda D. Neumark; Zvi Eisenbach; Orly Manor

    2009-01-01

    Parity is associated with mortality among middle-aged women, while substantially less is known about this relationship for\\u000a men and the elderly. Using the census-based Israel Longitudinal Mortality Study (ILMS) II (1995–2004) we sought to examine\\u000a the parity–mortality relationship among men and women, middle-aged and elderly. In our study cohort of 71,733 married men\\u000a and 62,822 married women ages 45–89 years at

  18. Facilitating communication about sexual health between aging women and their health care providers.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Anne K; Lewinson, Terri D W

    2015-04-01

    Many women experience changes in sexual health as they age, and discussing these changes with health care providers is an essential component of optimal health management. The purpose of this study was to understand aging women's perspectives about communicating with providers about sexual health. We used the integrative model of behavioral prediction as a theoretical lens to explore women's attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived self-efficacy that promote or inhibit the likelihood of communicating about sexual health. In this theory-based qualitative study, we interviewed 28 community-dwelling older women in the Midwestern United States. Through thematic analysis, we identified both positive and negative attitudes about communicating with providers. Women seemed most inclined to discuss sexual health if they perceived that important patient-provider conditions, such as trust and rapport, were in place. Despite situational obstacles and perceived norms, these women held strong beliefs about their abilities to discuss sexual health topics with providers. PMID:25228151

  19. A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women’s loss of reproductive value

    PubMed Central

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Traficonte, Daniel M.; Wilson, M. Claire

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual’s overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35–50 years and 51–65 years, respectively) and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: (1) that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; (2) that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and (3) that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female) middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources. PMID:24592253

  20. Decline in age at menarche among Spanish women born from 1925 to 1962

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Cabanes; Nieves Ascunce; Enrique Vidal; María Ederra; Ana Barcos; Nieves Erdozain; Virginia Lope; Marina Pollán

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While the timing of reproductive events varies across populations, a downward trend in age at menarche has nevertheless been reported in most of the developed world over the past century. Given the impact of change in age at menarche on health conditions, this study sought to examine secular trends in age at menarche among women living in Navarre (Northern

  1. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  2. PARENTAL LOSS AND EATING-RELATED COGNITIONS AND BEHAVIORS IN COLLEGE-AGE WOMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MINNA R. BEAM; HEATHER L. SERVATY-SEIB; LAURA MATHEWS

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia Test–Revised (BULIT-R). ?Women who had experienced parental death scored significantly

  3. Childhood Abuse and Its Association with Mid-Aged Women's Sexual Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LORRAINE DENNERSTEIN; JANET R. GUTHRIE; SIMONE ALFORD

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of recalled childhood sexual and physical abuse with current sexual functioning in mid-life. The sample was participants in the longitudinal population-based cohort of mid-aged women, The Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Three hundred sixty two of the women (92% of the available cohort) were administered the Violence Questionnaire in the

  4. Role Involvement and Well-Being in Middle-Aged Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello; Sara Hutchison; François Hoepflinger

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to shed light on the relation of social role experiences and health to well-being outcomes of 198 middle-aged (40–55 years old) Swiss women living in various familial contexts (double-track women, i.e., partnered working mothers, homemakers, single mothers, single women).Results: Our results revealed that the way roles were experienced was primarily a function of

  5. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

  6. Reexamining factors predicting Afro-American and white American women's age at first coitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Elizabeth Wyatt

    1989-01-01

    Research identifying factors associated with ethnic differences in first coitus has been limited by methodologies and samples used. This study reexamines ethnic differences in Afro-American and white American women's age of first coitus. Demographic, socialization, and decision-making factors were examined in a series of multiple regression analyses, with the prevalence of women's child sexual abuse incidents, in order to identify

  7. Surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in women of 80 years of age and older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karlijn J. Schweitzer; Mark E. Vierhout; Alfredo L. Milani

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the long-term results of women over 80 years of age following surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. METHODS: We reviewed all records of women of 80 years and older operated for pelvic organ prolapse; all patients alive were contacted through a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 2058 operations for pelvic organ prolapse were

  8. Keeping Vigil on the Edge: Three Models of Leadership in Monastic Women of the Middle Ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmel M Posa

    2002-01-01

    For this paper, I will, initially, concentrate our attention on the factors that contributed to the position of women in the Church and society from the early to high Middle Ages. It is here that we find a fascinating rise and demise of the role of women in the eyes of the Church and society. It is here also that

  9. Future Time Perspective according to women's age and social role during adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Léandre Bouffard; Etienne Bastin; Sylvie Lapierre

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to describe the kind of transformation Future Time Perspective (FTP) undergoes during adulthood and to investigate the differences that may occur in the extension and the content of goals of women according to their age groups and social roles (homemakers, students, and careerwomen). With a sentence completion technique, 622 Caucasian French-Canadian women (20

  10. Drinking habits among college-aged African-American women: The frequency of problem drinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isis Naima Draper-Walton

    2001-01-01

    College students are at increased risk of alcohol-related problems based on high levels of regular alcohol consumption. Prior research has generated many correlates of such behavior but few have focused on the specific drinking patterns of college-aged black women. Although some recent studies have addressed this, there remains a dearth in the literature on collegiate drinking among minority women. This

  11. Age-specific prevalence of human papilloma virus infection among Nigerian women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inconsistent trends in HPV prevalence by age have been described in Africa. We examined the age prevalence pattern and distribution of 37 HPV-DNA types among urban Nigerian women. Methods The study population was a sample of 278 women who presented to cervical cancer screening programs in Abuja, Nigeria, between April and August 2012. Using a nurse administered questionnaire, information on demographic characteristics and risk factors of cervical cancer was collected and samples of cervical exfoliated cells were obtained from all participants. Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test® was used to characterize prevalent HPV and log-binomial regression models were used to examine the association between potential correlates and the prevalence of HPV infection. Results The mean age (SD) of the women enrolled was 38 (8) years. The overall prevalence of HPV was 37%. HPV 35 was the most prevalent HPV type in the study population. Among women age ? 30 years, 52% had HPV infection compared to 23% of those women who were older than 45 years (p = 0.006). We observed a significant linear association between age and the prevalence of HPV infections. The prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (1.17, 4.34) for any HPV infection, 3.83 (1.23, 11.94) for Group 1 HPV (definite carcinogens), and 2.19 (0.99, 4.84) for Group 2a or 2b HPV (probable or possible carcinogens) types, among women aged 18–30 years, compared to women who were older than 45 years. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection was highest among younger women and decreased steadily with age among this population of urban Nigerian women. PMID:24972674

  12. Mammography Screening for Women Ages 40-49 - February 5, 1997

    Cancer.gov

    "MAMMOGRAPHY SCREENING FOR WOMEN AGES 40-49" Statement of Richard D. Klausner, M.D. Director, National Cancer Institute on Screening Mammography Before the Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies Senator

  13. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  14. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  15. Bone density parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Khaw; M. J. Sneyd; J. Compston

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between bone density and indices of calcium metabolism including parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women. DESIGN--A cross sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--138 women volunteers aged 45-65 with no known osteoporosis and unselected for disease status recruited for a dietary assessment study from the community using general practice registers. Volunteer rate was 20%.

  16. Childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged US women: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M D Gliksman; I Kawachi; D Hunter; G A Colditz; J E Manson; M J Stampfer; F E Speizer; W C Willett; C H Hennekens

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the relationship of childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged women. DESIGN--A prospective cohort of women with 14 years follow up data (1976-90). SUBJECTS--A total of 117,006 registered female nurses aged 30 to 55 years in 1976 and free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incident fatal

  17. Does Life Expectancy Affect Treatment of Women Aged 80 and Older with Early Stage Breast Cancers?

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long; Silliman, Rebecca A.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Data are needed on how life expectancy affects treatment decisions among women ?80 years with early stage breast cancer. METHODS We used the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare claims dataset from 1992–2005 to identify women aged ?80 newly diagnosed with lymph node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors, ?5 centimeters. To estimate life expectancy, we matched these women to women of similar age, region, and insurance, not diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined 5-year mortality of matched controls by illness burden (measured with the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) using Kaplan-Meier statistics. We examined treatments received by estimated life expectancy within CCI levels. We further examined factors associated with receipt of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS). RESULTS Of 9,932 women, 39.6% underwent mastectomy, 30.4% received BCS plus radiotherapy, and 30.0% received BCS alone. Estimated 5-year mortality was 72% for women with CCIs of 3+, yet 38.0% of these women underwent mastectomy and 22.9% received radiotherapy after BCS. Conversely, estimated 5-year mortality was 36% for women with CCIs of 0 and 26.6% received BCS alone. Age 80–84, urban residence, higher grade, recent diagnosis, mammography use, and low comorbidity, were factors associated with receiving radiotherapy after BCS. Among women with CCIs of 3+ treated with BCS, 36.9% underwent radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS Many women aged ?80 with limited life expectancies receive radiotherapy after BCS for treatment of early stage breast cancers while many in excellent health do not. More consideration needs to be given to patient life expectancy when considering breast cancer treatments. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, older women, treatment, life expectancy, radiation PMID:22368726

  18. Research on Influence of Aerobic Dancing and Tennis Exercises on Middle-Aged Women’s Bone Mineral Density of Calcaneus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao He; Li Qin; Wang Jinan

    \\u000a In order to find out the influence of aerobic dancing and tennis exercises on middle-aged women’s bone mineral density of\\u000a calcaneus, we select the healthy middle-aged women aged 30-50 as test subjects. We use quantitative ultrasonic bone imaging\\u000a and measurement system to test the subjects’ bone mineral density of calcaneus. The result shows that the stiffness and bone\\u000a mineral density

  19. Modeling factors that influence exercise and dietary change among midlife Australian women: results from the Healthy Aging of Women Study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rhonda; Anderson, Debra; Hurst, Cameron

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence midlife women to make positive exercise and dietary changes. In late 2005 questionnaires were mailed to 866 women aged 51-66 years from rural and urban locations in Queensland, Australia and participating in Stage 2 of the Healthy Aging of Women Study. The questionnaires sought data on socio-demographics, body mass index (BMI), chronic health conditions, self-efficacy, exercise and dietary behavior change since age 40, and health-related quality of life. Five hundred and sixty four (69%) were completed and returned by early 2006. Data analysis comprised descriptive and bivariate statistics and structural equation modeling. The results showed that midlife is a significant time for women to make positive health behavior changes. Approximately one-third of the sample (34.6%) indicated that they had increased their exercise and around 60% had made an effort to eat more healthily since age 40. Modeling showed self-efficacy to be important in making both exercise (?ˆ(Z)=0.099;?ˆ=0.006;95%CI:0.001,0.011) and dietary (?ˆ(Z)=-0.187;?ˆ=-0.009;95%CI:-0.013,-0.005) changes. Although education appeared to influence self-efficacy (?ˆ(Z)=0.148;?ˆ=2.448;95%CI:1.136,3.76) in relation to exercise change, this was not the case for dietary change. The study has application for programs promoting healthy aging among women, and implies that those with low education, high BMI and poor mental health may need considerable support to improve their lifestyles. PMID:20619979

  20. Age, muscle fatigue, and walking endurance in pre-menopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Hunter; C. Scott Bickel; Pedro Del Corral; Nuala M. Byrne; Andrew P. Hills; D. Enette Larson-Meyer; Marcas M. Bamman; Bradley R. Newcomer

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with loss of endurance; however, aging is also associated with decreased fatigue during maximal isometric\\u000a contractions. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between age and walking endurance (WE) and maximal isometric\\u000a fatigue (MIF) and to determine which metabolic\\/fitness components explain the expected age effects on WE and MIF. Subjects\\u000a were 96 pre-menopausal women.

  1. Slower aging in women: A proposed evolutionary explanation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reimara Rossler; Peter E. Kloeden; Otto E. Rossler

    1995-01-01

    Differential female longevity is so far unexplained in evolutionary terms. The theory of evolutionarily necessary aging which goes back to Wallace appears to be up to the task. In this theory, aging minimizes competition between forebear and offspring. The aging equation which is implicit contains the well-known empirical Gompertz law as a special case. Moreover, its parameters are automatically sex-specific.

  2. Sleep disordered breathing in women of childbearing age & during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Katéri Agnès; Kimoff, R John; Barriga, Peter Charles; Schwartzman, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) affects 11 per cent of pre-menopausal women though it often remains undetected. Women may present differently than men, and the classic findings of snoring, witnessed apnoeas and sleepiness may not be observed. Factors which predispose to OSA include polycystic ovarian syndrome, obesity, retromicrognathia, and hypothyroidism. OSA may contribute to neurocognitive dysfunction, depression, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Emerging evidence indicates that snoring and OSA increase during pregnancy. For normal women with normotensive, low-risk pregnancies the prevalence of OSA is very low. Among normotensive pregnant women with high risk pregnancies, the prevalence of OSA is high and is even higher among those with gestational hypertension/preeclampsia during pregnancy. Incident snoring, which is a marker for OSA, is associated with an increased risk of developing gestational hypertension. Recent studies indicate that OSA per se is an independent risk factor for gestational hypertension/pre-eclampsia and may contribute to other poor obstetrical outcomes. The diagnostic test of choice for OSA is a polysomnography with electroencephalogram. Milder degree of disease than what is usually considered clinically significant among men or non-pregnant women appears to be relevant for foetomaternal outcomes. There seems to be benefit for blood pressure control to treating even milder degrees of OSA with CPAP, both acutely and over the 9 months of pregnancy. Chronic hypertensive women should be strongly considered for diagnosis and treatment of OSA prior to or beginning as early as possible in pregnancy to help maintain blood pressure control. Increasing awareness of OSA among maternal health care providers is important given the potential benefits for pregnancy and other health-related outcomes associated with identification and treatment of OSA. PMID:20308754

  3. How can more women of childbearing age be encouraged to follow fish consumption recommendations?

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Lauber, T Bruce; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2014-11-01

    Several studies show that most women do not consume enough fish during pregnancy (and afterward) to derive the maximum health benefits for themselves and their babies, according to the USDA guidelines. We engaged in a two-part study to better understand what might be done to encourage women of childbearing age to eat healthy fish-a mail survey of women who recently gave birth in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania, and six focus groups with women of childbearing age living in the Great Lakes region. Similar to other studies, we found that many women changed their behavior and consumed less fish during pregnancy than before. Most women reported receiving information, primarily during pregnancy, about the types of fish and how much fish to eat. As a result, increasing access to information during pregnancy likely would not result in increasing many women's fish consumption. Based on our examination of factors influencing women to try to follow the recommendations, the strongest connection with trying to follow the recommendations was receiving enough information to decide and believing that eating fish was good for the baby. Focus group participants also reported that messages about the specific health benefits of fish consumption for their children were particularly influential. These findings suggest that refining messages through testing might be a valuable approach toward increasing women's consumption of less-contaminated fish. PMID:25262080

  4. Secular trend and intrapopulational variation in age at menopause in Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Varea, C; Bernis, C; Montero, P; Arias, S; Barroso, A; González, B

    2000-07-01

    Menopause is associated with the general ageing process and marks the end of follicular depletion, a process that begins in the intrauterine stage and lasts throughout the lifetime of women until their reproductive senescence. Controversy persists about whether the age at menopause is sensitive to the ecological determinants prevailing during the lifecycle or whether it has a predominantly genetic component that would allow groups of women to be characterized with respect to particular menstrual characteristics manifested throughout their fertile life. By contrast, there is a definite secular trend in age at menarche in populations that have registered improvements in their environment: sexual maturation is closely associated with the general processes of growth and development. These aspects were analysed in a sample of Spanish women, mothers and daughters, born between 1883 and 1941. The results show (a) indications--although not conclusive--of a secular trend in the age at menopause, (b) a possible association between the age at menopause of mothers and their daughters, and (c) an association at the individual level between age at menarche, particular characteristics of ovarian function (fetal loss) and age at menopause. The reproductive ageing process therefore seems to result from the expression of the influence of ecological conditions in which the lifecycle of the women develops and of a degree of heritability that affects not only the age at menopause but also a range of characteristics of ovarian function. PMID:10979231

  5. Food-addiction scale measurement in 2 cohorts of middle-aged and older women123

    PubMed Central

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Corbin, William R; Brownell, Kelly D; Field, Alison E; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excess weight is a major threat to public health. An addiction-like tendency toward certain foods may contribute to overeating. Objective: We aimed to describe the prevalence and associated characteristics in relation to a food-addiction scale in middle-aged and older women. Design: We examined the prevalence and associated characteristics of a food-addiction scale measure in a cross-sectional analysis of 134,175 women participating in 2 ongoing prospective cohort studies of US nurses. Results: Overall, 7839 (5.8%) of the women surveyed met the criteria for food addiction measured by using the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale. The prevalence of food addiction was 8.4% in the younger cohort of women aged 45–64 y and 2.7% in the older cohort of women aged 62–88 y. In the multivariate model, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) ?35.0 (compared with 18.5–22.9) was associated with food addiction, a prevalence ratio (PR) of 15.83 (95% CI: 12.58, 19.91) in the younger cohort of women, and a PR of 18.41 (95% CI: 11.63, 29.14) in the older cohort of women. Several other demographic characteristics and other factors were associated with the food-addiction measure in both cohorts of women. Conclusions: To our knowledge, for the first time in a large, US-based population of women, we documented the prevalence of food addiction by using a novel measurement scale in middle-aged and older women. The results may provide insight into the strong association between behavioral attributes of food consumption and the development of obesity. PMID:24452236

  6. Physicians’ attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography in women 40 to 49 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patricia; Hum, Susan; Kakzanov, Vered; Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Heisey, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine family physicians’ attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography, breast self-examination, and breast awareness in women aged 40 to 49 at average risk of breast cancer. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Women’s College Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, both in Toronto, Ont. Participants Family medicine residents, fellows, and staff physicians at 2 academic family practice health centres affiliated with the University of Toronto (n = 95). Main outcome measures Physicians’ answers to questions about offering screening mammography and promoting breast self-examination and breast awareness. Results Fifty-two completed surveys were returned (response rate 55%). Less than half of all surveyed family physicians (46%) routinely offered screening mammography to women aged 40 to 49 who were at average risk of breast cancer. Although 40% of physicians did not think breast cancer screening was necessary for women aged 40 to 49, 62% indicated that they would offer screening if their patients requested it. Physicians’ reasons not to offer screening included no evidence of decreasing breast cancer deaths (63%), grade A recommendation to screen women starting at age 50 and not at age 40 (25%), and the harms of screening outweighing the benefits (19%). Physicians’ reasons to offer screening included patient request (55%), personal clinical practice experience or mentors’ recommendations (27%), and guideline recommendations (18%). Breast self-examination was not recommended by most physicians (74%), yet most encouraged women to practise breast awareness (81%). Conclusion Many women at average risk of breast cancer are not being offered the opportunity to discuss and initiate mammographic screening before 50 years of age. While breast-self examination is not recommended, most physicians promote breast awareness. PMID:22972742

  7. The Impact of Aging on Sexual Function and Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Review of Population-Based Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Hayes; Lorraine Dennerstein

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Scientific interest in the impact of aging on women's sexual function and dysfunction has increased in the half century since Kinsey described age-related changes in women's sexual activities. However, a range of methodological issues limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many published studies in this area. Aim. To review community-based studies investigating changes in women's sexual function

  8. Medicaid Reforms In Oregon And Suboptimal Utilization Of Dental Care by Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Lee, Rosanna S-Y; Huebner, Colleen E.; Conrad, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors studied dental services used by women of childbearing age who were in Medicaid in Oregon during the early 2000’s, a period of reforms to expand coverage. They compared claims for pregnant women, non-pregnant women with children, and non-pregnant women without children. They compared differences in claims for women enrolled in managed care and fee-for-service plans. Methods The authors computed the proportion of women for whom a dental claim was submitted in 6-month spans for 2000, 2001, 2002 (before reform) and 2005 (after reform). Results Before and after reforms, average utilization of pregnant women, adjusted for proportion of the period covered, dropped from .36 (SD=.025) to .22 (SD=.028). Among non-pregnant women with children, average adjusted rates dropped from .49 (SD=.201) to .21 (SD=.078). The pattern was similar among women with no children: rates dropped from .50 (SD=.028) to .19 (SD=.078). Claims for diagnostic services were most frequent. No difference was found between women enrolled in managed care or fee-for-service. Conclusions Contrary to the intention, reforms were detrimental to the vulnerable populations Medicaid is intended to serve. Clinical Implications Dental care is important for maternal and child health. Utilization is unlikely to improve without changes in Medicaid and care delivery. PMID:20516101

  9. The Correlates of Childhood Father Absence in College-aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainline, Louise; Feig, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Personality and attitudinal correlates of father absence early (before age 5) or late (between 5 and 11) in childhood were studied in a sample of college- aged women. Father absence was due to either death or divorce. Results showed few differences between father-absent subjects and father-present controls. (Author/JMB)

  10. Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    rights reserved. Keywords: Delayed reproduction; Sexual maturity; Life history; Lineage persistence 1Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women predicts a trade-off between fitness benefits and costs of delaying age at first reproduction (AFR

  11. Phenotype of Frailty: Characterization in the Women's Health and Aging Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Bandeen-Roche; Qian-Li Xue; Luigi Ferrucci; Jeremy Walston; Jack M. Guralnik; Paulo Chaves; Scott L. Zeger; Linda P. Fried

    2006-01-01

    Background. ''Frailty'' is an adverse, primarily gerontologic, health condition regarded as frequent with aging and having severe consequences. Although clinicians claim that the extremes of frailty can be easily recognized, a standardized definition of frailty has proved elusive until recently. This article evaluates the cross-validity, criterion validity, and internal validity in the Women's Health and Aging Studies (WHAS) of a

  12. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  13. A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age

  14. Neuroendocrinology of Aging in Humans: Attenuated Sensitivity to Sex Steroid Feedback in Elderly Postmenopausal Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winfried G. Rossmanith; Corinna Reichelt; Werner A. Scherbaum

    1994-01-01

    Studies in experimental animals have shown that the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary system to ovarian sex steroid feedback declines while aging progresses. Since similar observations are lacking in humans, we studied the gonadotropin secretion of postmenopausal women (PMW) of different ages before and following a 7-day course of oral clomiphene citrate (CC, 100 mg daily). For serial determinations of serum

  15. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  16. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Barlow, Matthew A.; Gonzales, Joaquin U.; McGowan, Cheri L.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Proctor, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho?inhibitory stimulus (?60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  17. Knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability about influenza vaccination in Korean women of childbearing age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to investigate the women's perspective on influenza infection and vaccination and to evaluate how they influence vaccine acceptability, in Korean women of childbearing age. Methods This was a prospective study by random survey of women of childbearing age (20 to 45 years). They were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes and acceptability of influenza vaccination before and during pregnancy. This study utilized data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2008 and 2012, to analyze the recent influenza vaccination trends. Results According to KNHANES (2008-2012), influenza vaccination rates in women of childbearing age have increased up to 26.4%, after 2009. The questionnaire was completed by 308 women. Vaccination rate during pregnancy or planning a pregnancy was 38.6%. The immunization rate increased significantly with the mean number of correct answers (P<0.001). Women who received influenza vaccination were more likely to be previously informed of the recommendations concerning the influenza vaccination before or during pregnancy, received the influenza vaccination in the past, and of the opinion that influenza vaccination is not dangerous during pregnancy, with odds ratios of 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.44 to 33.33; P<0.0001), 3.6 (95% CI, 1.84 to 6.97; P=0.0002) and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.34 to 5.47; P=0.0057). Conclusion Influenza vaccination rate in women of childbearing age has increased in this study and national data. More information and recommendation by healthcare workers, especially obstetricians, including safety of vaccination, might be critical for improving vaccination rate in women of childbearing age.

  18. Age shock: misperceptions of the impact of age on fertility before and after IVF in women who conceived after age 40

    PubMed Central

    Mac Dougall, K.; Beyene, Y.; Nachtigall, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What do older women understand of the relationship between age and fertility prior and subsequent to delivering their first child? SUMMARY ANSWER Women who were first-time parents over the age of 40 did not accurately perceive the relationship between age and fertility prior to conceiving with IVF. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY While increases in women's age at their first birth have been most pronounced in relatively older women, the rapidity of fertility decline is not appreciated by most non-infertility specialist physicians, the general public or men and women who are delaying childbearing. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted from 2009 to 2011 with 61 self-selected women who were patients in one of two fertility clinics in the USA. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All participants had delivered their first child following IVF when the woman was 40 years or older. The data include women's responses to the semi-structured and open-ended interview questions ‘What information did you have about fertility and age before you started trying to get pregnant?’ and ‘What did you learn once you proceeded with fertility treatment?’ MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Of the women, 30% expected their fertility to decline gradually until menopause at around 50 years and 31% reported that they expected to get pregnant without difficulty at the age of 40. Reasons for a mistaken belief in robust fertility included recollections of persistent and ongoing messaging about pregnancy prevention starting in adolescence (23%), healthy lifestyle and family history of fertility (26%), and incorrect information from friends, physicians or misleading media reports of pregnancies in older celebrity women (28%). Participants had not anticipated the possibility that they would need IVF to conceive with 44% reporting being ‘shocked’ and ‘alarmed’ to discover that their understanding of the rapidity of age-related reproductive decline was inaccurate’. In retrospect, their belated recognition of the effect of age on fertility led 72% of the women to state that they felt ‘lucky’ or had ‘beaten the odds’ in successfully conceiving after IVF. Of the women, 28% advocated better fertility education earlier in life and 23% indicated that with more information about declining fertility, they might have attempted conception at an earlier age. Yet 46% of women acknowledged that even if they had possessed better information, their life circumstances would not have permitted them to begin childbearing earlier. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Both the self-selected nature of recruitment and the retrospective design can result in biases due to memory limitations or participant assimilation and/or contrast of past events with current moods. The cohort did not reflect broad homogeneity in that the participants were much more likely to be highly educated, Caucasian and better able to pay for treatment than national population norms. As attitudes of older women who were unsuccessful after attempting IVF in their late 30s or early 40s are not represented, it is possible (if not likely) that the recollections of women who did not conceive after IVF would have been more strongly influenced by feelings of regret or efforts to deflect blame for their inability to conceive. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS While the failure to appreciate the true biological relationship between aging and fertility may be common and may reflect inaccessibility or misinterpretation of information, it is not sufficient to explain the decades-long socio-demographic phenomenon of delayed childbearing. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by the US National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD, RO1-HD056202). PMID:23203214

  19. A Qualitative Investigation of Women's and Men's Body Image Concerns and Their Attitudes Toward Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Halliwell; Helga Dittmar

    2003-01-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women and men (aged 22–62 years) to explore their relationships with their bodies. The particular focus was age-related changes in body image and attitudes toward the body aging, an area that has received little research attention to date. Thematic analysis revealed distinctive gender differences. Men commonly conceptualized their bodies as a holistic entity, whereas

  20. Age changes in the bone mineral of the lumbar spine in normal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommy Hansson; Bengt Roos

    1986-01-01

    Summary  The bone mineral content (BMC) and the bone mineral areal content (BMAC) were determined with dual-photon absorptiometry in\\u000a the third lumbar vertebra in a random sample of 214 women between 35 and 80 years of age in the city of Göteborg, Sweden.\\u000a A continuous aging decrease (1%\\/year) of both the BMC and the BMAC was noted after age 35. The

  1. Preventing weight gain: a population cohort study of the nature and effectiveness of mid-age women's weight control practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Williams; J Germov; A Young

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To examine women's weight control practices and their effectiveness in preventing weight gain.Design:Retrospective cohort study of weight control practices and 2-year weight change among mid-age women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH).Subjects:11 589 Australian women (aged 47–52 years).Measurements:The prevalence and types of self-reported weight control practices used were assessed by a nine-item instrument. Two-year weight change

  2. Age is no barrier to wanting to look good: women on body image, age and advertising

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selina Akram

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – Most fashion advertising in the UK uses and targets young, slim women (and\\/or men). The purpose of this paper research is to ask whether this approach is relevant and appropriate to older women, who make up a large and growing segment of the market, and who generally have more disposable income to spend on clothes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Adapted

  3. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  4. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10?8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  5. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R; Smith, Erin N; Chen, Christina T L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Arnold, Alice M; Bandera, Elisa V; Berenson, Gerald S; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L; Elks, Cathy E; Evans, Michelle K; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C; Musani, Solomon K; Nock, Nora L; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Schork, Nicholas J; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Woods, Nancy F; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-08-15

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  6. Toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age and infant follow up after in-utero treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Chakraborty; Sukanta Sinha; Sati Adhya; Gargi Chakraborty; Partha Bhattacharya

    1997-01-01

    A total of 540 women (including 70 pregnant cases) of child bearing age with bad obstetrical history were tested serologically\\u000a for anti-toxoplasma antibody using microlatex agglutination test. Forty two women including 5 cases of pregnancy were found\\u000a to be seropositive in a titre of 1 : 32 or more. Maximum prevalence (10.2%) and highest titer of anti-toxoplasma antibodies\\u000a were observed

  7. Breast and Cervix Cancer Screening among Multiethnic Women: Role of Age, Health, and Source of Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne S. Mandelblatt; Karen Gold; Ann S. O'Malley; Kathryn Taylor; Kathleen Cagney; John S. Hopkins; Jon Kerner

    1999-01-01

    Objective.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between age, health status, access to care, and breast and cervical cancer screening among multiethnic elderly and nonelderly women.Methods.A structured telephone survey of a quota sample of 1,420 New York City women from four Hispanic groups (Columbian, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Ecuadorian) and three black groups (U.S., Caribbean, and Haitian) was

  8. Effects of ovarian hormones and aging on respiratory sinus arrhythmia and breathing patterns in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlen Lüthi; Daniel E. Roach; Andrew E. Beaudin; Chantel T. Debert; Robert S. Sheldon; Marc J. Poulin

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ovarian hormones and aging on breathing pattern [pulmonary minute ventilation $$ {\\\\left( {\\\\dot {V}_{{{\\\\rm E}}}} \\\\right)} $$], tidal volume (V\\u000a T), breathing frequency (F\\u000a b), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in women. Recordings of $$ \\\\dot {V}_{{{\\\\rm E}}}$$ and electrocardiogram (ECG) were obtained from 23 healthy women (10 premenopausal, 13 postmenopausal) under resting, isocapnic\\u000a hypoxia

  9. Occupation and breast cancer in women 20–44 years of age (United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Teitelbaum; Julie A. Britton; Marilie D. Gammon; Janet B. Schoenberg; Donna J. Brogan; Ralph J. Coates; Janet R. Daling; Kathleen E. Malone; Christine A. Swanson; Louise A. Brinton

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between breast cancer risk and job history among women 20–44 years of age who participated in a multi-center, population-based, case–control study. Methods: Participants consisted of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (1642) and controls identified by random-digit dialing (1494). Details about the three longest jobs were collected and coded by an industrial hygienist. Odds ratios

  10. Occupation and breast cancer in women 20-44 years of age (United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Teitelbaum; Julie A. Britton; Marilie D. Gammon; Janet B. Schoenberg; Donna J. Brogan; Ralph J. Coates; Janet R. Daling; Kathleen E. Malone; Christine A. Swanson; Louise A. Brinton

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between breast cancer risk and job history among women 20-44 years of age who participated in a multi-center, population-based, case-control study. Methods: Participants consisted of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (1642) and controls identified by random-digit dialing (1494). Details about the three longest jobs were collected and coded by an industrial hygienist. Odds ratios

  11. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy can result in abortion or congenital defects. Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia are unknown. The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to September 2011. Sera of 425 women were analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. Results The study revealed that anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 81.4% of the samples of which 78.4% were positive for only IgG and 3.06% positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.14, 5.86) was suggestive of recent infections. Of the 213 pregnant women 9 (4.2 %) were IgM reactive. Out of 17 potential risk factors investigated, univariate logistic regression showed significant association of T. gondii infection with study area, age, pregnancy status, raw vegetable consumption, source of water, presence of cats at home, contact with cats, HIV status and precaution during cats’ feces cleaning (P???0.05). The final logistic regression model revealed that: the probability of acquiring T. gondii infection by women of Debre-Zeit was 4.46 times (95% CI of adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.67, 11.89; P =0.003) higher compared to women of Ambo, pregnant women were twice (95% CI aOR: 1.13, 3.59; P?=?0.018) more likely to be seropositive than non-pregnant women and women who consume raw vegetable were at increased risk of infection (aOR?=?2.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.78; P?=?0.043) than women who didn’t consume. Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia is high. Study area, pregnancy and raw vegetable consumption are risk factors to acquire T. gondii infection. Educational program, antenatal screening of pregnant women and further epidemiological studies to uncover the economic and health impact of toxoplasmosis are suggested. PMID:23442946

  12. The paradox of impossible beauty: body changes and beauty practices in aging women.

    PubMed

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Chevé, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and understand the experience of aesthetic body changes in women between 65 and 75 years old. To approach the issue, 29 in-depth interviews were conducted in Marseille in 2011. Following a brief review of contemporary Western aesthetics, we will examine the marks of time women perceive as stigmatizing and analyze beauty practices that aim to conceal or repair them. The last part of this article will be devoted to the experience of the aesthetic body and in particular show how aging can paradoxically have a beneficial effect on some women. PMID:25607587

  13. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    PubMed

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. PMID:25618536

  14. Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

  15. Domestic injuries and suicide among women of reproductive age in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fardiazar, Zahra; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to map out some epidemiological aspects of intentional and unintentional injuries among Iranian women of reproductive age using a national registry. Methods Injury data were taken from a national-based injury surveillance system over the period 2000–2002. The study population comprised 31.5% of the population of Iran. Results Of all the 307,064 domestic injuries reported during the years 2000–2002, about 152,600 cases (49.7%) involved women. About half of these women (76,474) were in the reproductive age group. The majority (42.7%) of injuries among women of reproductive age were burn wounds followed by lacerations in 32.6%. Eighty-five percent of suicide cases were poisonings, followed by 11% for suicides by burning. However, 45.2% of burn suicides were fatal, compared with a 0.89% fatality rate for poisonings. Of all female suicide victims, 1029 died, 174 victims became disabled, while the remainder improved or were undergoing therapy when reported. Conclusion Injuries, especially burns, are a major public health problem for women of reproductive age. PMID:22807643

  16. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

  17. Understanding women's attitudes towards wife beating in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Hindin, Michelle J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with attitudes towards wife beating among women in partnerships in Zimbabwe in order to assist public health practitioners in preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: A nationally representative survey of 5907 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was conducted in Zimbabwe. Women were asked about their attitudes towards wife beating in five situations. The survey included sociodemographic characteristics, partnership characteristics, and household decision-making. FINDINGS: Over half of all women in Zimbabwe (53%) believed that wife beating was justified in at least one of the five situations. Respondents were most likely to find wife beating justified if a wife argued with her spouse (36%), neglected her children (33%), or went out without telling her spouse (30%). Among women in partnerships (n=3077), younger age, living in rural areas, lower household wealth, schooling at a lower level than secondary, and lower occupational status were associated with women reporting that wife beating is justified. Women who reported that they make household decisions jointly with their partners were less likely to say that wife beating is justified. CONCLUSIONS: Zimbabwe has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly because the younger generation of women is significantly more likely to believe that wife beating is justified compared with older women. Given the current social and political climate in Zimbabwe, finding means to negotiate rather than settle conflict through violence is essential from the household level to the national level. PMID:12973642

  18. Age of menopause and menopausal symptoms among urban women in Pune, Maharashtra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aarti Kaulagekar

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  To study the age at menopause, reported symptoms of menopause, and treatment-seeking behavior of urban women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a cross-sectional study on purposively selected 156 women from four different sites in Pune city between 40 and 55\\u000a years of age. Pretested semi-structured interview schedule was used for data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS\\u000a software and the correlation between

  19. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  20. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  1. The HPA axis response to stress in women: effects of aging and fitness.

    PubMed

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Bosch, Pamela R; Matt, Kathleen S

    2005-05-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that aging is associated with greater hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to psychological stress, and whether aerobic fitness is associated with a lower HPA axis response to psychological stress. Three groups, consisting of young-unfit women (27.9+/-2.5 yr, n=10), older-unfit women (66.3+/-1.4 yr, n=14), and older-fit women (66.6+/-2.0 yr, n=12), underwent the Matt Stress Reactivity Protocol (MSRP). The MSRP is a stress test battery that combines mental challenges, a physical challenge, and a psychosocial stressor. Definition of fitness was based on maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) where unfit was defined as having VO(2max)age group and fit was defined as VO(2max)>average for the respective age group. The MSRP elicited increases in heart rate, blood pressure, ACTH, and cortisol (P<0.001). The older-unfit women had significantly greater cortisol responses to the challenge than both the young-unfit and the older-fit women (P<0.05), who did not differ from each other. ACTH levels were significantly higher in the older-unfit women at baseline and throughout the trial, compared to both young-unfit and the older-fit (P<0.01). The ACTH response was not different between any of the groups. The young-unfit women had greater heart rate responses than the older-unfit (P<0.01), while the latter had greater systolic blood pressure responses (P<0.01). There were no significant differences between the older-unfit and older-fit in terms of heart rate or blood pressure responses. Our result shows that among unfit women, aging is associated with greater HPA axis reactivity to psychological stress, and that higher aerobic fitness among older women can attenuate these age-related changes as indicated by a blunted cortisol response to psychological stress. These findings suggest that exercise training may be an effective way of modifying some of the neuroendocrine changes associated with aging. PMID:15694119

  2. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women. PMID:23275909

  3. Age at Menarche and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Singaporean Chinese Women: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Odegaard, AO; Gross, MD; Koh, WP; Yuan, JM; Pereira, MA

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether menarcheal age was inversely associated with CVD mortality in Singaporean Chinese women. Methods 34,022 Chinese women aged 45–74 at enrollment (1993–1998), with complete data on study variables, were followed prospectively through 2009 for primary cause of death due to CVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CERE). Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality were computed across menarcheal age categories and adjusted for potential confounders and BMI. Results Over 460,374 person-years of follow-up, 1,852 women died from CVD; 998 of them from CHD and 557 from CERE. There was a significant interaction between menarcheal age and smoking (p<0.05). In nonsmokers, menarcheal age was inversely associated with risk for CVD and CHD mortality. HRs (and 95% CI) for CVD mortality across menarcheal age categories (?12, 13–14, 15–16, ?17) were: 1.06 (0.87–1.29), 1 (referent), 0.89 (0.79–1.00), and 0.80 (0.69–0.93), respectively (ptrend<0.001); HRs for CHD mortality were: 1.06 (0.80–1.34), 1 (referent), 0.76 (0.65–0.90), and 0.72 (0.58–0.88), respectively (ptrend<0.001). In nonsmokers there was no association between menarcheal age and CERE mortality. Among smokers, menarcheal age was not associated with CVD, CHD or CERE mortality. Conclusion Menarcheal age was inversely associated with risk of CVD mortality in nonsmoking Chinese women. PMID:22939833

  4. Opioid prescription claims among women of reproductive age--United States, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Dawson, April L; Lind, Jennifer N; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Frey, Meghan T; Broussard, Cheryl S; Honein, Margaret A

    2015-01-23

    Prescription opioid use in the United States has become widespread, and studies of opioid exposure in pregnancy suggest increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome and birth defects (e.g., neural tube defects, gastroschisis, and congenital heart defects). The development of birth defects often results from exposures during the first few weeks of pregnancy, which is a critical period for organ formation. Given that many pregnancies are not recognized until well after the first few weeks and half of all U.S. pregnancies are unplanned, all women who might become pregnant are at risk. Therefore, it is important to assess opioid medication use among all women of reproductive age. CDC used Truven Health's MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicaid data to estimate the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed by outpatient pharmacies to women aged 15-44 years. During 2008-2012, opioid prescription claims were consistently higher among Medicaid-enrolled women when compared with privately insured women (39.4% compared with 27.7%, p<0.001). The most frequently prescribed opioids among women in both groups were hydrocodone, codeine, and oxycodone. Efforts are needed to promote interventions to reduce opioid prescriptions among this population when safer alternative treatments are available. PMID:25611168

  5. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  6. Recent Changes in Endometrial Cancer Trends Among Menopausal-Age US Women

    PubMed Central

    Wartko, Paige; Sherman, Mark E; Yang, Hannah P; Felix, Ashley S; Brinton, Louise A; Trabert, Britton

    2013-01-01

    Background Changes in endometrial cancer incidence rates after the precipitous decline in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use in 2002 have not been evaluated. Methods Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1992–2009 (SEER 13), we identified 63,428 incident endometrial cancer cases among women ages 20–74. We compared Annual Percent Change (APC) in endometrial cancer incidence rates from 1992–2002 to rates from 2003–2009. Results In contrast to the constant endometrial cancer rate pattern observed from 1992–2002 (APC 0.0%), rates increased after 2002 in women 50–74 years old (2.5%; PAPC comparison <0.01). Endometrial cancer incidence increased over the entire time period among women ages 20–49 (1992–2002: 1.1%; 2003–2009: 2.1%; PAPC comparison = 0.21). Post-2002 increases in incidence among women ages 50–74 were specific to Type I endometrial tumors (1992–2002: ?0.6%; 2003–2009: 1.6%; PAPC comparison < 0.01). Discussion The increase in endometrial cancer incidence rates after 2002 may be related to the widespread decrease in estrogen plus progestin MHT use, which has been reported to lower endometrial cancer risk in overweight and obese women. PMID:23591011

  7. Differences in hypertension prevalence among U.S. black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, A T; Andersen, H F; Bound, J

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension and its sequelae complicate pregnancy and can result in poor perinatal outcomes. Overall, U.S. blacks are more likely to be hypertensive than whites, but the degree to which this is true among women of childbearing age (including teenagers) is unknown. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), the authors describe hypertension prevalence rates for 422 black and 2,700 white reproductive-age women. The authors present observed data and also predicted prevalence rates derived by modeling the odds of hypertension using logistic regression statistical techniques. They find that black-white differences in hypertension prevalence are negligible among teenagers, but they are pronounced in the older reproductive ages. They estimate that twice the proportion of black women relative to white are hypertensive during pregnancy. Their results suggest that differential rates of hypertension between black and white women may contribute to the persistent excess infant mortality among blacks, but conclusive results cannot be determined from these data. These data are also valuable for the design and evaluation of screening, intervention, and followup programs for hypertensive disease among young women. PMID:1908590

  8. Prevalence and correlates of disability in a late middle-aged population of women

    PubMed Central

    Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A.; Ylitalo, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study estimates the prevalence of disability among late middle-aged women and identifies important correlates of disability among this population. Methods Disability was assessed among 376 participants of the Michigan Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation cohort at the 2011 follow-up using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale. Demographic and health measures were related to disability status using logistic regression models (none or mild vs. moderate, severe or extreme disability). Results Nearly 25% of women reported moderate to extreme global disability. African-American race/ethnicity, economic strain, peripheral neuropathy and depressive symptomatology was associated with global disability. Obesity, knee osteoarthritis and hypertension were only associated with disability for the mobility domain (getting around). Discussion The prevalence of disability is relatively high among this population of late middle-aged women. Efforts to prevent or forestall disability should be extended to include mid-aged populations as they may be most amenable to intervention. PMID:23676712

  9. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  10. Middle-aged and older Latino American women in the patient-doctor interaction.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Chang, Grace; Reynoso, Humberto

    2004-09-01

    Latino women's views of and actual experiences in the patient-doctor interaction have been little explored. In focus groups with middle-aged and older Latino women, topics including assertiveness in the medical encounter, experiences in actual medical encounters, and characteristics of the "ideal" doctor were explored. Contrary to conceptualizations in the literature, assertiveness was viewed as a reciprocal process between patient and doctor, rather than the behavior of the patient alone. Assertiveness centered on obtaining answers to patient health questions. Strategies for self-advocacy were indirect, primarily changing doctors when dissatisfied; while strategies for advocating for family members were direct, primarily expressing dissatisfaction directly to medical staff. Undocumented immigrant status was described as limiting self-assertion and medical care access. Age was linked to doctor gender preferences. Middle-aged women preferred female doctors, while older women preferred male doctors. Across groups, women expressed preference for Spanish-speaking doctors, but not for doctors of the same ethnicity. Trustworthiness was identified by participants as the most important doctor characteristic, and learnable behaviors as exemplifying trustworthiness. PMID:15243199

  11. Evaluation of GWAS-identified genetic variants for age at menarche among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Delahanty, R.J.; Beeghly-Fadiel, A.; Long, J.R.; Gao, Y.T.; Lu, W.; Xiang, Y.B.; Zheng, Y.; Ji, B.T.; Wen, W.Q.; Cai, Q.Y.; Zheng, W.; Shu, X.O.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do genetic polymorphisms which influence age at menarche in women of European ancestry also influence women of Chinese ancestry? SUMMARY ANSWER Many genetic variants influencing age at menarche in European populations appear to impact Chinese populations in a similar manner. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS Prior genome-wide association studies have uncovered 42 SNPs associated with age at menarche in European populations. This study is the first to demonstrate that many of the genetic determinants of age at menarche are shared between European and Chinese women. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING We evaluated 37 of 42 SNPs identified as associated with age at menarche from a recent, large meta-analysis, consisting primarily of women of European ancestry, in a population of 6929 Chinese women from Shanghai, China. We also constructed weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) combining the number of effect variants for all 37 SNPs, or only the SNPs associated with age at menarche among our study population, to evaluate their joint influence on age at menarche. MAIN RESULTS For 32 of the 37 evaluated variants, the direction of the allele associations were the same between women of European ancestry and women of Chinese ancestry (P = 3.71 × 10?6, binomial sign test); 9 of these were statistically significant. Subjects in the highest quintile of GRSs began menarche ?5 months later than those in the lowest quintile. BIAS, LIMITATIONS AND GENERALIZABILITY TO OTHER POPULATIONS Age at menarche was obtained by self-report, which can be subject to recall errors. The current analysis was restricted to loci which met or approached GWAS significance thresholds and did not evaluate loci which may act predominantly or exclusively in the Chinese population. The smaller sample size for our meta-analysis compared with meta-analyses conducted in European populations reduced the power to detect significant results. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This study was supported, in part, by grants from US National Institutes of Health (grants R01CA124558, R01CA090899, R01CA070867; R01CA064277 and R01CA092585 and UL1 RR024975), Ingram professorship funds and Allen Foundation funds. There are no competing interests to declare. PMID:23406970

  12. Controlled trial of a minimal-intervention exercise program for middle-aged working women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Lee; Saxon W. White

    1997-01-01

    Despite potential for major benefits, middle-aged women have low levels of aerobic exercise. A 12-week minimal-intervention exercise program was evaluated with female university employees aged 40 to 61. Following pre-testing, participants were randomly assigned to exercise or wait-list control. Testing was repeated at 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Exercisers improved significantly in aerobic fitness at 12 and 24 weeks, both

  13. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arline T. Geronimus; Margaret T. Hicken; Jay A. Pearson; Sarah J. Seashols; Kelly L. Brown; Tracey Dawson Cruz

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to\\u000a subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature,\\u000a we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing\\u000a on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that

  14. Variation in the Incidence of Uterine Leiomyoma Among Premenopausal Women by Age and Race

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn M Marshall; Donna Spiegelman; Robert L Barbieri; Marlene B Goldman; JoAnn E Manson; Graham A Colditz; Walter C Willett; David J Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the incidence of uterine leiomyoma confirmed by hysterectomy, ultrasound, or pelvic examination according to age and race among premenopausal women.Methods: From September 1989 through May 1993, 95,061 premenopausal nurses age 25–44 with intact uteri and no history of uterine leiomyoma were followed to determine incidence rates of uterine leiomyoma. The self-reported diagnosis was confirmed in 93% of

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Decision Aid About Prenatal Testing for Women of Advanced Maternal Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth R. Drake; Lori Engler-Todd; Annette M. O'Connor; Linda C. Surh; Alasdair Hunter

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To develop and evaluate a decision aid designed to prepare patients of advanced maternal age for counseling about prenatal diagnostic testing.Setting:A regional genetics center.Design:A before\\/after study.Interventions:Participants used an audioguided workbook to learn about options and outcomes and to clarify personal risks, values, questions, and predispositions.Subjects:21 women of advanced maternal age and 17 spouses.Main outcome measures:Knowledge of prenatal testing alternatives, decisional

  16. Determinants of maximal instantaneous muscle power in women aged 50–75 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. De Vito; M. Bernardi; R. Forte; C. Pulejo; A. Macaluso; F. Figura

    1998-01-01

    The present study aimed at analysing the age-related decline in maximal muscle power (W?) in 52 sedentary healthy women aged between 50 and 75 years to determine whether force or velocity is the major determinant.\\u000a Maximal muscle power was estimated from two types of vertical jumps, squatting (SJ) and counter?movement (CmJ), performed\\u000a on a force platform. It was obtained by

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Longitudinal Changes in Cognition: Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging.

    PubMed

    Goveas, Joseph S; Espeland, Mark A; Hogan, Patricia E; Tindle, Hilary A; Shih, Regina A; Kotchen, Jane M; Robinson, Jennifer G; Barnes, Deborah E; Resnick, Susan M

    2014-02-28

    Elevated depressive symptoms (DS) are associated with incident mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia in postmenopausal women. We examined the association of elevated DS with domain-specific cognitive changes and the moderating role of cardiovascular risk factor severity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 2221 elderly women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging were separated into those with (N = 204) and without (N = 2017) elevated DS. The DS and multidomain cognitive outcomes were measured annually for an average follow-up of 5.04 years. Women with elevated DS showed baseline multidomain cognitive deficits but longitudinal declines in global cognition only. Persistent DS was related to greater global cognition, verbal knowledge and fluency, and memory declines. Significant DS-CVD interactions were observed cross-sectionally (but not longitudinally) for figural memory and fine motor speed. Future studies should investigate the role of nonvascular mechanisms linking DS and cognitive decline. PMID:24584465

  18. Dating violence affects women regardless of their age, but teens are particularly vulnerable. In fact, women age 16 to 24 experience the highest per capita rate of intimate partner violence.i

    E-print Network

    Derisi, Joseph

    Dating violence affects women regardless of their age, but teens are particularly vulnerable. In fact, women age 16 to 24 experience the highest per capita rate of intimate partner violence.i Teen. 12(5 Suppl):39-47. iii Silverman, J., Raj, A., Mucci, L., Hathaway, J. 2001. "Dating Violence Against

  19. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  20. Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40–45 years

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40–45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years. PMID:24083275

  1. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  2. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening among Middle-aged and Older Rural Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Studts, Christina R.; Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Although cervical cancer rates in the United States have declined sharply in recent decades, certain groups of women remain at elevated risk, including middle-aged and older women in central Appalachia. Cross-sectional baseline data from a community-based randomized controlled trial were examined to identify barriers to cervical cancer screening. Questionnaires assessing barriers were administered to 345 Appalachian women aged 40-64, years when Pap testing declines and cervical cancer rates increase. Consistent with the PRECEDE/PROCEED framework, participants identified barriers included predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors. Descriptive and bivariate analyses are reported, identifying (a) the most frequently endorsed barriers to screening, and (b) significant associations of barriers with sociodemographic characteristics in the sample. Recommendations are provided to decrease these barriers and, ultimately, improve rates of Pap tests among this traditionally underserved and disproportionately affected group. PMID:23179390

  3. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 ?g/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ? 10 ?g/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (? 10 ?g/g) in 2012. PMID:24789525

  4. Premenstrual syndrome in a group of hysterectomized women of reproductive age with intact ovaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Silber; K. Carlström; B. Larsson

    1989-01-01

    In this prospective study 13 women of reproductive age, unselected with regard to the presence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and hysterectomized but with intact ovaries, eight variables were rated as indicative of PMS on visual analog scales (VAS) for 35 consecutive days. Their menstrual cycles were subsequently reconstructed in relation to the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge as pin-pointed in urine

  5. Predictors of HPV vaccine uptake among women aged 19–26: Importance of a physician's recommendation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Rosenthal; T. W. Weiss; G. D. Zimet; L. Ma; M. B. Good; M. D. Vichnin

    2011-01-01

    Among insured women, aged 19–26 years, those who discussed the HPV vaccine with their physician and received a recommendation were overwhelmingly more likely to be vaccinated. Student status and perception of the personal importance of vaccination were also predictive of vaccination. The strength of the physician's recommendation played a significant role in the decision to be vaccinated, resulting in a

  6. Middle-aged Japanese women are resistant to obesity-related metabolic abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Sakurai; Toshinari Takamura; Katsuyuki Miura; Shuichi Kaneko; Hideaki Nakagawa

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to determine sex differences in obesity-related metabolic abnormalities in a relatively large middle-aged Japanese population. The study population consisted of 2935 men and 1622 women who were 35 to 59 years old. Metabolic abnormalities were determined using the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome, and we evaluated the number of metabolic abnormalities discriminated by waist circumference. In men, the

  7. Women, Medicine and Life in the Middle Ages (500-1500 AD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Sabatini

    1994-01-01

    The status of women in the Middle Ages was ambiguous, because although they had great responsibility and expertise in practical affairs they were viewed as chattel and inferior to men. They were skilled in cookery, often of highly spiced dishes using a variety of ingredients and flavorings, and they were taught the use of medicinal herbs. They were often skilled

  8. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of aged women in three areas of Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Roels, H.A.; Lauwerys, R.P.; Buchet, J.P.; Bernard, A.

    1981-02-01

    The relationship between environmental cadmium pollution and prevalence of signs of renal disturbance was investigated. Women over 60 years of age who had spent the major part of their life in a cadmium-polluted area in Belgium (Liege, n = 60) and who had never been occupationally exposed to cadmium constituted the exposed group. Women living in two areas less polluted by cadmium (Charleroi, n = 70, and Brussels, n = 45) served as control groups. The group of aged women from the Liege area has on the average a higher cadmium body burden, as reflected by an increased excretion of cadmium in urine, than the groups of aged women in the two other areas. The parameters selected for evaluating renal function follow the same trend. Furthermore, a statistically significant correlation was found between the urinary excretion rate of cadmium and that of total protein, amino acids, ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, and albumin. The results suggest that environmental pollution by cadmium as found in some industrialized areas in Europe may exacerbate the age-related decline of renal function in population groups nonoccupationally exposed to heavy metals.

  9. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  10. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking. PMID:25790469

  11. Age, Sex-Role Categorization, and Psychological Health in American Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena M. Carlson; Joanne Steuer

    1985-01-01

    An examination (N = 569) was made of the following hypotheses: (a) Homosexuals would be classified as androgynous more frequently than heterosexuals, and (b) age would have a more negative impact on self-concept, as measured by self-esteem and depression scores, in homosexual males than in heterosexual males. Results showed that homosexual men and women were more frequently androgynous than were

  12. Reproducibility of computer measurement of maximal isometric strength and electromyography in sedentary middle-aged women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ari Heinonen; Harri Sievfinen; Jukka Viitasalo; Matti Pasanen; Pekka Oja; Ilkka Vuori

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the reproducibility of computer measurements of isometric strength and related electromyography in several muscle groups in sedentary middle-aged women, (ii) to evaluate the effects of different digital signal averaging methods on the reproducibility, (iii) to determine the final test score to be preferred in terms of improved reproducibility of isometric strength

  13. Psychiatric disorder and gynaecological symptoms in middle aged women: a community survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Gath; M Osborn; G Bungay; S Iles; A Day; A Bond; C Passingham

    1987-01-01

    In a community survey 521 women aged 35-59 were selected at random from all patients registered in two groups practices. They were interviewed at home and assessed by means of standardised psychiatric measures and detailed gynaecological inquiry. Levels of psychiatric morbidity were found to be within the expected range for such a sample. Both psychiatric morbidity and the personality dimension

  14. Perioperative and postoperative morbidity after sacrocolpopexy according to age in Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sumin; Shin, So Hyun; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare perioperative and postoperative morbidity of older and younger women undergoing sacrocolpopexy (SCP). Methods A retrospective study included 271 patients who underwent laparotomic SCP for symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse from November 2008 to June 2013 at our institution. By the review of medical records, perioperative and postoperative data including the length of the surgery, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion, the length of hospital stay, wound complications and febrile morbidity were collected. In addition, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, or neurological adverse events were retrieved. The need for an indwelling urinary catheter or performance of clean intermittent self-catheterization, mesh erosion rate and the number of days required for each were included in the postoperative outcomes. For the outcome variable analyzed in this study, the patients was dichomotized into women aged 65 and older and those younger than 65. Results One hundred and thirty-five (49.8%) patients were younger than 65 and 136 (50.2%) were aged 65 and older. Older women had higher body mass index, vaginal parity and prior surgery for hysterectomy than younger women (P<0.05). And older women had higher baseline comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiac disease (P<0.05), and their American society of Anesthesiologist class was higher (P<0.001). In the perioperative and postoperative complication, older group showed no differences in most of the operation-related complication rates, but gastrointestinal complication rate. Also, mesh erosion rate was not found to be significantly different between the two groups at the last visit. Conclusion Older women undergoing laparotomic SCP have similar perioperative and postoperative morbidities as younger women, suggesting surgeons can counsel older and younger women similarly in terms of operative risks. PMID:25629020

  15. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A.; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Results: Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2–6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0–8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9–8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI ?9–38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P?>?0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15–24 years while increasing significantly among women 35–49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Conclusion: As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility. PMID:25406753

  16. Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Methods Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Results Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR?=?11.53, p?=?0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR?=?12.00, p?=?0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR?=?3.19, p?=?0.010). Conclusions Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. PMID:24593240

  17. Opinions on early-age marriage and marriage customs among Kurdish-speaking women in southeast Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meliksah Ertem; Tahire Kocturk

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesFor women, marriage before the age of 18 years has adverse consequences for physical, mental and emotional well-being and constitutes a barrier for continued education. According to a national survey, about 50% of all women in Eastern Turkey were aged under 18 years at first marriage.MethodsThis study explored women's opinions and experiences of early marriage and culture-specific marriage customs in

  18. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

  19. Contraceptive use in women under 20 years of age: A study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahpoorian, F; Kashanian, M; Shakhan, Z; Sheikhansari, N

    2014-10-01

    Contraception methods are one of the most important factors in population control. A choice of the safe and effective methods available to adolescents may guarantee their safety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the rate and kind of contraceptive methods used by women under 20 years of age and finding the related demographic factors. A total of 500 women who finished the study were evaluated regarding the rate of contraceptive use, which method was used and the probable demographic-related factors. More than half (51.6%) of the women used contraception. The most common method was breast-feeding (27.1%), although only 2.8% had enough knowledge about breast-feeding as a contraceptive method. Other common methods used were IUD (intrauterine device) (24.8%) and the withdrawal method (24.8%). The usage of contraception was directly related to the number of pregnancies, the age of marriage and the woman's age at first pregnancy. It related indirectly to the level of education, the number of brothers and sisters and size of the family, socioeconomic status, the age of the mother when married and the age of menarche. PMID:24911985

  20. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed. PMID:18458007

  1. Weight change and cognitive function: findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris A; Ockene, Judith K; Phillips, Lawrence S; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2,283 older, postmenopausal women (aged 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and WC collected up to 5 years before WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (P ? 0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in WC. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existing literature. PMID:21394095

  2. Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris; Ockene, Judith K.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2283 older, post-menopausal women (age 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference collected up to 5 years prior to WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (p?0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in waist circumference. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existent literature. PMID:21394095

  3. Attitude toward menopause and aging: a study on postmenopausal women of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Ray, Subha

    2013-01-01

    We examined the attitude of postmenopausal women toward menopause and aging with respect to sociodemographic variables and postmenopausal years. Four hundred and eighty postmenopausal women representing Bengali-speaking Hindu ethnic group of West Bengal, India were interviewed about their attitude toward menopause and aging. Information on sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and menopausal symptoms were also collected. The participants were categorized into four groups based on postmenopausal years (Group 1: ?2; Group 2: >2 to ?5; Group 3: >5 to ?8; and Group 4: >8). The attitude did not differ significantly among different groups, but it differed significantly when compared for residential status and per capita monthly household expenditure (pooled groups), for residential and educational status (Groups 3 and 4), and per capita monthly household expenditure (Group 3). Hierarchical linear regression (stepwise) shows per capita monthly expenditure, age at menopause, years after menopause, and menopausal symptoms (irritability and inability to hold urine) significantly predict attitude. PMID:23199313

  4. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  5. Marital Status and Mortality among Middle Age and Elderly Men and Women in Urban Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Va, Puthiery; Yang, Wan-Shui; Nechuta, Sarah; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Gao, Shan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality. Methods We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996–2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002–2009), two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40–70 years and 61,500 men aged 40–74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR?=?1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR?=?1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively) and cancer (HR?=?1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR?=?1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively) mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR?=?1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women (HR?=?1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) and elevated all-cause mortality (HR?=?2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86) in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR?=?1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88) and CVD (HR?=?1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) mortality. Conclusions Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women. PMID:22073174

  6. Bayesian Mapping of HIV Infection among Women of Reproductive Age in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N. O.; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda. PMID:25811462

  7. Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. Aim To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. Material and methods The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. Results We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Conclusions Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women. PMID:24278065

  8. An evolutionary model of stature, age at first birth and reproductive success in Gambian women.

    PubMed Central

    Allal, N.; Sear, R.; Prentice, A. M.; Mace, R.

    2004-01-01

    We have built a model to predict optimal age at first birth for women in a natural fertility population. The only existing fully evolutionary model, based on Ache hunter-gatherers, argues that as women gain weight, their fertility (rate of giving birth) increases-thus age at first birth represents a trade-off between time allocated to weight gain and greater fertility when mature. We identify the life-history implications of female age at first birth in a Gambian population, using uniquely detailed longitudinal data collected from 1950 to date. We use height rather than weight as an indicator of growth as it is more strongly correlated with age at first birth. Stature does not greatly influence fertility in this population but has a significant effect on offspring mortality. We model age at first reproduction as a trade-off between the time spent growing and reduced infant mortality after maturation. Parameters derived from this population are fitted to show that the predicted optimal mean age of first birth, which maximizes reproductive success, is 18 years, very close to that observed. The reaction norm associated with variation in growth rate during childhood also satisfactorily predicts the variation in age at first birth. PMID:15129955

  9. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  10. Plasma vitamin D levels and cognitive function in aging women: the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Devore, Elizabeth; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):?0.33,?0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. PMID:24676321

  11. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Mijal, Renée S; Holzman, Claudia B

    2010-07-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

  12. The impact of eliminating age inequalities in stage at diagnosis on breast cancer survival for older women

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, M J; Abel, G A; Greenberg, D C; Lambert, P C; Lyratzopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older women with breast cancer have poorer relative survival outcomes, but whether achieving earlier stage at diagnosis would translate to substantial reductions in mortality is uncertain. Methods: We analysed data on East of England women with breast cancer (2006–2010) aged 70+ years. We estimated survival for different stage-deprivation-age group strata using both the observed and a hypothetical stage distribution (assuming that all women aged 75+ years acquired the stage distribution of those aged 70–74 years). We subsequently estimated deaths that could be postponed beyond 5 years from diagnosis if women aged 75+ years had the hypothetical stage distribution. We projected findings to the English population using appropriate age and socioeconomic group weights. Results: For a typically sized annual cohort in the East of England, 27 deaths in women with breast cancer aged 75+ years can be postponed within 5 years from diagnosis if their stage distribution matched that of the women aged 70–74 years (4.8% of all 566 deaths within 5 years post diagnosis in this population). Under assumptions, we estimate that the respective number for England would be 280 deaths (5.0% of all deaths within 5 years post diagnosis in this population). Conclusions: The findings support ongoing development of targeted campaigns aimed at encouraging prompt presentation in older women. PMID:25734394

  13. Socioeconomic factors associated with trajectories of caring by young and mid-aged women: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health and socioeconomic outcomes from being a caregiver are well described. In contrast, the long-term trajectories of caring undertaken by women, and the demographic, socioeconomic status, health status and health behaviour characteristics associated with these trajectories is not well known. Methods The data were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Participants were 14,202 women born 1973–78 followed for 13 years, and 12,282 women born 1946–1951 followed for 9 years. Latent class analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used. Results Five distinct trajectories of caring were identified for the younger women: these represented ‘ongoing’, ‘starting’, ‘never’ and 2 types of ‘transitional’ caring. While traditional indicators of poorer socioeconomic status were associated with trajectories representing ‘ongoing’ and ‘starting’ caring, they were not associated with ‘transitional’ caring trajectories. Three distinct trajectories of caring were identified for the mid-age women: these represented ‘ongoing’, ‘starting’ and ‘never’ caring. For the mid-age women, poorer socioeconomic status indicators were associated with the ‘ongoing’ caring, but not ’starting’ caring. Conclusions Women in the 1973–78 cohort showed more varying and transitional caring trajectories compared to those in the 1946–51 cohort, and these trajectories were not associated with traditional socioeconomic indicators. An ‘opportunity cost’ theory for who become carers does not support young transitional carers or mid-aged women beginning new caring. Health policies, education and awareness campaigns for women carers need to target outside previously identified populations. PMID:24456756

  14. Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Gustavo Glotz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Simão, Mariana Fernandez; Rios, Matheus N.; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Methods Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Results Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Conclusion Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident. PMID:24061686

  15. [Orthopaedic findings of the foot as related to age and body weight among women (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Brückner, L; Rösler, P

    1981-01-01

    In a cross-sectional evaluation of 103 women belonging to the material of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the GDR Gerontology Project, foot trouble and objective foot changes were studied in relation to body weight and age. The subjects were divided into four age classes and two weight groups. The following objective foot parameters were obtained from the podogram: the angle of the big toe, the isthmus value, and the length-breadth index. Further data such as the total foot angle, the height of the plantar arch and the instep height were derived from the lateral radiograph of the foot under load. In 36.89 per cent of the subjects foot trouble was established. Two frequency peaks (15.8 years and 51.5 years) were determined for the age at which the first symptoms manifested themselves. The investigations showed a growing influence of physiological changes due to ageing on foot trouble. The dependence of foot trouble on body weight is evidenced by the fact that overweight women are more prone to develop foot trouble than women with standard weight. The angle of the big toe, in particular, is clearly weight-related, i.e. the risk to develop hallux valgus is greater in overweight women over 55 years of age than it is in standard-weight females. This finding is corroborated by the fact that, on an average, the group of overweight subjects has lower length-breadth-index values, which is indicative of a broadening of the forefoot in the process of splay-foot development. PMID:7222751

  16. The Well-being and Quality of Life of Women Over 50: A Gendered-Age Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varda Muhlbauer

    In recent decades renewed attention has been given to the notion of middle age and particularly to women in this age group.\\u000a Many of us think that this is a welcome development. These women (popularly referred to as “baby boomers”) have capitalized\\u000a on the major sociocultural changes and transformed meanings and behavioral codes traditionally attached to this age group.\\u000a In

  17. Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background The age of peak swim performance has been investigated for freestyle swimmers for distances ranging from 50 m to 1500 m among swimmers aged 19 to 99 years. However, studies have yet to investigate the 10 to 19 year-old age group. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the age range of peak freestyle swim speed, and (2) to find differences in age range and peak freestyle swim speed between male and female freestyle swimmers from 50 m to 1500 m at a national level. Methods The changes in age range and peak freestyle swim speed among Swiss elite freestyle swimmers aged 0–9 years and 70–79 years who were ranked on the Swiss high score list between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. Results Men were fastest at ages 22–23 years for 100 m and 200 m; at ages 24–25 years for 400 m and 800 m; and at 26–27 years for 50 m and 1500 m. Women achieved peak freestyle swim speed at ages 20–21 years for all distances with the exception of 800 m. In the 800 m, women were fastest at ages 26–27 years. The difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m (ie, 13.1% ± 1.3% in 50 m; 13.2% ± 0.9% in 100 m; 10.8% ± 0.9% in 200 m; 7.9% ± 1.3% in 400 m; and 4.2% ± 2.0% in 800 m). For 1500 m, however, the gender difference increased to 6.4% ± 2.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that peak freestyle swim speed is achieved at lower age ranges in women when compared to men at 50 m to 1500 m, but not at 800 m. The gender difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m, but not for 1500 m. These data should be confirmed with swimmers at an international level. PMID:24198602

  18. Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina

    2014-12-01

    The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ?1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ?$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ?1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406

  19. Prevalence of Prescription Medication Use Among Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing Age and Pregnant Women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy. PMID:25287251

  20. Prevalence of Anemia and Correlated Factors in the Reproductive Age Women in Rural Areas of Tabas

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Majid; Lesanpezeshki, Mohammad; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis. Results The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35) and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31) were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. Conclusion Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women) groups. PMID:24971116

  1. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 women of reproductive age. Data were collected using questionnaires on sociodemographic factors and perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2). The relationship between the dependent variable (perceived social support) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Results The mean score of social support was 134.3?±?17.9. Women scored highest in the “worth” dimension and lowest in the “social integration” dimension. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that the variables of education, spouse’s occupation, Sufficiency of income for expenses and primary support source were significantly related to the perceived social support. Conclusion Sociodemographic factors affect social support and could be considered in planning interventions to improve social support for Iranian women. PMID:22988834

  2. Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices. PMID:25500343

  3. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  4. Changes in aerobic power of women, ages 20-64 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Beard, E. F.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak) of women. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 409 healthy women, ages 20-64 yr. The 43 women of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 3.7 (+/-2.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill test. The zero-order correlation of -0.742 between VO2peak and %fat was significantly (P < 0.05) higher then the SR-PA (r = 0.626) and age correlations (r = -0.633). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.537 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.851) showed that adding %fat and SR-PA and their interaction to the regression model reduced the age regression weight of -0.537, to -0.265 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results. These findings are consistent with men's data from the same lab showing that about 50% of the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak was due to %fat and SR-PA.

  5. Lifestyle Activities and Memory: Variety May Be the Spice of Life. The Women’s Health and Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Michelle C.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Xia, Jin; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was comparable to frequent participation in cognitively challenging activities in mitigating impairments in cognitive abilities susceptible to aging in healthy, community-dwelling older women. Frequencies of participation in various lifestyle activities on the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) were divided according to high (e.g., reading), moderate (e.g., discussing politics), and low (e.g., watching television) cognitive demand. We also considered the utility of participation in a variety of lifestyle activities regardless of cognitive challenge. Immediate and delayed verbal recall, psychomotor speed, and executive function were each measured at baseline and at five successive exams, spanning a 9.5-year interval. Greater variety of participation in activities, regardless of cognitive challenge, was associated with an 8 to 11% reduction in the risk of impairment in verbal memory and global cognitive outcomes. Participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was more predictive than frequency or level of cognitive challenge for significant reductions in risk of incident impairment on measures sensitive to cognitive aging and risk for dementia. Our findings offer new perspectives in promoting a diverse repertoire of activities to mitigate age-related cognitive declines. PMID:22172155

  6. In the Margins: The Impact of Sexualised Images on the Mental Health of Ageing Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rochelle Hine

    This paper describes key findings of a study exploring how a cohort of 16 rural Australian women aged over 60 years think,\\u000a feel and respond to the prevalence of sexualised imagery in the media. The qualitative research framework was informed by\\u000a Feminist Standpoint Theory. Participants in three focus groups responded to semi-structured questions and prompts, interspersed\\u000a with viewing examples of sexualised

  7. Age-related differences in cross-sectional geometry of the forearm bones in healthy women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Bouxsein; K. H. Myburgh; E. Lindenberger; R. Marcus

    1994-01-01

    Men exhibit age-related adaptive changes in long bone geometry, namely, endosteal resorption and periosteal apposition of bone, that help to preserve bone strength. It is not clear whether women undergo similar adaptive responses. To address this question, we assessed the bone mineral density and cross-sectional geometry of the radius and ulna at the one-third distal site by single photon absorptiometry

  8. Age and tissue-specific variation of X chromosome inactivation ratios in normal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Sharp; David Robinson; Patricia Jacobs

    2000-01-01

    The incidence of skewed X-inactivation in normal women is controversial, with up to 10-fold differences being reported by different authors. In order to clarify this issue, we have conducted a survey of the X-inactivation patterns in 270 informative females from various age groups, using the androgen receptor gene\\/polymerase chain reaction assay. Results obtained by using DNA extracted from blood samples

  9. Facial rejuvenation for middle-aged women: a combined approach with minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation is a significant process involved in restoring youthfulness. The introduction of less invasive procedures has increased acceptance of such procedures. Often a combination of different techniques allows individualized treatment with optimal outcomes. Furthermore, this leads to a natural look without a significant downtime. We report herein the use of such a combined approach in middle-aged women with particular emphasis on botulinum toxin type A, dermal fillers, and chemical peels. PMID:20924438

  10. Coffee consumption and death from coronary heart disease in middle aged Norwegian men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Tverdal; I Stensvold; K Solvoll; O P Foss; P Lund-Larsen; K Bjartveit

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the association between number of cups of coffee consumed per day and coronary death when taking other major coronary risk factors into account. DESIGN--Men and women attending screening and followed up for a mean of 6.4 years. SETTING--Cardiovascular survey performed by ambulatory teams from the National Health Screening Service in Norway. PARTICIPANTS--All middle aged people in three counties:

  11. Marital Status and Mortality among Middle Age and Elderly Men and Women in Urban Shanghai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Puthiery Va; Wan-Shui Yang; Sarah Nechuta; Wong-Ho Chow; Hui Cai; Gong Yang; Shan Gao; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng; Xiao-Ou Shu; Yong-Bing Xiang

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundPrevious studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality.MethodsWe examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996–2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002–2009), two population-based

  12. Sex, Age, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Coronary Heart Disease A Prospective Follow-Up Study of 14 786 Middle-Aged Men and Women in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pekka Jousilahti; Erkki Vartiainen; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Pekka Puska

    Background—Coronary heart disease (CHD) is markedly more common in men than in women. In both sexes, CHD risk increases with age, but the increase is sharper in women. We analyzed the extent to which major cardiovascular risk factors can explain the sex difference and the age-related increase in CHD risk. Methods and Results—The study cohort consists of 14 786 Finnish

  13. Accuracy of BMI to detect percent fat obesity in men and women, ages 17 to 39: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A BMI of 30 kg/m2 is used to define obesity of men and women of all ages. Using variable samples, investigators have shown that age and gender account for percent fat (%Fat) variance independent of BMI. This age and gender bias can be traced to the inability of BMI to distinguish between the body's ...

  14. Screening Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Cheryl L.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Morrow, John; Majette, Nadya; Sisneros, Jessica A.; Ronay, Ashley; Farr, Sherry L.; Urrutia, Rachel Peragallo; Dietz, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying and treating chronic diseases, their precursors, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during family planning visits may improve long-term health and reproductive outcomes among low-income women. A cross-sectional study design was used to describe the prevalence of chronic diseases (hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes), their precursors (pre-hypertension, borderline high cholesterol, and pre-diabetes), and related CVD risk factors (such as obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity) among low-income women of reproductive age. Methods Prevalence of chronic diseases, their precursors, and related CVD risk factors were assessed for 462 out of 859 (53.8%) female family planning patients, ages 18–44 years, who attended a Title X clinic in eastern North Carolina during 2011 and 2012 and consented to participate. Data were obtained from clinical measurements, blood test results, and questionnaire. Differences in distribution of demographic and health care characteristics and CVD risk factors by presence of prehypertension and pre-diabetes were assessed by Pearson chi-square tests. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 12%, high cholesterol 16%, and diabetes 3%. Nearly two-thirds of women with hypertension were newly diagnosed (62%) as were 75% of women with diabetes. The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 35%, pre-diabetes 31%, obesity 41%, smoking 32%, and physical inactivity 42%. The majority of participants (87%) had one or more chronic disease or related cardiovascular disease risk factor. Conclusions CVD screening during family planning visits can identify significant numbers of women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes and future chronic disease and can provide prevention opportunities if effective interventions are available and acceptable to this population. PMID:23531099

  15. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on age-related increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence A. Tremollieres; Fabienne Cigagna; Cathy Alquier; Colette Cauneille; Jean-Michel Pouilles; Claude Ribot

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness as measured by B-mode ultrasound in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or not. One hundred and fifty-nine healthy postmenopausal women aged 45–65 years were recruited from our menopause clinic. All the selected women were free of cardio-vascular diseases and had no cardio-vascular risk

  16. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2014-06-17

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. PMID:24934272

  17. Signs of genital prolapse in a Swedish population of women 20 to 59 years of age and possible related factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva C. Samuelsson; F. T. Arne Victor; Gösta Tibblin; Kurt F. Svärdsudd

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to study the prevalence of genital prolapse and possible related factors in a general population of women 20 to 59 years of age. Study Design: Of 641 eligible women in a primary health care district, 487 (76%) answered a questionnaire and accepted an invitation to a gynecologic health examination. Results: The prevalence of any degree of

  18. USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711) In the United States, sampling women o...

  19. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  20. Age-related variation in quantitative ultrasound at the tibia and prevalence of osteoporosis in native Chinese women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X-P Wu; E-Y LIAO; X-H LUO; R-C DAI; H ZHANG; J PENG

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the variations in age-related speed of sound (SOS) at the tibia and prevalence of osteoporosis in native Chinese women, and establishment of a reference database by quantitative ultrasound. SOS at the right midtibia was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device (SoundScan 2000, Myriad Ultrasound Systems, Israel) in 1596 healthy Chinese women ranging from 12 years to 96

  1. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  2. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  3. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  4. Health and seafood consumption patterns among women aged45–69 years. A Norwegian seafood consumption study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Trondsen; T. Braaten; E. Lund; A. E. Eggen

    2004-01-01

    Main research question: the aim of the study was to investigate how perception about diet and health, eating habits and socioeconomic pattern influence choice of seafood. Materials and methods: a randomly drawn sample of Norwegian women aged 45–69 years answered a self-administrated mail questionnaire about eating habits, socioeconomic status, and questions related to health. There were 9407 women answered the

  5. Age at surgical menopause influences cognitive decline and Alzheimer pathology in older women

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley; Secor, Elizabeth; Chibnik, Lori B.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between age at surgical menopause and both cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in 2 longitudinal cohorts. Methods: Female subjects from 2 longitudinal studies of cognitive decline (Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project) were included (total n = 1,884). The primary analysis examined the association between age at surgical menopause and decline in a global cognition score. Secondary analyses examined additional outcomes: 1) decline in 5 cognitive subdomains and 2) a global measure of the burden of AD pathology. In exploratory analyses, we examined the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We adjusted all models for age, education, smoking, and cohort and stratified by surgical vs natural menopause. Results: For the 32% of subjects with surgical menopause, earlier age at menopause was associated with faster decline in global cognition (p = 0.0007), specifically episodic memory (p = 0.0003) and semantic memory (p = 0.002). Earlier age at menopause was also associated with increased AD neuropathology (p = 0.038), in particular neuritic plaques (p = 0.013). HRT use for at least 10 years, when administered within a 5-year perimenopausal window, was associated with decreased decline in global cognition. No associations were seen in women who had natural menopause. Conclusions: Early age at surgical menopause was associated with cognitive decline and AD neuropathology. Ongoing studies should clarify the potential effect of HRT on this relationship. PMID:24336141

  6. Costs of medicines and health care: a concern for Australian women across the ages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from Australia and other countries suggests that some individuals struggle to meet the costs of their health care, including medicines, despite the presence of Government subsidies for low-income earners. The aim of our study was to elucidate women’s experiences with the day to day expenses that relate to medicines and their health care. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) conducts regular surveys of women in three age cohorts (born 1973–78, 1946–51, and 1921–26). Our data were obtained from free text comments included in surveys 1 to 5 for each cohort. All comments were scanned for mentions of attitudes, beliefs and behaviours around the costs of medicines and health care. Relevant comments were coded by category and themes identified. Results Over 150,000 responses were received to the surveys, and 42,305 (27%) of these responses included free-text comments; 379 were relevant to medicines and health care costs (from 319 individuals). Three broad themes were identified: costs of medicines (33% of relevant comments), doctor visits (49%), and complementary medicines (13%). Age-specific issues with medicine costs included contraceptive medicines (1973–78 cohort), hormone replacement therapy (1946–51 cohort) and osteoporosis medications (1921–26 cohort). Concerns about doctor visits mostly related to reduced (or no) access to bulk-billed medical services, where there are no out-of-pocket costs to the patient, and costs of specialist services. Some women in the 1973–78 and 1946–51 cohorts reported ‘too much income’ to qualify for government health benefits, but not enough to pay for visits to the doctor. In some cases, care and medicines were avoided because of the costs. Personal feelings of embarrassment over financial positions and judgments about bulk-billing practices (‘good ones don’t bulk-bill’) were barriers to service use, as were travel expenses for rural women. Conclusions For some individuals, difficulty in accessing bulk-billing services and increasing out-of-pocket costs in Australia limit affordability of health services, including medications. At greatest risk may be those falling below thresholds for subsidised care such as self-funded retirees and those on low-middle incomes, in addition to those on very low incomes, who may find even small co-payments difficult to manage. PMID:24252248

  7. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  8. Valproic acid use in psychiatry: issues in treating women of reproductive age.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, D; Koren, G

    1998-01-01

    Valproic acid, a well known anticonvulsant, is being used by psychiatrists increasingly to manage bipolar and other affective disorders. Because of the demographics of the population affected by such psychiatric conditions, more women of childbearing age are likely to be exposed to this teratogenic drug. Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common of the major anomalies associated with in utero valproic acid exposure, and are estimated to occur in 1% to 2% of exposed fetuses. Other teratogenic effects include facial dysmorphism, congenital cardiac defects, limb reduction defects and other skeletal anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis, in particular maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening and targeted ultrasonography, should be offered to all pregnant women exposed to valproic acid and couples need to be aware of the prenatal diagnostic options available to them. Periconceptual prophylaxis with high doses of folic acid is recommended for all women on valproic acid and counselling should also emphasize planning pregnancy to optimize folic acid supplementation. Psychiatrists should be aware of the teratogenic potential of valproic acid and know how to counsel their patients of reproductive age. PMID:9785701

  9. Progestin Treatment of Atypical Hyperplasia and Well-Differentiated Carcinoma of the Endometrium in Women Under Age 40

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C Randall; Robert J Kurman

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of conservative management of atypical hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma of the endometrium in women under age 40.Methods: Pathology records were searched to identify women under age 40 diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or well-differentiated carcinoma of the endometrium between January 1990 and January 1996. All available biopsy, curettage, and hysterectomy specimens were reviewed. Follow-up was obtained

  10. Concurrent Alcohol Use or Heavier Use of Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking Among Women of Childbearing Age with Accessible Health Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Tsai; R. Louise Floyd; Patricia P. Green; Clark H. Denny; Claire D. Coles; Robert J. Sokol

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide nationally representative findings on the prevalence and distribution of concurrent alcohol\\u000a use or heavier use of alcohol and cigarette smoking among women of childbearing age with accessible health care. For the years\\u000a 2003–2005, a total of 20,912 women 18–44 years of age who participated in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) reported\\u000a that during the

  11. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  12. Culture, country of residence and subjective well-being: a comparison of South Asian mid-aged women living in the UK, UK Caucasian women and women living in Delhi, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myra S. Hunter; Pratima Gupta; Andrea Papitsch-Clark; Dinesh Bhugra; David Sturdee

    2008-01-01

    South Asian populations represent the largest minority ethnic group in the UK. Subjective well-being (depressed mood and life satisfaction) in first generation mid-aged Asian immigrants originating from the Indian subcontinents (UKA) is examined and compared to that of UK Caucasian (UKC) and Indian (resident in Delhi) (DEL) women. Asian women (UKA and DEL) reported higher levels of depressed mood than

  13. Women’s experience with postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device use in India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices (PPIUCD) are increasingly included in many national postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs, but satisfaction of women who have adopted PPIUCD and complication rates need further characterization. Our specific aims were to describe women who accepted PPIUCD, their experience and satisfaction with their choice, and complication of expulsion or infection. Methods We studied 2,733 married women, aged 15–49 years, who received PPIUCD in sixteen health facilities, located in eight states and the national capital territory of India, at the time of IUCD insertion and six weeks later. The satisfaction of women who received IUCD during the postpartum period and problems and complications following insertion were assessed using standardized questionnaires. Results Mean (SD) age of women accepting PPIUCD was 24 (4) years. Over half of women had parity of one, and nearly one-quarter had no formal schooling. Nearly all women (99.6%) reported that they were satisfied with IUCD at the time of insertion and 92% reported satisfaction at the six-week follow-up visit. The rate of expulsion of IUCD was 3.6% by six weeks of follow-up. There were large variations in rates of problems and complications that were largely attributable to the individual hospitals implementing the study. Conclusions Women who receive PPIUCD show a high level of satisfaction with this choice of contraception, and the rates of expulsion were low enough such that the benefits of contraceptive protection outweigh the potential inconvenience of needing to return for care for that subset of women. PMID:24755312

  14. Prevalence of atypical antipsychotic use in psychiatric outpatients: comparison of women of childbearing age with men.

    PubMed

    Camsar?, Ulas; Viguera, Adele C; Ralston, Laurel; Baldessarini, Ross J; Cohen, Lee S

    2014-12-01

    To characterize current treatment practices, we compared the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs among women of childbearing age to men based on electronic medical records of 1073 hospital-based psychiatric outpatients given at least one second-generation antipsychotic drug. One quarter of psychiatric outpatients sampled were prescribed at least one atypical antipsychotic, in more than half of cases for off-label indications. Women were significantly more likely than men to be diagnosed with mood or anxiety disorders than psychotic disorders and to be prescribed quetiapine (60.7 vs. 48.0 %) or aripiprazole (31.2 vs. 23.9 %), but less likely risperidone (15.8 vs. 26.1 %) or ziprasidone (10 vs. 14 %). PMID:25253022

  15. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Xiong Donghai [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Wang Wei [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Shen Hui [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Xiao Peng [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Yang Fang [Laboratory of Molecular and Statistical Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Recker, Robert R. [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Deng Hongwen [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China) and Laboratory of Molecular and Statistical Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China) and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)]. E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  16. High-resolution computed tomographic appearance of the intrasellar contents in women of childbearing age

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, J.D.; Russell, K.B.; Basile, B.A.; O'Donnell, P.C.; Popky, G.L.

    1983-04-01

    Our experience with high-resolution computed tomography has indicated that the accepted norms for appearance and size of the pituitary gland may not be entirely valid for women of childbearing age. Fifty women with normal menstrual histories and who were not taking oral contraceptives were studied. The study consisted of overlapping 1.5-mm sections through the pituitary fossa in the coronal position only, using a bolus of contrast material followed by a continuous drip during the study. The results indicate that the top of the normal range of gland height is well over the accepted 7 mm and that focal defects within the gland are common. Other variables such as gland shape, width, and overall density were also evaluated.

  17. Committee Opinion No. 479: Methamphetamine abuse in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    Methamphetamine abuse has continued to increase in the United States since the late 1980s with its use spreading from the West Coast to areas across the country. Methamphetamine use in pregnancy endangers the health of the woman and increases the risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age babies and such use may increase the risk of neurodevelopmental problems in children. All pregnant women should be asked about their drug and alcohol use. Urine toxicology screening may be useful in detecting methamphetamine and other substance abuse during pregnancy, but this screening should only be done with maternal consent after counseling regarding the potential ramifications of a positive test result. Women reporting continuing use of methamphetamine in pregnancy should be referred for treatment and followed up with serial ultrasound examinations to assess fetal growth. PMID:21343793

  18. Lifecourse Adversity and Physical Performance across Countries among Men and Women Aged 65-74

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Thanh Tu, Mai; Phillips, Susan P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. Methods We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia) and Tirana (Albania). The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. Results A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. Conclusions We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life. PMID:25101981

  19. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634

  20. Changes in Waist Circumference and Mortality in Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in BMI. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 26,625 healthy men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study was analyzed. WC and BMI were assessed in 1993–97 and in 1999–02. Information on mortality was obtained by linkage to the Danish central Person Register. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated with Cox regression models. During 6.7 years of follow-up, 568 and 361 deaths occurred among men and women, respectively. Changes in WC were positively associated with mortality (HR per 5 cm for the sexes combined ?=?1.09 (1.02?1.16) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and changes in BMI), whereas changes in BMI were inversely associated with mortality (HR per kg/m2 for the sexes combined ?=?0.91 (0.86, 0.97) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and changes in WC). Associations between changes in WC and mortality were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to changes in BMI, baseline WC or when smokers or deaths occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. Conclusions/Significance Changes in WC were positively associated with mortality in healthy middle-aged men and women throughout the range of concurrent changes in BMI. These findings suggest a need for development of prevention and treatment strategies targeted against redistribution of fat mass towards the abdominal region. PMID:20927346

  1. Quantifying the risks and benefits of efavirenz use in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, HE; Rydzak, CE; Cotich, KL; Wang, B; Sax, PE; Losina, E; Freedberg, KA; Goldie, SJ; Lu, Z; Walensky, RP

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We quantified the benefits (life expectancy gains) and harms (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States. Methods We used data from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100,000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women. Results Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100,000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100,000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women. Conclusions Use of non-efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a tradeoff between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers. PMID:20561082

  2. Malignant hypertension in women of childbearing age and its relation to the contraceptive pill.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K G; Isles, C G; Hodsman, G P; Lever, A F; Robertson, J W

    1987-01-01

    Eleven of 34 women aged 15-44 with malignant phase hypertension were taking oral contraceptives at presentation. All had had normal blood pressure before starting to take the pill. In four the interval between the start of oral contraception and the diagnosis of malignant hypertension was less than four months, and in eight no other cause for the hypertension was found. Underlying renal disease and renal failure were less common among pill users than among non-users with malignant hypertension who were of similar age. No pill user became normotensive after withdrawal of the pill, but blood pressure was well controlled (diastolic less than 90 mm Hg) in three patients taking only one drug. By contrast, all 23 non-users needed two or more antihypertensive drugs to control blood pressure. Ten year survival was 90% among pill users and 50% among non-users. These results suggest that oral contraceptives may be a common cause of malignant hypertension in women of child-bearing age. If the pill is stopped and underlying renal disease excluded the long term prognosis for such patients is excellent. PMID:3107691

  3. Rubella Immunity in Women of Childbearing Age, Eight Years After the Immunization Program in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Barari Sawadkohi, Rahim; Zarghami, Amin; Izadpana, Fatemeh; Pournasrollah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rubella is a viral disease with a worldwide distribution. Mass vaccination campaigns have increased the vaccine coverage in the world with substantial impact on reduction of rubella infections. In Iran, the national measles-rubella campaign, targeting individuals 5-25 years old, was initiated in 2003 and mass childhood vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps has continued ever since. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of routine vaccination on rubella immunity among women of childbearing age in Babol, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 women of childbearing age living in Babol, north of Iran, in 2011. Twelve samples were excluded from the study because of inadequate sera amounts. Serum samples were examined for presence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies by means of quantitative ELISA. Results: From a total of 800 samples in this study, rubella IgG seropositivity was seen in 786 (98.3% [95% CI = %97.5-%99.1]) cases. The maximum IgG seropositivity (99.2%) was seen in the age group of 21-25 years old and the lowest immunity (87.7%) was in the group of above 30 years old. Conclusions: Our data indicated that the rate of seropositivity to rubella virus in our population was high, suggesting that vaccination has been successful in Babol, reducing the likelihood of congenital rubella infection. PMID:25237562

  4. A Reappraisal of Women's Health Initiative Estrogen-Alone Trial: Long-Term Outcomes in Women 50–59 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Estrogen-Alone Trial randomized postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, with prior hysterectomy, to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo with a 5.9-year median duration of CEE use. In 2013, the WHI published outcomes for additional extended follow-up. Reported here for the first time is an analysis of the number needed to treat with CEE rather than placebo for younger women (50–59 years) to prevent an adverse long-term outcome. For every 76 women randomized to CEE at 50–59 years, one less myocardial infarction occurred during the 13-year cumulative long-term follow-up. For every 37 women randomized to CEE at 50–59 years, one less woman experienced a global index endpoint (including coronary heart disease, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and death) during the 13-year follow-up. Younger women (50–59 years), compared to older women, had more favorable cumulative long-term outcomes for MI and global index. Though a subgroup analysis is not an adequate basis for making primary prevention guideline recommendations, the WHI Estrogen-Alone Trial outcomes strongly suggest that a similar course of estrogen initiated at 50–59 years in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy results in significant long-term health benefit. PMID:25685151

  5. Changes in Body Mass Index across Age Groups in Iranian Women: Results from the National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Seifi, Behjat; Biglarian, Akbar; Mohammad, Kazem

    2012-01-01

    Background. To investigate the associations between some factors with weight gain across age groups in Iranian women. Methods. Proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of BMI categorized as a function of education, economic index, workforce, smoking, marital status, and place of residence adjusted for age, using data from the "National Health Survey in Iran" database. It included 14176 women aged 20-69 years. Results. For all covariates, age was directly associated with overweight and obesity before 60 years of age. Among women aged 20-40 years, the rates of change in probabilities of overweight and obesity were highest. Among women, being inactive, with high economic index, married, being nonsmoker, in an urban residence, with lower educational attainment, all increased the probabilities of overweight and obesity. Conclusions. Women aged 20-40 years gained weight faster than other groups. They may need additional information and more support on how to reduce their risk for weight gain through positive health behaviors. PMID:22523675

  6. Changes in Body Mass Index across Age Groups in Iranian Women: Results from the National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Seifi, Behjat; Biglarian, Akbar; Mohammad, Kazem

    2012-01-01

    Background. To investigate the associations between some factors with weight gain across age groups in Iranian women. Methods. Proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of BMI categorized as a function of education, economic index, workforce, smoking, marital status, and place of residence adjusted for age, using data from the “National Health Survey in Iran” database. It included 14176 women aged 20–69 years. Results. For all covariates, age was directly associated with overweight and obesity before 60 years of age. Among women aged 20–40 years, the rates of change in probabilities of overweight and obesity were highest. Among women, being inactive, with high economic index, married, being nonsmoker, in an urban residence, with lower educational attainment, all increased the probabilities of overweight and obesity. Conclusions. Women aged 20–40 years gained weight faster than other groups. They may need additional information and more support on how to reduce their risk for weight gain through positive health behaviors. PMID:22523675

  7. A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Emily R.; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 40–69 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of children’s socioeconomic circumstances—particularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher education—in maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views. PMID:22962507

  8. Association between higher levels of sexual function, activity, and satisfaction and self-rated successful aging in older postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Wesley K.; Charo, Lindsey; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if measures of successful-aging are associated with sexual activity, satisfaction, and function in older post-menopausal women. Design Cross-sectional study using self-report surveys; analyses include chi-square and t-tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Setting Community-dwelling older post-menopausal women in the greater San Diego Region. Participants 1,235 community-dwelling women aged 60-89 years participating at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative. Measurements Demographics and self-report measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction and successful aging. Results Sexual activity and functioning (desire, arousal, vaginal tightness, use of lubricants, and ability to climax) were negatively associated with age, as were physical and mental health. In contrast, sexual satisfaction and self-rated successful aging and quality of life remained unchanged across age groups. Successful aging measures were positively associated with sexual measures, especially self-rated quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction appear to be stable in the face of declines in physical health, some cognitive abilities, and sexual activity and function and are positively associated with each other across ages 60-89 years. PMID:21797827

  9. A 1st-trimester combined screening test in pregnant women of advanced maternal age in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Pan, M; Han, J; Yang, X; Zhen, L; Liao, C; Li, D Z

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test for trisomy 21 in different maternal age groups in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data on the 1st-trimester combined screening test (maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, free ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) were analysed. The study population of 17,556 pregnant women was subdivided into three groups according to maternal age: 16,113 were < 35 years of age; 1,228 were 35-39 years of age; and 215 were ? 40 years of age. The detection and false-positive rates of the 1st-trimester screening test for trisomy 21 or trisomy 18 in the three groups of women were 89.5 and 1.7%; 90.9 and 6.8%; and 100 and 22.3%, respectively. With increasing maternal age, the odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR) were increased. The balance between the detection rate and false-positive rate of the 1st-trimester combined screening test is more favourable in women < 36 years with comparable OAPR. Although the false-positive rate increases with increasing maternal age, the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test in women ? 35 years is more effective than screening based on maternal age alone. PMID:25057869

  10. Age and education influence the performance of elderly women on the dual-task Timed Up and Go test.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gisele de Cássia; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Fonseca, Bruna Espeschit; Freitas, Flávia Alexandra Silveira de; Fonseca, Maria Luísa Morais; Pacheco, Bruna Débora; Gonçalves, Marisa Rocha; Caramelli, Paulo

    2015-03-01

    Gait variability is related to functional decline in the elderly. The dual-task Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-DT) reflects the performance in daily activities. Objective To evaluate the differences in time to perform the TUG with and without DT in elderly women with different ages and levels of education and physical activity. Method Ninety-two elderly women perfomed the TUG at usual and fast speeds, with and without motor and cognitive DT. Results Increases in the time to perform the TUG-DT were observed at older ages and lower educational levels, but not at different levels of physical activity. More educated women performed the test faster with and without DT at both speeds. When age was considered, significant differences were found only for the TUG-DT at both speeds. Conclusion Younger women with higher education levels demonstrated better performances on the TUG-DT. PMID:25807122

  11. Results from Ad Hoc and Routinely Collected Data among Celiac Women with Infertility or Pregnancy Related Disorders: Italy, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune illness triggered by gluten consumption in genetically predisposed individuals. Worldwide, CD prevalence is approximately 1%. Several studies suggest a higher prevalence of undiagnosed CD in patients with infertility. We described reproductive disorders and assessed the frequency of hospital admissions for infertility among celiac women aged 15–49. We conducted two surveys enrolling a convenient sample of celiac women, residing in Apulia or in Basilicata (Italy). Moreover, we selected hospital discharge records (HDRs) of celiac women and women with an exemption for CD, and matched the lists with HDRs for reproductive disorders. In the surveys we included 91 celiac women; 61.5% of them reported menstrual cycle disorders. 47/91 reported at least one pregnancy and 70.2% of them reported problems during pregnancy. From the HDRs and the registry of exemption, we selected 4,070 women with CD; the proportion of women hospitalized for infertility was higher among celiac women than among resident women in childbearing age (1.2% versus 0.2%). Our findings highlight a higher prevalence of reproductive disorders among celiac women than in the general population suggesting that clinicians might consider testing for CD women presenting with pregnancy disorders or infertility. PMID:24895657

  12. Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ?36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 µmol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (?0.36–<0.7 µmol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7–1.4 µmol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (>1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy. PMID:25317119

  13. Cancer-Related Concerns among Women Newly Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer: An Exploration of Age Group Differences

    PubMed Central

    Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L.; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norm; Graff, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to characterize cancer-related concerns among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. The study compared degree of cancer-related concern between young women (? 45 years), middle age women (46–64 years), and older women (? 65 years). Methods/Materials Data from women (N =243) diagnosed with primary gynecological cancer who were participating in a randomized control trial were analyzed. Women completed a measure that assessed degree of concern in twelve cancer-related domains (physical functioning, cancer treatment, emotional functioning, sexual functioning, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, relationship with others, employment, and finances). Multivariate comparisons were made between the three age groups on the cancer-related concerns. Results There were age group differences in overall cancer-related concern and specific cancer-related domains. Young women reported the greatest cancer-related concern (p < .001). They reported greater concern over emotional functioning (p < .001) and sexual functioning (p < .001) compared to the middle and older age groups. Older women reported less concern over the impact of cancer on finances (p = 007). There were no differences between age groups in concern over physical impairment, cancer treatment, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, and relationship with others. Conclusions Age may play an important role in the impact of a gynecological cancer diagnosis in domains of functioning, specifically emotional functioning, sexual functioning, and finances. Other cancer-related areas may represent more universal degree of impact. Professionals may benefit form considering the impact of cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. PMID:24346489

  14. A relative age effect in men's but not women's professional baseball: 1943-1954.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael M; Pandya, Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Birthdates of professional female and male baseball players active from 1943 to 1954 (the beginning and final years for professional female leagues) were matched for year of birth and league years and then compared by birth quarters, with a cutoff date beginning August 1. A relative age effect was noted for males, as there was a significantly different distribution of players across birth quarter, but there was no such effect for female professionals. Since players were matched for birth year and league play, the difference was unlikely to be due to seasonality differences in birth. Instead, the absence of a "relative age" effect for female players can be attributed to the absence of organized adolescent baseball for girls prior to the establishment of professional baseball leagues for women. PMID:22049668

  15. Women, Work and Age: Policy Challenges. Proceedings of the Conference (Lansing, Michigan, April 11-12, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Gerontology, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Proceedings of a conference on women, work, and age are presented. The introduction by Carol Hollenstead give background on the topic, identifies the conference's goals and objectives, and describes the rationale behind the published proceedings. The keynote address, "Age Discrimination: The Invisible Barriers" (Sandra V. Porter), discusses…

  16. Evolution of age at menarche and at onset of regular cycling in a large cohort of French women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Clavel-Chapelon

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early exposure to ovarian hormones is considered to increase breast cancer incidence. The age at which the ovaries become functional is thus important. METHODS: We explored the evolution of age at first menstruation and at onset of regular cycling in 86 031 women participating in the E3N-EPIC cohort study, part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer. RESULTS: We

  17. HPV vaccination in women aged 27 to 45 years: what do general practitioners think?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is registered in Australia for females aged 9 to 45 years, females aged 27 to 45 years have shown limited vaccine uptake. Our study explored general practitioners’ (GPs) views concerning HPV vaccination of females in this age group, with particular focus on the barriers and the facilitators to the delivery of the HPV vaccine. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 randomly selected general practitioners from metropolitan Melbourne. Questions were based on a theoretical framework that explained the barriers and facilitators to professional behaviour change. Results According to the GPs, the major barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine included the cost of the vaccine, time constraints, and the three-dose schedule. Other barriers that were identified included GPs’ and patients’ beliefs that females in this age group were at low risk of contracting HPV, lack of awareness about the vaccine, and uncertainty about the benefits of this vaccine for females in this age group. In contrast, the facilitators that were identified included the availability of the vaccine on site, the availability of vaccine clinics or nurses for administering the vaccine, the availability of information related to the vaccine either on site or online, and positive opinions from experts in the field. Conclusions Our study has identified some of the barriers and facilitators to the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine in females aged 27 to 45 years, as perceived by GPs. Further studies should be conducted to determine which of these should be targeted or prioritised for intervention. The views of women in this age group should also be considered as these would also be influential in designing effective intervention strategies for improving the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25074404

  18. Effect of daily supplementation with iron and zinc on iron status of childbearing age women.

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation with 30 mg of iron (Fe) plus 30 mg of zinc (Zn) for 3 months on Fe status of women of childbearing age. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-one women (18-45 years) were randomly assigned to receive either a daily single dose of 30 mg of Fe (group 1; n?=?28) and 30 mg of Fe plus 30 mg of Zn (group 2; n?=?26) or placebo (n?=?27) for 3 months. Hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume, serum Fe, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte Zn protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), total body Fe, serum Zn, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. At baseline, 3.7, 28.4, and 3.7 % of women had iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), Fe deficiency without anemia, and depleted Fe stores, respectively. No significant differences on Fe status were found between groups before supplementation. After supplementation, group 2 showed a significant increase of Hb and total body Fe and a significant decrease of TfR compared with placebo (p?women, compared with those who received placebo. The positive effect of Fe supplementation on Fe status is enhanced by combined Zn supplementation. PMID:25582309

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and recovery from high-intensity exercise in women: effects of aging and fitness.

    PubMed

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Bosch, Pamela R; Cantu, Timasue; Matt, Kathleen S

    2004-07-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that aging is associated with prolonged recovery after a challenge to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (acute exercise) and that aerobic fitness is associated with a blunting of the age-related loss of negative feedback sensitivity. Young (27 +/- 2.8 yr, n = 9), older (64.6 +/- 1.4 yr, n = 11), and older-fit women (66.3 +/- 2.2 yr, n = 11) underwent a short bout of treadmill exercise at high (but submaximal) intensity. The exercise trial elicited significant increases in heart rate, blood pressure, ACTH, and cortisol (P < 0.001). Although the young and the older women exhibited similar cortisol response to the trial and throughout the recovery period, the older women had a slower decrease of ACTH levels (P < 0.05), suggesting reduced negative feedback sensitivity with aging. Between the two groups of older women, the older-fit group had significantly greater rate of recovery of ACTH levels (P < 0.05) compared with the older unfit women. However, older fit women had greater cortisol production during the recovery period (P < 0.05), suggesting greater adrenal sensitivity to ACTH. These results suggest that aging is associated with changes in the dynamic function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and that these changes are attenuated by aerobic fitness. PMID:15240599

  20. Age-related site-specific muscle wasting of upper and lower extremities and trunk in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the age-related site-specific muscle loss of the upper and lower extremities and trunk in men and women. Japanese nonobese adults aged 20-79 (n?=?1559, 52 % women) had muscle thickness (MTH) measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. An MTH ratio located in the anterior and posterior aspects of the upper arm, upper leg, lower leg, and trunk was calculated. Site-specific muscle loss was defined as a ratio of MTH?>?2 standard deviations below the mean for young adults in each segment. Age was inversely correlated (p?women (r?=?-0.541). Age was correlated positively to upper-arm MTH ratio and inversely to trunk MTH ratio in men (r?=?0.191 and r?=?-0.238, both p?women (r?=?0.102, p?=?0.004 and r?=?-0.446, p?age and lower-leg MTH ratios in men (r?=?0.015, p?=?0.682) and women (r?=?0.086, p?=?0.015). The prevalence of site-specific upper-leg muscle loss showed an age-related increasing pattern in men (6 % for ages 30-39, 21 % for ages 50-59, and 38 % for ages 70-79) and women (15 % for ages 30-39, 32 % for ages 50-59, and 50 % for ages 70-79). For other segments, however, the prevalence rate of site-specific muscle loss was relatively low throughout the age groups in men and women, although higher rates were observed in the older group. These results suggest that the anterior/posterior MTH ratio of the upper leg may be useful in providing an earlier diagnosis for site-specific muscle loss. PMID:24243442

  1. Abnormal exercise blood pressure predicts left ventricular mass in pre-hypertensive, middle-aged men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas E. Pittaras; Peter F. Kokkinos; Athanasios J. Manolis; Puneet Narayan; Demitra Manjoros; Vasilios Papademetriou; Steven Singh

    2005-01-01

    Background: An abnormal rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP) during exercise is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, this association and the magnitute of change in exercise SBP is not defined in pre-hypertensives.Methods: We assessed cardiac structure (echocardiography) and exercise parameters (BP) in middle-aged pre-hypertrensive men (n=296; age=49±10) and women (n=243; age=54±10yrs) free from heart disease, to determine the

  2. Postural sway reduction in aging men and women: Relation to brain structure, cognitive status, and stabilizing factors

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Edith V.; Rose, Jessica; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    Postural stability becomes compromised with advancing age, but the neural mechanisms contributing to instability have not been fully explicated. Accordingly, this quantitative physiological and MRI study of sex differences across the adult age range examined the association between components of postural control and the integrity of brain structure and function under different conditions of sensory input and stance stabilization manipulation. The groups comprised 28 healthy men (age 30–73 years) and 38 healthy women (age 34–74 years), who completed balance platform testing, cognitive assessment, and structural MRI. The results supported the hypothesis that excessive postural sway would be greater in older than younger healthy individuals when standing without sensory or stance aids, and that introduction of such aids would reduce sway in both principal directions (anterior–posterior and medial–lateral) and in both the open-loop and closed-loop components of postural control even in older individuals. Sway reduction with stance stabilization, that is, standing with feet apart, was greater in men than women, probably because older men were less stable than women when standing with their feet together. Greater sway was related to evidence for greater brain structural involutional changes, indexed as ventricular and sulcal enlargement and white matter hyperintensity burden. In women, poorer cognitive test performance related to less sway reduction with the use of sensory aids. Thus, aging men and women were shown to have diminished postural control, associated with cognitive and brain structural involution, in unstable stance conditions and with diminished sensory input. PMID:17920729

  3. Age patterns of women at marriage, cohabitation, and first birth in India.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Reddy, P H

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this paper has been to examine the age patterns of Indian women at marriage, cohabitation, and first birth. This task is complicated by features of the Indian marriage institution that differentiate it from the institution of marriage in Western cultures. It is also complicated by the diversity of Indian marriage customs and by the possibility that Indian marriage patterns have changed over time. Nevertheless, our analysis of survey data for two districts in south central India support the following conclusions: Marriage and childbearing have been and continue to be universal. The timing of marriage and childbearing, which showed only a small increase over a fairly long period of time, appears more recently to be undergoing some changes in the direction of longer delays. The significant rural-urban differences in marriage and fertility timing are at least partly the result of the greater impact of education on age at marriage, cohabitation, and first birth in urban areas than in rural areas. Observed characteristics such as religion and education explain more variation in women's marriage and fertility timing in urban areas than in rural areas (i.e., education seems to generate new social norms that tend to displace norms derived from tradition. The incidence of childhood marriages and two-stage marriages has been on the decline, causing the small but noticeable rise in age at marriage to exceed somewhat the increase in age at cohabitation. Age patterns of marriage in India do not closely resemble Western patterns, although age patterns of cohabitation and first birth do. And socioeconomic variables appear to explain less variation in marriage and fertility timing within local communities than across communities. Most important, the results highlight the need for more recent and richer data on marriage and fertility behavior in India. In particular, they strongly suggest that marriage patterns in India are now in the midst of major changes. This conclusion is similar to that reached by Caldwell, Reddy, and Caldwell (1983), who adopted a more qualitative approach to analyzing marriage change than ours, but whose observations are also more recent than ours. Through the collection and analysis of more recent and geographically widespread data, we can begin to assess more fully the nature and magnitude of the demographic changes under way and speculate on their implications for population growth, economic development, and the formulation of public policy in India.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3803653

  4. Reproductive health decision making among Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Women’s reproductive health decision-making and choices, including engaging in sexual intercourse and condom use, are essential for good reproductive health. However, issues concerning sexual intercourse and condom use are shrouded in secrecy in many sub-Saharan African countries. This study investigates factors that affect decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom among women aged 15–49. Method A nationally representative sample (N = 3124) data collected in the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study the association between women’s economic and socio-demographic characteristics and their decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom. Results One out of five women reported that they could not refuse their partners’ request for sexual intercourse while one out of four indicated that they could not demand the use of condoms by their partners. Women aged 35–49 were more likely to make decision on engaging in sexual intercourse (OR?=?1.35) compared to those aged 15–24. Furthermore, the higher a woman’s education, the more likely that she would make decision regarding condom use. Also, if a woman had primary (OR?=?1.37) or secondary (OR?=?1.55) education, she is more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse compared to a woman who had no formal education. Compared to women in the Greater Accra region (the capital city region), women in the Western region (OR?=?2.10), Central region (OR?=?2.35), Brong Ahafo (OR?=?1.70), Upper East (OR?=?7.71) and Upper West (OR?=?3.56) were more likely to make decision regarding the use of condom. Women who were in the richest, rich and middle wealth index categories were more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse as well as condom use compared to the poorest. Conclusion Interventions and policies geared at empowering women to take charge of their reproductive health should focus particularly on women from less wealthy backgrounds and those with low educational attainments. PMID:24628727

  5. Association between dietary fats and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative123

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Niyati; Voland, Rickie P.; Moeller, Suzen M.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Chappell, Richard J.; Wallace, Robert B.; Mares, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Evaluating relationships of amount and type of dietary fat to intermediate AMD. Design Women, ages 50–79, from the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study, with high and low lutein intakes, were recruited into the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS). Fat intake in 1994–1998 was estimated using food frequency questionnaires. AMD was assessed in 2001–2004 from stereoscopic fundus photographs. Results Intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (?-6 and ?-3 PUFA), which were highly correlated (r=0.8), were associated with higher prevalence of intermediate AMD. Significant age-interactions were noted for associations with total fat, monounsaturated and saturated fat (p= 0.01–0.02). In women <75 years (n=1,325), diets high in total fat (% energy) were associated with increased prevalence of AMD (OR (95% CI) for quintile five vs. one = 1.73 (1.02–2.7; p-trend=0.10); the association was reversed in older women. Monounsaturated fat (MUFA) intakes in quintiles three through five vs. one were associated with lower prevalence of AMD in the whole population. Conclusions Overall associations of dietary fat to AMD differed by type of fat and, often, by age in this cohort. These findings contribute insights about sources of inconsistencies of fat to AMD in epidemiological studies. PMID:19901214

  6. Preconception health of reproductive aged women of the Mississippi River delta.

    PubMed

    Bish, Connie L; Farr, Sherry; Johnson, Dick; McAnally, Ron

    2012-12-01

    Optimal preconception health (PCH) may improve maternal and infant outcomes, priority issues in Mississippi (MS). Our study objective was to compare the PCH of women in the MS Delta to other regions. We analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2005, 2007, and 2009, and limited analyses to 171,612 non-pregnant black and white women 18-44 years of age. Region was defined as 14 MS Delta counties (MS Delta), remainder of MS (MS non-Delta), Delta states (LA, AR, TN), and non-Delta US states. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) to assess associations between region and 16 indicators of optimal PCH, controlling for demographic characteristics. Healthy PCH factors such as consuming ?5 fruits and vegetables daily and normal body mass index (18.5 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2)), respectively, were more prevalent in the MS non-Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.7 and aPR = 1.2; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.4), non-MS Delta (aPR = 1.5; 95 % CI: 1.2,2.0 and aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.5) and non-Delta states (aPR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.3,2.2 and aPR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.2,1.6) compared to the MS Delta. Physical activity levels were higher among non-Delta US states compared to the MS Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.4). Household income and race confounded the associations between region and PCH. Reproductive aged women in the MS Delta had poorer PCH, particularly for physical activity and nutrition, than women in other regions. MS Delta service providers and public health practitioners should consider implementing or enhancing lifestyle, nutrition, and physical activity interventions, with a special focus on reducing income-based and racial disparities. PMID:23099798

  7. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  8. Long Term Effects on Cognitive Function of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Prescribed to Women Aged 50–55 Years

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Leng, Iris; Manson, JoAnn E.; Brown, Candice M.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Vaughan, Leslie; Robinson, Jennifer; Rapp, Stephen R.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Lane, Dorothy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Li, Wenjun; Resnick, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) may adversely affect older women’s cognitive function. It is not known whether this extends to younger women. Methods 1,326 postmenopausal women, who had begun treatment in two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hormone therapy when aged 50–55 years, were assessed with an annual telephone-administered cognitive battery that included measures of global (primary outcome) and domain-specific cognitive functions (verbal memory, attention, executive function, verbal fluency, and working memory). The clinical trials in which they participated had compared 0.625 mg CEE with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) over an average of 7.0 years. Cognitive testing was conducted an average of 7.2 years following the end of the trials, when women had mean age 67.2 years, and repeated one year later. Results Global cognitive function scores from women who had been assigned to CEE-based therapies were similar to those from women assigned to placebo: mean [95% confidence interval] intervention effect of 0.02 [?0.08,0.12]standard deviation units (p=0.66). Similarly, no overall differences were found for any individual cognitive domain (all p>0.15). Pre-specified subgroup analyses found some evidence that CEE-based therapies may have adversely affected verbal fluency among women who had prior hysterectomy or prior use of hormone therapy: mean treatment effects of ?0.17 [?0.33, ?0.02] and ?0.25 [?0.42, ?0.08], respectively, however this may be a chance finding. We are not able to address whether initiating hormone therapy during the menopause and maintaining therapy until any symptoms are passed affects cognitive function, either in the short or longer term. Conclusions CEE-based therapies produced no overall sustained benefit or risk to cognitive function when administered to postmenopausal women aged 50–55 years. PMID:23797469

  9. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ?3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week. PMID:24959115

  10. An Intervention Study on Screening for Breast Cancer among Single African-American Women Aged 65 and Older

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kangmin Zhu; Sandra Hunter; Louis J. Bernard; Kathleen Payne-Wilks; Chanel L. Roland; Lloyd C. Elam; Ziding Feng; Robert S. Levine

    2002-01-01

    Background. Older African-American women with single marital status are least likely to use screening procedures. This study aimed to evaluate a breast screening intervention program conducted in this population.Methods. Ten public housing complexes were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. African-American women aged 65 and over were recruited into the study if they were widowed, divorced,

  11. Familiality and partitioning the variability of femoral bone mineral density in women of child-bearing age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MaryFran R. Sowers; Michael Boehnke; Mary L. Jannausch; Mary Crutchfield; Genie Corton; Trudy L. Burns

    1992-01-01

    Summary The contributions of polygenic loci and environmental factors to femoral bone mineral density (BMD in g\\/cm2) variability were estimated in modified family sets consisting of women of child-bearing age. Femoral BMDs were measured in 535 women who were members of 137 family sets consisting minimally of an index, her sister, and unrelated female control. The family set could also

  12. Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the Bent-Knee Push-Up for College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Heather M.; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    The revised push-up test has been found to have good validity but it produces many zero scores for women. Maybe there should be an alternative to the revised push-up test for college-age women. The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity, reliability, and validity for the bent-knee push-up test (executed on hands and knees) for…

  13. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Intention to Vaccinate Against the Human Papillomavirus in College-Age Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kymberley Bennett; Juli A. Buchanan; Alisha D. Adams

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social-cognitive predictors of college-age women's intentions to obtain the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) as theoretical guides. Questionnaire data were collected from 143 women at a Midwestern university. Among the HBM variables, perceived susceptibility to HPV, perceived benefits of the vaccine, and self-efficacy to obtain the

  14. The impact of urinary stress incontinence in young and middle-age women practising recreational sports activity: an epidemiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Salvatore; M Serati; R Laterza; S Uccella; M Torella; P-F Bolis

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To evaluate the prevalence of urinary stress incontinence (USI) in menstruating women practising recreational sports activity, to detect specific sports with a stronger association with urinary incontinence (UI) and to evaluate risk factors possibly related to this condition.Design:Epidemiological study.Setting:Non-competitive sports organisations in the province of Varese, Italy.Participants:679 women of fertile age, practising recreational sports activity.Intervention:Anonymous questionnaire on UI.Main outcome measurements:The

  15. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n?=?28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n?=?26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led intervention will achieve better weight control in pre-menopausal women than a self-directed intervention. The results will add to the scant body of literature on obesity prevention methods at an under-researched high-risk life stage, and inform the development of population-based interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000064909 PMID:24156558

  16. Please cite this article in press as: Nunnemann, S. et al., Accelerated aging of the putamen in men but not in women, Neurobiol Aging (2007), doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2007.05.016

    E-print Network

    Gaser, Christian

    to women, men showed accelerated age-related gray matter (GM) loss in the posterior putamen. Our data may cortical and subcortical areas negatively correlates with age (Good et al., 2001b; Smith et al., 2006; Taki., 2000). For example, Xu et al. reported significantly more brain atrophy with aging in men than in women

  17. Personal and environmental factors associated with physical inactivity among different racial-ethnic groups of U.S. middle-aged and older-aged women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abby C. King; Cynthia Castro; Sara Wilcox; Amy A. Eyler; James F. Sallis; Ross C. Brownson

    2000-01-01

    Personal, program-based, and environmental barriers to physical activity were explored among a U.S. population-derived sample of 2,912 women 40 years of age and older. Factors significantly associated with inactivity included American Indian ethnicity, older age, less education, lack of energy, lack of hills in one's neighborhood, absence of enjoyable scenery, and infrequent observation of others exercising in one's neighborhood. For

  18. Assessment of menopausal symptoms using modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) among middle age women in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Objectives To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). Methods By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain) commonly associated with menopause. Results The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years). The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%); physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%); and sleeping problems (52.2%). Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%); irritability (37.9%); dryness of vagina (37.9%); anxiety (36.5%); depressive mood (32.6%). Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%); bladder problem (13.8%) and heart discomfort (18.3%). Perimenopausal women (n = 141) experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82) and postmenopausal (n = 133) women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women. Conclusions The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women. PMID:20175928

  19. Body mass index of married Bangladeshi women: trends and association with socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M G; Bharati, P; Aik, Saw; Lestrel, Pete E; Abeer, Almasri; Kamarul, T

    2012-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a good indicator of nutritional status in a population. In underdeveloped countries like Bangladesh, this indicator provides a method that can assist intervention to help eradicate many preventable diseases. This study aimed to report on changes in the BMI of married Bangladeshi women who were born in the past three decades and its association with socio-demographic factors. Data for 10,115 married and currently non-pregnant Bangladeshi women were extracted from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). The age range of the sample was 15-49 years. The mean BMI was 20.85 ± 3.66 kg/m(2), and a decreasing tendency in BMI was found among birth year cohorts from 1972 to 1992. It was found that the proportion of underweight females has been increasing in those born during the last 20 years of the study period (1972 to 1992). Body mass index increased with increasing age, education level of the woman and her husband, wealth index, age at first marriage and age at first delivery, and decreased with increasing number of ever-born children. Lower BMI was especially pronounced among women who were living in rural areas, non-Muslims, employed women, women not living with their husbands (separated) or those who had delivered at home or non-Caesarean delivery. PMID:22340969

  20. Factors associated with the age of the onset of diabetes in women aged 50?years or more: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Machado, Vanessa S S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Sousa, Maria H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors associated with the onset of diabetes in women aged more than 49?years. Design and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using self-reports with 622 women. The dependent variable was the age of occurrence of diabetes using the life table method. Cox multiple regression models were adjusted to analyse the onset of diabetes according to predictor variables. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors were evaluated. Results Of the 622 women interviewed, 22.7% had diabetes. The mean age at onset was 56?years. The factors associated with the age of occurrence of diabetes were self-rated health (very good, good) (coefficient=?0.792; SE of the coefficient=0.215; p=0.0001), more than two individuals living in the household (coefficient=0.656, SE of the coefficient=0.223; p=0.003), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at 20–30?years of age (coefficient= 0.056, SE of the coefficient=0.023; p=0.014). Conclusions Self-rated health considered good or very good was associated with a higher rate of survival without diabetes. Sharing a home with two or more other people and a weight increase at 20–30?years of age was associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25428628

  1. Prevention of Eating Disorders in At-risk College-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C. Barr; Bryson, Susan; Luce, Kristine H.; Cunning, Darby; Celio, Angela; Abascal, Liana B.; Rockwell, Roxanne; Dev, Pavarti; Winzelberg, Andrew J.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2013-01-01

    Context Eating disorders, an important health problem among college-age women, may be preventable, given that modifiable risk factors for eating disorders have been identified and interventions have been evaluated to reduce these risk factors. Objective To determine if an Internet-based psychosocial intervention can prevent the onset of eating disorders (EDs) in young women at risk for developing EDs. Setting and Participants College-age women in San Diego and the San Francisco Bay Area. Women with high weight and shape concerns were recruited via campus e-mails, posters and mass media. Six hundred thirty-seven eligible participants were identified, of whom 157 were excluded, for a total sample of 480. Recruitment occurred between 11/13/00 and 10/10/03. Design and Intervention A randomized controlled trial of an eight-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (Student Bodies; SB) that included a moderated online discussion group. Participants were followed for up to three years. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measure was time to onset of a subclinical or clinical ED. Secondary measures included change in Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) scores, Global EDE-Q, EDI Drive for Thinness, EDI Bulimia, and depressed mood. Moderators of outcome were examined. Results There was a significant reduction in WCS scores in the SB intervention group compared to the control group at post intervention (p < 0.001), one year (p < 0.001) and two years (p <0.001). The slope for reducing WCS was significantly greater in the treatment compared to the control group (p = 0.023). Over the course of follow-up, 43 participants developed subclinical or clinical EDs. While there was no overall significant difference in onset of EDs between intervention and control groups, the intervention significantly reduced the onset of EDs in two subgroups identified through moderator analyses: 1) participants with an elevated body mass index (BMI ? 25) at baseline; and 2) at one site, participants with baseline compensatory behaviors (e.g. self-induced vomiting, laxative use, diuretic use, diet pill use, driven exercise). No intervention participant with an elevated baseline BMI developed an ED, while the rates of onset of ED in the comparable BMI control group (based on survival analysis) were 4.7% at one year and 11.9% at two years (CI = 2.7%–21.1%). In the BMI ? 25 subgroup, the cumulative survival incidence was significantly lower at two years for the intervention compared to the control group (CI = 0% for intervention; 2.7% – 21.1% for control). For the San Francisco Bay Area site sample with baseline compensatory behaviors, 4% of participants in the intervention group developed EDs at one year and 14.4% by two years. Rates for the comparable control group were 16% and 30.4%, respectively. Conclusions Among college-age women with high weight and shape concerns, an eight-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention can significantly reduce weight and shape concerns for up to two years and decrease risk for the onset of EDs, at least in some high-risk groups. This is the first study to show that EDs can be prevented in high risk groups. PMID:16894064

  2. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women.

    PubMed

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G G; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  3. Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age Estonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  4. Multiple sclerosis; a disease of reproductive-aged women and the dilemma involving contraceptive methods

    PubMed Central

    Türky?lmaz, Esengül; Y?ld?r?m, Melahat; Av?ar, Ay?e Filiz Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nerves system. Because the disease predominantly affects women of reproductive ages, having knowledge about contraception options for MS patients can make clinicians provide better counseling. Although most contraceptive methods are generally accepted as safe and effective in MS patients, recent studies have raised questions about their potential adverse effects on the disease. The use of contraceptive methods to avoid unintended pregnancies is crucial in MS patients, particularly during the relapse phase of the disease or the time when the disease is not completely under control. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. Providing appropriate contraception options to multiple sclerosis patients will be one of the most challenging issues for clinicians to deal with. Recent studies have raised questions that the use of hormonal contraceptives may at least partly contribute to the rise in incidence of MS in women. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. PMID:25788851

  5. Evaluation of corneal thickness alterations during menstrual cycle in productive age women

    PubMed Central

    Ghahfarokhi, Negar Amiri; Vaseghi, Ali; Ghahfarokhi, Negin Amiri; Ghoreishi, Mohammad; Peyman, Alireza; Dehghani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the change in corneal thickness through different phases of menstrual cycle in women who are in their productive age. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy women with normal past medical history were enrolled in this prospective study. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter three times during a menstrual cycle: Beginning of the cycle (days 1-3), ovulation time, and at the end of cycle (days 27-32). We confirmed ovulation time with determining a peak in luteinizing hormone in urine. To avoid the diurnal variation of the corneal thickness which is well recognized, we checked all our subjects at 10 in the morning. Results: In days 1 to 3 of menstruation, mean corneal thickness was 541.40±11.36 and 540.82±11.70 microns for left and right eyes respectively. At ovulation time the mean thickness changed to 556.50±7.11 and 555.98±7.26 microns for left and right eyes respectively, and at the end of the cycle, the corneal thickness turned in to 536.38±12.83 and 535.48±13.08 microns for left and right eyes respectively. The difference of corneal thickness was statistically significant relating to the different stages of menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The thickest cornea during the menstruation cycle is achieved at the ovulation time and the thinnest at the end of the cycle and this should be taken in to account whilst plan to do a corneal refractive surgery. PMID:25686059

  6. Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Lisa M.; Dalal, Parchayi

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To assess the most effective recruitment strategies for an acupuncture clinical trial of reproductive age women. Design The underlying study is an acupuncture randomized clinical trial for an ovulatory disorder that affects approximately 6.5% of reproductive age women (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). Study participation involved 2 months of intervention and 3 months of follow-up with US$170 compensation. Success of each recruitment method used during the first 37 study months was analyzed. Setting Clinical trial in the Dept. of OB/GYN at the University of Virginia, US. The original geographic residency target was an 80 mile radius around a college town in Virginia (population 155,000), and was expanded to the state capital (population 850,000) in recruitment year 2. Main outcome measures Number of study inquiries (phone calls or emails) over time and by recruitment source. Results In the first 37 months of recruitment (Jan 2006 – Jan 2009), there were 800 study inquiries (582 by phone, 218 by email), of which 749 were screened via telephone questionnaire. The most successful recruitment methods were flyers (28% of inquiries and 26 % of participants) and direct mailing to targeted zip codes (26% and 27%, respectively). The direct mailing cost US$110/inquiry, while the flyers cost less than US$300 in total. Study inquiries were least likely in May and November. Almost all prospective participants (94%) were acupuncture-naïve. Conclusions Posters/flyers and direct mailings proved to be the most successful recruitment methods for this CAM study. Active recruitment with multiple methods was needed for continual enrollment. PMID:19632551

  7. Access and Use of Interventions to Prevent and Treat Malaria among Pregnant Women in Kenya and Mali: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women’s access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Methods Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15–49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data. Results Women and men’s perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Conclusion Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable to the women they serve. PMID:25798847

  8. Carotid artery remodeling in middle-aged women with the metabolic syndrome (from the "Progetto ATENA" study).

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; De Michele, Mario; Bond, M Gene; Sacchetti, Lucia; Fortunato, Giuliana; Salvatore, Francesco; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Rubba, Paolo

    2005-10-15

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is rapidly growing, especially in women. This analysis was designed to evaluate whether preclinical vascular changes are detectable in middle-aged women with the MS. Five thousand sixty-two women participated in a prospective study of the causes of cardiovascular disease in women (the "Progetto Atena" study). Three hundred ten women underwent high-resolution B-mode ultrasound examinations. Common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and internal and external diameters were measured using a computerized system. The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to classify participants as having the MS. Seventy-three subjects fulfilled the criteria for the MS. Women with the MS were slightly older and had greater serum total cholesterol and higher levels of serum insulin and lipid peroxidation compared with women without the MS. The group with the MS had a greater mean IMT (1.24 +/- 0.27 vs 1.10 +/- 0.20 mm, p <0.0001) and larger mean values for diameters (7.9 +/- 1.0 vs 7.4 +/- 0.7 mm, p <0.0001 for external diameter; 6.1 +/- 0.8 vs 5.8 +/- 0.6 mm, p <0.005 for internal diameter). The average increase in wall thickness was greater than in vessel diameter, as evidenced by the greater relative wall thickness in women with the MS (0.41 +/- 0.09 vs 0.38 +/- 0.07, p <0.005). In conclusion, carotid structural changes are noninvasively detectable in asymptomatic middle-aged women with the MS. These modifications indicate a dynamic process of arterial remodeling by which the vascular system responds to atherosclerotic stimuli. PMID:16214457

  9. Serologic Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian Women of Child Bearing Age and Effects of Social and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarman; Munawwar, Arshi; Rao, Sugandhi; Mehta, Sanjay; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare. Aim To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted. Results Most women were in the 18–25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26–30 years (28.2%) and 31–35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18–25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers. Conclusions This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737–176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24675656

  10. Young age: an independent risk factor for disease-free survival in women with operable breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wonshik; Kim, Seok Won; Ae Park, In; Kang, Daehee; Kim, Sung-Won; Youn, Yeo-Kyu; Oh, Seung Keun; Choe, Kuk Jin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2004-01-01

    Background The incidence of breast cancer in young women (age < 35) is low. The biology of the disease in this age group is poorly understood, and there are conflicting data regarding the prognosis for these women compared to older patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 2040 consecutive primary invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgical procedures at our institution between 1990 and 1999. The younger age group was defined as patients aged <35 years at the time of diagnosis. The clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between younger and older age groups. Results A total of 256 (12.5%) patients were aged <35. There was a significantly higher incidence of nuclear grade 3 and medullary histological-type tumors in younger patients compared to older patients. Axillary lymph node status, T stage, histological grade, c-erbB2 expression and estrogen receptor status did not differ significantly between the two age groups. Younger patients had a greater probability of recurrence and death at all time periods. Although there was no significant difference in disease-free survival between the two age groups in lymph node-negative patients, the younger group showed worse prognosis among lymph node-positive patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, young age remained a significant predictor of recurrence (p = 0.010). Conclusion Young age (<35) is an independent risk factor for relapse in operable breast cancer patients. PMID:15546499

  11. Contemporary and historical evidence to suggest that women's preference for age at birth of first child remains consistent across time.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, Colin A; Brewer, Gayle; Lewis, Hannah; Mills, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Women's ability to reproduce is restricted by menarche and menopause. First children are, however, not typically born until some years after the onset of puberty. Other factors therefore contribute towards this delay. In this context, women's hips do not reach full adult form until they are in their mid-20s. Therefore, physiological and morphological factors appear to determine an optimum age-range for reproduction. The following studies were conducted in order to investigate this hypothesis. Study 1 asked nulliparous women questions about ages at which particular life events related to reproduction should ideally occur. This revealed their preferred age at birth of first child to be approximately 27 years old. Study 2 replicated these findings and further showed that women with children actually had their first child at a very similar age (27.93 [±0.79]). Findings from Study 3 were also remarkably consistent (28.15 [±0.39]). Study 4 examined the 1901 U.K. Census record and incorporated an analysis of the influence of wealth. Middle class women were on average 24.88 (±0.22) years old at the birth of their first child. Poor women were on average 23.50 (±0.20) years old. These figures at least approximate to findings from Studies 1-3, which is noteworthy given that modern contraceptive methods were not widely available at the time. It is concluded that female strategies to delay giving birth to their first child until they are of an age that approaches or coincides with their full hip maturation are enduring across time. PMID:24696388

  12. Biomarkers of vascular function in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women of similar age: effect of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Seidelin, Kaare; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Overby, Nickie Neumann; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function; however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched premenopausal and postmenopausal women before and after 12 wk of exercise training. Thirteen premenopausal and 10 recently postmenopausal [1.6 ± 0.3 (means ± SE) years after final menstrual period] women only separated by 3 yr (48 ± 1 vs. 51 ± 1 yr) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the postmenopausal women compared with the premenopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), as well as plasma and skeletal muscle endothelin-1. The vasodilator prostacyclin tended (P = 0.061) to be higher in plasma with training in the postmenopausal women only. These findings demonstrate that already within the first years after menopause, several biomarkers of vascular function are adversely altered, indicating that these biomarker changes are more related to hormonal changes than aging. Exercise training appears to have a positive impact on vascular function, as indicated by a marked improvement in the biomarker profile, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:24477543

  13. Weight loss readiness in middle-aged women: psychosocial predictors of success for behavioral weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda B; Cussler, Ellen C; Martin, Catherine J; Metcalfe, Lauve L; Finkenthal, Nuris R; Blew, Rob M; Sardinha, Luis B; Lohman, Timothy G

    2002-12-01

    Accurate prediction of weight loss success and failure has eluded researchers for many years. Thus, we administered a comprehensive psychometric battery before a 4-month lifestyle behavioral weight reduction program and analyzed weight changes during that period to identify baseline characteristics of successful and unsuccessful participants, among 112 overweight and obese middle-aged women (age, 47.8 +/- 4.4 years; BMI, 31.4 +/- 3.9 kg/m2). Mean weight and percentage fat losses among the 89 completers were -5.4 kg and -3.4%, respectively (p < .001). A higher number of recent dieting attempts and recent weight loss, more stringent weight outcome evaluations, a higher perceived negative impact of weight on quality of life, lower self-motivation, higher body size dissatisfaction, and lower self-esteem were associated with less weight loss and significantly distinguished responders from nonresponders among all participants. These findings are discussed as to their usefulness (i) to screen individuals before treatment, (ii) to provide a better match between interventions to participants, and (iii) to build a weight loss readiness questionnaire. PMID:12462956

  14. Impact of Reproductive Status and Age on Response of Depressed Women to Cognitive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Minhajuddin, Abu; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Previous research suggests that reproductive hormones are potential affective modulators in mood disorders and may influence response to antidepressant medications. To our knowledge, there are no data on relationships between hormonal status and response to psychotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods At two sites, female outpatients (n=353), aged 18–70, with recurrent MDD received 12–14 weeks of cognitive therapy (CT). Menopausal status and age were based on self-report. In the parent study, nonresponse to therapy was defined as persistence of a major depressive episode (MDE) as defined by the DSM-IV or a final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17-Item (HRSD17) score of ? 12 or both. More traditional definitions of response (at least a 50% reduction in pretreatment HRSD17) and remission (a final HRSD17 ? 6) were also examined. Results Controlling for pretreatment HRSD17 scores, there were no significant differences found in the rates of response to CT or symptom status among premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Conclusions We found no support for the hypotheses that response to CT or the rates of change in depressive symptoms are moderated by reproductive status. The findings, however, are limited by the absence of early follicular phase serum sampling/analysis to estimate hormone levels and the reliance on self-report to establish menopausal status. These data motivate a full investigation of the effects of reproductive status on response to psychosocial interventions. PMID:23305218

  15. Acute right lower abdominal pain in women of reproductive age: Clinical clues

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study possible gynecological organ pathologies in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower abdominal pain in patients of reproductive age. METHODS: Following Clinical Trials Ethical Committee approval, the retrospective data consisting of physical examination and laboratory findings in 290 patients with sudden onset right lower abdominal pain who used the emergency surgery service between April 2009 and September 2013, and underwent surgery and general anesthesia with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were collated. RESULTS: Total data on 290 patients were obtained. Two hundred and twenty-four (77.2%) patients had acute appendicitis, whereas 29 (10%) had perforated appendicitis and 37 (12.8%) had gynecological organ pathologies. Of the latter, 21 (7.2%) had ovarian cyst rupture, 12 (4.2%) had corpus hemorrhagicum cyst rupture and 4 (1.4%) had adnexal torsion. Defense, Rovsing’s sign, increased body temperature and increased leukocyte count were found to be statistically significant in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and gynecological organ pathologies. CONCLUSION: Gynecological pathologies in women of reproductive age are misleading in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PMID:24744594

  16. Diabetic sexual dysfunction: A comparative study of 160 insulin treated diabetic men and women and an age-matched control group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Søren Buus Jensen

    1981-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a well-known complication in diabetic men, though only a few studies concern sexual dysfunction in diabetic women. Most previous studies are noncomparative. This study reports results from a comparative study of 160 consecutive insulin-treated diabetic outpatients (80 men and 80 women) and a control group (40 men and 40 women) seeing their general practitioner. The age range

  17. The Impact of a "Promotora" on Increasing Routine Chronic Disease Prevention among Women Aged 40 and Older at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jennifer B.; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Papenfuss, Mary; Fernandez, Maria Lourdes; Meister, Joel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2004-01-01

    A randomized controlled intervention tested the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program in increasing compliance with annual preventive exams among uninsured Hispanic women living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border area. During 1999-2000, household surveys were administered to women aged 40 and older. Uninsured women not receiving…

  18. Risk factors for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in women aged 20–44 years: the UK National Case–Control Study of Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Green; A Berrington de Gonzalez; S Sweetland; V Beral; C Chilvers; B Crossley; J Deacon; C Hermon; P Jha; D Mant; J Peto; M Pike; M P Vessey

    2003-01-01

    We report results on risk factors for invasive squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the cervix in women aged 20–44 years from the UK National Case–Control Study of Cervical Cancer, including 180 women with adenocarcinoma, 391 women with squamous cell carcinoma and 923 population controls. The risk of both squamous cell and adenocarcinoma was strongly related to the lifetime number of

  19. Latitude and ultraviolet radiation dose in the birthplace in relation to menarcheal age in a large cohort of French women

    PubMed Central

    Dossus, Laure; Kvaskoff, Marina; Bijon, Anne; Engel, Pierre; Verdebout, Jean; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Background Age at menarche is an important determinant of hormonal-related neoplasia and other chronic diseases. Spatial and temporal variations in age at menarche have been observed in industrialised countries and several environmental factors were reported to have an influence. Method We examined geographical variations in self-reported age at menarche and explored the effects of both latitude and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dose on the onset of menarche in 88 278 women from the French E3N cohort (aged 40–65 years at inclusion). Results The mean age at menarche was 12.8 years. After adjustment for potential confounders (birth cohort, prematurity, birth weight and length, father’s income index, body silhouette in childhood, food deprivation during World War II, population of birthplace, number of siblings, breastfeeding exposure and indoor exposure to passive smoking during childhood), latitude and UVR dose (annual or spring/summer) in county of birth were significantly associated with age at menarche (Ptrend < 0.0001). Women born at lower latitudes or in regions with higher annual or spring/summer UVR dose had a 3- to 4-month earlier menarche than women born at higher latitudes or in regions with lower UVR. On a continuous scale, a 1° increment in latitude resulted in a 0.04-year older age at menarche [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.05], whereas a 1-kJ/m2 increment in annual UVR dose resulted in a 0.42-year younger age at menarche (95% CI: ?0.55, ?0.29). Conclusion These data further suggest that light exposure in childhood may influence sexual maturation in women. PMID:23569194

  20. A case-control study of thyroid cancer in women under age 55 in Shanghai (People's Republic of China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Preston-Martin; Fan Jin; Marysia J. Duda; Wendy J. Mack

    1993-01-01

    A population-based interview study of 207 case-control pairs investigated reproductive, dietary, and other factors thought likely to increase thyroid cancer risk among women of reproductive age in Shanghai. Of particular interest were factors that might help explain the striking female over male excess in this age group. Risk was strongly associated with prior goiter or benign nodules (odds ratio [OR]=7.0,

  1. Bioidentical hormones, menopausal women, and the lure of the "natural" in U.S. anti-aging medicine.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jennifer R; Flatt, Michael A; Settersten, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    In 2002, the Women's Health Initiative, a large-scale study of the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women conducted in the United States, released results suggesting that use of postmenopausal HRT increased women's risks of stroke and breast cancer. In the years that followed, as rates of HRT prescription fell, another hormonal therapy rose in its wake: bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Anti-aging clinicians, the primary prescribers of BHRT, tout it as a safe and effective alternative to treat menopausal symptoms and, moreover, as a preventative therapy for age-related diseases and ailments. Through in-depth interviews with 31 U.S.-based anti-aging clinicians and 25 female anti-aging patients, we analyze attitudes towards BHRT. We illustrate how these attitudes reveal broader contemporary values, discourses, and discomforts with menopause, aging, and biomedicine. The attraction to and promise of BHRT is rooted in the idea that it is a "natural" therapy. BHRT is given both biomedical and embodied legitimacy by clinicians and patients because of its purported ability to become part of the body's "natural" processes. The normative assumption that "natural" is inherently "good" not only places BHRT beyond reproach, but transforms its use into a health benefit. The clinical approach of anti-aging providers also plays a role by validating patients' embodied experiences and offering a "holistic" solution to their symptoms, which anti-aging patients see as a striking contrast to their experiences with conventional biomedical health care. The perceived virtues of BHRT shed light on the rhetoric of anti-aging medicine and a deeply complicated relationship between conventional biomedicine, hormonal technologies, and women's bodies. PMID:25795991

  2. Intra- and inter-session reliability of vertical jump performance in healthy middle-aged and older men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimiliano Ditroilo; Roberta Forte; David McKeown; Colin Boreham; Giuseppe De Vito

    2011-01-01

    Despite its widespread use in performance assessment, the reliability of vertical jump in an ageing population has not been addressed properly. The aim of the present study was to assess intra- and inter-day reliability of countermovement jump in healthy middle-aged (55–65 years) and older (66–75 years) men and women. Eighty-two participants were recruited and asked to perform countermovement jumps on

  3. The Hordaland Women's Cohort: A prospective cohort study of incontinence, other urinary tract symptoms and related health issues in middle-aged women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Jahanlu; Samera Azeem Qureshi; Steinar Hunskaar

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent symptom in middle-aged women, but data on incidence is limited and rarely reported. In order to analyze incidence, remission, or development patterns of severity and types of UI, we have established a 15-year prospective cohort (1997–2012). METHODS: The Cohort is based on the national collection of health data gathered from county studies (CONOR).

  4. Marital Happiness and Sleep Disturbances in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N=2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single-item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4-items from the Women’s Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797

  5. Fertility Desires and Intentions of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R.; Hart, Trevor A.; Mohammed, Saira S.; Su, DeSheng; Ralph, Edward D.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Soje, Lena C.; Muchenje, Marvelous; Rachlis, Anita R.; Smaill, Fiona M.; Angel, Jonathan B.; Raboud, Janet M.; Silverman, Michael S.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Gough, Kevin; Yudin, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Improvements in life expectancy and quality of life for HIV-positive women coupled with reduced vertical transmission will likely lead numerous HIV-positive women to consider becoming pregnant. In order to clarify the demand, and aid with appropriate health services planning for this population, our study aims to assess the fertility desires and intentions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario, Canada. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study with recruitment stratified to match the geographic distribution of HIV-positive women of reproductive age (18–52) living in Ontario was carried out. Women were recruited from 38 sites between October 2007 and April 2009 and invited to complete a 189-item self-administered survey entitled “The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire” designed to assess fertility desires, intentions and actions. Logistic regression models were fit to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of significant predictors of fertility intentions. The median age of the 490 participating HIV-positive women was 38 (IQR, 32–43) and 61%, 52%, 47% and 74% were born outside of Canada, living in Toronto, of African ethnicity and currently on antiretroviral therapy, respectively. Of total respondents, 69% (95% CI, 64%–73%) desired to give birth and 57% (95% CI, 53%–62%) intended to give birth in the future. In the multivariable model, the significant predictors of fertility intentions were: younger age (age<40) (p<0.0001), African ethnicity (p<0.0001), living in Toronto (p?=?0.002), and a lower number of lifetime births (p?=?0.02). Conclusions/Significance The proportions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario desiring and intending pregnancy were higher than reported in earlier North American studies. Proportions were more similar to those reported from African populations. Healthcare providers and policy makers need to consider increasing services and support for pregnancy planning for HIV-positive women. This may be particularly significant in jurisdictions with high levels of African immigration. PMID:19997556

  6. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and lifestyle among women of childbearing age: a Danish cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, Kristina; Telén Andersen, Ane Birgitte; Nørgaard, Mette; Nielsen, Rikke Beck; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Larsen, Finn Breinholt; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) among Danish women of childbearing age according to lifestyle factors. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The Central Denmark Region. Participants 4234 women (71.5% of the invited women) aged 25–44?years who participated in a public health survey in 2006. Outcome measures Prevalence and prevalence ratios (PRs) of current and former SSRI use among women characterised by selected lifestyle factors. We obtained information on SSRI use through linkage to the Aarhus University Prescription Database covering all pharmacies in the region. Results Of the 4234 women in the study, 161 (3.8%) were current SSRI users, 60 (1.4%) were recent users, 223 (5.3%) were former users and 3790 (89.5%) were never users. Current use of SSRIs was more prevalent in obese women than in non-obese women (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.3), in current smokers compared with non-current smokers (PR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.2), in women who drank more than seven alcoholic drinks weekly compared with women who drank seven or fewer drinks weekly (PR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8) and in women with an unhealthy diet compared with women with a healthy diet (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.6). Prevalence of former use of SSRIs was similarly increased except in those with an unhealthy diet (PR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.7). SSRI use did not differ according to participation in regular physical activity. Conclusions Women with an unhealthy lifestyle were about 1.5-fold more likely to be current or former users of SSRIs than those with a healthy lifestyle. These findings may be useful for quantitative assessment of the contribution of lifestyle factors to uncontrolled confounding in studies of SSRI use in pregnancy. PMID:23903810

  7. Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to…

  8. Influences of player nationality, playing position, and height on relative age effects at women's under-17 FIFA World Cup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Romann; Jörg Fuchslocher

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young male soccer players who are born early in a cohort are overrepresented on elite soccer teams. Selection advantages such as this have been termed ‘relative age effects’ (RAEs). Few studies have examined RAEs in elite women's youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of RAEs in the Fédération

  9. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  10. Relationships between menopausal symptoms, depression, and exercise in middle-aged women: A cross-sectional survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngwhee Lee; Hwasoon Kim

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine the relationship between the severity of menopausal symptoms and depression in Korean women, 40–60 years of age, and to compare the severity of menopausal symptoms and depression between subjects who exercise regularly and subjects who do not exercise regularly.

  11. Trends in screening mammograms for women 50 years of age and older - behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-14

    To assess whether the media attention to breast cancer screening and the promotional efforts in 1987 were paralleled by increases in screening of women greater than or equal to 50 years of age, CDC analyzed data from 33 states that participated in the 1987 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

  12. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  13. Are Men Aging as Oaks and Women as Reeds? A Behavioral Hypothesis to Explain the Gender Paradox of French Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Balard, Frédéric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as “oaks,” seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as “reeds,” seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

  14. Socioeconomic differences in the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged men and women with subclinical atherosclerosis in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Rosvall; Per-Olof Östergren; Bo Hedblad; Sven-Olof Isacsson; Lars Janzon; Göran Berglund

    2006-01-01

    While the persistence of socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been recognized for many years, less is known about whether socioeconomic factors are of importance to CVD before symptoms of the disease appear. In this study the associations among educational level, occupational status and progression of atherosclerosis were investigated in 1016 Swedish middle-aged men and women with signs of

  15. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  16. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  17. USE OF COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY FOR OBTAINING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Commercial Telephone Directories to Obtain a Population-Based Sample for Mail Survey of Women of Reproductive Age Danelle T. Lobdella, Germaine M. Buckb, John M. Weinerc, Pauline Mendolaa aUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and ...

  18. The legacy of minimum legal drinking age law changes: Long-term effects on suicide and homicide deaths among women

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R.; Norberg, Karen E.; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Methods Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990–2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed which incorporated state and birth year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. Results In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.18, p=0.0003) and homicide (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.04, 1.25; p=0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Conclusions Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. PMID:22085045

  19. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed

    Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

  20. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

  1. Using commercial telephone directories to obtain a population-based sample for mail survey of women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Lobdell, Danelle T; Buck, Germaine M; Weiner, John M; Mendola, Pauline

    2003-07-01

    In the United States, sampling women of reproductive age from the general population for research purposes is a challenge. Even more difficult is conducting a population-based study of couples attempting pregnancy to assess fecundity and fertility or related impairments. To address the problem of obtaining representative samples from the population in order to study such health-related issues, a commercially and readily available CD-ROM telephone directory was used and tested as a sampling framework for studies aimed at enrolling gravid women aged 18-44 years. A self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) was mailed to a stratified random sample of 10 005 (3%) households in Erie County, NY, USA. Overall, 17% of the questionnaires were undeliverable despite updating all addresses with residential software before mailing. Thirteen per cent (n = 1089) of the households returned completed questionnaires, of which 35% (n = 377) were completed by women aged 18-44 years. Using 1990 census information for zip code, respondents were more likely to be white and to have higher median household incomes than non-respondents. Of the 377 women who completed the questionnaire, 79% had been pregnant at least once, 5% reported being unable to become pregnant, and 16% reporting never trying to become pregnant. Despite the overall low response to the SAQ, the sampling framework captured a diverse group of women of reproductive age who reported various fecundity and fertility outcomes. The use of low-cost commercially available software linked to census data for selecting samples of women or couples for reproductive and perinatal research may be possible; however, oversampling of households, use of incentives and follow-up of non-respondents is needed to ensure adequate sample sizes. PMID:12839542

  2. Factors influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women: a qualitative study to inform clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background About half of women decrease their regular exercise during middle age. Concurrently, they experience a reduction in basal metabolic rate and loss of lean muscle as they transition to menopause. The combined effects place these women at increased risk for body weight gain and associated co-morbidities. Further research is required to better assess their barriers to regular exercise and to develop more applied knowledge aimed to improve the applicability of clinical interventions aimed at this population. The main aim of this study was to identify enablers and barriers influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women who exercise. Methods An interpretive description qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. The two key questions were focused on planning to engage in physical activity and succeeding or planning to engage in physical activity and not succeeding. Inductive content analysis was used. Results Fifty-three women interviewed were aged 40–62 years and experiencing mild to moderate menopausal symptoms. Six broad themes influencing adhering to regular exercise were: routine, intrinsic motivation, biophysical issues, psychosocial commitments, environmental factors, and resources. Common sub-themes were identified as enabling factors: daily structure that incorporated physical activity (broad theme routine), anticipated positive feelings associated with physical activity (intrinsic), and accountability to others (psychosocial). Other common sub-themes identified as barriers were disruptions in daily structure (routine), competing demands (routine) and self-sacrifice (psychosocial). Conclusions The most common barrier middle-aged women describe as interfering with adhering to regular exercise was attributable to the demands of this life stage at home and with others. Lack of time and menopausal symptoms were not identified as the common barriers. To support women to adhere to regular exercise, healthcare professionals should consider a narrative approach to assessing barriers and focus on enablers to overcoming identified barriers. PMID:24666887

  3. Sexual Dimorphism of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Immunoreactive Neurons in the Infundibular Nucleus of Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hrabovszky, Erik; Molnár, Csilla S.; Sipos, Máté T.; Vida, Barbara; Ciofi, Philippe; Borsay, Beáta A.; Sarkadi, László; Herczeg, László; Bloom, Stephen R.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Dhillo, Waljit S.; Kalló, Imre; Liposits, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The secretory output of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons is critically influenced by peptidergic neurons synthesizing kisspeptins (KP) and neurokinin B (NKB) in the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (Inf). These cells mediate negative feedback effects of sex steroids on the reproductive axis. While negative feedback is lost in postmenopausal women, it is partly preserved by the sustained testosterone secretion in aged men. We hypothesized that the different reproductive physiology of aged men and women is reflected in morphological differences of KP and NKB neurons. This sexual dimorphism was studied with immunohistochemistry in hypothalamic sections of aged human male (?50?years) and female (>55?years) subjects. KP and NKB cell bodies of the Inf were larger in females. The number of KP cell bodies, the density of KP fibers, and the incidence of their contacts on GnRH neurons were much higher in aged women compared with men. The number of NKB cell bodies was only slightly higher in women and there was no sexual dimorphism in the regional density of NKB fibers and the incidence of their appositions onto GnRH cells. The incidences of NKB cell bodies, fibers, and appositions onto GnRH neurons exceeded several-fold those of KP-IR elements in men. More NKB than KP inputs to GnRH cells were also present in women. Immunofluorescent studies identified only partial overlap between KP and NKB axons. KP and NKB were colocalized in higher percentages of afferents to GnRH neurons in women compared with men. Most of these sex differences might be explained with the lack of estrogen negative feedback in aged women, whereas testosterone can continue to suppress KP, and to a lesser extent, NKB synthesis in men. Overall, sex differences in reproductive physiology of aged humans were reflected in the dramatic sexual dimorphism of the KP system, with significantly higher incidences of KP-IR neurons, fibers and inputs to GnRH neurons in aged females vs. males. PMID:22654828

  4. Sexual dimorphism of kisspeptin and neurokinin B immunoreactive neurons in the infundibular nucleus of aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Hrabovszky, Erik; Molnár, Csilla S; Sipos, Máté T; Vida, Barbara; Ciofi, Philippe; Borsay, Beáta A; Sarkadi, László; Herczeg, László; Bloom, Stephen R; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Dhillo, Waljit S; Kalló, Imre; Liposits, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The secretory output of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons is critically influenced by peptidergic neurons synthesizing kisspeptins (KP) and neurokinin B (NKB) in the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (Inf). These cells mediate negative feedback effects of sex steroids on the reproductive axis. While negative feedback is lost in postmenopausal women, it is partly preserved by the sustained testosterone secretion in aged men. We hypothesized that the different reproductive physiology of aged men and women is reflected in morphological differences of KP and NKB neurons. This sexual dimorphism was studied with immunohistochemistry in hypothalamic sections of aged human male (?50?years) and female (>55?years) subjects. KP and NKB cell bodies of the Inf were larger in females. The number of KP cell bodies, the density of KP fibers, and the incidence of their contacts on GnRH neurons were much higher in aged women compared with men. The number of NKB cell bodies was only slightly higher in women and there was no sexual dimorphism in the regional density of NKB fibers and the incidence of their appositions onto GnRH cells. The incidences of NKB cell bodies, fibers, and appositions onto GnRH neurons exceeded several-fold those of KP-IR elements in men. More NKB than KP inputs to GnRH cells were also present in women. Immunofluorescent studies identified only partial overlap between KP and NKB axons. KP and NKB were colocalized in higher percentages of afferents to GnRH neurons in women compared with men. Most of these sex differences might be explained with the lack of estrogen negative feedback in aged women, whereas testosterone can continue to suppress KP, and to a lesser extent, NKB synthesis in men. Overall, sex differences in reproductive physiology of aged humans were reflected in the dramatic sexual dimorphism of the KP system, with significantly higher incidences of KP-IR neurons, fibers and inputs to GnRH neurons in aged females vs. males. PMID:22654828

  5. Food consumption patterns and associated factors among Vietnamese women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Adequate nutrient intakes among women of reproductive age (WRA) are important determinants of maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. However, data on dietary intake for WRA in Vietnam are lacking. This paper aimed to examine the adequacy and determinants of energy and macronutrient intakes among WRA enrolled in a study of preconceptual micronutrient supplementation (PRECONCEPT) being conducted in 20 rural communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. Methods Dietary intakes were determined for 4983 WRA who participated in the baseline survey using a previously validated 107-item (semi-quantitative) food-frequency questionnaire that was administered by trained field workers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with energy and macronutrient intakes. Results A disproportionate number of energy came from starches, primarily rice. Carbohydrate, fat and protein constituted 65.6%, 19.5% and 14.8% of total energy, respectively. Fat intake was below recommended levels in 56.5% of respondents, but carbohydrate intakes were above recommended level in 54.6%. Only 0.1% and 5.2% of WRA achieved adequate intake of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Multivariate linear regression revealed that low education, low socioeconomic status, and food insecurity were significant predictors of reduced total energy intake, reduced energy from protein and fat, and greater energy from carbohydrates. Logistic regression confirmed that inadequate macronutrient intake was more common among the poor, food insecure, and less educated. Conclusions Imbalanced dietary intakes among underprivileged women reflect lack of dietary diversity. Nutrition programs should be linked with social development, poverty reduction, education programs and behavior change counseling in order to improve the nutritional status of WRA in Vietnam. PMID:24028650

  6. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Abdool Karim, S. S.; Harrison, A.; Lurie, M.; Colvin, M.; Connolly, C.; Sturm, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored. PMID:10063657

  7. Use of emergency department services by women victims of violence in Lazio region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is a significant health problem and a hidden phenomenon, in Italy that about 31% of the women have been victims of violence once in life. Aims of this study are to describe characteristics of women victims of violence (VV) attending the EDs in the Lazio region in 2008 and to illustrate the frequency and characteristics of previous ED visits. Methods Using the Emergency Information System, visits of women, (15–49 years), in the 60 EDs, for a violent trauma have been analysed. For each VV identified, we considered the last episode and searched for ED attendances in a six year period (2003–08) in order to identify other visits. We performed descriptive analyses of socio-demographic and clinical factors of VV and we analyzed the impact previous ED visits. We compared ED utilization of women VV with a random sample of women with the same age distribution who gave birth in 2008. Results In 2008, 7,725 ED attendances of women VV were found (1.1% of the ED visits) corresponding to 6,936 women (prevalence?=?52.0x10,000). The mean number of ED visits for each woman in five years was 5.0 (1–190). Prevalent diagnoses were contusions (45.8%), neurotic disorders (5.4%) complications of medical care (6.3%). The women were young, approximately 70% were residents in Rome or the surrounding areas. Foreign women were three times more likely to visit the ED for intentional injuries than were Italian women (114.1 vs 44.4 per 10.000). Conclusions This study shows high prevalence of violence against women in Lazio region, Italy. Most of the women have been visited by the ED several times before the violent episode, often with traumas. ED medical and nursing staff should be prepared and trained to successfully manage victims of violence. PMID:23870135

  8. Cognitive Function and Fine Motor Speed in Older Women with Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael E.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Coker, Laura H.; Williamson, Jeff; Naughton, Michelle; Resnick, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We sought to determine if type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was associated with accelerated decline in domain-specific measures of cognitive function and fine motor speed. Methods Women aged 65–80 years who were enrolled in a clinical trial of postmenopausal hormone therapy were grouped as having T2DM (n=179) or not (n=1984) and followed for an average of 5 years with annual standardized assessments of domain-specific cognitive function. Mean patterns of cognitive measures over time were contrasted between groups using general linear models and Wald tests, with varying levels of covariate adjustment. The influences of age at onset, use of oral medications, and use of insulin were also examined. Results T2DM was associated with mean deficits of 0.2–0.4 standard deviations (SD) across follow-up in most cognitive domains. Consistent evidence that rates of decline were accelerated among women with T2DM was evident only for verbal knowledge and verbal memory (p<0.05). Decrements in fine motor speed, but no measure of cognitive function, were greater for women with earlier onset T2DM. Use of oral diabetes medications was associated with better relative cognitive function. Conclusions In these women, T2DM was associated with cognitive deficits in most domains. Relative deficits in verbal knowledge and verbal memory may continue to increase after deficits in other domains have stabilized. Relative deficits in fine motor speed may be greater among women with earlier onsets of T2DM. Use of insulin, which may reflect greater T2DM severity, was associated with relatively greater cognitive deficits. PMID:21819251

  9. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

  10. Gender Gap in Coronary Artery Disease: Comparison of the Extent, Severity and Risk Factors in Men and Women Aged 45–65 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hochner-Celnikier; O. Manor; O. Gotzman; H. Lotan; T. Chajek-Shaul

    2002-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to characterize coronary artery disease (CAD) and its risk factors among relatively young women, as compared to men in a similar age group. Confirmed cases of CAD were compared regarding their medical background, performance and outcome of coronary artery procedures, physical profile and lifestyle information. The study population included 179 women and 270 men aged 45–65

  11. Volumetric and Areal Bone Mineral Density Measures Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Men and Women: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Farhat; E. S. Strotmeyer; A. B. Newman; K. Sutton-Tyrrell; D. C. Bauer; T. Harris; K. C. Johnson; D. R. Taaffe; J. A. Cauley

    2006-01-01

    The associations of volumetric (vBMD) and areal (aBMD) bone mineral density measures with prevalent cardiovascular disease\\u000a (CVD) and subclinical peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were investigated in a cohort of older men and women enrolled in the\\u000a Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Participants were 3,075 well-functioning white and black men and women (42% black,\\u000a 51% women), aged 68–80 years. Total

  12. Views of Aging African American Women: Memories Within the Historical Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dena Shenk

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the generational experiences of older African American women using case studies of two women born in 1911. Through the telling of their life stories, these women recount their memories of their own lives. By viewing their life histories within the larger historical context, we gain a clearer understanding of their life experiences and their perspectives as older

  13. A Comparison of the Weights and Ages of Women and Men on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Lauren; Silverstein, Brett

    Eating disorders are more common among women than men, perhaps because of the present cultural emphasis on thinness for women. Television is one potential communicator of this thin standard of attractiveness. To assess how men and women are presented on television, 139 male characters and 82 female characters from 33 popular television shows were…

  14. Overseas sun exposure, nevus counts, and premature skin aging in young English women: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Higgins, Craig D; Abramsky, Tanya; Swanwick, Maureen A; Frazer, Jacqueline; Whitaker, Linda M; Blanshard, Margaret E; Bradshaw, John; Apps, John M; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    A large number of melanocytic nevi is the strongest known risk factor for melanoma in whites, but its relationship to sun exposure overseas among young white women living in temperate climates is unclear. A total of 754 white English women aged 18-46 years were recruited into a cross-sectional study in 1997-2000 to investigate the effect of ultraviolet exposures on numbers of nevi and atypical nevi, and on skin aging as measured by microtopography. Having ever holidayed in hotter countries was associated with a greater age- and phenotype-adjusted mean number of whole-body nevi (percent increase=74; 95% confidence interval: 24, 144; P=0.001), particularly for holidays taken at ages 18-29 years and for counts of the trunk and lower limbs. Having ever lived overseas was not associated with nevus counts, but was inversely associated with number of atypical nevi (P=0.02). Skin aging was not associated with residence or holidays abroad. The association of holidays overseas with an increased nevus count in young white women, which was stronger in the anatomical sites intermittently exposed to sunlight, supports the hypothesis that intermittent sun exposure is of relevance in the etiology of nevi and, hence, melanoma. The findings are of public health relevance given the growing popularity of foreign holidays. PMID:18615111

  15. Educational level, prevalence of hysterectomy, and age at amenorrhoea: a cross-sectional analysis of 9536 women from six population-based cohort studies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy prevalence has been shown to vary by education level. Hysterectomy influences age at amenorrhoea. The aim of this study was to examine these associations in Germany within population-based data sets. Methods Baseline assessments in six population-based cohorts took place from 1997 through 2006 and included 9,548 women aged 20–84 years. All studies assessed hysterectomy history, school and professional degrees. Degrees were categorized into three levels each. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Prevalences were higher in West Germany than East Germany, increased by age, and leveled off starting at 55–64 years. The age- and study-adjusted prevalence ratio (lowest versus highest school level) was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.28-5.30), 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.81), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80-1.28) for women aged 20–45, 45–64, and 65 and more years respectively. The estimated adjusted prevalence ratios per one unit decrement of the educational qualification score (range 1?=?lowest, 8?=?highest) were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02-1.64), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.12), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.03) for women aged 20–44, 45–64, and 65–84 years respectively. Age at amenorrhoea was on average 6.2 years lower (43.5 years versus 49.7 years) among women with a history of hysterectomy than those without. Conclusions Lower educational level was associated with a higher hysterectomy prevalence among women aged 20–64 years. Several mediators associated with educational level and hysterectomy including women’s disease risk, women’s treatment preference, and women’s access to uterus-preserving treatment may explain this association. At population level, hysterectomy decreases the age of amenorrhoea on average by 6.2 years. PMID:24433474

  16. Variation in Inflammatory Cytokine/Growth-Factor Genes and Mammographic Density in Premenopausal Women Aged 50–55

    PubMed Central

    Ozhand, Ali; Lee, Eunjung; Wu, Anna H.; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Akslen, Lars A.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Ursin, Giske

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) has been found to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Although data from twin studies suggest that MD has a strong genetic component, the exact genes involved remain to be identified. Alterations in stromal composition and the number of epithelial cells are the most predominant histopathological determinants of mammographic density. Interactions between the breast stroma and epithelium are critically important in the maturation and development of the mammary gland and the cross-talk between these cells are mediated by paracrine growth factors and cytokines. The potential impact of genetic variation in growth factors and cytokines on MD is largely unknown. Methods We investigated the association between 89 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 cytokine/growth-factor genes (FGFR2, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, TGFB1, TNF, VEGF, IL6) and percent MD in 301 premenopausal women (aged 50 to 55 years) participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated the suggestive associations in 216 premenopausal Singapore Chinese Women of the same age. Results We found statistically significant associations between 9 tagging SNPs in the IL6 gene and MD in Norwegian women; the effect ranged from 3–5% in MD per variant allele (p-values?=?0.02 to 0.0002). One SNP in the IL6 (rs10242595) significantly influenced MD in Singapore Chinese women. Conclusion Genetic variations in IL6 may be associated with MD and therefore may be an indicator of breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. PMID:23762340

  17. Young women's adolescent experiences of oral sex: relation of age of initiation to sexual motivation, sexual coercion, and psychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Fava, Nicole M; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y

    2012-10-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus and fellatio and sexual motives, experiences of sexual coercion, and indicators of psychological functioning. Age at cunnilingus initiation was unrelated to sexual coercion or psychological functioning; however it was related to engaging in sex for personal stimulation and gratification (personal drive motive) and to feel agentic, assertive, and skillful (power motive). Age at fellatio initiation was related to feelings of inferiority compared to others and a devaluing of the self (interpersonal sensitivity). Findings challenge the unilateral assumption that all adolescent sexual activity is negative and indicate the need for future research distinguishing between cunnilingus and fellatio. PMID:22546273

  18. Is Younger Really Safer? A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of Age-Disparate Relationships among Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women’s perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women’s perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive. PMID:24260585

  19. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. Methods: A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ?25 and ?30), waist circumference (WC; ?80 cm and ?88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ?35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. Results: The sensitivity of WC ?80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ?80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ?80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ?88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Conclusions: Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ?80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ?88 cm showed better validity than WC ?80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. PMID:25294689

  20. Improvement of the Vietnamese Diet for Women of Reproductive Age by Micronutrient Fortification of Staples Foods and Condiments

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Berger, Jacques; Le, Bach Mai; Pham, Van Thuy; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Cong Khan; Panagides, Dora; Rohner, Fabian; Wieringa, Frank; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Background A micronutrient survey carried out in 2010 among randomly selected Vietnamese women in reproductive age indicated that anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are still prevalent. The objective of this study was thus to analyze the dietary micronutrient intakes of these women, to select the food vehicles to be fortified and to calculate their contributions to meet the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for iron, zinc, vitamin A and folic acid. Main Findings Consumption data showed that the median intake was 38.4% of the RNI for iron, 61.1% for vitamin A and 91.8% for zinc. However, more than 50% of the women had daily zinc consumption below the RNI. Rice and vegetable oil were consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 320.4 g/capita/day and 8.6 g/capita/day respectively) by over 90% of the women, making them suitable vehicles for fortification. Based on consumption data, fortified vegetable oil could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 27.1% of the RNI and fortified rice could increase the intake of iron by 41.4% of the RNI, zinc by 15.5% and folate by 34.1%. Other food vehicles, such as fish and soy sauces and flavoring powders, consumed respectively by 63% and 90% of the population could contribute to increase micronutrient intakes if they are properly fortified and promoted. Wheat flower was consumed by 39% of the women and by less than 20% women from the lowest socioeconomic strata. Conclusion The fortification of edible vegetable oils with vitamin A and of rice with iron, zinc and folic acid are the most promising fortification strategies to increase micronutrient intakes of women in reproductive age in Vietnam. While rice fortification will be implemented, fortification of fish and soy sauces with iron, that has been proven to be effective, has to be supported and fortification of flavouring powders with micronutrients investigated. PMID:23226308

  1. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ? skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  2. Secular Trends in Menarcheal Age in India-Evidence from the Indian Human Development Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Tripathi, Niharika; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified. Methods We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15–49 years) in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey. Results The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77) in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85) among women born prior to 1955–1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67) among women born during late 1985–1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955–1964 (95% CI: 14.89–15.11) to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63–12.56) during 1985–1989. Conclusion The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women. PMID:25369507

  3. The Expansion of the Pulmonary Rib Cage during Breath Stacking Is Influenced by Age in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Barcelar, Jacqueline de Melo; Aliverti, Andrea; Rattes, Catarina; Ximenes, Maria Eduarda; Campos, Shirley Lima; Brandão, Daniella Cunha; Fregonezi, Guilherme; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze in obese women the acute effects of the breath stacking technique on thoraco-abdominal expansion. Design and Methods Nineteen obese women (BMI?30 kg/m2) were evaluated by anthropometry, spirometry and maximal respiratory muscle pressures and successively analyzed by Opto-Electronic Plethysmography and a Wright respirometer during quiet breathing and breath stacking maneuvers and compared with a group of 15 normal-weighted healthy women. The acute effects of the maneuvers were assessed in terms of total and compartmental chest wall volumes at baseline, end of the breath stacking maneuver and after the maneuver. Obese subjects were successively classified into two groups, accordingly to the response during the maneuver, group 1?=?prevalent rib cage or group 2?=?abdominal expansion. Results Age was significantly lower in group 1 than group 2. When considering the two obese groups, FEV1 was lower and minute ventilation was higher only in group 2 compared to controls group. During breath stacking, inspiratory capacity was significant differences in obese subjects with a smaller expansion of the pulmonary rib cage and a greater expansion of the abdomen compared to controls and also between groups 1 and 2. A significant inverse linear relationship was found between age and inspiratory capacity of the pulmonary rib cage but not of the abdomen. Conclusions In obese women the maximal expansion of the rib cage and abdomen is influenced by age and breath stacking maneuver could be a possible therapy for preventing respiratory complications. PMID:25372469

  4. In Utero Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol and Blood DNA Methylation in Women Ages 40–59 Years from the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    Harlid, Sophia; Xu, Zongli; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as fertility problems and vaginal as well as breast cancer. Animal studies have linked prenatal DES exposure to lasting DNA methylation changes. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and in utero DES exposure in a sample of non-Hispanic white women aged 40–59 years from the Sister Study, a large United States cohort study of women with a family history of breast cancer. Using questionnaire information from women and their mothers, we selected 100 women whose mothers reported taking DES while pregnant and 100 control women whose mothers had not taken DES. DNA methylation in blood was measured at 485,577 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Associations between CpG methylation and DES exposure status were analyzed using robust linear regression with adjustment for blood cell composition and multiple comparisons. Although four CpGs had p<105, after accounting for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate (FDR), none reached genome-wide significance. In conclusion, adult women exposed to DES in utero had no evidence of large persistent changes in blood DNA methylation. PMID:25751399

  5. Reproductive and non-reproductive health status of women aged 15 years and above in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Moghli, F A; Khalaf, I A; Tokiko, S; Atsuko, I; Nabolsi, M M; Al-Sharairi, B A

    2012-05-01

    Failure to address women's health, including their reproductive health needs, increases health care costs and social inequity. This descriptive study assessed the reproductive and non-reproductive health status of women over 15 years old in poverty pockets in the southern region of Jordan. Two villages were selected using purposive sampling and all women in the villages were invited to participate in a "healthy family week": 259 responded to the invitation. Although 49.4% of the surveyed women were overweight or obese, only 8.5% had high blood pressure. Reproductive health concerns included the high proportions of women married at an early age (15-20 years) (76.8%), having 5+ children (43.1%) and with haemoglobin level < 12 g/dL, indicating anaemia (55.5%). Urinary tract infection was the most common health problem (29.0%). Health care providers should be sensitized to the health needs of Jordanian women in general and those living in disadvantaged areas in particular. PMID:22764426

  6. In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol and blood DNA methylation in women ages 40-59 years from the sister study.

    PubMed

    Harlid, Sophia; Xu, Zongli; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P; Taylor, Jack A

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as fertility problems and vaginal as well as breast cancer. Animal studies have linked prenatal DES exposure to lasting DNA methylation changes. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and in utero DES exposure in a sample of non-Hispanic white women aged 40-59 years from the Sister Study, a large United States cohort study of women with a family history of breast cancer. Using questionnaire information from women and their mothers, we selected 100 women whose mothers reported taking DES while pregnant and 100 control women whose mothers had not taken DES. DNA methylation in blood was measured at 485,577 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Associations between CpG methylation and DES exposure status were analyzed using robust linear regression with adjustment for blood cell composition and multiple comparisons. Although four CpGs had p<105, after accounting for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate (FDR), none reached genome-wide significance. In conclusion, adult women exposed to DES in utero had no evidence of large persistent changes in blood DNA methylation. PMID:25751399

  7. Oocyte donation is an independent risk factor for pregnancy complications: the implications for women of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Younis, Johnny S; Laufer, Neri

    2015-02-01

    Maternal age at first pregnancy and age-related infertility are steadily increasing, and the demand for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to treat age-related infertility is also on the rise. The latest registry findings from Europe and the United States show that the meager results of ART in women above 43 years of age have not improved much over the past 10 years. The latest evidence shows that the demand for oocyte donation (OD) is steadily increasing. Contrary to previous belief-attributing increased perinatal complications in OD recipients to advanced maternal age and multifetal pregnancy-accumulating evidence from the past few years suggests that OD itself is a significant and independent risk factor for pregnancy complications, mostly for pre-eclampsia. The increased rate of chronic maternal disease and medical complications in pregnancy observed in advanced maternal age, coupled with the growing demand for OD, with its independent association with pre-eclampsia, create an urgent need to adopt a clear policy taking these risks into account. We present recent evidence showing that OD is an independent risk factor for pre-eclampsia and suggest recommendations for women approaching OD treatment in advanced age. PMID:25646636

  8. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  9. Effect of finite element model loading condition on fracture risk assessment in men and women: The AGES-Reykjavik study

    PubMed Central

    Keyak, J.H.; Sigurdsson, S.; Karlsdottir, G. S.; Oskarsdottir, D.; Sigmarsdottir, A.; Kornak, J.; Harris, T. B.; Sigurdsson, G.; Jonsson, B. Y.; Siggeirsdottir, K.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Gudnason, V.; Lang, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    Proximal femoral (hip) strength computed by subject-specific CT scan-based finite element (FE) models has been explored as an improved measure for identifying subjects at risk of hip fracture. However, to our knowledge, no published study has reported the effect of loading condition on the association between incident hip fracture and hip strength. In the present study, we performed a nested age- and sex-matched case-control study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) Reykjavik cohort. Baseline (pre-fracture) quantitative CT (QCT) scans of 5500 older male and female subjects were obtained. During 4-7 years follow-up, 51 men and 77 women sustained hip fractures. Ninety-seven men and 152 women were randomly selected as controls from a pool of age- and sex-matched subjects. From the QCT data, FE models employing nonlinear material properties computed FE-strength of the left hip of each subject in loading from a fall onto the posterolateral (FPL), posterior (FP) and lateral (FL) aspects of the greater trochanter. For comparison, FE strength in stance loading (FStance) and total femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were also computed. For all loading conditions, the reductions in strength associated with fracture in men were more than twice those in women (p?0.01). For fall loading specifically, posterolateral loading in men and posterior loading in women were most strongly associated with incident hip fracture. After adjusting for aBMD, the association between FP and fracture in women fell short of statistical significance (p=0.08), indicating that FE strength provides little advantage over aBMD for identifying female hip fracture subjects. However, in men, after controlling for aBMD, FPL was 424 N (11%) less in subjects with fractures than in controls (p=0.003). Thus, in men, FE models of posterolateral loading include information about incident hip fracture beyond that in aBMD. PMID:23907032

  10. Dyspareunia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative middle-aged women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Gomes, Debora de C; D'Avanzo, Walquíria C; Moura, Alexandre S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Sousa, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether dyspareunia is associated with HIV status in menopausal women and also to assess which factors are associated with dyspareunia in a group of HIV-positive menopausal women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 178 HIV-negative and 128 HIV-positive women aged 40–60?years. The Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ) was used to collect data. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioural and reproductive factors were evaluated, as well as factors related to the HIV infection. Dyspareunia was defined as pain during intercourse. A bivariate analysis and Poisson multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Overall, 41.4% of the HIV-positive women reported dyspareunia compared with 34.8% of the HIV-negative women (p=0.242). In the HIV-positive women, bivariate analysis revealed an association between dyspareunia and having a steady partner (p=0.047); the woman’s partner having undergone HIV testing (p=0.020); vaginal dryness (p<0.001); muscle/joint pain (p=0.021); physical/emotional violence (p=0.049); urinary incontinence (p=0.004); and the use of lamivudine/zidovudine (p=0.048). The Poisson multiple regression analysis found an association between dyspareunia and vaginal dryness (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.96, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.50, p=0.023) and urinary incontinence (PR=1.86, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.27, p=0.031). Conclusions Dyspareunia was common in this group of HIV-positive women and was associated principally with vaginal dryness and urinary incontinence. The importance of treating dyspareunia within the context of sexual health in this group of women should be emphasised and appropriate management of this issue may reduce the likelihood of lesions on the vaginal wall, which may act as a portal of entry for other infections. PMID:25421335

  11. Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among women seeking induced abortion in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261

  12. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Serum C - Reactive Protein and Leptin Levels in Untrained Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Bijeh, N; Hosseini, SR Attarzadeh; Hejazi, K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on serum inflammatory markers in untrained middle-aged women. Methods: Nineteen healthy female middle-aged were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental (n=11) and control (n=8) groups. The exercise protocol included aerobic exercise training lasted for 6 months and 3 sessions per week and every session lasted for 60 minutes and with intensity of 55–65 percent of maximum heart rate reserve (MHR). Blood samples were taken to measure serum leptin and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) before and after aerobic training period. General linear-Repeated measures (GL-RM) was used to comparing of within, Interactive and between means groups. The level of significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The level of serum leptin in middle-aged women did not change significant. However, the levels of CRP during this period did not change significantly. Conclusion: Six months of aerobic exercise does not induce significant change in serum levels of CRP, while leptin levels reduced in middle-aged women. Regular physical activity probably causes decrease in serum leptin level if body mass index and body fat mass reduce simultaneously. PMID:23193504

  13. Increased frequency of gestational and delivery-related complications in women of 35 years of age and above.

    PubMed

    Bereczky, L-K; Kiss, Sz-L; Szabó, B

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated gestational and delivery-related characteristics focusing on women aged 35 and above (? 35 years). Data were collected on maternal (n = 8,407) and newborn records during a 4-year admission period (2008-11) at the County Emergency Hospital, Tîrgu-Mure?, Romania. The prevalence of preterm deliveries increased in all age groups, from 19.5% to 27.8% (p = 0.006) in mothers ? 35 years. Twinning rate showed a highly significant increase, being 2.6% in 2008 and 9.5% in 2011 (p = 0.005), while caesarean delivery incidence increased from 46.3% to 51.0% in women aged ? 35. Our study revealed a highly significant decrease of mean gestational age and mean fetal weight, as well as a higher incidence of comorbidities and pregnancy-related complications in those aged ? 35 years. We assume that comorbidities, maternal and fetal indications to perform caesarean section (CS), in the more mature age group, were a main determinant of the elective or iatrogenic preterm deliveries, which might have contributed to further complications; moreover, previous CSs were likely a promoting factor for further CSs. PMID:25093420

  14. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center L3-R071, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8338 (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Moonga, Baljit S. [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States)] [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States); Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH and UCd are associated with bone loss, in US women aged 42-60 years.

  15. Level of Nutrition Knowledge and Its Association with Weight Loss Behaviors Among Low-Income Reproductive-Age Women.

    PubMed

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2014-11-14

    To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16-40 year old women (n = 1,057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0-15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P < .001). Obese women (P = .002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P = .030), and some college hours/degree (P < .001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.18], switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.06-1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.04-1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  16. The association of menstrual and reproductive factors with thyroid nodules in Chinese women older than 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Yang, Yu; Wu, Yang; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Danyu; Liu, Chao

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the association of menstrual and reproductive factors with thyroid nodules in Chinese women older than 40 years of age. A questionnaire was completed by 6,571 women aged 40 years or older in a community-based epidemiological investigation of thyroid nodules conducted from June to November 2011 in Nanjing City. Thyroid nodules were measured by ultrasound. The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System score was used to differentiate between benign and possibly malignant nodules. Menopausal age (>55 vs. <50 years: RR = 1.17, 95 % CI 1.00-1.34) and number of reproductive years (>40 vs. <35 years: RR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01-1.24) increased the risk of thyroid nodules, but were not associated with suspected malignant nodules. Women who experienced more pregnancies (?5 vs. ?1: RR = 2.09, 95 % CI 1.79-2.40) and abortions (?3 vs. 0: RR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.41-1.81) were prone to development of thyroid nodules, and more likely to form suspected malignant nodules (pregnancies, RR = 3.59, 95 % CI 1.60-7.20; abortions, RR = 2.36, 95 % CI 1.31-4.06). Furthermore, higher risks of thyroid nodules (RR = 1.36, 95 % CI 1.14-1.59) and suspected malignant nodules (RR = 2.80, 95 % CI 1.08-6.53) were observed in women who had undergone artificial compared with natural abortion. Periods of elevated estrogen and progesterone levels in women, such as pregnancy, were the key occasions for occurrence of both benign and suspiciously malignant thyroid nodules, while longer lifetime length of exposure to female sex hormones might promote the growth of thyroid nodules. PMID:25012252

  17. Dental anxiety in relation to mental health and personality factors. A longitudinal study of middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hägglin, C; Hakeberg, M; Hällström, T; Berggren, U; Larsson, L; Waern, M; Pálsson, S; Skoog, I

    2001-02-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal course of dental anxiety in relation to age, mental health and personality factors. In 1968 69 a representative sample of 778 women aged 38 to 54 yr took part in a psychiatric examination. Three hundred and ten were followed up in 1992-93. A phobia questionnaire, including assessment of dental fear, and the Eysenck Personality Inventory were distributed to the participants at both occasions. High dental fear was reported by 16.8% of the women at baseline and was associated with a higher number of other phobias, a higher level of neuroticism, more psychiatric impairment, more social disability due to phobic disorder, and a higher anxiety level. Among women who reported high dental fear in 1968 69 (n=36), 64% remitted and 36% remained fearful. Among women with low dental fear in 1968 69 (n = 274), 5% reported high dental fear in 1992-93. Chronicity was associated with higher neuroticism, lower extraversion, and more psychiatric impairment at base-line. Remission was associated with higher extraversion at baseline. Dental anxiety increased or decreased over time in concert with the number of other fears. PMID:11330931

  18. Evaluation of Racial Differences in Resting and Postprandial Endothelial Function in Postmenopausal Women Matched for Age, Fitness and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Damon L.; Weltman, Judith Y.; Patrie, James T.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Gaesser, Glenn A.; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated endothelial function at rest and after a high-fat meal challenge in African American (AA) and Caucasian postmenopausal women matched for age, body mass index, percent fat and fitness level. Design Pilot study. Setting University of Virginia General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Eight AA and 8 Caucasian postmenopausal women. Intervention Participants underwent a VO2 peak treadmill protocol, percent fat assessment, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation measurements (baseline and 4 hours following a high-fat meal). Main outcomes measures Baseline and postprandial flow mediated dilation (FMD) following a high-fat meal. Results FMD values were similar in AA (5.4%, 95% CI: 3.3, 7.4) and Caucasian women (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.1). There was no significant change in FMD from baseline to four hours following the meal challenge within groups (AA: .9%, P=.397, Caucasian: 2.3%, P=.063) or between groups (P=.449), despite a significant increase in triglycerides (AA: 81.8 mg/dL, P<.001, Caucasian: 99.7 mg/dL, P=.004). Conclusions The present pilot study found that when postmenopausal AA and Caucasian women are matched for age, fitness and body composition, reported racial differences in resting endothelial function were not observed. Additionally, there were no racial differences in postprandial endothelial function or metabolism following a high-fat meal. PMID:23495621

  19. Correlates of Low Physical Activity Levels in Aging Men and Women: The DR's EXTRA Study (ISRCTN45977199).

    PubMed

    Hakola, L; Hassinen, M; Komulainen, P; Lakka, T A; Savonen, K; Rauramaa, R

    2015-04-01

    Recognizing correlates of low physical activity (PA) can help in targeting PA interventions for individuals who would benefit most from increasing their PA. We studied the associations of demographic, social, health, and lifestyle factors with low PA by sex in a population sample of 1,303 Finnish individuals aged 57-78 years. We defined low PA as no moderate or vigorous leisure-time PA reported in an interview. Altogether, 39% of men and 48% of women reported low PA. Satisfactory or poor perceived health and high BMI were independently associated with low PA in both sexes. In men, factors such as age, being divorced or separated, still working, having a weak social network, poor diet, and a health professional's suggestion to increase PA were associated with low PA. In women, cardiovascular disease and depressive symptoms were associated with low PA. These results can be applied in targeting PA interventions. PMID:24911019

  20. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Sandra W; Hill, Wade G; Linkenbach, Jeff W; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-08-01

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted. PMID:19477438

  1. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  2. [Sociodemographic determinants of women's health].

    PubMed

    Ordonez Gomez, M

    1991-06-01

    This work correlates a series of variables influencing fertility, maternal-child health, and infant mortality from Colombia's 1990 Contraceptive Prevalence, Demography, and Health Survey for 13 regions of Colombia. Causes of death among women aged 15-49 years for 1989 are then examined, and an integrated health program developed by the Association for Family Welfare (PROFAMILIA) for lower income rural and semirural women is described as an example of a successful primary health care program. Colombia's total fertility rate declined from 7.0 in 1965 to 2.9 in 1990. The marital total fertility rate among some subgroups, however, still exceeds 5.0. Fertility is often higher in rural zones, among less educated women, and among those not employed outside the home. The major fertility determinants are family planning, nuptiality, and socioeconomic status, as well as infertility due to lactation and abortion. Family size ideals also play a role. The highest fertility in Colombia today is in the departments of the Atlantic region, in Choco and the Pacific Coast, and in the subregion of the departments of Tolima-Huila and Caqueta. According to the 1990 survey, 66% of women currently in union used a contraceptive method. 62.3% of women in Cali and 61.8% in Bogota used modern methods, compared to only 41% in Tolima-Huila-Caqueta and 43% in Guajira-Magdalena. About 52% of fertile-aged women in Colombia are currently in union. The region of highest fertility have the lowest ages at 1st sexual relations, 1st union, and birth of 1st child. The 1st birth occurred at an average age of 24 years in Antioquia compared to 20 years in the Atlantic Coast. The regions of highest fertility are also those with the greatest proportion of women in union: 60% in the Atlantic region and in Tolima-Huila-Caqueta but only 46% in Antioquia. Socioeconomic status is a major fertility determinant, working through education and accessibility of family planning services. The correlation between illiteracy and fertility in positive and significant. The 1990 survey indicated that there has been progress since 1986 in the proportion of women obtaining prenatal care and professionally attended at delivery, and that the prevalence of acute respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases among children under 5 has declined. Infant mortality rates have declined as well, but are higher among the youngest and oldest mothers and for higher birth order children and those born in rapid succession. Infant mortality was also highly correlated with accessibility of health care and with socioeconomic status. Abortion and obstetrical causes were the 6th major cause of death among fertile-aged women, accounting for 5.4% of deaths overall. Mortality rates from these causes were much higher in less developed departments, accounting for 9.3% of deaths to the age group in Tolima-Huila-Caqueta, 8.6% in Choco-Cauca-Narino, and 7.1% in Boyaca-Cundinamarca-Meta, compared to 3.3% in the Valle region and 2.8% in Antigua Caldas. PMID:12284196

  3. Validation of a New Brief Physical Activity Survey among Men and Women Aged 60-69 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae; Linda C. Norton; William L. Haskell; Mohammed H. Mahbouda; Joan M. Fair; Carlos Iribarren; Mark A. Hlatky; Alan S. Go; Stephen P. Fortmann

    2006-01-01

    The Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS), a new two-item physical activity survey, and the Stanford Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire were administered to men and women, aged 60-69 years, in the Atherosclerotic Disease VAscular functioN and genetiC Epidemiology (ADVANCE) Study. Frequency distributions of SBAS activity levels, as well as a receiver operating curve, were calculated to determine if the

  4. Study on prevention and treatment of diabetes in middle and aged women with kidney deficiency and bone metabolic disturbance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liqun Zhu; Hongying LI; Yinghua Liu

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for supplementing Qi, activating blood circulation and\\u000a tonifying Kidney on prevention and treatment of diabetes in middle and aged women with Kidney Deficiency and bone metabolic\\u000a disturbance.Methods: Clinical observation was taken in 52 patients, who were divided into two groups, the control group (treated with hypoglycemic\\u000a agent alone) and

  5. Diet and organochlorine contaminants in women of reproductive age under 40 years old.

    PubMed

    Campoy, C; Olea-Serrano, F; Jiménez, M; Bayés, R; Cañabate, F; Rosales, M J; Blanca, E; Olea, N

    2001-11-01

    The diet of the breast-feeding mother impacts on the quality and quantity of the milk that she feeds her child. Milk can be a vehicle for toxins, such as drugs and their metabolites, viruses, nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, and organochlorine molecules such as PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH and dioxins, which can harm the health of the breast-feeding child. The 24-h recall diet was considered appropriate to adequately study the diet of breast-feeding mothers and was used in the present preliminary study to establish the possible relationship between the food items consumed and the presence of pesticides in her milk. Two groups of randomly selected healthy breast-feeding volunteers aged between 17 and 35 years from two different areas were recruited: 34 from intensive agriculture zone, El Ejido (Almeria), from the "Hospital de Poniente" and 21 urban zone, the city of Granada, from the "Clinico" University Hospital. Application of the Spearman Correlation Test to the results from Almeria showed a certain positive correlation between the total intake of fats and both the p,p'DDD (rho=0.53, p< or =0.05) and methoxychlor (rho=0.48, p< or =0.05) in mature milk, and between the energy supplied by vegetables and the endosulfan-lactone in mature milk (rho=0.50, p< or =0.05). Among the group of breast-feeding women from Granada, there was a strong correlation between the intake of fats and both the p,p'DDT in transition milk (rho=0.90, p< or =0.05) and the p,p'DDD in mature milk (rho=0.90, p< or =0.05). In conclusion, there is a statistically significant relationship between the consumption of fatty foods and some organochlorine molecules and between the consumption of vegetables and pesticides, and the latter relationship occurs in Almeria but not in Granada. PMID:11755049

  6. Geographic distribution of HIV stigma among women of childbearing age in rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Akullian, Adam; Kohler, Pamela; Kinuthia, John; Laserson, Kayla; Mills, Lisa A.; Okanda, John; Olilo, George; Ombok, Maurice; Odhiambo, Frank; Rao, Deepa; Wakefield, Jonathan; John-Stewart, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s) HIV stigma is considered to be a major driver of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, yet there is a limited understanding of its occurrence. We describe the geographic patterns of two forms of HIV stigma in a cross-sectional sample of women of childbearing age from western Kenya: internalized stigma (associated with shame) and externalized stigma (associated with blame). Design Geographic studies of HIV stigma provide a first step in generating hypotheses regarding potential community-level causes of stigma and may lead to more effective community-level interventions. Methods Spatial regression using generalized additive models and point pattern analyses using K-functions were used to assess the spatial scale(s) at which each form of HIV stigma clusters, and to assess whether the spatial clustering of each stigma indicator was present after adjustment for individual-level characteristics. Results There was evidence that externalized stigma (blame) was geographically heterogeneous across the study area, even after controlling for individual-level factors (P=0.01). In contrast, there was less evidence (P=0.70) of spatial trend or clustering of internalized stigma (shame). Conclusion Our results may point to differences in the underlying social processes motivating each form of HIV stigma. Externalized stigma may be driven more by cultural beliefs disseminated within communities, whereas internalized stigma may be the result of individual-level characteristics outside the domain of community influence. These data may inform community-level interventions to decrease HIV-related stigma, and thus impact the HIV epidemic. PMID:24835356

  7. THEORIES AND PRACTICES IN THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN DURING THE AGE OF ENLIGHTMENT IN FRANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIEDMAN, LEONARD M.

    A REPORT WAS GIVEN ON A SEARCH OF THE LITERATURE ON THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN IN FRANCE DURING THE PERIOD FROM THE FOUNDING OF ST. CYR (1686) THROUGH THE REVOLUTION. THE AUTHOR SUMMARIZES (1) THE EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES USED AND (2) THE EDUCATIONAL THEORIES PROPOSED AT THAT TIME. WHILE THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN IN 18TH-CENTURY FRANCE LEFT MUCH TO BE…

  8. Using the Web To Promote Smoking Cessation and Health for College-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily

    Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…

  9. Attitudes toward Wife Beating among Palestinian Women of Reproductive Age from Three Cities in West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhaher, Enas A.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Maxwell, Annette E.; Kramer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A total of 450 women were interviewed in Mother and Child Health Care Centers in three cities in West Bank, Palestine, to assess attitudes toward wife beating. Overall, women perceived wife beating to be justified if a wife insults her husband (59%), if she disobeys her husband (49%), if she neglects her children (37%), if she goes out without…

  10. Age and Meanings of Violence: Women's Experiences of Partner Violence in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piispa, Minna

    2004-01-01

    The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men's violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don't support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as…

  11. Wellness in women after 40 years of age: The role of sex hormones and pheromones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Genovese-Stone

    1998-01-01

    In the past twenty years hundreds of peer-reviewed studies have provided a significant body of information to guide the health care of women in the second halves of their lives. The harmonic nature of the fertile reproductive system forms the background against which hormonal replacement therapy can be understood to best serve women. In addition, the 1986 discovery of human

  12. Rethinking Women and Their Bodies in the Age of Biotechnology: Feminist Commentaries on the Hwang Affair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Yeon Leem; Jin Hee Park

    2008-01-01

    Many Korean women felt strongly positive about donating their eggs for Hwang Woo Suk's research, in spite of the fact that Hwang was accused of fraud. It is said that there is a kind of unique 'egg donation culture' among Korean women, which urged them to donate their eggs for his research. However, positing such a Korean 'egg donation culture'

  13. Food Customs of Alaska Women of Childbearing Age: The Alaska WIC Healthy Moms Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janell Smith; Paulette Johnson; Penelope Easton; Dennis Wiedman; Emma G. Widmark

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 60 rural, 62 urban Alaska women (64% Alaska Native) indicated positive dietary and lifestyle habits. Diets were characterized by boiled meats, high intakes of omega-3 fish, sea mammals and few desserts. Food insecurity reported by 39% rural and 7% of urban. Hunger was reported by 16% of rural and 5% of urban women. Traditional activities were walking,

  14. Oral Health Conditions and Dental Visits Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral diseases can be prevented or improved with regular dental visits. Our objective was to assess and compare national estimates on self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed self-reported oral health information on 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15–44 years) from NHANES 1999–2004. We used ?2 and 2-sample t tests to assess statistical differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, poverty, and education. We applied the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results Our data show significant differences in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among women, regardless of pregnancy status, when stratified by selected sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences were also found in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits between pregnant and nonpregnant women, especially among young women, women from minority race/ethnicity groups, and women with less than high school education. Conclusion We found disparities in self-reported oral health conditions and use of dental services among women regardless of pregnancy status. Results highlight the need to improve dental service use among US women of childbearing age, especially young pregnant women, those who are non-Hispanic black or Mexican American, and those with low family income or low education level. Prenatal visits could be used as an opportunity to encourage pregnant women to seek preventive dental care during pregnancy. PMID:25232750

  15. Women in Radio Soap Operas: A Historical Perspective of the Image of Women's "Sphere" in the "Golden Age."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St John, Jacqueline

    Radio's "Golden Age," the 1930s and 1940s produced numerous successful and profitable daytime serials, called "soap operas" because they were most often sponsored by firms selling laundry products. Among the most popular of these series were those produced by the team of Anne and Frank Hummert. Working through the Blackett-Sample-Hummert…

  16. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  17. Pharmacologic management of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mimi S; Coppenrath, Valerie A; Dallinga, Bree A

    2015-02-01

    The numbers of women of childbearing age with pregestational diabetes mellitus (diabetes existing before pregnancy) are increasing, primarily because more patients are developing type 2 diabetes at younger ages. The teratogenicity associated with hyperglycemia in early pregnancy is well documented, and tight glucose control minimizes the risk of congenital malformation. Preconception planning is essential; thus contraception that does not worsen complications of diabetes is desirable. In addition, because contraceptives are not 100% effective, the treatment of elevated blood glucose levels, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these women requires consideration of unplanned pregnancy. We summarized the literature to aid clinicians in choosing individualized treatment that minimizes risk in case pregnancy occurs and maximizes benefit in preventing the complications of diabetes. In women with well-controlled diabetes without vascular disease, all contraceptive methods are safe. Intrauterine devices are recommended due to their minimal effects on risk factors for diabetic complications and their lack of reliance on patient adherence for efficacy. Among insulins, the insulin analogs-insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin detemir-offer patients greater convenience than regular insulin and NPH insulin, and they are safe in case of unplanned pregnancy. Of the noninsulin agents, glyburide and metformin are the safest during pregnancy, but many of the other agents pose minimal risk as long as they are withdrawn during early pregnancy. The risks and benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in women with compelling indications must be weighed individually. In hypertensive patients at a high risk for unplanned pregnancy, nifedipine should be considered due to literature supporting its safety during early pregnancy. Pravastatin is recommended for women with dyslipidemia who are using effective contraception because there have been no reports of birth defects with this statin when used during early pregnancy in humans and animals. PMID:25644781

  18. Carotid intima-media thickness in mainly non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome and age-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Ju; Kang, Jin Hwa; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Chae, Soo Jin; Kim, Sun Mie; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Metabolic disturbances are well-recognized clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CIMT in women with PCOS has been investigated in many studies, but there has been only one report in the Korean population. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in young untreated Korean women with PCOS and age-matched controls, specifically by measuring their CIMT. Methods CIMT was measured by one radiologist in 56 PCOS patients and 56 controls. To compare the CIMT according to PCOS phenotypes, women with PCOS were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of hyperandrogenism. Results Although PCOS patients were more obese and had higher blood pressure and insulin resistance index than the age-matched controls, the CIMT was not different between the two groups (0.49 ± 0.09 mm in PCOS patients vs. 0.50 ± 0.11 mm in controls, respectively, p = 0.562). When the CIMT in the control group was compared with hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS groups, also no significant differences were found. Conclusion Despite the significant differences in some vascular risk factors between women with PCOS and controls, PCOS patients did not have a significantly higher CIMT (even in the hyperandrogenic subgroups). Although our study did not show the increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in PCOS patients, the role of CIMT continues to be investigated considering the importance of screening and monitoring CVD risk factors in women with PCOS. PMID:24328010

  19. Health-promoting behaviors and social support of women of reproductive age, and strategies for advancing their health: Protocol for a mixed methods study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azam Baheiraei; Mojgan Mirghafourvand; Eesa Mohammadi; Saharnaz Nedjat; Mohammad-Alizadeh Sakineh Charandabi; Fatemeh Rajabi; Reza Majdzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Background  Determining the health-promoting behaviors of women during the important period of reproduction provides valuable information\\u000a for designing appropriate intervention programs for advancing women's health. There is no study on the health-promoting behaviors\\u000a of women of reproductive age in Iran. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore these health-promoting behaviors for the purpose\\u000a of developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive

  20. Questionnaire survey of women aged 56–59 years: Consultations in general practice, use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and participation in screening programmes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Seamark; Sue Blake

    2002-01-01

    ObjectivesTo ascertain attitudes to consultations in general practice and the gender of the doctor. To determine whether women participate in the National Health Service (NHS) screening programmes available to them and their use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT).DesignPostal questionnaire survey to women aged 56-59 years.SettingThe Honiton Group Practice, East Devon, UK.ParticipantsTwo hundred and ninety-four of the 334 eligible women returned

  1. The Impact of a Promotora on Increasing Routine Chronic Disease Prevention among Women Aged 40 and Older at the U.S.Mexico Border

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer B. Hunter; Jill Guernsey de Zapien; Mary Papenfuss; Maria Lourdes Fernandez; Joel Meister; Anna R. Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    A randomized controlled intervention tested the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program in increasing compliance with annual preventive exams among uninsured Hispanic women living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border area. During 1999-2000, household surveys were administered to women aged 40 and older. Uninsured women not receiving routine comprehensive preventive care were invited to participate in a free comprehensive

  2. Social capital in association with health status of women in reproductive age: study protocol for a sequential explanatory mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Women’s health is a general health priority. Preserving and improving women’s health is not only a basic human right, but it is also essential for the health of all nations. Women’s health in Reproductive age affects long-term health of theirs, their family members, and community. Origins of health inequalities are very complicated. Health outcomes are influenced by biological, social and political factors, so to improve women’s health it is necessary to recognize all these factors. Social capital is one of the social determinants of health that might play a considerable role in health inequalities. The association between social capital and health varies according on the sample studied, the type of health outcome and the context in which it is studied. This mixed methods study was designed to determine and explore of relationship between social capital and health status of women of reproductive age in Tehran (capital city of Iran) with its specific social-cultural characteristics. Methods/design This study is sequential explanatory mixed methods study, follow-up explanations variant, with two strands (phases). This design will be implemented in two distinct phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age residing in any of the 22 municipal districts across Tehran. Based on a need to further understand the quantitative results, researchers will implement a second qualitative phase that is designed to help explain the initial quantitative results. Finally, the researchers will present an interpretation about explanation of quantitative results using the qualitative data. Discussion This study promotes women’s health by determining the priorities and designing evidence-based interventions founded on the basic and insightful information provided on social capital and the status of the health of women. PMID:24885213

  3. Exploring the factors associated with preconception health behaviors among women of childbearing age: a naturalistic inquiry

    E-print Network

    Delissaint, Dieula

    2009-05-15

    is important—using the analogy of preparing their house [body] for conception. Participants associated PCC with physical and nutritional behavior; few acknowledged the importance of mental health. While women believed PCC was important, the majority did...

  4. Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.

    PubMed

    Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. PMID:24215967

  5. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  6. In the last decades, population surveys have demonstrated a consistent rise in the average age at first marriage among women across the

    E-print Network

    and program development in issues of women's health and gender across the developing world. See back page age at first marriage among women across the developing world. This demographic shift has coincided, a Senior Research Associate at Anthrologica, is also currently completing her PhD in the History

  7. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  8. Evaluation of new and established age-related macular degeneration susceptibility genes in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. This is a multice...

  9. Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one…

  10. An evaluation of a health education intervention for mid-aged women: five year follow-up of effects upon knowledge, impact of menopause and health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myra Hunter; Irene O’Dea

    1999-01-01

    An evaluation of the long term impact of a health education intervention in primary care, for premenopausal women (45 years of age), is presented. The intervention included information and group discussion about menopause, stress management, health behaviours (smoking, exercise, diet) and treatment choices. Questionnaires were sent to 86 women who had been randomised into two groups (prepared\\/control) and were now

  11. Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    A wide variety of strategies were used to recruit women into an acupuncture trial. The investigators collected data on the numbers of study inquiries (telephone calls and e-mail messages) received from women in the study area and sorted them by recruitment method. Posters, flyers, and direct mailings proved to be the most effective methods. However, maximizing study exposure through active recruitment using multiple methods was necessary to reach accrual goals.

  12. Reproductive History and Mortality in Late Middle Age among Norwegian Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Grundy; Øystein Kravdal

    2008-01-01

    There is growing recognition that reproductive patterns may have long-term health implications, although most evidence is restricted to women. The authors used register data to derive fertility histories for all Norwegian men and women born in 1935-1958. Discrete-time hazard modeling was used to analyze later-life mortality by aspects of reproductive history. A total of 63,312 deaths were observed during 14.5

  13. Age-dependent differences in diabetes and acute hyperglycemia between men and women with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both acute hyperglycemia as diabetes results in an impaired prognosis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. It is unknown whether there is a different prevalence of diabetes and acute hyperglycemia in men and women within age-groups. Methods Between 2004 and 2010, 4640 consecutive patients (28% women) with STEMI, were referred for primary PCI. Patients were stratified into two age groups, women and men in the younger age group (14% vs 12%, p?=?0.52), whereas in the older age group diabetes was more prevalent in women (25% vs 17% p?women than in men (8.7?±?2.1 mmol/l vs 8.4?±?2.1 mmol/l p?=?0.028). After multivariable analyses, the occurrence of increased admission glucose was comparable between men and women in the younger age group (OR 1.1, 95%CI 0.9-1.5), but increased in women in the older age group (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Both diabetes and hyperglycemia were associated with a higher one-year mortality in both men and women. Conclusions The differences between men and women in hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients with STEMI are age dependent and can only be observed in older patients. This may have implications for medical treatment and should be investigated further. PMID:23822149

  14. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?: A Novel Theory and First Population-Based Test of Black-White Differences in Telomere Length.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Hicken, Margaret T; Pearson, Jay A; Seashols, Sarah J; Brown, Kelly L; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-03-10

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49-55, black women are 7.5 years biologically "older" than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  15. Age-related changes of vertical and horizontal lumbar vertebral trabecular 3D bone microstructure is different in women and men.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Brüel, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    The study presents a 3D method for subdividing a trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. This method was used to investigate the age related changes of the bone volume fraction and thickness of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar vertebral bone estimated with unbiased 3D methods in women and men over a large age-range. The study comprised second lumbar vertebral body bone samples from 40 women (aged 21.7-96.4years, median 56.6years) and 39 men (aged 22.6-94.6years, median 55.6years). The bone samples were ?CT scanned and the 3D microstructure was quantified. A voxel based algorithm inspecting the local neighborhood is presented and used to segment the trabecular network into horizontal and vertical oriented bone. For both women and men BV/TV decreased significantly with age, Tb.Th* was independent of age, while SMI increased significantly with age. Vertical (BV.vert/TV) and horizontal (BV.horz/TV) bone volume fraction decreased significantly with age for both sexes. BV.vert/TV decreased significantly faster with age for women than for men. Vertical (Tb.Th*.vert) and horizontal (Tb.Th*.horz) trabecular thickness were independent of age, while Tb.Th*.horz/Tb.Th*.vert decreased significantly with age for both sexes. Additionally, the 95th percentile of the trabecular thickness distribution increased significantly with age for vertical trabeculae in women, whereas it was independent of age in men. In conclusion, we have shown that vertical and horizontal oriented bone density decreases with age in both women and men, and that vertical oriented bone is lost more quickly in women than in men. Furthermore, vertical and horizontal trabecular thickness were independent of age, whereas the horizontal to vertical trabecular thickness ratio decreased significantly with age indicating a relatively more pronounced thinning of horizontal trabeculae. Finally, the age-related loss of trabecular elements appeared to result in a compensatory hypertrophy of vertical trabeculae in women, but not in men. PMID:23899636

  16. Age at First Birth, Parity, and Post-Reproductive Mortality among White and Black Women in the US, 1982–2002

    PubMed Central

    Eberstein, Isaac W

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the timing of first birth, parity, and women’s risk of post-reproductive mortality over twenty-one years (1982–2001), among representative samples of black and white women in the United States. Data are taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. We find early childbearing to be associated with higher mortality among whites, while later childbearing is associated with higher mortality among blacks. The effect of age at first birth on white women’s mortality is explained by background and mediating social, economic, and health related factors, but this effect remains robust for black women. In addition, childless white women have a higher risk of post-reproductive mortality than those with 2–3 children. High parity (6+ children) has a significant protective effect for blacks, though the effect is reduced with age. A similar protective effect of high parity becomes apparent among whites only after controlling for background and mediating characteristics. Findings are interpreted in light of the “weathering hypothesis” and from a life course framework that views women’s fertility as adaptive to particular social and historical contexts. PMID:19278763

  17. A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K., E-mail: rkwok@rti.org

    2007-08-01

    Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels > 300 {mu}g of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.

  18. PAHA study: Psychological Active and Healthy Aging: psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude and happiness effects of whole-body vibration versus Multicomponent Training in aged women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (N?=?300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Discussion Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Trial registration Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013 PMID:24886107

  19. Lack of variation in muscle strength with menstrual status in healthy women aged 45–54 years: data from a national survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Bassey; S. P. Mockett; P. H. Fentem

    1996-01-01

    Isometric handgrip, quadriceps muscle strength and leg extensor power were assessed as part of a large representative survey\\u000a of adult men and women in England. The gender ratios for these muscle strength measurements did not differ across age groups,\\u000a which ranged from 25 to 65 years. Data from a subsample of women who were aged between 45 and 54 years

  20. Hepatitis B e Antigen Status and Hepatitis B DNA Levels in Women of Childbearing Age with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection Screening for Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tram T.; Gordon, Stuart C.; Fung, Scott; Dinh, Phillip; Yee, Leland; Martins, Eduardo Bruno; Buti, Maria; Marcellin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Perinatal or mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in a high frequency of chronic infection. Risk of mother-to-child transmission is associated with maternal viral factors including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity and viral load. Aim To investigate associations between age, HBeAg status, HBV DNA levels and genotype in female patients screened for inclusion into two contemporary, randomized HBV trials. Methods Retrospective analyses focused on differences between women of childbearing age (?44 years) and older women. Female patients (N = 355; 18–69 years) were included in the analysis: 41.7% of patients were Asian. In total, 44.4% were HBeAg-positive. Results Significantly more women aged ?44 years were HBeAg-positive compared to women ?45 years (57.2% versus 27.5%, respectively, p<0.0001), this proportion declined with increasing age. Younger women were significantly more likely to have high HBV viral load (HBV DNA>108 copies mL: ?44 years 46.0% vs ?45 years 25.5%, respectively; p<0.0001), and this declined with increasing age. HBeAg positivity was slightly higher in Asian women, associated with a higher proportion of HBV genotypes B and C in this population. There was no obvious relationship between genotype and viral load. Conclusions Women of childbearing age with CHB are more likely to have high HBV viral load and HBeAg positivity than older women; this likelihood decreases with age. Maternal serological and virological status should therefore be established early in pregnancy, taking into account age and genotype, and a risk-reducing strategy implemented in any patient who is HBeAg positive and has a high viral load. PMID:25789483

  1. Having a Say Matters: Influence of Decision-Making Power on Contraceptive Use among Nigerian Women Ages 35–49 Years

    PubMed Central

    OlaOlorun, Funmilola M.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research suggests that women of reproductive age who are involved in household decision-making are more likely than those who are not involved to be able to control their fertility. Little is known, however, about this relationship among women at the upper end of the reproductive spectrum. The aim of this study was to determine the association between household decision-making power and modern contraceptive use among Nigerian women ages 35–49 years. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study involving a secondary analysis of data from the Nigerian 2008 Demographic and Health Survey was conducted among women ages 35–49 years who were considered to be in need of contraception. The outcome was modern contraceptive use while the main independent variable was a woman's household decision-making power score, constructed using principal component analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether the women's household decision-making power score, categorized into tertiles, was independently associated with modern contraceptive use. Data were weighted and adjusted for the complex survey design. Results Prevalence of modern contraceptive use among Nigerian women deemed to be in need of contraception in this study was 18.7%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that women's decision-making power remained statistically significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, even after adjusting for age, education, religion, polygyny, parity, wealth and domicile. Women who were in the highest decision-making power tertile had more than one and a half times the odds of using modern contraception compared with women in the lowest tertile [Adjusted Odds Ratio?=?1.70; 95% Confidence Interval?=?1.31–2.21, p<0.001]. Significance Older Nigerian women who are involved in making household decisions are also able to make decisions related to their fertility. Programs in Nigeria focused on increasing modern contraceptive use should include strategies to increase women's status through encouraging more visible involvement in decision-making across different spheres of their lives. PMID:24897300

  2. Changes in Serum Leptin During Phases of Menstrual Cycle of Fertile Women: Relationship to Age Groups and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Ajala, Olawole Micheal; Ogunro, Paul Sunday; Elusanmi, Gabriel Folorunsho; Ogunyemi, Olugbemiga Ebenezer; Bolarinde, Abidemi Abibat

    2012-01-01

    Background It is established that serum level of leptin is affected by transitional phases of reproduction. It is also reported that the puberty is triggered when body fat and circulating levels of leptin exceed the critical thresholds, butthere is less focus on the serum level of leptin and its relationship with different phases of menstrual cycle and the fertility. Objectives The present study try to determines the serum concentration of leptin and fertility hormonesin the various phases of normal menstrual cycle of fertile women and compare any difference in serum concentration between age groups of 18-30 years and 31-41 years It is a well known fact that fertility start to decrease from age 31 years. Patients and Methods A total of 118 healthy fertile women with normal menstrual cycle aged between 18-40, were divided into two age groups (n = 65) 18-30 years and (n = 53) 31-40 years. Serum concentrations of leptin, estradiol, progesterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured on day1 (menstrual phase), day7 (proliferative/follicular phase), day14 (ovulatory phase), day21 (luteal phase) and day 28(secretory phase) of the menstrual cycle. Results There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in leptin levels on day 14 (12.75 + 5.8 ng/mL) and day 21 (12.91 + 3.2 ng/mL) for age group 18-30 years compared to day 14 (11.60 + 3.2 ng/mL) and day 21 (11.60 + 3.2 ng/mL) for age group 31-40 years. Leptin was positively correlated with FSH on day 14, with LH on day 7 and day 21; likewise, with progesterone on day 21 and day 28 and with estradiol on day 7 and day 14 for both age groups. Conclusions The serum leptin level was at the lowest level during the menstrual and secretory phase and the highest level was around the luteal phase. The significant increase ofleptin in the younger age group raise this question whether circulating leptin has any role to play in the age of pregnancy and fertility. Data in this study shows that leptin level was affected with increase in age; therefore changes in leptin level will affect fertility in this study suggest that there may be a relation between leptin levels and fertility. PMID:23853617

  3. Modelling HIV incidence and survival from age-specific seroprevalence after antiretroviral treatment scale-up in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mossong, Joël; Grapsa, Erofili; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our study uses sex-specific and age-specific HIV prevalence data from an ongoing population-based demographic and HIV survey to infer HIV incidence and survival in rural KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2011, a period when antiretroviral treatment (ART) was rolled out on a large scale. Design: Catalytic mathematical model for estimating HIV incidence and differential survival in HIV-infected persons on multiple rounds of HIV seroprevalence. Methods: We evaluate trends of HIV incidence and survival by estimating parameters separately for women and men aged 15–49 years during three calendar periods (2003–2005, 2006–2008, 2009–2011) reflecting increasing ART coverage. We compare model-based estimates of HIV incidence with observed cohort-based estimates from the longitudinal HIV surveillance. Results: Median survival after HIV infection increased significantly between 2003–2005 and 2009–2011 from 10.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8–11.2] to 14.2 (95% CI 12.6–15.8) years in women (P?age-group 15–49 years in 2009–2011 compared with 2003–2005. Age-specific and sex-specific model-based HIV incidence estimates were in good agreement with observed cohort-based estimates from the ongoing HIV surveillance. Conclusion: Our catalytic modelling approach using cross-sectional age-specific HIV prevalence data could be useful to monitor trends of HIV incidence and survival in other African settings with a high ART coverage. PMID:23842131

  4. A high anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Aedín; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Liu, Lydia; Franz, Mary; Eliassen, A. Heather; Rimm, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Background Our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors to prevent myocardial infarction (MI) in young and middle-aged women is limited, and the impact of diet is largely unknown. Dietary flavonoids exert potential beneficial effects on endothelial function in short-term trials; however the relationship between habitual intake and risk of MI in women in unknown. Methods and Results We followed 93,600 women aged 25–42 years from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and risk of MI. Intake of flavonoid sub-classes were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires collected every 4 years using an updated and extended USDA database. During 18 years of follow-up, 405 cases of MI were reported. An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–0.96; p=0.03 comparing highest versus lowest quintiles) after multivariate adjustment. The addition of intermediate conditions, including history of hypertension, did not significantly attenuate the relationship (HR 0.70; 0.50–0.97; p=0.03). Combined intake of two anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries, tended to be associated with a decreased risk of MI (HR 0.66; 0.40–1.08) comparing those consuming >3 servings/week to those with lower intake. Intakes of other flavonoid sub-classes were not significantly associated with MI risk. Conclusions A high intake of anthocyanins may reduce MI risk in predominately young women. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the health impact of increasing intakes of commonly consumed anthocyanin-rich foods. PMID:23319811

  5. The effect of two different health messages on physical activity levels and health in sedentary overweight, middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most public health guidelines recommend that adults need to participate in 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the week to maintain good health. Achieving the recommended 30 minutes of exercise a day can be difficult in middle aged, overweight women. This 12 week study evaluated whether a 10,000 steps per day message was more effective than a 30 minutes a day message in increasing physical activity in low active, overweight women. Methods Thirty participants were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 was asked to undertake 30 minutes of walking/day, whereas Group 2 was asked to accumulate 10,000 steps/day using their pedometers. Results Results showed that there were no changes in anthropometric and blood pressure measures between or within groups. However, the 10,000 step and the 30 minutes groups' daily average number of steps/day were significantly higher than baseline at week 6 (p = 0.038 and p = 0.039 respectively) and at week 12 (p = 0.028 and p = 0.038 respectively). At week 12, the 10,000 steps group were taking an average of 4616 steps per day more (43% increase) than at baseline and the 30 minutes group were taking an average of 2761 steps per day more (35% increase) than at baseline. There was a significant difference in the number of steps with the 10,000 steps group versus 30 minutes group at 12 weeks (p = 0.045). Conclusions This study found that low active, overweight women undertook significantly more physical activity when they had a daily 10,000 step goal using a pedometer, than when they were asked to achieve 30 minutes of walking/day. Therefore we suggest that a public health recommendation of "10,000 steps/day", rather than the "30 min/day" could be applied to promote increased physical activity in sedentary middle aged women. PMID:21453540

  6. Neuroserpin polymorphisms and stroke risk in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    PubMed Central

    Cole, John W; Naj, Adam C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, Oscar C; Sorkin, John D; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Yepes, Manuel; Lawrence, Daniel A; Reinhart, Laurie J; Strickland, Dudley K; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    Background Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American) and 211 age-matched control subjects (43.1% African-American). Neuroserpin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chosen through HapMap were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke. Results Of the five SNPs analyzed, the A allele (frequency; Caucasian = 0.56, African-American = 0.42) of SNP rs6797312 located in intron 1 was associated with stroke in an age-adjusted dominant model (AA and AT vs. TT) among Caucasians (OR = 2.05, p = 0.023) but not African-Americans (OR = 0.71, p = 0.387). Models adjusting for other risk factors strengthened the association. Race-specific haplotype analyses, inclusive of SNP rs6797312, again demonstrated significant associations with stroke among Caucasians only. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that neuroserpin is associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among Caucasian women. PMID:17961231

  7. Composition of the Vaginal Microbiota in Women of Reproductive Age – Sensitive and Specific Molecular Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis Is Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Shipitsyna, Elena; Roos, Annika; Datcu, Raluca; Hallén, Anders; Fredlund, Hans; Jensen, Jørgen S.; Engstrand, Lars; Unemo, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV), with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. Materials and Methods Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora) cases) were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3–V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. Results Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. Conclusions Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be used for test-of-cure, rather than qualitative detection or absolute counts of BV related microorganisms. PMID:23585843

  8. Age related secretary pattern of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I & insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Haji-Hoseini, Reza; Mehanfar, Faezeh; Piri, Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Nezami, Nariman

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: After menopause in women, loss of bone density increases rapidly with estrogen deficiency. Evidence has revealed that this deficiency may be directly correlated with growth hormone (GH) level declining with age. The present study was designed to evaluate the age dependant patterns of GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) endogenous secretion in postmenopausal women. Methods: During this prospective study in a 12-month period, 150 postmenopausal women were enrolled who were referred to the densitometry unit of bone research centre of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for assessing bone mineral density. Serum levels of basal and clonidine stimulated GH were measured using radioimmunoassay while IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were measured by ELISA. Post stimulation over 3 to 6 fold increase in GH over the baseline level was considered normal response and less increase was considered abnormal. Results: There were no significant differences in the mean levels of GH0, GH60 and GH90 in different age groups of postmenopausal women. No significant difference in the mean IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 levels was seen in different age groups of postmenopausal women. The number of postmenopausal women with abnormal response to stimulation by clonidine in 61-70 and > 70 yr age groups was higher than in other groups (P< 0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Despite the higher rate of abnormal response to stimulation by clonidine in women aged more than 60 yr, the current study showed no significant correlation between age, and the basal and stimulated GH secretion rate and serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in postmenopausal women. PMID:24927347

  9. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Small-for-Gestational-Age Offspring in Women at High Risk for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Gernand, Alison D.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Caritis, Steve; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between second-trimester maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) in singleton, live births. Methods We assayed serum samples at 12 to 26 weeks of gestation for 25(OH)D in a sample of participants in a multicenter clinical trial of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk women (n=792). Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to assess the association between 25(OH)D and risk of SGA (birth weight less than the 10th percentile of gestational age) after adjustment for confounders including maternal prepregnancy obesity, race, treatment allocation, and risk group. Results Thirteen percent of infants were SGA at birth. Mean (SD) 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in women who delivered SGA (57.9 [29.9] nmol/L0 vs. non-SGA infants (64.8 [29.3] nmol/L, P=0.028). In adjusted models, 25(OH)D concentrations of 50-74 nmol/L and ?75 nmol/L compared with <30 nmol/L were associated with 43% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.99) and 54% (95% CI 0.24-0.87) reductions in risk of SGA, respectively. Race and maternal obesity each modified this association. White women with 25(OH)D ?50 vs. <50 nmol/L had a 68% reduction in SGA risk (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.63) and nonobese women 25(OH)D ?50 vs. <50 nmol/L had a 50% reduction in SGA risk (adjusted RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.82). There was no association between 25(OH)D and risk of SGA in black or obese mothers. Conclusion Maternal vitamin D status in the second trimester is associated with risk of SGA among all women, and in the subgroups of white and nonobese women. PMID:24463662

  10. Incidence, clearance and predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women

    PubMed Central

    Sellors, John W.; Karwalajtys, Tina L.; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Mahony, James B.; Lytwyn, Alice; Chong, Sylvia; Sparrow, Joanna; Lorincz, Attila

    2003-01-01

    Background Persistent infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is linked to high-grade lesions and cervical cancer. To better understand the natural history of HPV, we sought to determine the rates of incident and cleared carcinogenic HPV infection, by age, among women aged 15–49 years and to explore risk factors for incident infection. Methods Women enrolled in an earlier HPV prevalence survey (500 of 800 who were HPV-negative and all 121 who were HPV-positive) were invited to participate in follow-up HPV testing at their periodic health examination one year later. A cervical soft-brush specimen for HPV testing and a smear for cytologic examination were obtained, and participants completed a questionnaire on their demographic characteristics and sexual history. Results Two hundred and fifty-three (50.6%) previously HPV-negative women and 54 (44.6%) previously HPV-positive women were retested. The mean interval between visits was 14.0 (standard deviation 2.0, median 13.5, range 9.0–21.3) months. Incident HPV infection occurred in 11.1% (28/253) of the women overall, with the highest rate, 25.0% (6/24), in the 15–19-year age group. In the univariate analyses, risk factors for incident HPV were the median number of sexual partners in the past year (? 1 v. ? 2: odds ratio [OR] 8.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0–22.2; p < 0.001) and the median number of sexual partners over a lifetime (> 3 v. ? 3: OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2–7.2; p = 0.014). In multivariate logistic regression modelling adjusted for age, median number of sexual partners in the past year, median number of sexual partners over a lifetime, marital status, current smoking and current use of oral contraceptives, only the median number of sexual partners in the past year remained significantly associated with incidence (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.6–24.5; p = 0.009). Of the previously HPV-positive women, 51.9% (28/54) had cleared the infection. Interpretation Incident infection with carcinogenic HPV was highest in women aged 15–19 years, and risk factors were consistent with a sexually transmitted infection. A large proportion of the women who were HPV-positive appeared to have cleared the infection after one year. PMID:12591782

  11. Effects of combined exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and serum BDNF level in mid-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Chul; Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Nam Ju; Kim, Seung Yoon; Yoon, Nam Kyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study is first to examine a positive effect of long term combined exercise including aerobic and resistance exercise on increasing level of serum BDNF, and investigate how aerobic exercise is related to improving BDNF circulation and resistance exercise improves fat oxidation in mid-aged women. [Methods] Initially, 30 mid-aged women, according to their exercise preference, was randomly assigned as a non-exercise group (n=7, control group; CG) and exercise group (n=23). Then, 23 exercise participants were divided by aerobic exercise group (n=15, AEG) and combination of aerobic and resistance exercise group (n=8, CEG). Prior to the experiment, all participants’maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, and blood factors were measured. Changes (? delta value) in body composition, fitness level, and serum BDNF level of the different groups were tested through one way ANOVA. [Results] For AEG and CG after 24 weeks, VO2max and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly increased. During this period, CEG had significant increase in muscular strength and decrease in triglyceride (TG) total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C (p=0.013). Continuously, serum BDNF concentration of both AEG and CEG was significantly increased (F=6.328, p=0.001) compared to CG. There, however, was no significant between-group difference. [Conclusion] Although there was no difference in serum BDNF level between AEG and CEG, we confirmed that CEG may have a possibility of positive changes in increase of serum BDNF level in mid-aged women. PMID:25566440

  12. Gestational weight gain in normal weight women and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at 20 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hrolfsdottir, L; Rytter, D; Olsen, S F; Bech, B H; Maslova, E; Henriksen, T B; Halldorsson, T I

    2014-10-01

    Objective:Limited knowledge exists on the long-term implications of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring health. Our objective was to examine whether high GWG in normal weight women is associated with adult offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods:We used a cohort of 308 Danish women who gave birth in 1988-89 and whose offspring participated in a clinical examination at 20 years of age. Main outcome measures were offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, weight-regulating hormones, blood lipids and glucose metabolism. Associations were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regression models.Results:A weak positive association was observed between GWG during the first 30 weeks and offspring anthropometry. Each 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with 0.1-kg m(-2) higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.2) offspring BMI and 10% (95% CI: 0.1%, 20%) higher odds of offspring overweight at the age of 20 years, with similar associations observed in both sexes. However, sex differences were observed for the association between maternal GWG and specific cardio-metabolic risk factors. Hence, a 1-kg increase in GWG was associated with 3.4% (95% CI; 0.8, 6.0%) higher homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 3.7% (95% CI: 1.4%, 6.2%) higher insulin and 10.7% (95% CI: 5.7%, 15.9%) higher leptin levels in male offspring. These associations were not observed in females, which may partly be explained by more frequent reports of dieting and physical exercise at follow-up among female offspring.Conclusions:In normal-weight women, high GWG may have modest long-term implications on offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at adult age.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 11 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.179. PMID:25298277

  13. Heart Rate Dynamics after Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Middle-Aged Women: Heterogeneity of Responses

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Tulppo, Mikko P.; Laaksonen, David E.; Nyman, Kai; Keskitalo, Marko; Häkkinen, Arja; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2013-01-01

    The loss of complexity in physiological systems may be a dynamical biomarker of aging and disease. In this study the effects of combined strength and endurance training compared with those of endurance training or strength training alone on heart rate (HR) complexity and traditional HR variability indices were examined in middle-aged women. 90 previously untrained female volunteers between the age of 40 and 65 years completed a 21 week progressive training period of either strength training, endurance training or their combination, or served as controls. Continuous HR time series were obtained during supine rest and submaximal steady state exercise. The complexity of HR dynamics was assessed using multiscale entropy analysis. In addition, standard time and frequency domain measures were also computed. Endurance training led to increases in HR complexity and selected time and frequency domain measures of HR variability (P<0.01) when measured during exercise. Combined strength and endurance training or strength training alone did not produce significant changes in HR dynamics. Inter-subject heterogeneity of responses was particularly noticeable in the combined training group. At supine rest, no training-induced changes in HR parameters were observed in any of the groups. The present findings emphasize the potential utility of endurance training in increasing the complex variability of HR in middle-aged women. Further studies are needed to explore the combined endurance and strength training adaptations and possible gender and age related factors, as well as other mechanisms, that may mediate the effects of different training regimens on HR dynamics. PMID:24013586

  14. A facilitator of leisure activities for stress-related growth experience among middle-aged Korean women with depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Leisure may serve as a coping resource following negative life events that facilitate positive changes. Previous studies on leisure have mainly focused on stress-related growth among individuals living in Western cultures. This study aimed to capture the role of leisure involvement as a facilitator of stress-related growth among middle-aged Korean women with depression. Three main themes were identified as an outcome of participation in leisure activities: (a) strengthening meaningful relationships, (b) improving positive emotions, and (c) facilitating personal strength. By participating in leisure activities, individuals with depression may develop the ability to cope with stress and experience positive changes. PMID:25372946

  15. Fruit and vegetable intake and bone health in women aged 45 years and over: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamidi; B. A. Boucher; A. M. Cheung; J. Beyene; P. S. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Summary  High fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with improved bone status among women aged ?45 years. This is the first\\u000a systematic review that specifically assessed this association and identified research gaps. The benefits of fruit and vegetables\\u000a (F&V) on bone health remain unclear. Further studies are needed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  F&V have several components that are beneficial to bones. Some studies report that

  16. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury exposure in inuit women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, G; Ayotte, P; Dewailly E; Jacobson, S W; Jacobson, J L

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to to identify maternal characteristics associated with traditional food consumption and to examine food items associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury body burden in pregnant Inuit women from Northern Québec. We interviewed women from three communities at mid-pregnancy and at 1 and 11 months postpartum. We measured PCBs, Hg, and selenium in maternal blood; Hg was also measured in maternal hair. The women reported eating significant amounts of fish, beluga muktuk/fat, seal meat, and seal fat. Although consumption of fish and seal was associated with lower socioeconomic status, consumption of beluga whale was uniform across strata. Fish and seal meat consumption was associated with increased Hg concentrations in hair. Traditional food intake during pregnancy was unrelated to PCB body burden, which is more a function of lifetime consumption. This study corroborated previous findings relating marine mammal and fish consumption to increased Hg and selenium body burden. Despite widespread knowledge regarding the presence of these contaminants in traditional foods, a large proportion of Inuit women increased their consumption of these foods during pregnancy, primarily because of pregnancy-related changes in food preferences and the belief that these foods are beneficial during pregnancy. PMID:11673127

  17. Epidemiologic Features of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among Reproductive-Age Women in India

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Sujit D.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur L.; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    Background. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by curd-like vaginal discharge and itching, and is associated with considerable health and economic costs. Materials and Methods. We examined the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis among a cohort of 898 women in south India. Participants completed three study visits over six months, comprised of a structured interview and a pelvic examination. Results. The positive predictive values for diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis using individual signs or symptoms were low (<19%). We did not find strong evidence for associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Women clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis had a higher prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (Prevalence 12%, 95% CI 8.2, 15.8) compared to women assessed to be negative for bacterial vaginosis (Prevalence 6.5%, 95% 5.3, 7.6); however, differences in the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis were not observed by the presence or absence of laboratory-confirmed bacterial vaginosis. Conclusions. For correct diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis, laboratory confirmation of infection with Candida is necessary as well as assessment of whether the discharge has been caused by bacterial vaginosis. Studies are needed of women infected with Candida yeast species to determine the risk factors for yeast's overgrowth. PMID:23118494

  18. Gender-specific implications for pharmacology in childbearing age and in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Wolski, Hubert; Bogacz, Anna; Kujawski, Rados?aw; O?arowski, Marcin; Majchrzycki, Marian; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-02-01

    Women have three very important physiological functions that are not observed in men--menstruation, pregnancy and lactation. Each of these mechanisms influences pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs. Individualization of pharmacotherapy is a major challenge of modern medicine. The differences in response to drug are responsible for the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and the occurrence and severity of toxic effects and side effects. Therapeutic decision should be based not only on account of the dose-effect, but the consideration of gender, genetic and environmental differences affecting the final therapeutic effect. Many important differences between men and women like sex-based differences in normal physiology, or in the predisposition to a specific disease, can be due to genetic differences, the actions of the sex steroid hormones or an interaction between these factors. Women generally have a lower body mass, a reduced hepatic clearance, differences in activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (increase in CYP3A4, decrease in CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP1A2) and different from men's rate of drug metabolism. Other important factors contributing to gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of drugs are conjugation, absorption, protein binding and urinary excretion. It still remains unexplained how gender differences affect the increased risk of side effects. This review is an attempt to assess the biological, physiological and hormonal basis of women differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs. PMID:25807840

  19. The Resume Characteristics Determining Job Interviews for Middle-Aged Women Seeking Entry-Level Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emily; Lahey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining an entry-level job can be critically important for women with little education, particularly those who have taken time out of the labor force. This article uses archival data from a field experiment, called a resume audit study, to examine the characteristics of entry-level resumes that are important to potential employers. In accordance…

  20. Obesity in women from developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Martorell; L Kettel Khan; ML Hughes; LM Grummer-Strawn

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The key objective was to estimate obesity (?30 kg\\/m2) in women 15–49 y from developing countries. A second objective was to study how obesity varies by educational level and by residence in urban and rural areas. A third objective was to investigate how national incomes shape the relationship between obesity and eduction or residence.Design: The analyses use cross-sectional data

  1. Physical activity and the risk of becoming overweight or obese in middle aged and older women

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Kathryn A.; Lee, I-Min; Wang, Lu; Gaziano, J. Michael; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Sesso, Howard D.

    2012-01-01

    Although public health campaigns stress leisure time physical activity (LTPA) as essential for obesity prevention, few epidemiological studies have focused on the association of specific types and intensities of LTPA and the clinical endpoints of overweight and obesity. Therefore, we prospectively assessed whether moderate and vigorous intensity as well as total LTPA were associated with the risk of becoming either overweight or obese using a prospective cohort design of 19,003 women enrolled in the Women’s Health Study. Women reported their participation in walking and LTPA at baseline. During a median follow-up of 11.6 years, 7865 women became overweight or obese. In multivariable-adjusted models that included demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors, both vigorous intensity and total LTPA showed a modest inverse relationship with the development of overweight/obesity. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest categories of vigorous intensity LTPA (>2000 kilocalories/week) and total LTPA (>3000 kilocalories/week) compared to no LTPA were 0.79 (0.71–0.89) and 0.87 (0.78–0.96), respectively. In addition, a greater percentage of total LTPA spent performing vigorous intensity activities was associated with a lower risk of overweight/obesity (multivariable HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87–0.98 for performing > 50% compared to < 50% of activity as vigorous). In conclusion, higher amounts of total LTPA should be encouraged to prevent obesity. Among those willing to participate in vigorous LTPA, and for whom such activities are not contraindicated, vigorous LPTA should be encouraged. PMID:22193920

  2. Multiple environmental chemical exposures to lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls among childbearing-aged women (NHANES 1999–2004): Body burden and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Marcella Remer; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are neurotoxicants with intergenerational health consequences from maternal body burden and gestational exposures. Little is known about multiple chemical exposures among childbearing-aged women. Objectives To determine the percentage of women aged 16–49 of diverse races and ethnicities whose body burdens for all three xenobiotics were at or above the median; to identify mixed exposures; and to describe those women disproportionately burdened by two or more of these chemicals based on susceptibility- and exposure-related attributes, socioeconomic factors and race-ethnicity. Methods Secondary data analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Results The best-fit logistic regression model without interactions contained 12 variables. Four risk factors associated with body burden were notable (P ? 0.05). An exponential relationship was demonstrated with increasing age. Any fish consumption in past 30 days more than doubled the odds. Heavy alcohol consumption increased the relative risk. History of breastfeeding reduced this risk. These women were more likely to have two xenobiotics at or above the median than one. More than one-fifth of these childbearing-aged women had three xenobiotic levels at or above the median. Conclusions These findings are among the first description of US childbearing-aged women’s body burden and risk factors for multiple chemical exposures. This study supports increasing age, any fish consumption and heavy alcohol consumption as significant risk factors for body burden. History of breastfeeding lowered the body burden. Limited evidence was found of increased risk among minority women independent of other risk factors. PMID:23158727

  3. Levels, trends and reasons for unmet need for family planning among married women in Botswana: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Letamo, Gobopamang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the prevalence of unmet need for family planning among married women using Botswana Family Health Survey 2007 data and (2) to identify risk factors for unmet need for family planning among married women. Design This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to provide a snapshot of health issues in Botswana. Setting Nationally representative population survey data. Participants 2601 married or in union women aged 15–49?years who participated in the 2007 Botswana Family Health Survey were included in the analysis. Primary outcome Unmet need for family planning, which was defined as the percentage of all fecund married women who are not using a method of contraception even though they do not want to get pregnant. Results Married women who had unmet need for family planning were 9.6% in 2007. Most of the unmet need was for limiting (6.7%) compared to spacing (2.9%). Unmet need for family planning was more likely to be among women whose partners disapproved of family planning, non-Christians, had one partner and had never discussed family planning with their partner. Women of low parity, aged 25–34?years, and greater exposure to mass media, were less likely to have experienced unmet need. The patterns and magnitude of covariates differed between unmet need for limiting and for spacing. Conclusions The prevalence of unmet need for family planning was low in Botswana compared to other sub-Saharan African countries. The findings from this study reemphasise the importance of women's empowerment and men's involvement in women's sexual and reproductive healthcare needs and services. Different approaches are needed to satisfy the demand for family planning for spacing and limiting. PMID:25829370

  4. Age trends in the prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV-positive women in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) are more frequent in HIV-positive women overall. However the appropriate age at which to begin and end cervical cancer screening for early detection of lesions in HIV-positive women is not clear. We assessed the age-specific prevalence of any SIL and SIL requiring colposcopy in HIV-positive women in Cameroon. Methods We enrolled, interviewed and conducted conventional cervical cytology in 282 women, aged 19–68 years, initiating antiretroviral therapy in three clinics in Cameroon. In bivariable analyses, the crude relationship between age and the presence of lesions was assessed using locally weighted regression (LOWESS) methods. In multivariate analyses, generalized linear models with prevalence as the outcome, an identity link and a binomial distribution, were used to estimate prevalence differences. Bias analyses were conducted to assess the potential effect of inaccuracies in cytology. Results SIL were detected in 43.5% of the 276 women with satisfactory samples, 17.8% of whom had ASC-H/HSIL. On average, women aged 26 to 59 tended to have a slightly higher prevalence of any SIL than other women (Prevalence difference PD: 6.5%; 95%CI: -11.4, 24.4%). This PD was a function of CD4 count (heterogeneity test p-value =0.09): amongst patients with CD4 counts less than 200cells/uL, the prevalence was higher in patients aged 26–59, while there was essentially no difference amongst women with CD4 counts greater than 200 cells/uL. ASC-H/HSIL were present in women as young as 19 and as old as 62. Overall the prevalence of ASC-H/HSIL increased by 0.7% (95%CI: -3.8%, 5.1%) per decade increase in age. Conclusion Both severe and less severe lesions were prevalent at all ages suggesting little utility of age-targeted screening among HIV-positive women. Nevertheless, the long-term evolution of these lesions needs to be assessed in prospective studies. PMID:23106940

  5. Influences of player nationality, playing position, and height on relative age effects at women's under-17 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young male soccer players who are born early in a cohort are overrepresented on elite soccer teams. Selection advantages such as this have been termed 'relative age effects' (RAEs). Few studies have examined RAEs in elite women's youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of RAEs in the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) U-17 Women's World Cup competition and their link to playing positions. In the entire cohort of 672 players, we found significant RAEs in the geographical zones of Europe and North and Central America, no RAEs in the zones of Asia, Oceania, and South America, and significant inverse RAEs in the zone of Africa. Additionally, significant RAEs were found for goalkeepers and defenders from Europe and North and Central America. Inverse RAEs occurred for African goalkeepers, defenders, and strikers. Goalkeepers of all zones were significantly taller than players of all other playing positions. The results of this study show that remarkable RAEs do exist at elite women's youth soccer. Similar to men's soccer, there is a bias toward the inclusion of relatively older players, and a link between RAEs and playing positions. PMID:22909307

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance of Urinary Tract Isolates in Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis among College-Aged Women: Choosing a First-Line Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hames, Leesa; Rice, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors of this retrospective case study focused on antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary tract isolates in cases of acute uncomplicated cystitis in college-aged women, aged 18 to 24 years, diagnosed at a major south-central university student health center. Methods: The authors obtained pertinent data from…

  7. TMPRSS6 rs855791 Polymorphism Influences the Susceptibility to Iron Deficiency Anemia in Women at Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Sung-Nan; Ma, Ming-Chun; You, Huey-Ling; Fu, Hung-Chun; Kuo, Ching-Yuan; Rau, Kun-Ming; Wang, Ming-Chung; Lee, Chien-Te

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide-association studies have identified the TMPRSS6 polymorphism rs855791 has the strongest association with red blood cell indices or iron parameters in general population. Whether this genetic variant influences the susceptibility of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in women with menstruation has not been well studied. Methods: In this case-control study, we enrolled 67 women with IDA and 107 healthy volunteers, and analyzed their complete blood counts, rs855791 genotypes, and menstrual amounts. Menstrual blood loss was evaluated with a pictorial blood-loss assessment chart. Results: There were significantly fewer rs855791 C homozygotes in the IDA group than in the healthy group (11.9% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.03). The odds ratio (OR) of C homozygotes having IDA versus non-CC subjects having IDA was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.17 - 0.95, p = 0.04). When the analysis was confined to study subjects with menorrhagia, this difference became more prominent (9.6% vs. 28.6%, p = 0.01; OR, 0.27, 95% CI, 0.09 - 0.77, p = 0.01). For women with non-CC genotypes, there was an inverse correlation between hemoglobin levels and menstrual loss (p < 0.001); however, this association was not found for those with genotypes CC (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Our study suggests homozygosity for TMPRSS6 rs855791 C genotype has a protective role against IDA in women at reproductive age, especially in those with menorrhagia. PMID:24782651

  8. Women rule Hollywood’: ageing and freelance stardom in the studio system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Carman

    2012-01-01

    This essay considers how ageism impacted the careers of freelance A-list Hollywood female stars working in the studio system during the 1930s–1940s, when the number of women working as free agents substantially outnumbered their male counterparts. Using studio contracts and internal studio correspondences as well as industry trades and press releases, I examine the economic and industrial ramifications for these

  9. Facing Up to Aging: Mid-Life Women's Attitudes toward Cosmetic Procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan C. Chrisler; Jennifer A. Gorman; Katherine E. Serra; Kimberly R. Chapman

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that mid-life and older women are a major consumer group for cosmetic procedures (e.g., botox, face lifts), few studies have been done on their attitudes toward these procedures and their willingness to undergo them. The purpose of the present study was to gather information about the popularity of these procedures among a group of 57 mid-life American

  10. Iron status of middle-aged women in five counties of rural China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MM Root; J Hu; LS Stephenson; RS Parker; TC Campbell

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationships of dietary iron sources, other dietary factors, and lifestyle to iron status among premenopausal and recently postmenopausal Chinese women with widely varying regional dietary patterns.Design: Cross-sectional. Subjects were interviewed, blood samples were drawn, and dietary intakes were measured by a 3-day dietary survey for subjects in the five survey counties.Setting: Rural ChinaSubjects: About 80 randomly

  11. Drinking habits and detection of heavy drinking among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Seppä, K; Koivula, T; Sillanaukee, P

    1992-12-01

    Little is known about alcohol consumption and the efficiency of alcohol questionnaires among women. In the present study 40-year-old (n = 90) and 45-year-old (n = 75) women participating in a health screening gave a self-report about their alcohol consumption and filled out the Malmö modified Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mm-MAST) and the CAGE questionnaires. Teetotallers comprised 11% of the 40-year-old group and 8% of the 45-year-old women. CAGE, but not Mm-MAST worked with the traditional cut-off point of two recommended for men. When the criterion for heavy drinking was a self-reported consumption > or = 140 g of absolute alcohol per week or a positive (> or = 2) finding in the CAGE or > or = 4 'yes' answers in the Mm-MAST, 20% of the 40-year-old and 17% of the 45-year-old group (together 19%) proved positive. Neither of the two questionnaires nor self-report alone worked perfectly for identifying the heavy drinker group (n = 31) screened. Using the three above criteria; of the heavy drinkers 52% were detected by self-report, 55% by CAGE, and 45% by Mm-MAST. CAGE in combination with self-report detected 90% and this combination, being short and simple, can be recommended for clinical practice. PMID:1490084

  12. Determination of numbers of lead-exposed women of childbearing age and pregnant women: An integrated summary of a report to the U. S. Congress on childhood lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Crocetti, A.F. (New York Medical College, NY (USA)); Mushak, P. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA)); Schwartz, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-11-01

    In a Congressionally mandated study carried out under the aegis of the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and summarized in this article, the authors have provided estimates of the numbers of American women of childbearing age and the numbers of American pregnant women whose lead exposure is sufficiently elevated to pose an intrauterine toxicity risk. Exposures associated with such risk were defined as blood lead (PbB) levels > 10, > 15, < 20, and < 25 {mu}g/dL. Using PbB prevalence projection techniques based on the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), they first generated projected 1984 prevalence of these PbB levels in white and black women of childbearing age, ages 15 to 19 and 20 to 44. White women in the two age bands had rates of PbBs > 10 {mu}g/dL of 9.2 and 9.7%, respectively. For black women, the corresponding rates were 8.2 and 19.7%, respectively. Pregnant black and white women in US SMSAs are approximately 9% of the US black and white childbearing age total, i.e., 3.6 million out of a 41.3 million SMSA total. Of these, 403,200 pregnant women were estimated to have PbB levels > 10 {mu}g/dL. Cumulative totals of exposed fetuses with persisting long-term exposure will be greater, in as much as a given fetus is never counted more than once in this type of survey. Over 10 years, the number would be over 4 million fetuses at elevated risk of health effects.

  13. Burden of menstrual symptoms in Japanese women – an analysis of medical care-seeking behavior from a survey-based study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Erika; Momoeda, Mikio; Osuga, Yutaka; Rossi, Bruno; Nomoto, Ken; Hayakawa, Masakane; Kokubo, Kinya; Wang, Edward CY

    2014-01-01

    Background Menstrual symptoms are associated with various health problems in women of reproductive age, and this may impact their quality of life. Despite this, Japanese women are likely to hesitate seeking a specialist’s medical help for their menstrual symptoms. Purpose To study subject parameters including symptom severity, gynecological disorders, and treatments in medical care-seeking women (outpatient) and women opting for self-care (nonvisit), to identify reasons why Japanese women do not see a gynecologist, and to document the benefit of gynecologist visits by assessing the impact on women’s daily lives. Methods Two online surveys were conducted among women aged 15–49 years. Sampling was structured to approximate the age and geographic distribution in Japan. Results of the first survey and part of the second survey on the overall current burden of menstrual symptoms are reported in a separate publication. Further outcomes from the second survey reported in this paper included data from the outpatient (n=274) and nonvisit (n=500) groups on symptom severity, gynecological disorders, medical treatment use, reasons for not seeking medical care, and the improvement of daily life. Results The outpatient group tended to have greater symptom severity compared to the nonvisit group. Uterine fibroids, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, and premenstrual syndrome were the most commonly self-reported diagnoses, and oral contraceptives were frequently prescribed at gynecologist visits. Nonvisit group subjects felt that gynecologist consultations were unnecessary or felt resistant to them. Daily life was significantly improved after medical treatment from a gynecologist visit with associated economic savings, whilst the nonvisit group had no change after taking over-the-counter drugs to relieve their menstrual symptoms. Conclusion The present study results indicate that Japanese women who were suffering from menstrual symptoms could benefit from visiting a gynecologist for easing their symptoms, hence improving their daily life. PMID:24368891

  14. A multi-case report of the pathways to and through genetic testing and cancer risk management for BRCA mutation-positive women aged 18–25

    PubMed Central

    Werner-Lin, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Much of the extant literature addressing the psychosocial aspects of BRCA1/2 mutation testing and risk management aggregates mutation carriers of all ages in study recruitment, data analysis, and interpretation. This analytic strategy does not adequately address the needs of the youngest genetic testing consumers, i.e., women aged 18–25. Despite low absolute cancer risk estimates before age 30, BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women aged 18–25 feel vulnerable to a cancer diagnosis but find themselves in a management quandary because the clinical utility of screening and prevention options are not yet well defined for such young carriers. We present three cases, selected from a larger study of 32 BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women who completed or considered genetic testing before age 25, to demonstrate the unique developmental, relational and temporal influences, as well as the challenges, experienced by very young BRCA mutation-positive women as they complete genetic testing and initiate cancer risk management. The first case describes the maturation of a young woman whose family participated in a national cancer registry. The second addresses the experiences and expectations of a young woman who completed genetic testing after learning that her unaffected father was a mutation carrier. The third case highlights the experiences of a young woman parentally bereaved in childhood, who presented for genetic counseling and testing due to intense family pressure. Together, these cases suggest that BRCA1/2-positive women aged 18–25 are challenged to reconcile their burgeoning independence from their families with risk-related support needs. Loved ones acting in ways meant to care for these young women may inadvertently apply pressure, convoluting family support dynamics and autonomous decision-making. Ongoing support from competent healthcare professionals will enable these young women to remain informed and receive objective counsel about their risk-management decisions. PMID:22864682

  15. Lower left ventricular mass, 24-hr blood pressure and exercise blood pressure in fit vs unfit middle-aged men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas E. Pittaras; Peter F. Kokkinos; Athanasios J. Manolis; Puneet Narayan; Steven Singh; Vasilios Papademetriou

    2003-01-01

    Background: Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is directly related to left ventricular mass (LVM).Aerobic fitness is associated with lower ABP.Thus, high-fit individuals may have lower LVM when compared to those of low fitness.Methods: We assessed cardiac structure (Echo) and fitness (Bruce) in 480 middle-aged women (age=54± 10),and 385 middle-aged men (52±15), to determine the association between aerobic fitness, ABP and

  16. Combined effects of body composition and ageing on joint torque, muscle activation and co-contraction in sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, G L

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the interplay between body mass, adiposity, ageing and determinants of skeletal muscle strength. One hundred and two untrained healthy women categorised by age into young (Y) (mean?±?SD, 26.7?±?9.4 years) vs. old (O) (65.1?±?7.2 years) were assessed for body fat, lean mass, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, muscle activation capacity and antagonist muscle co-contraction. MVC torque normalised to body mass in the obese group was 35 and 29 % lower (p?ageing (16.1 % in O vs. 13.8 % in Y, p?age, strength and activation capacity, with the strongest correlation between muscle strength and total body mass (r (2)?=?0.508 in Y, p?age-related loss in plantar flexion (PF) MVC torque was exacerbated in obese compared to underweight, normal weight and overweight individuals (-0.96 vs. -0.54, -0.57 and -0.57 % per year, p?ageing and obesity on this system are somewhat cumulative. PMID:24744050

  17. Women's Empowerment and Contraceptive Use: The Role of Independent versus Couples' Decision-Making, from a Lower Middle Income Country Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Sheikh, Muhammad Ishaque; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined - and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach. Methods We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR), to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods. Results Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method. Conclusion Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to be made to educate women and their husbands equally, with particular focus on highly effective contraceptive methods. PMID:25119727

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates Genetic Influences on Age at First Consensual Sexual Intercourse in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Waldron; Andrew C. Heath; Eric N. Turkheimer; Robert E. Emery; Elliot Nelson; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Pamela A. F. Madden; Nicholas G. Martin

    2008-01-01

    We examine interactive effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on heritable variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse\\u000a in a young cohort of 3,350 female and 2,724 male Australian twins. Consistent with hypotheses, genetic influences explained\\u000a little if any variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse for female twins reporting CSA (CSA+), with shared environment explaining 73%. For

  19. Improving cardiovascular fitness by strength or endurance training in women aged 76-78 years. A population-based, randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAURI KALLINEN; S ARIANNA SIPILA; M ARKKU ALEN; H ARRI SUOMINEN

    Background: there have been few population-based, randomized controlled trials on the effects of strength or endurance training on cardiovascular fitness in older women. Objective: to study the effects of strength or endurance training on cardiovascular fitness in women aged 76-78 years. Design: a population-based, randomized controlled trial. Setting: exercise laboratory in a university faculty of sport and health sciences. Subjects:

  20. Effect of Land-Based and Water-Based Fitness Programs on the Cardiovascular Fitness, Strength and Flexibility of Women Aged 65–75 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Taunton; E. C. Rhodes; L. A. Wolski; M. Donelly; J. Warren; J. Elliot; L. McFarlane; J. Leslie; J. Mitchell; B. Lauridsen

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a generalized water-based exercise program (WBE) compared to a land-based exercise program (LBE) on improving cardio-respiratory fitness, body composition, forward trunk flexion and strength measurements of elderly women aged 70 ± 3.2 years (mean ± SD). Forty-one healthy, sedentary women were selected to participate in the study and were

  1. Age-Related Bone Mineral Density, Bone Loss Rate, Prevalence of Osteoporosis, and Reference Database of Women at Multiple Centers in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Guang Cheng; Ding-Zhuo Yang; Qi Zhou; Tie-Jun Zhuo; Hua-Chou Zhang; Jing Xiang; Hong-Fu Wang; Ping-Zhong Ou; Jian-Li Liu; Ling Xu; Gong-Yi Huang; Qi-Ren Huang; Howard S. Barden; Linda S. Weynand; Ken G. Faulkner; Xun-Wu Meng

    2007-01-01

    Our study surveyed age-related bone mineral density (BMD), bone loss rate, and prevalence of osteoporosis in women at multiple research centers in China. Survey results were used to establish a BMD reference database for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Chinese women nationwide. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone densitometers to measure BMD at posteroanterior (PA) lumbar spine (L1–L4; n=8142) and

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Types 1 and 2: Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Among a Nigerian Rural Population of Women of Childbearing Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adoga M P; Nimzing L; Abdu Abubakar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) still continues to ravage the world since its discovery about three decades ago in spite of global intervention efforts. Women are the most infected, majority of which are found in sub-saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: We set out to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and to evaluate risk factors among women of child-bearing age in

  3. Laser-assisted hatching of embryos is better than the chemical method for enhancing the pregnancy rate in women with advanced age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao-Yuan Hsieh; Chun-Chia Huang; Tzu-Chun Cheng; Chi-Chen Chang; Horng-Der Tsai; Maw-Sheng Lee

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Assisted hatching may enhance embryo implantation. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of the laser- and chemical-assisted hatching for promotion of implantation (IR), pregnancy (PR), and delivery rate (DR) in older women undergoing IVF cycles.Design: Prospective study.Setting: An IVF unit of a medical center.Patient(s): A total of 601 embryos from 141 women aged ?38 years underwent controlled

  4. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira; Viola Pfleger; Katrin Lang; Jörg Heukelbach; Iracema Miralles; Francisco Fraga; Anastácio Queiroz Sousa; Marina Stoffler-Meilicke; Ralf Ignatius; Ligia Franco Sansigolo Kerr; Hermann Feldmeier

    2007-01-01

    Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from

  5. The relationship between socio-economic inequalities, intimate partner violence and economic abuse: a national study of women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Antai, Diddy; Antai, Justina; Anthony, David Steven

    2014-01-01

    Economic abuse against women has for too long remained a relatively 'unseen' part of interpersonal violence, in spite of intimate partner violence (IPV) being a public health problem. Most studies on economic abuse derive especially from the USA and amongst women in shelters, and their findings are not easily generalisable to low-middle-income countries. Socio-economic inequalities render women vulnerable to control and risk of abuse. We investigated the role of socio-economic inequalities in the association between IPV and economic abuse. Logistic regression analyses were performed on cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of 8478 women aged 15-49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys. Results indicated strong positive associations between both physical IPV and emotional IPV and all four forms of economic abuse. Measures of socio-economic inequalities and other covariates such as no education, primary education, unemployment and justifying wife beating were also statistically significant. Findings suggest the increased need for health care practitioners to include economic abuse during the assessment of and response to IPV, the implementation of a multidimensional approach to providing tangible support and women-centred responses in reported cases of economic abuse, as well as measures that enhance socio-economic equality and increase economic opportunities for women. PMID:24881467

  6. Risky alcohol use among reproductive-age men, not women, in Mae La refugee camp, Thailand, 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, alcohol use contributes to close to 4% of all deaths and is a leading cause of ill health and premature death among men of reproductive age. Problem alcohol use is an unaddressed public health issue among populations displaced by conflict. Assessing the magnitude of the problem and identifying affected groups and risk behaviours is difficult in mobile and unstable populations. Methods From 15–28 December 2009 we conducted a simple rapid screening test of risky alcohol use using the single item modified Short Assessment Screening Questionnaire (mSASQ) by all women currently enrolled in the antenatal care clinic in Mae La refugee camp, a long standing displaced setting on the Thai Burma border. Women self- reported and gave a secondary report of their male partners. Gender differences in alcohol use were further explored in semi-structured interviews with camp residents on attitudes, behaviours, and beliefs regarding alcohol and analysed thematically. Results Of 636 women screened in the antenatal clinic, almost none (0.2%, 95CI 0.0-0.9%) reported risky alcohol use prior to pregnancy, whereas around a quarter (24.4%, 95CI 21.2-27.9%) reported risky alcohol use by their male partners. Interviews with 97 camp residents described strong social controls against women’s alcohol use and men’s drinking to intoxication, despite a dominant perception that the social context of life in displacement promoted alcohol use and that controls are loosening. Conclusions As a stigmatised behaviour, alcohol use is difficult to assess, particularly in the context of highly mobile adult male populations: the simple assessment methods here show that it is feasible to obtain adequate data for the purposes of intervention design. The data suggest that risky drinking is common and normalised among men, but that the population may have been partially protected from rapid rises in problem alcohol use observed in nation-wide data from Thailand. The changing social context contains vulnerabilities that might promote problem alcohol use: further investigation, ongoing monitoring, and development of targeted interventions are warranted. PMID:22963719

  7. Community-level influences on women's experience of intimate partner violence and terminated pregnancy in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences for women’s physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive health outcomes such as unwanted and terminated pregnancies, fetal loss or child loss during infancy, non-use of family planning methods, and high fertility are increasingly recognized. However, little is known about the role of community influences on women's experience of IPV and its effect on terminated pregnancy, given the increased awareness of IPV being a product of social context. This study sought to examine the role of community-level norms and characteristics in the association between IPV and terminated pregnancy in Nigeria. Methods Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on nationally-representative cross-sectional data including 19,226 women aged 15–49 years in Nigeria. Data were collected by a stratified two-stage sampling technique, with 888 primary sampling units (PSUs) selected in the first sampling stage, and 7,864 households selected through probability sampling in the second sampling stage. Results Women who had experienced physical IPV, sexual IPV, and any IPV were more likely to have terminated a pregnancy compared to women who had not experienced these IPV types. IPV types were significantly associated with factors reflecting relationship control, relationship inequalities, and socio-demographic characteristics. Characteristics of the women aggregated at the community level (mean education, justifying wife beating, mean age at first marriage, and contraceptive use) were significantly associated with IPV types and terminated pregnancy. Conclusion Findings indicate the role of community influence in the association between IPV-exposure and terminated pregnancy, and stress the need for screening women seeking abortions for a history of abuse. PMID:23150987

  8. Effects of customized balance exercises on older women whose balance ability has deteriorated with age.

    PubMed

    Narita, Makoto; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Koizumi, Daisuke; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Falls represent a major public health problem for older adults, and loss of balance (LOS) abilities is one of the primary causes of falls. Previous studies have shown that balance training is effective in improving physical function and decreasing risk of falls. However, little attention has been given specifically to balance training in older adults with very poor balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 12-week customized balance exercise program on LOS for community-dwelling older women with poor balance ability. Twenty-four older women with poor balance (composite maximum excursion [MXEcomp] score of less than 70% based on Limits of Stability) were divided into an exercise group and control group. After 12 weeks of balance exercises, mean MXEcomp improved (p < .05) from 58.6% to 79.0% in the exercise group. EPEcomp (composite endpoint excursion), RTcomp (composite reaction time), SVcomp3 (composite sway velocity on thick foam with the eyes open), UG (up and go) also improved, but the functional reach and other static balance indexes did not change. These results indicated that balance training allows older adults with poor balance to improve dynamic balance ability and potentially reduce risk for falls. PMID:25607815

  9. The Prevalence of Infertility and Loneliness among Women Aged 18-49 Years Who Are Living in Semi-Rural Areas in Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Unsal, Alaettin; Arslantas, Didem

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73). The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each). The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70). In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p?0.05). Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women. PMID:25083180

  10. Acculturation and Post-Migration Stress in Middle-Aged Chinese Immigrant Women in Philadelphia: Variation between the Fujianese and the non-Fujianese women

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Tseng, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The experience of acculturation in Chinese immigrant women from the rural coastal province of Fujian has not been well studied despite of their growing numbers in American cities. This exploratory study is an attempt to examine the experience of acculturation and post-migration stress in Fujianese immigrant women as compared to those from other parts of China. The study is based on a convenience sample 240 Fujianese and 162 non-Fujianese Chinese immigrant women living in Philadelphia. Results from bivariate analyses showed that the variation in demographic characteristics between Fujianese and non-Fujianese women was marginal; that all Chinese women in this study reported experiencing a unidimensional process of acculturation and a domain-generic model of acculturation; and that the Fujianese women showed a higher level of post-migration stress than the non-Fujianese women. In multiple regression controlling for demographic characteristics and including all the women in our sample, more acculturated women reported a higher level of post-migration stress. However, separate multiple regression analyses for Fujianese and non-Fujianese women revealed a different pattern of post-migration stress models. The findings suggest the importance of further research to understand acculturation and post-migration stress among Fujianese immigrant women. PMID:22451743

  11. The need to consider relative age effects in women's talent development process.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences among athletes in the same selection year. This study analyzed birth date distributions of 301,428 female athletes (aged 10-20 yr.) in Swiss Youth sports and the subgroup (n = 1,177) of the National Talent Development Program (TDP) in individual sports. Comparisons showed significant RAEs in the distribution of athletes' birth dates in alpine skiing, tennis, athletics, fencing, and snowboarding. Significant "reverse" RAEs with an overrepresentation of athletes at the end of the year were found in table tennis. In the TDP, significant RAEs were found in alpine skiing and tennis. No RAEs were detected in athletics. In table tennis, fencing, and snowboarding, "reverse" RAEs were found. Clearly, RAEs are complex and vary across individual sports for females. PMID:25068738

  12. Variation in longitudinal trajectories of regional brain volumes of healthy men and women (ages 10 to 85 years) measured with atlas-based parcellation of MRI.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rohlfing, Torsten; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Chu, Weiwei; Colrain, Ian M; Sullivan, Edith V

    2013-01-15

    Numerous cross-sectional MRI studies have characterized age-related differences in regional brain volumes that differ with structure and tissue type. The extent to which cross-sectional assumptions about change are accurate depictions of actual longitudinal measurement remains controversial. Even longitudinal studies can be limited by the age range of participants, sex distribution of the samples, and scan intervals. To address these issues, we calculated trajectories of regional brain volume changes from T1-weighted (SPGR) MRI data, quantified with our automated, unsupervised SRI24 atlas-based registration and parcellation method. Longitudinal MRIs were acquired at 3T in 17 boys and 12 girls, age 10 to 14 years, and 41 men and 41 women, age 20 to 85 years at first scan. Application of a regression-based correction function permitted merging of data acquired at 3T field strength with data acquired at 1.5T from additional subjects, thereby expanding the sample to a total of 55 men and 67 women, age 20 to 85 years at first scan. Adjustment for individual supratentorial volume removed regional volume differences between men and women due to sex-related differences in head size. Individual trajectories were computed from data collected on 2 to 6 MRIs at a single field strength over a ~1 to 8 year interval. Using linear mixed-effects models, the pattern of trajectories over age indicated: rises in ventricular and Sylvian fissure volumes, with older individuals showing faster increases than younger ones; declines in selective cortical volumes with faster tissue shrinkage in older than younger individuals; little effect of aging on volume of the corpus callosum; more rapid expansion of CSF-filled spaces in men than women after age 60 years; and evidence for continued growth in central white matter through early adulthood with accelerated decline in senescence greater in men than women. PMID:23063452

  13. How women in late midlife become caregivers for their aging parents.

    PubMed

    Pope, Natalie D; Kolomer, Stacey; Glass, Anne P

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 52 million Americans provide informal (unpaid) care to a family member or friend who is disabled or ill. The most common informal caregiving relationship is that of an adult child providing assistance to an aging parent. This article describes a qualitative study examining how adult daughters between the ages of 50 and 65 become caregivers to their parent or parent-in-law. Data were collected through in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 15 female caregivers. Analysis revealed that assistance provided to parents was initiated by one or more triggering event, after which participants became caregivers in either an emergent or deliberate manner. PMID:22757762

  14. Age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in young pregnant women, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Daljit S; Law, Lai-Wa; Cheng, Yvonne KY; Leung, Tak-Yeung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in young pregnant women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, and to determine whether an increase in prevalence occurs during adolescence. Methods HBV prevalence was quantified using data from routine antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 10?808 women aged 25 years or younger born in Hong Kong SAR and managed at a single hospital between 1998 and 2011. The effect on prevalence of maternal age, parity and birth before or after HBV vaccine availability in 1984 was assessed, using Spearman’s correlation and multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings Overall, 7.5% of women were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence ranged from 2.3% to 8.4% in those aged ??16 and 23 years, respectively. Women born in or after 1984 and those younger than 18 years of age were less likely to be HBsAg-positive (odds ratio, OR: 0.679; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.578–0.797) and (OR: 0.311; 95% CI: 0.160–0.604), respectively. For women born before 1984, there was no association between HBsAg carriage and being younger than 18 years of age (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.262–1.370) Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of HBsAg carriage was influenced more by the woman being 18 years old or older (adjusted OR, aOR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.46–5.47) than being born before 1984 (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21–1.67). Conclusion Immunity to HBV in young pregnant women who had been vaccinated as neonates decreased in late adolescence. PMID:25378739

  15. Different dietary lifestyles and serum zinc and copper in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Breskin, M.W.; Worthington-Roberts, B.S.; Monsen, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    Nutrient intakes and biochemical measures of zinc and copper were compared in non-pregnant young women representing different dietary lifestyles, viz, those who habitually ate red meat (RM), fish or poultry (FP), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LV) sources of protein. All were in good health and concerned about their diets; none was using supplements or oral contraceptives. Three-day food records were analyzed for nutrient content. Serum and drinking water samples were assayed for zinc and copper (AAS), and serum, for ceruloplasmin (RID). Sign. diff. in dietary Zn or Cu content were not reflected by serum(Zn) or (Cu), but the incidence of serum(Zn) < the 95% CI for RM eaters was sign. higher in FP and LV groups (X/sup 2/ = 20.65, p < 0.001). Thus, use of diets limited in animal protein sources may be associated with an increase risk of low serum (Zn).

  16. The Experience of Religious Fortification: The Coming of Age of Religious Zionist Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Tamar; Garb, Yoni

    1998-01-01

    The accounts of 37 17-year-old religious Zionist female adolescents in a boarding school in Israel show that they experience adolescence as a intense period of religious fortification and conflict between religious and secular societal values. Implications for female coming of age are discussed. (SLD)

  17. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  18. Urinary perchlorate exposure and risk in women of reproductive age in a fireworks production area of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei

    2014-07-01

    Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive age from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater exposure doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination. PMID:24859046

  19. Determinants of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Great Britain and Germany. I: Demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Oddens, B J; Lehert, P

    1997-10-01

    Multifactorial analyses of data from representative British and German national contraception surveys were used to examine the principal demographic determinants of contraceptive use by women. Contraceptive use appeared to be determined mainly by reference to 'reproductive status' (the combined impact of age, marital status, parity and future child wish). Women who were postponing pregnancies were using oral contraceptives, whereas those who wanted no more children relied more on intrauterine devices or sterilisation. Differences between the countries suggested that the choice of contraceptive method was influenced by health care policy, the organisation of the relevant services and differential provider preferences. The contraceptive method used was also related to having occasional rather than steady sexual partners (more condom use), lower educational level (less oral contraceptive use) and frequent church attendance (greater use of condoms and periodic abstinence). Contraception decisions appeared to follow a fixed pattern, based more on a couple's demographic situation (reproductive status, country, educational level and religious beliefs) than on the characteristics of the contraceptive methods. This resulted in an unnecessarily restricted choice of methods. PMID:9881145

  20. Lack of correlation between maximum early follicular phase serum follicle stimulating hormone concentrations and menstrual cycle characteristics in women under the age of 35 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. B. Schipper; Jong de F. H; B. C. J. M. Fauser

    1998-01-01

    The gradual increase in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations\\u000a in women approaching menopause results from the depletion of the ovarian\\u000a follicular pool, a process referred to as 'ovarian ageing'. This study\\u000a investigates whether variable endogenous FSH concentrations, as have been\\u000a observed in normo-ovulatory young women, are related to menstrual cycle\\u000a characteristics, including predictors of ovarian ageing. Serum\\u000a concentrations of immunoreactive