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1

Challenges faced by women of reproductive age (15-49) in accessing family planning services in a post-conflict setting : case of northern Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Family planning service is a public health problem in Uganda faces numerous challenges; however, the experience of war had made it more challenging for women in Northern Uganda to use and access FP services. Civil unrest has caused a state of poverty, rape, health care disruption, high maternal death and child mortality in the region. Unmet need for family

H. Nandudu

2009-01-01

2

Women & ageing.  

PubMed

Demographic changes have forced gerontologists to focus attention on the gender based character of population ageing. Ageing is likely to become a 'gender issue' with a large number of women surviving into very old age in almost all the countries of the world. Elderly women, especially in Third World countries like India, face several jeopardizes. They are likely to be illiterate or poorly educated, unlikely to be employed, most likely to be widowed and dependent on others, and they suffer from malnutrition and disabilitating symptoms as well as report higher psychological distress. The vulnerability of the ageing women, special types of problems they are likely to encounter over the life span, and factors that marginalise them need to be better understood. There is no clear awareness as yet, of the potential contribution of ageing women to the development process as ageing women are stereotypically perceived as burdens on the national economy. Strategies addressed to ensure health and well-being of older women need to be developed. PMID:9361474

Prakash, I J

1997-10-01

3

Growing rejection of female genital cutting among women of reproductive age in Amhara, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on female genital cutting are presented from 1942 women aged 15–49 years in Amhara region, Ethiopia, 2005. Reportedly 69% (1333\\/1942) had undergone the procedure. Rates showed a secular decline, decreasing from 77% in women aged 45–49 years old to 59% in those age 15–24 years. Of women with daughters, 64% had at least one circumcised daughter. Again, prevalence declined

Sibylle I. Rahlenbeck; Wubegzier Mekonnen

2009-01-01

4

Health screening - women - ages 40 - 64  

MedlinePLUS

Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 - 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Yearly exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 - 64; Women’s health - ages 40 - 64; Preventive care - women - ages 40 - ...

5

Health screening - women - ages 18 - 39  

MedlinePLUS

Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 - 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Yearly exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 - 39; Women's health - ages 18 - 39; Preventive care - women - ages 18 - ...

6

State-wise Dynamics of the Double Burden of Malnutrition among 15-49 Year-old Women in India: How Much Does the Scenario Change Considering Asian Population-specific BMI Cut-off Values?  

PubMed

This article assesses the gravity of the "double burden of malnutrition" across 21 states of India, through a comparative analysis of traditional and Asian population-specific BMI categorizations for overweight and obesity. This study analyzes data on ever-married women (15-49 years) from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-1999; NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Findings depict that Indian women tilt toward high BMI resulting in a co-existence of under- and overweight populations, which portray a regional pattern. With Asian population-specific cut-offs, 11 states can be classified as "double burden states"; however, following traditional categorization, only 4 states face such dual pressure. PMID:25357268

Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat Sankaranarayanan; Van Schayck, C P; Dagnelie, Pieter

2014-01-01

7

Health screening - women - over age 65  

MedlinePLUS

Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

8

Women, Work and Age Discrimination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Millions of older women who work face combined age and sex discrimination. Fifty percent more women aged 45-54 (3.5 million) will enter the job market in the next two decades and face the same problems. Illegal discriminatory practices encountered by older women when job hunting include exclusion from a job opportunity because of a male selecting…

DeGooyer, Janice

9

Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

Saucier, Maggi G.

2004-01-01

10

Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Young Women: Lifestyle-related factors that increase heart disease risk ...

11

Intimate Partner Violence of Rural Aging Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) decrease with age, a significant number of aging women experience IPV in their relationships. The structure and culture of rural environments may inadvertently conceal violence against aging women and inhibit prevention and treatment efforts. Guided by an ecological community framework, 3 focus…

Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.; Dugar, Tyler A.

2006-01-01

12

Survival analysis of timing of first marriage among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: regional differences.  

PubMed

Early marriage is common among women in developing countries. Age at first marriage (AFM) has health implication on women and their under-five children. In Nigeria, few studies have explored AFM; the current study was designed to fill the gap. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 dataset on married women aged 15-49 (N = 24,986) was used. Chi-square, OLS regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. The mean AFM was 17.8 +/- 4.8 years and significant difference existed between the mean AFM of women in the North (16.0 +/- 3.6) and South (20.4 +/- 5.0) (p < 0.001). Region, education, religion, residence, nutritional status, age at first sexual intercourse and children ever born were significantly associated with timing of first marriage (p < 0.001). Majority of the women married between ages 15-19 years (43.1%), while very few married late (2.3%) and about 27.0% married too early (less than 15 years). Early marriage was more common in all the regions in the North than the South and the hazard was highest in the North West and North East. Women who reside in rural area (H.R = 1.15; C.I = 1.11-1.18) married early than their counterparts in the urban area. Age at first marriage was directly related to levels of education (p < 0.001). Muslim women married early (H.R = 1.34; C.I = 1.29-1.39) than Christians. Three models were generated from the data. Women married too early in Nigeria with Teenage marriage more common in the North than the South. Education has influence on AFM; therefore, women should have at least secondary education before marriage in Nigeria. PMID:23444547

Adebowale, Stephen A; Fagbamigbe, Francis A; Okareh, Titus O; Lawal, Ganiyu O

2012-12-01

13

Work Related Injury among Aging Women  

PubMed Central

This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

2013-01-01

14

Obstructive Defecation in Middle-aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive defecation, a significant contributor to constipation, is frequently reported in middle-aged women, yet few population-based\\u000a studies have established prevalence in this group. We analyzed data from the Reproductive Risks for Incontinence Study at\\u000a Kaiser, a population-based cohort of racially diverse women, 40–69 years old, to describe the prevalence of obstructive defecation\\u000a and identify associated risk factors. The Reproductive Risks for

Madhulika G. Varma; Stacey L. Hart; Jeanette S. Brown; Jennifer M. Creasman; Stephen K. Van Den Eeden; David H. Thom

2008-01-01

15

Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:23256530

2012-01-01

16

Candies in hell: women’s experiences of violence in Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of domestic violence against women in León, Nicaragua. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 488 women between the ages of 15–49. The physical aggression sub-scale of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to identify women suffering abuse. In-depth interviews with formerly battered women were performed and

Mary Ellsberg; Rodolfo Peña; Andrés Herrera; Jerker Liljestrand; Anna Winkvist

2000-01-01

17

Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (?12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (?43%) than in rural children (?24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru. PMID:24643049

Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

2014-01-01

18

Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study  

PubMed Central

Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27?957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100?000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

Haglund, Bengt; Hogberg, Ulf; Essen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

19

Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43  

Cancer.gov

Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Toronto, Canada (2006) lawrence.paszat@ices.on.ca Selection criteria All women age 40 – 43 resident in Ontario on January 1, 1995 - OHIP (medicare)

20

Women’s Perceptions and Use of “Anti-Aging” Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the cosmetics industry have accelerated the availability of products marketed as “anti-aging.” Our research\\u000a goals were to identify the factors that predict women’s purchase of these products, and to gain insight into women’s perceptions\\u000a of the anti-aging market. Three hundred and four Canadian women were surveyed about their use of anti-aging products, body\\u000a satisfaction, aging anxiety, appearance

Amy Muise; Serge Desmarais

2010-01-01

21

Predictors of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies among women of childbearing age in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background While unintended pregnancies pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of families globally, characteristics of Tanzanian women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. This analysis identifies factors associated with unintended pregnancies—both mistimed and unwanted—in three rural districts of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2,183 random households was conducted in three Tanzanian districts of Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga in 2011 to assess women’s health behavior and service utilization patterns. These households produced 3,127 women age 15+?years from which 2,199 gravid women aged 15–49 were selected for the current analysis. Unintended pregnancies were identified as either mistimed (wanted later) or unwanted (not wanted at all). Correlates of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies were identified through Chi-squared tests to assess associations and multinomial logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results Mean age of the participants was 32.1 years. While 54.1% of the participants reported that their most recent pregnancy was intended, 32.5% indicated their most recent pregnancy as mistimed and 13.4% as unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (<20 years), and single marital status were significant predictors of both mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Lack of inter-partner communication about family planning increased the risk of mistimed pregnancy significantly, and multi-gravidity was shown to significantly increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Conclusions About one half of women in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania conceive unintentionally. Women, especially the most vulnerable should be empowered to avoid pregnancy at their own will and discretion. PMID:25102924

2014-01-01

22

Attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: a study of rural women in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Predictors of rural women's attitudes in Nigeria toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using a random sample of rural women (n = 3911) aged 15-49 years from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Findings were suggestive of social, religious, and cultural influences in the women's attitudes towards IPV. Women resident in the three northern regions, the South South region, Muslim women, women with low levels of education and low household wealth were more likely to tolerate IPV. This is reflective of the socio-economic disadvantages they face, as well as the cultural and religious restrictions imposed on these women. PMID:18842071

Antai, Diddy E; Antai, Justina B

2008-01-01

23

Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam.  

PubMed

Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region. PMID:22117931

Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Lam, Nguyen Thi; Skeaff, C Murray; Todd, Joanne; McLean, Judy M; Green, Timothy J

2012-10-01

24

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment Substance use during pregnancy may result in premature birth, miscarriage, and a variety of behavioral and ...

25

Sexual risk behaviors among rural women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

Given the morbidity and mortality associated with sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS, the increasing number of HIV/AIDS cases among heterosexual women, and the limited information regarding rural women's health, it is timely to holistically examine the determinants of sexual risk behavior(s) among rural women of childbearing age. Use of the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior allows an integrated perspective of demographic characteristics, motivation, problem-solving, self-esteem, and sexual risk behaviors for this population. The 144 subjects in this study included 76 African American and 60 White women (average age 28.76 years, SD 6.58 years). Sexual risk behaviors were defined as more than one sex partner and (partner) not using a condom. African American women reported using condoms more than White women. Younger married women used condoms more than older married women. PMID:9287621

Abel, E; Miller, I

1997-09-01

26

Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p < .000) in women and body image in men (p < .0298). As for aging characteristics, decreasing hearing ability (p < .000), performance as before (p < .004), more irritability (p < .0227), ability to travel alone (p < .0429), needs check up (p < .001), and needs a geriatric home (p < .001) were statistically associated with age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people. PMID:23767841

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

2013-01-01

27

The use of human faeces for fertilizer is associated with increased intensity of hookworm infection in Vietnamese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate different factors associated with hookworm infections we conducted 2 studies in a commune in northern Viet Nam. The first was part of a larger study on anaemia and covered 213 women (15–49 years of age) and their 92 children (6 months to 5 years of age) in one commune; 90% of the families reported using human faeces for

D. L. Humphries; L. S. Stephenson; E. J. Pearce; P. H. The; H. T. Dan; L. T. Khanh

1997-01-01

28

Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

2010-01-01

29

Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.  

PubMed

The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored. PMID:24116994

Waldbrook, Natalie

2013-01-01

30

Perception on prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV among women of reproductive age group in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction The fastest growing group of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is women. As more women contract the virus, the number of children infected in utero, intra-partum, and during breastfeeding has been growing. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of women of child bearing age towards the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Materials and methods This is a descriptive cross sectional survey of 420 women of the reproductive age group (15–49 years) selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using interviewer-administered, pretested, semistructured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15. Results A high level of awareness about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was observed among the respondents (99.8%). The knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV was high, 92.1% and 91.4%, respectively. However, a significant portion (71.27%) of the study population had poor attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS, and good knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV/AIDS among the respondents, the attitude towards PMTCT is poor. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and attitude of prevention of MTCT of HIV among women. PMID:23874124

Olugbenga-Bello, AI; Adebimpe, WO; Osundina, FF; Abdulsalam, ST

2013-01-01

31

Disability, physical activity, and muscle strength in older women: The women's health and aging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study associations of motor disability, physical activity, and muscle strength in older women, in particular to investigate whether model of spiraling decrease is expressed in the data.Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from the base-line measurements of The Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS).Setting: Participants' homes.Participants: A total of 1,002 disabled women aged 65 years and older living in

Taina Rantanen; Jack M. Guralnik; Ritva Sakari-Rantala; Suzanne Leveille; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Shari Ling; Linda P. Fried

1999-01-01

32

Women's Strength Training. Lifting the Limits of Aging?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strength training is considered a male activity, but physicians are recommending it to women who want to keep their musculoskeletal systems strong and flexible as they age. This article discusses goals and problems of strength training for women and suggests it as an adjunct to cardiovascular fitness exercises. (SM)

Cinque, Chris

1990-01-01

33

Effects of age on attitudes towards working women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines attitudes regarding female labour force participation among people of different ages using National Opinion Research Centre Social Survey data. Focuses specifically on the factors associated with a pro-feminist attitude. Demonstrates that younger people have more positive attitudes towards women working outside their homes than do older people. Men are less pro-feminist in their attitudes than are women. Men and

Ranjita Misra; Bhagaban Panigrahi

1996-01-01

34

Person-Environment Interventions With Aging Depressed Women in Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rationale for psychosocial micro and macro interventions for the prevention and treatment of depression in aging women is conceptually based upon empirical research. The investigator's person-environment incongruence model of depression, applied to a study of 50 depressed and 50 non-depressed white women for the purpose of exploring possible…

Wetzel, Janice Wood

35

Women's Position Within the Household as a Determinant of Maternal Health Care Use in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: Although gender inequality is often cited as a barrier to improving maternal health in Nepal, little attention has been directed at understanding how sociocultural factors may influence the use of health care. In particular, how a woman's position within her household may affect the receipt of health care deserves further investigation. METHODS: Data on ever-married women aged 15-49 from

Marie Furuta; Sarah Salway

2006-01-01

36

Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

37

Ravishing or ravaged: women's relationships with women in the context of aging and Western beauty culture.  

PubMed

We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories within and across group sessions. We discuss four of the six key themes discovered in response to the primary research question: How does beauty culture shape women's experiences of aging and their relationships with women of all ages? We conclude that Western idealized beauty standards exert a divisive impact on women's relationships with each other across the life span, negatively affecting their socioemotional well-being, especially in old age. PMID:18507332

Gosselink, Carol A; Cox, Deborah L; McClure, Sarissa J; De Jong, Mary L G

2008-01-01

38

Cognitive Functioning and Aging in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficits in cognitive function may impact one's ability to attend to stimuli, think clearly, reason, and remember. Impaired cognitive function is a common complaint among older women presenting for treatment in both mental health and medical care settings, and differential diagnosis of type and extent of cognitive impairment is important for appropriate treatment planning and prognosis. Although overall gender differences

Peter C. Badgio; Blaise L. Worden

2007-01-01

39

Factors associated with intimate partner violence against women in Serbia: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study aimed to identify factors associated with intimate partner violence against women living in Belgrade, Serbia.MethodA cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted in Belgrade as part of the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, using a standard questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1456 women aged 15–49 years. Data used in this study were from

Bosiljka Djikanovic; Henrica A F M Jansen; Stanislava Otasevic

2010-01-01

40

Domestic Violence and Chronic Malnutrition among Women and Children in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence has harmful physical and psychological health correlates, but there is little evidence regarding a relation between domestic violence and malnutrition. To investigate this relation, the authors analyzed data from 69,072 women aged 15-49 years and 14,552 children aged 12-35 months in the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Physical domestic violence victimization was self-reported by the women. Aspects

Leland K. Ackerson; S. V. Subramanian

2008-01-01

41

Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 release. The thromboxane A2 pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The “Timing Hypothesis,” which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

2012-01-01

42

Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?  

PubMed

Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A(2) release. The thromboxane A(2) pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The "Timing Hypothesis," which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

2012-01-01

43

Age at Menopause and Its Main Predictors among Iranian Women  

PubMed Central

Background Since time of menopause is influenced by a variety of racial, environmental, and physiological factors, determining age at natural menopause and its main indicators seems to be necessary. The present study attempted to determine average age at menopause and its main predictors among Iranian women. Materials and Methods This descriptive-analytic study was carried out on 400 postmenopausal women aged 43 to 65 years attending the health centers in Hamadan, Hamadan Province, Iran, during 2013. Due to potential effects of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) on age of menopause, we considered two groups of women with and without OCP use using cluster sampling method. Data were collected through individual interviews at the health centers. Results The findings showed significant univariate relationships between age at menopause with some baseline variables including mother’s age at menopause (p<0.001), mother and spouse with high educational level (p<0.001), passive cigarette smoking (p<0.001), weekly physical activity (p<0.001), and high family income (p<001). Adversely, smoking was associated with early menopause. Conclusion The postmenopausal women doing intense weekly physical activity, having mothers with late menopause, having higher monthly income, and experiencing later-age pregnancy are likely to reach menopause later than their contemporaries, while smokers have an early menopause. PMID:25379155

Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Nazari, Mansour

2014-01-01

44

College-Educated Women’s Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Age Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adulthood encompasses a large time span and includes a series of psychosocial challenges (E. H. Erikson, 1950). Five aspects of personality (identity certainty, confident power, concern with aging, generativity, and personal distress) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of college-educated women who at the time of data collection were young adults (age: M = 26 years), middle-aged adults (age: M

Alyssa N. Zucker; Joan M. Ostrove; Abigail J. Stewart

2002-01-01

45

Association of Age at Menarche and Menstrual Characteristics with Adult Onset Asthma among Reproductive Age Women  

PubMed Central

Background Observations of increasing asthma incidence, decreasing age at menarche, and common risk factors have led investigators to hypothesize potential associations of age at menarche or menstrual characteristics with incidence of adult onset asthma. We evaluated these associations among reproductive age women. Methods Study participants were selected from among women enrolled in a pregnancy cohort study. Information on age at menarche, menstrual characteristics, and history of asthma was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Adult onset asthma was defined as asthma first diagnosed after onset of menarche. Women who had no information on asthma and menstrual history and those who were diagnosed with asthma before menarche were excluded. A total of 3,461 women comprised the analytic population. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) relating age at menarche and menstrual characteristics with adult onset asthma. Results Mean age at menarche was 12.8 years (standard deviation=1.46). Among study participants, 7.5% were diagnosed with asthma after the onset of menarche. After controlling for potential confounders (age, race, body mass index, and socio-economic status), women who had early menarche (<12 years old) had 60% higher risk of being diagnosed with adult onset asthma as compared with women who did not have early menarche (? 12 years old) (aRR= 1.59, 95% CI 1.19 – 2.13). Menstrual irregularities or abnormal (short or long) cycle length were not associated with risk of adult onset asthma. In addition, no significant interaction was observed between age at menarche or menstrual characteristics with body mass index or physical activity (in adolescence) in relation to adult onset asthma. Conclusion Early menarche is associated with a higher risk of developing adult onset asthma among reproductive age women. Mechanisms for this association are potential areas of future research.

Fida, Neway G.; Williams, Michelle A.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

46

A survey of women's social representations of aging and rejuvenation.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to analyze the social representations that women of three different age groups had about aging, rejuvenating, and methods of rejuvenation. The research was performed in São Paulo between 2004 and 2005. The participants of this research were three groups of women of different ages: 19 to 24 years, 25 to 35 years, and over 60 years. The data were collected by the focus group technique. Data was analyzed using the lexical analysis software ALCESTE 4.5. The main results show a social representation of aging centered on losses and gains. The subjects appraised the possibility of using rejuvenating methods only when it was extremely necessary, because of the health risks that most of them involve. The three groups agreed about natural methods of rejuvenating instead of resorting to invasive methods. PMID:17549883

Teixeira, Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz; Settembre, Flávio Maciel; Leal, Solange Bezerra

2007-05-01

47

Social relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women  

E-print Network

levels of IL-6 would lack both protective influences. Such inquiry would document the additive effectsSocial relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women Elliot M. Friedman* , Mary S. Singer , and Carol D. Ryff§ *Robert Wood Johnson Health & Society Scholars Program, Department

Patel, Aniruddh D.

48

Femoral Expansion in Aging Women: Implications for Osteoporosis and Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In femoral radiographs of 2030 aging women, the diameter of the midshaft periosteum increased as cortical thickness declined. Since the cortical area enlarged, periosteal accretion exceeded endosteal resorption. Since the section modulus increased more than did cortical area, the ratio of flexural failure resistance to crush resistance increased, in apparent contrast to the changes observed in the femoral neck.

Richmond W. Smith Jr.; Richard R. Walker

1964-01-01

49

Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

2004-01-01

50

Deaths among women of reproductive age: a forensic autopsy study.  

PubMed

Unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age (range 12-49 years) have a serious psychological and social impact on the family and community. Deaths among women of reproductive age reported as medico-legal cases were investigated to see the trend in terms of cause and manner of death. The study group consisted of a series of 328 consecutive forensic autopsies on women in the reproductive age group, performed between 2009 and 2011 at the Government Wenlock District Hospital, Mangalore, India by qualified specialist forensic medicine experts. Unnatural deaths formed 93.6% of the cohort. The top three causes of death included burns, poisoning and hanging forming 69.5% of the cases. The manner of death was suicide in 45.4% cases, accident in 43.6% cases and homicide in 4.6% cases. The circumstances of death were related to alleged medical negligence in 2.4% cases. Death in 4% cases was natural mannered with a disease being the cause of death. Three-fourths of the victims were married. Married women formed 63.1% of the suicidal victims. Homicidal deaths were not reported among unmarried women. The preponderant method of suicide was by poisoning at 42.3% (63 cases), followed by hanging (34.9%), burns (11.4%) and drowning (9.4%). These four methods comprised 98% of the total suicidal deaths in this study cohort. Accidental deaths were predominantly caused by burns (62.2%) and road traffic accident (23.1%). Two-thirds of the homicidal deaths were due to assault caused by blunt-force trauma, ligature strangulation and sharp-force trauma. One-third of the homicidal victims died due to burns. With a clear understanding of the cause and manner of death, it may be possible to predict, and hopefully prevent, future cases of unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age who form a very important group of society. PMID:23910855

Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Menezes, Ritesh G; Pant, Sadip; Shetty, Soumya B

2013-08-01

51

Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age

Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

2009-01-01

52

Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

2008-01-01

53

Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women

Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

2006-01-01

54

A Comparative Study of Self-Esteem: College-Aged Women vs. Women at Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

A woman’s self-esteem, defined as “a realistic respect for or favorable impression of oneself,” can have a profound impact on her overall life choices and outlook. Low self-esteem is associated with numerous consequences such as eating disorders, alcohol abuse, sexual promiscuity, and social withdrawal. This study investigated the self-esteem level of college-aged women as compared to that of women at

Audrey Fritton

2009-01-01

55

Determinants of support for female genital cutting among ever-married women in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of exposure to communication messages on support for female genital cutting (FGC) in Egypt. Data from the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are analysed using logistic regression (n=19,106; ever-married women aged 15–49). The analysis reveals that high levels of exposure to FGC-related media messages are essential in reducing support for FGC. Women exposed to

C. Suzuki; D. Meekers

2008-01-01

56

Narratives of Desire in Mid-Age Women With and Without Arousal Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is controversy about the nature of women's sexual desire. The aim was to explore narrative descriptions of sexual desire among mid-aged women in hopes of clarifying how women define and experience sexual desire, and how these might differ among women with and without female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Mid-aged women without (age: M = 45, n = 12) and with (age: M = 55, n = 10)

Lori A. Brotto; Julia R. Heiman; Deborah L. Tolman

2009-01-01

57

Deaths among young, single women in 2000-2001 in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories.  

PubMed

A study in 2000-2001 of causes of death of women of reproductive age (15-49) in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories, found that 154 of the 411 deceased women aged 15-49 with known marital status were single. Death notification forms for reported deaths were analysed and verbal autopsies carried out, where possible, with relatives of the deceased women. We found important differences in the age at death and causes of death among the single and married women, which can be attributed to the disadvantaged social status of single women in Palestinian society, exacerbated by the current unstable political situation. 41% of the deceased single women were under 25 years of age at death compared to 8% of the married women. The proportion of violent deaths and suicides among the single women was almost twice as high as among the married women, mainly in those below age 25. The single women were also more likely to die from medical conditions which indicated that they faced barriers to accessing health care. The fieldwork was conducted at the height of the Intifada and the Israeli military response, with heavy restrictions on mobility, limiting the possibility of probing deeper into the circumstances surrounding sensitive deaths. More research into the socio-cultural context of single women in Palestine society is needed as a basis for intervention. PMID:18513613

Al-Adili, Nadim; Shaheen, Mohammad; Bergström, Staffan; Johansson, Annika

2008-05-01

58

Aging in a Foreign Country: Voices of Iranian Women Aging in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older Iranian women, who immigrated to Canada in later adulthood, experience unique issues as they age. In order to better understand this experience, in-depth, personal and semi-structured interviews were conducted with five immigrant\\/refugee Iranian women who immigrated to Canada in their later life. Analysis revealed that although each woman's story conveyed individual differences and idiosyncrasies, all the stories highlighted the

Farimah Shakeri Shemirani; Deborah L. OConnor

2006-01-01

59

Vitamin D Status in Healthy Omani Women of Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Sunlight exposure has a vital role in vitamin D synthesis. Although vitamin D deficiency has been well documented in temperate zones, studies have been scarce in tropical countries where the population is well covered and for various reasons avoids sun exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and its relationship to biochemical bone profile, exposure to sunlight and vitamin D intake amongst Omani women of childbearing age. Methods: 41 apparently healthy women working at the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman and aged 18–45 years, with mean ± SD of 29 ± 6 years, were included in this study conducted in December 2006. They completed a questionnaire regarding the duration of sun exposure, food intake and type of clothing worn. Blood samples were collected from them and analysed for serum 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatise and parathyroid hormone levels. Results: All the women had a 25(OH)D level <50 nmol/L as the cut-off for deficiency. 25(OH)D levels were strongly correlated with the lack of sun exposure (r = 0.672, P < 0.001) and a significant correlation was also found between 25(OH) D level and food intake (r = 0.482, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Subclinical 25(OH)D deficiency may be prevalent amongst Omani women. Risk factors such as poor sunlight exposure should be addressed in women of childbearing age and, if increased sunlight exposure is not possible, oral supplementation should be considered to avoid all the consequence and complications of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:21509209

Al-Kindi, Manal K

2011-01-01

60

Eternal Mothers or Flexible Housewives? Middle-aged Chinese Married Women in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do Hong Kong Chinese women position themselves in relation to this stigmatized social category of “si-nai” (middle aged-housewives)\\u000a and the prevailing norms and values regarding women’s roles? The case of middle-aged, married women in Hong Kong provides\\u000a empirical support for an alternative understanding of the identity of adult woman and helps to problematize conceptualizations\\u000a of women’s identity as centered

Petula Sik-ying Ho

2007-01-01

61

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Episode Data Set (TEDS), the proportion of female substance abuse treatment admissions aged 15 to 44 who were ... see http://store.samhsa.gov/product/ TIP-51-Substance-Abuse-Treatment-Addressing-theSpecific-Needs-of-Women/SMA12-4426 . ...

62

Where they Walk: What Aging Black Women’s Geographies Tell of Race, Gender, Space, and Social Transformation in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes aging black women’s geographies as a critical forum to rethink human-spatial relationships in Brazil. It ethnographically explores aging black women’s life narratives recounted while walking through their neighborhood in the city of Belo Horizonte. Their accounts of their lives in the neighborhood speak to racial, gender, and class positioning in Brazil and how these positions manifest in

Celeste S. Henery

2011-01-01

63

Women, international migration and self-reported health. A population-based study of women of reproductive age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although our knowledge of the relationship between migration and health in women is increasing, we still have a limited knowledge of the migration and health of women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional analysis of a simple random sample of 10,661 women aged 20–49 in Sweden in 1980–1985 and 9585 such women in 1992–1997 was carried out to assess their health.

Edgar Iglesias; Eva Robertson; Sven-Erik Johansson; Peter Engfeldt; Jan Sundquist

2003-01-01

64

What Characterises Women Vulnerable to Chronic Energy Deficiency?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weight-for-squared height or body mass index (BMI) is often considered as an effective predictor of morbidity and mortality rates. This study uses BMI data from a sample of ever-married women in the age group of 15-49 years in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh for the year 1998-1999, to analyse the determinants of chronic energy deficiency…

Kavi Kumar, K. S.; Ramachandran, Maithili; Viswanathan, Brinda

2009-01-01

65

HIV Infection Among Internally Displaced Women and Women Residing in River Populations Along the Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a reproductive health assessment among women aged 15–49 years residing in an internally displaced persons (IDP)\\u000a camp and surrounding river populations in the Democratic Republic of Congo. After providing informed consent, participants\\u000a were administered a behavioral questionnaire on demographics, sexual risk, reproductive health behavior, and a history of\\u000a gender based violence. Participants provided a blood specimen for HIV and

Andrea A. Kim; Faustin Malele; Reinhard Kaiser; Nicaise Mama; Timothée Kinkela; Jean-Caurent Mantshumba; Michelle Hynes; Stacy De Jesus; Godefoid Musema; Patrick K. Kayembe; Karen Hawkins Reed; Theresa Diaz

2009-01-01

66

The women's health questionnaire: A measure of mid-aged women's perceptions of their emotional and physical health  

Microsoft Academic Search

When assessing mood and general health of mid-aged women, the effects of hormonal changes (and resulting symptoms such as hot flushes) and changes associated with age (such as in sleep patterns) can confound the results. A questionnaire was specifically developed to measure subjective reports of emotional and physical well-being of women aged 45 to 65 years. The relationships between symptoms

Myra Hunter

1992-01-01

67

Race/Ethnicity Disparities in Dysglycemia Among U.S. Women of Childbearing Age Found Mainly in the Nonoverweight/Nonobese  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe the burden of dysglycemia—abnormal glucose metabolism indicative of diabetes or high risk for diabetes—among U.S. women of childbearing age, focusing on differences by race/ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (1999–2008), we calculated the burden of dysglycemia (i.e., prediabetes or diabetes from measures of fasting glucose, A1C, and self-report) in nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15–49 years) by race/ethnicity status. We estimated prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) for dysglycemia in subpopulations stratified by BMI (measured as kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), using predicted marginal estimates and adjusting for age, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, and socioeconomic factors. RESULTS Based on data from 7,162 nonpregnant women, representing >59,000,000 women nationwide, 19% (95% CI 17.2–20.9) had some level of dysglycemia, with higher crude prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites (26.3% [95% CI 22.3–30.8] and 23.8% [19.5–28.7] vs. 16.8% [14.4–19.6], respectively). In women with BMI <25 kg/m2, dysglycemia prevalence was roughly twice as high in both non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites. This relative increase persisted in adjusted models (PRRadj 1.86 [1.16–2.98] and 2.23 [1.38–3.60] for non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively). For women with BMI 25–29.99 kg/m2, only non-Hispanic blacks showed increased prevalence vs. non-Hispanic whites (PRRadj 1.55 [1.03–2.34] and 1.28 [0.73–2.26] for non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively). In women with BMI >30 kg/m2, there was no significant increase in prevalence of dysglycemia by race/ethnicity category. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that dysglycemia affects a significant portion of U.S. women of childbearing age and that disparities by race/ethnicity are most prominent in the nonoverweight/nonobese. PMID:23780951

Marcinkevage, Jessica A.; Alverson, C.J.; Narayan, K.M. Venkat; Kahn, Henry S.; Ruben, Julia; Correa, Adolfo

2013-01-01

68

10 CFR 15.49 - Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government.  

...the debtor and the Government. 15.49 Section...REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES...the compromised debt in consideration...amount. (2) The Government and its officials...action against the Government and its officials...the compromised debt. [67 FR...

2014-01-01

69

Natural conception after age 45 in Bedouin women, a uniquely fertile population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Women conceiving naturally and delivering after age 45 are an exceptionally fertile population that may serve as a model to identify factors associated with delayed reproductive aging. This work studies this phenomenon in Bedouin women. Methods: The study is an observational retrospective analysis of all Bedouin women who conceived spontaneously and had their latest delivery after the age of

Yuval Gielchinsky; Moshe Mazor; Alex Simon; Shlomo Mor-Yossef; Neri Laufer

2006-01-01

70

Age and College Completion: A Life-History Analysis of Women Aged 15-44.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses odds of obtaining a bachelor's degree by age of enrolled students. Examines effects of background attributes and adult role events. Argues that women over 25, because of their part-time status, are at a disadvantage for degree completion. Discusses implications of results for policies and practices regarding adult college students. (CAJ)

Jacobs, Jerry A.; King, Rosalind Berkowitz

2002-01-01

71

Prevalence of Overweight Among Women of Childbearing Age in Nepal: Trends from 2001 to 2011 and Associations with Socio-demographic Factors.  

PubMed

This study examined trends in overweight (body mass index, BMI ? 25.0 kg/m(2)) and underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) from 2001 to 2011 and associations between socio-demographic factors and overweight in 2011 among 15-49-year-old women in Nepal. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were used from three Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Nepal in 2001 (n = 7,900), 2006 (n = 10,076) and 2011 (n = 5,873). Body weight and height were measured by trained personnel. Data on socio-demographic variables were obtained by interviewing the participants. The data were analysed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of underweight decreased from 26.6 to 18.1 % and the prevalence of overweight increased from 6.4 to 14.0 % between 2001 and 2011 (p < 0.001 for both, adjusted for age, parity and education). Both trends were more pronounced among the rural than the urban women. Although overweight was much more common in the urban (27.4 %) than in the rural areas (11.8 %) in 2011, the difference diminished substantially (odds ratio, OR, for being overweight in the urban vs. in the rural areas, 1.40, 95 % CI 1.15-1.70) when adjusted for other socio-demographic variables. The strongest independent predictors of being overweight were higher relative wealth and advanced age. Overweight has become almost as common phenomenon as underweight among women in childbearing age in Nepal. The urban-rural differences have slightly narrowed and overweight is still related to a higher socio-economic status in this population. Strategies to prevent further increases in the prevalence of overweight should urgently be developed and implemented at all levels of the society. PMID:24347092

Kinnunen, Tarja I; Neupane, Subas

2014-10-01

72

Heart Rate Variability and Exercise in Aging Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Our group has shown a positive dose-response in maximal cardiorespiratory exercise capacity (VO2max) and heart rate variability (HRV) to 6 months of exercise training but no improvement in VO2max for women ?60 years. Here, we examine the HRV response to exercise training in postmenopausal women younger and older than 60 years. Methods We examined 365 sedentary, overweight, hypertensive, postmenopausal women randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups exercising at 50% (4?kcal/kg/week, [KKW]), 100% (8 KKW) and 150% (12 KKW) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Panel physical activity guidelines. Primary outcomes included time and frequency domain indices of HRV. Results Overall, our analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in parasympathetic tone (rMSSD and high frequency power) for both age strata at 8 KKW and 12 KKW. For rMSSD, the age-stratified responses were: control, <60 years, 0.20?ms, 95% confidence interval (CI)?2.40, 2.81; ?60 years, 0.07?ms, 95% CI ?3.64, 3.79; 4 KKW, <60 years, 3.67?ms, 95% CI 1.55, 5.79; ?60 years, 1.20?ms, 95% CI ?1.82, 4.22; 8-KKW, <60 years, 3.61?ms, 95% CI 0.88, 6.34; ?60 years, 5.75?ms, 95% CI 1.89, 9.61; and 12-KKW, <60 years, 5.07?ms, 95% CI 2.53, 7.60; ?60 years, 4.28?ms, 95% CI 0.42, 8.14. Conclusions VO2max and HRV are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Despite no improvement in VO2max, parasympathetic indices of HRV increased in women ?60 years. This is clinically important, as HRV has important CVD risk and neurovisceral implications beyond cardiorespiratory function. PMID:21967166

Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

2012-01-01

73

(Re)imagining aging lives: Ethnographic narratives of Muslim women in diaspora  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the potential of the narrative genre in (re)imagining aging lives of women in diaspora, spanning cultures as well as generations. Minimal attention given to combined constituencies of gender, age and minority status in feminist ethnography and the literature on aging may be redressed by the realization that minority aging women negotiate culturally based and innovative strategies to

Parin A. Dossa

1999-01-01

74

The Role of Derived Rights for Old-age Income Security of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. This paper analyses the income situation of older women living alone and examines the role of pension entitlements from derived rights for their income security. The data shows that the share of elderly women living alone is expected to increase substantially due to population ageing and women’s longer life expectancy. Many of them are at greater risk of poverty

Jongkyun Choi

2006-01-01

75

Virginie PRIVAS -BRAUT The Trinity of a new Age: Three struggling Women in  

E-print Network

Devlin first points out the little room women are offered in her male-dominated Province and the little1 Virginie PRIVAS - BRÃ?AUTÃ? The Trinity of a new Age: Three struggling Women in Anne Devlin Belfast Catholic women, Frieda, Josie and Donna, who bespeak women's physical involvement in the conflict

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

A Brief Psychotherapeutic Intervention with Depressed Middle-Aged Portuguese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The line of research on middle-aged women's depression that we have been developing for over a decade has pointed to the frequency and severity of this disorder among Portuguese women, particularly less educated women. These women are more vulnerable and often receive a strictly medical response, which leaves little room for the elaboration of their complaints. We present a general

Teresa Fagulha; Bruno Gonçalves

2012-01-01

77

Powerless or perilous? : Ageing women as an emerging social force in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ageing women have so often been represented in government policy rhetoric, gerontology literatures and journalistic discourse as the genderless, powerless and passive objects of welfare and services;, by and large, as a social problem that needs to be monitored and managed. Taking a cultural research approach, this thesis explores ageing women’s actual practices in Hong Kong social movements and aims

Kit Ling LUK

2007-01-01

78

Prospective Predictors of Mental Health after the Development of Breast Cancer in Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigated the prospective predictors of mental health after breast cancer diagnosis among mid-aged Australian women (initially aged 45-50 years). Two waves of data collected 2 years apart from a longitudinal population-based survey of 12,177 women identified a group of 63 women who reported onset of BC between T1 (T1) and Time 2…

Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

2005-01-01

79

Stress in Middle-Aged Women: Influence of Type A Behavior and Narcissism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined (1) strength of stress, (2) awareness of stress, and (3) influence of type A behavior and narcissistic personality on stress and its related factors in a sample of 500 middle-aged women. Compared to 400 middle-aged working men, the women scored lower on the type A and coping scales, suggesting the possibility that women with high scores on

Isao Fukunishi; Takashi Moroji; Shohei Okabe

1995-01-01

80

Lipid profile and socioeconomic status in healthy middle aged women in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and full lipid profile in middle aged healthy women. PARTICIPANTS: These comprised 300 healthy Swedish women between 30 and 65 years who constitute the control group of the Stockholm female coronary risk study, a population based, case-control study of women with coronary heart disease (CHD). The age matched control group,

S P Wamala; A Wolk; K Schenck-Gustafsson; K Orth-Gomér

1997-01-01

81

Hemodynamics and brain blood flow during posture change in younger women and postmenopausal women compared with age-matched men.  

PubMed

Increased incidence of orthostatic hypotension and presyncopal symptoms in young women could be related to hormonal factors that might be isolated by comparing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to postural change in young and older men and women. Seven young women, 11 young men, 10 older women (>1 yr postmenopausal, no hormone therapy), and 9 older men participated in a supine-to-sit-to-stand test while measuring systemic hemodynamics, end-tidal Pco(2), and blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Women had a greater reduction in stroke volume index compared with age-matched men (change from supine to standing: young women: -22.9 ± 1.6 ml/m(2); young men: -14.4 ± 2.4 ml/m(2); older women: -17.4 ± 3.3 ml/m(2); older men: -13.8 ± 2.2 ml/m(2)). This was accompanied by offsetting changes in heart rate, particularly in young women, resulting in no age or sex differences in cardiac output index. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was higher in older subjects and increased with movement to upright postures. Younger men and women had higher forearm vascular resistance that increased progressively in the upright posture compared with older men and women. There was no difference between sexes or ages in total peripheral resistance index. Women had higher MCA velocity, but both sexes had reduced MCA velocity while upright, which was a function of reduced blood pressure at the MCA and a significant reduction in end-tidal Pco(2). The reductions in stroke volume index suggested impaired venous return in women, but augmented responses of heart rate and forearm vascular resistance protected MAP in younger women. Overall, these results showed significant sex and age-related differences, but compensatory mechanisms preserved MAP and MCA velocity in young women. PMID:22362404

Edgell, H; Robertson, A D; Hughson, R L

2012-05-01

82

Use of Emergency Contraception among Women Aged 15-44: United States, 2006-2010  

MedlinePLUS

... 112, February 2013 Use of Emergency Contraception Among Women Aged 15–44: United States, 2006–2010 On ... of Family Growth The percentage of sexually experienced women who have ever used emergency contraception has increased ...

83

Depression Linked to Almost Doubled Stroke Risk in Middle-Aged Women  

MedlinePLUS

... to almost doubled stroke risk in middle-aged women May 16, 2013 Categories: Stroke News Study Highlights: ... 800) AHA-USA1 (242-8721) Share Related Images Women and Stress copyright American Heart Association Download (198. ...

84

Women, Weight, and Age: Social Comparison to Magazine Images Across the Lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that rates of body dissatisfaction in women remain relatively stable across the adult lifespan may be due to older\\u000a women having fewer but heavier age-relevant comparisons in the media. To examine this, magazine images that depict women’s\\u000a full bodies were coded for age, body size, and clothedness. Analyses suggest that overall, older women are not well represented\\u000a in

Gayle R. Bessenoff; Regan E. Del Priore

2007-01-01

85

End of Life and Women Aging with a Disability  

PubMed Central

Abstract Approximately 21 million noninstitutionalized Americans with physical disabilities will ultimately face end-of-life [EOL] issues. Studies have documented disparate care and poorer outcomes for persons with preexisting disabilities who have life-limiting illnesses, which raises the question of how EOL experiences may differ for these individuals. The aim of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore how EOL issues might emerge within the life stories of women aging with functional disabilities. Interview data were obtained from a larger, ongoing ethnographic study focused on the creation of an explanatory model of health disparities of disablement in women with mobility impairment. Each participant was interviewed three to four times using a life-course perspective that captures life trajectories and transitions experienced over time. For this analysis, 41 interviews were selected from 20 participants who discussed issues related to death and dying. Content analysis of the data revealed five analytic categories: death as a signpost, impact of others' deaths, deaths that affected personal insights and choice, EOL possibilities, and a personal brush with death. EOL issues were manifested in a variety of ways that revealed both determination to remain as independent as possible within the context of declining functional ability and uncertainty regarding the future. PMID:22536990

Zolnierek, Cynthia; Harrison, Tracie; Walker, Janiece

2012-01-01

86

Unheard Voices: American Women in the Emerging Industrial and Business Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Business School presents Unheard Voices: American Women in the Emerging Industrial and Business Age. This manuscript collection, housed at the Harvard's Baker Library, was extensively researched and surveyed in May 1999. Along with detailed descriptions of the collection, the site also offers a sample of digitized manuscripts. The collection is divided into four major categories: Women at Work, Women in Business, Women as Professionals, and Women's Personal Lives. An extensive bibliography offers related Websites along with print materials.

87

Nutrition Knowledge is Influenced by Education, Age, and Wellness Program Participation in Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To define the influence of age, education, and wellness program participation on nutrition knowledge in older women.The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age, education, and wellness program participation on nutrition knowledge in Caucasian females aged 60+. Two subsamples from previously gathered data were used: 1) a convenience sample of women in their 60s

S. M. Elbon; M. A. Johnson; J. G. Fischer

1997-01-01

88

Understanding Women's Breast Screening Behaviour: A Study Carried out in South East London, with Women Aged 50-64 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To understand low uptake of breast cancer screening through exploring the personal reasoning underlying women's attendance or non-attendance, and identifying differences between those who attend and those who decline. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community and home environments of women eligible for breast screening aged

Barter-Godfrey, Sarah; Taket, Ann

2007-01-01

89

Designing a Community Study of Moderately to Severely Disabled Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This paper reports on the design of a community-based study focusing on the effects of prevalent and incident disease and other modifying influences, on changes in functioning among moderately and severely disabled elderly women over a 3-year period (the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS)). METHODS: An approach to conceptualizing and assessing disability which captured functional diffi- culty across

JUDITH D. KASPER; SAM SHAPIRO; JACK M. GURALNIK; KAREN J. BANDEEN-ROCHE; LINDA P. FRIED

90

Impact of screening mammography on mortality from breast cancer before age 60 in women 40 to 49 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background Whether screening mammography programs should include women in their 40s is controversial. In Canada, screening of women aged 40–49 years has not been shown to reduce mortality from breast cancer. Given that screening mammography reduces mean tumour size and that tumour size is inversely associated with survival, the lack of benefit seen with screening is puzzling and suggests a possible adverse effect on mortality of mammography or subsequent treatment (or both) that counterbalances the expected benefit derived from downstaging. Methods We followed 50,436 women 40–49 years of age until age 60 for mortality from breast cancer. Of those women, one half had been randomly assigned to annual mammography and one half to no mammography. The impact of mammography on breast cancer mortality was estimated using a left-censored Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 256 deaths from breast cancer recorded in the study cohort, 134 occurred in women allocated to mammography, and 122 occurred in those receiving usual care and not allocated to mammography. The cumulative risk of death from breast cancer to age 60 was 0.53% for women assigned to mammography and 0.48% for women not so assigned. The hazard ratio for breast cancer–specific death associated with 1 or more screening mammograms before age 50 was 1.10 (95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 1.40). Conclusions Mammography in women 40–49 years of age is associated with a small but nonsignificant increase in the risk of dying of breast cancer before age 60. Caution should be exercised when recommending mammographic screening to women before age 50. PMID:25302030

Narod, S.A.; Sun, P.; Wall, C.; Baines, C.; Miller, A.B.

2014-01-01

91

Women's strategic responses to violence in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.?DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.?SETTING—León, Nicaragua.?PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.?MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.?CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.???Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011

Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H

2001-01-01

92

Oral Health in Women of Childbearing Age Needs Improvement  

MedlinePLUS

... September 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dental Health Health Disparities Women's Health FRIDAY, Sept. 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Dental Health Health Disparities Women's Health Recent Health News Page last updated ...

93

Narratives of desire in mid-age women with and without arousal difficulties.  

PubMed

There is controversy about the nature of women's sexual desire. The aim was to explore narrative descriptions of sexual desire among mid-aged women in hopes of clarifying how women define and experience sexual desire, and how these might differ among women with and without female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Mid-aged women without (age: M = 45, n = 12) and with (age: M = 55, n = 10) FSAD took part in in-depth interviews that invited them to share personal stories of sexual desire. Women also completed the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Women in both groups described sexual desire in genital, non-genital physical, and in cognitive-emotional terms. Although women with FSAD had low ratings of sexual desire on the FSFI, they could recall recent experiences of desire that did not differ from the control group. Women identified a number of triggers of desire including touch, memories, and partner's responses--the latter of which acted as both a trigger and an inhibitor. Women in the control group were more likely to express conflation about the distinction between desire and arousal. Among the different "objects" of women's desire, most women acknowledged emotional connection as most important. PMID:19291528

Brotto, Lori A; Heiman, Julia R; Tolman, Deborah L

2009-01-01

94

Impact of Senior Center Friendships on Aging Women Who Live Alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elderly women who live alone are considered at greater risk for loneliness, depression, and decreased mobility. This paper examines the influences of late-life friendships and senior center activities on the health and well-being of aging women living alone. Based on the findings from 274 women living alone it was found that the senior center is an excellent environment where new

Ronald H. Aday; Gayle C. Kehoe; Lori A. Farney

2006-01-01

95

Images of powerful women in the age of ‘choice feminism’  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of scholars and journalists have argued that Western culture has become ‘sexualized’. Both women and men, they maintain, are highly sexualized in popular media. At the same time, scholars have examined the sexualization of women as part of a broader cultural ‘backlash’ against the gains of second-wave feminism and women's increasing power in society. We contribute to both

Erin Hatton; Mary Nell Trautner

2012-01-01

96

Women and Substance Abuse: Gender, Age, and Cultural Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society,

Sally J. Stevens; Rosi A. C. Andrade; Bridget S. Ruiz

2009-01-01

97

Health Related Concerns and Psychological Well-Being of Middle-Aged Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-stage study of women aged 35-55 focused on issues, concerns, and gratification and their relationship to family status, work status, age, and sense of psychological well-being. The sample was composed of women who occupied jointly one of three family statuses (never married, married without children, married with children) and one of six…

Baruch, Grace K.

98

To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

Eriksen, Shelley J.

2012-01-01

99

A Study on Yangsaeng for Health Promotion of Aged Women in Rural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the yangsaeng level in a health management way of an aged women in rural area, and to offer basic material for the development of community's public health service. Methods: The subjects were 144 aged women who participated voluntarily in the questionnaire. The data were collected from January to February, 2008

Hyoung Sook

100

Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of childbearing age and is associated with STI\\/HIV and adverse birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of BV among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India. Methods: Between October 2005 and December 2006, 898 sexually active

P Madhivanan; K Krupp; V Chandrasekaran; C Karat; A Arun; CR Cohen; AL Reingold; JD Klausner

2008-01-01

101

Emotion Communication Skills in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effectiveness of an emotion induction procedure for the study of emotional communication in adults; we also gathered preliminary age-comparative data on the expressive and receptive capacities of a sample of adult women. Young, middle-aged, and older women (encoders) related emotional experiences following mood induction and then assessed the intensity of their affective experiences. Videotapes of these sessions

Carol Zander Malatesta; Carol E. Izard; Clayton Culver; Mark Nicolich

1987-01-01

102

Age-Related Differences in Cardiovascular Reactions to Mental Stress Tests in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 84 healthy, sedentary women in the laboratory during performance of difficult and easy problem-solving tasks. They were divided into three age groups: 19 to 32 years, 33 to 43 years, and 44 to 60 years (n = 28 women per group). Baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure increased with age, whereas skin conductance level was lower

Andrew Steptoe; Jennifer Moses; Sara Edwards

1990-01-01

103

Predictors of Cervical Cancer Screening in Mexican American Women of Reproductive Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several barriers impede cancer prevention in the Mexican American population. This study identified sociocultural factors that could be used to increase screening rates for cervical cancer in women of reproductive age. A survey was conducted in 1991 of 366 Mexican American women ages 18 to 40 in Tucson, Arizona, to assess current compliance with cervical cancer screening guidelines and several

David Buller

1998-01-01

104

Predictors of Cervical Cancer Screening in Mexican American Women of Reproductive Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Several barriers impede cancer prevention in the Mexican American population. This study identified sociocultural factors that could be used to increase screening rates for cervical cancer in women of reproductive age. A survey was conducted in 1991 of 366 Mexican American women ages 18 to 40 in Tucson, Arizona, to assess current compliance with cervical cancer screening guidelines and several

David Buller; Manuel R. Modiano; Jill Guernsey de Zapien; Joel Meister; Sallie Saltzman; Frank Hunsaker

1998-01-01

105

Slimmer women's waist is associated with better erectile function in men independent of age.  

PubMed

Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness. PMID:23264164

Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

2013-10-01

106

women  

Microsoft Academic Search

background: More than 15 million women, many of reproductive age, were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the end of 2007. As the HIV epidemic evolves, heterosexual intercourse is increasingly risky: the risk of infection in exposed young women is 4- to 7-fold higher than in young men and nearly half a million newborns annually have HIV. This review

Oskari Heikinheimo; Pekka Lahteenmaki

2002-01-01

107

Maternal age-specific rates of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of maternal age with occurrence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women of advanced maternal age (AMA). Methods A retrospective review of the amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling (CVS) database at Gangnam and Bundang CHA Medical Centers, between January 2001 and February 2012, was conducted. This study analyzed the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities according to maternal age and the correlation between maternal age and fetal chromosomal abnormalities in Korean pregnant women ?35 years of age. In addition, we compared the prevalence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS. Results A total of 15,381 pregnant women were selected for this study. The incidence of aneuploidies increased exponentially with maternal age (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of trisomy 21 (standard error [SE], 0.0378; odds ratio, 1.177; P<0.001) and trisomy 18 (SE, 0.0583; odds ratio, 1.182; P=0.0040) showed significant correlation with maternal age. Comparison between women of AMA only and the others as the indication for amniocentesis or CVS showed a significantly lower rate of fetal chromosomal abnormalities only in the AMA group, compared with the others (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that AMA is no longer used as a threshold for determination of who is offered prenatal diagnosis, but is a common risk factor for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:24327996

Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cha, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

108

Prevalence and determinants of malnutrition among reproductive aged women of rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Malnutrition among the rural Bangladeshi women of reproductive age is still very high. This high prevalence attributes to a range of adverse health consequences on the women and their offspring. A total of 2341 women aged between 20 and 45 years residing in the study area were interviewed in this cross-sectional study. Information on socioeconomic variables, nutritional status, and pregnancy-related history was obtained using interviewer administered questionnaire. A total of 34% of the reproductive aged rural women suffer from malnutrition. A multivariate analysis shows association between malnutrition and monthly household income, history of taking oral contraceptive, current pregnancy status, and history of breastfeeding. The final regression model shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in malnutrition status with increasing income (P for trend <.001). The economic and health consequences of malnutrition in this group of women are enormous. National nutritional program should target this women group for any intervention with a special priority. PMID:20032040

Milton, Abul Hasnat; Smith, Wayne; Rahman, Bayzidur; Ahmed, Bashir; Shahidullah, S M; Hossain, Zakir; Hasan, Ziaul; Sharmin, Sabrina

2010-01-01

109

Prevalence of zinc deficiency among rural women during childbearing age in Peshawar, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency is a commonly reported health problem throughout the world. This cross sectional survey was conducted in rural Peshawar with an aim to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in women of child bearing age and find its association with age, marital, pregnancy status and parity. Data was collected from 353 women age 15-45 years. EPI INFO version 6.04 was used for data analysis. Overall 98 (27.8 %) women were zinc deficient (<80 ?g/dL) while 31 (8.8%) had severe zinc deficiency (<50?g/dL.). Mean zinc level was found to increase gradually with the increase in the age up to 40 years and then starts decreasing significantly beyond this age. A significant decrease (p<0.03) in zinc concentration was found in married as compared to unmarried women. Out of 31 female with severe zinc deficiency, 23 (74.2%) were pregnant. Pregnant women in second (OR (CI) 3.36 (1.52-7.44) p<0.0008) and third ((OR (CI) 3.73 (1.91-7.30) p<0.00002) trimester were 3.4 & 3.7 times, respectively more zinc deficient as compared to control women. Mean zinc levels were significantly lower in women having no children versus women with 1-5 numbers of children. This study concludes that severe zinc deficiency especially prevalent in pregnant women needs urgent correction through food supplementation. PMID:24374445

Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mir Hassan; Zahoorullah; Hussain, Hamid; Nazli, Rubina; Lutfullah, Ghosia

2014-01-01

110

Effects of the Kampo Formula Tokishakuyakusan on Headaches and Concomitant Depression in Middle-Aged Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To identify the correlates of headaches in middle-aged women and investigate the effects of Tokishakuyakusan (TJ-23), a formula of traditional Japanese herbal therapy Kampo, on headache and concomitant depression. Methods. We examined cross-sectionally the baseline records of 345 women aged 40–59 years who visited our menopause clinic. Among them, 37 women with headaches were treated with either hormone therapy (HT) or TJ-23; the data of these women were retrospectively analyzed to compare the effects of the treatment. Results. The women were classified into 4 groups on the basis of their headache frequency, and no significant intergroup differences were noted in the physical or lifestyle factors, except age. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant contributors to the women's headaches were their age (adjusted OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.88–0.97)) and their depressive symptoms (adjusted OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.39–2.16)). Compared to women treated with HT, women treated with TJ-23 reported relief from headaches (65% versus 29%) and concomitant depression (60% versus 24%) more frequently. Improvement in the scores of headaches and depression correlated significantly with TJ-23 treatment. Conclusions. Headache in middle-aged women is significantly associated with depression; TJ-23 could be effective for treating both of these symptoms. PMID:24648849

Terauchi, Masakazu; Hiramitsu, Shiro; Akiyoshi, Mihoko; Owa, Yoko; Kato, Kiyoko; Obayashi, Satoshi; Matsushima, Eisuke; Kubota, Toshiro

2014-01-01

111

Age-related change in sit-to-stand power in Japanese women aged 50 years or older  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined whether the age-related change in power, calculated from the score of a sit-to-stand (STS) test, corresponds to those in knee extension torque and leg lean tissue mass in Japanese women aged 50 years or older. Findings Time for a 10-times-repeated STS test and knee extension torque were determined in 556 Japanese women aged 50 to 94 years. STS power was calculated using an equation reported previously. In addition, leg lean tissue mass was estimated using muscle thicknesses determined at thigh and lower leg. STS power, knee extension torque, and lean tissue mass were negatively correlated to age. STS power and knee extension torque, expressed as the percentages of the mean value of the corresponding variable for the subjects aged 50 to 54 years were lower than that of lean tissue mass in the subjects aged 60 years or over, and were similar in those aged under 75 years. However, the relative value of STS power was lower than that of knee extension torque in the subjects aged over 75 years. Conclusions In Japanese women aged 50 to 74 years, STS power can be a convenient measure for assessing the age-related decline in knee extension torque, but not for leg lean tissue mass. At over 75 years old, the magnitude of the age-related decline in STS power does not parallel to that in the force generation capability of knee extensor muscles. PMID:25129071

2014-01-01

112

"Weight loss preoccupation in aging women": a review.  

PubMed

Preoccupation with body weight leading to frequent dieting has been found to be common in young women of developed countries. Little is known however about body image preoccupation or the prevalence of dieting for weight control purposes in elderly women. The few available reports suggest that preoccupation with weight remain high in elderly women and that pressure to be thin drives normal weight older women to recurrent dieting. After a reminder of the nutritional vulnerability of the elderly recommendations to the health care professionals and health authorities are provided. An increased awareness of eating habits and weight preoccupation in elderly women is needed, since attitudes towards weight may influence the effectiveness of medical advice and health promotion campaigns. PMID:10840473

Fallaz, A F; Bernstein, M; Van Nes, M C; Rouget, P; Morabia, A

1999-01-01

113

Women of Child-Bearing Age Have Better In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survival Outcomes than Equal Aged Men  

PubMed Central

Objectives Estrogen and progesterone improve neurologic outcomes in experimental models of cardiac arrest and stroke. Our objective was to determine whether women of child-bearing age are more likely than men to survive to hospital discharge following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Design Prospective, observational study Setting 519 hospitals in the National Registry of CPR database Patients 95,852 men and women 15-44 years and ?56 years with pulseless cardiac arrests from 01/01/00 through 07/31/08 Measurements and Main Results Patients were stratified a priori by sex and age groups (15-44 years and ?56 years). Fixed effects regression conditioning on hospital was used to examine the relationship between age, sex and survival outcomes. The unadjusted survival to discharge rate for younger women of child bearing age (15-44 years of age) was 19% (940/4887) versus 17% (1203/7025) for younger men (p=.013). The adjusted hospital discharge difference between these younger women and men was 2.8% (95% CI, 1.0%-4.6%; p=.002) and these younger women also had a 2.6% (95% CI, 0.9% - 4.3%; p=.002) absolute increase in favorable neurologic outcome. For older women compared with men (?56 years), there were no demonstrable differences in discharge rates (18% versus 18%, adjusted difference -0.1%; 95% CI, -0.9% - +0.6%; p=.68) or favorable neurologic outcome (14% versus 14%, adjusted difference -0.1%; 95% CI, -0.7% - +0.5%; p=.74). Conclusions Women of child-bearing age were more likely than comparably aged men to survive to hospital discharge following in-hospital cardiac arrest, even after controlling for etiology of arrest and other important variables. PMID:20228684

Topjian, Alexis A.; Localio, A. Russell; Berg, Robert A.; Alessandrini, Evaline A.; Meaney, Peter A.; Pepe, Paul E.; Larkin, G. Luke; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Becker, Lance B; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

2014-01-01

114

Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

2008-01-01

115

Unsafe abortion differentials in 2008 by age and developing country region: high burden among young women.  

PubMed

Each year, nearly 22 million women worldwide have an unsafe abortion, almost all of which occur in developing countries. This paper estimates the incidence and rates of unsafe abortion by five-year age groups among women aged 15-44 years in developing country regions in 2008. Forty-one per cent of unsafe abortions in developing regions are among young women aged 15-24 years, 15% among those aged 15-19 years and 26% among those aged 20-24 years. Among the 3.2 million unsafe abortions in young women 15-19 years old, almost 50% are in the Africa region. 22% of all unsafe abortions in Africa compared to 11% of those in Asia (excluding Eastern Asia) and 16% of those in Latin America and the Caribbean are among adolescents aged 15-19 years. The number of adolescent women globally is approaching 300 million. Adolescents suffer the most from the negative consequences of unsafe abortion. Efforts are urgently needed to provide contraceptive information and services to adolescents, who have a high unmet need for family planning, and to women of all ages, with interventions tailored by age group. Efforts to make abortion safe in developing countries are also urgently needed. PMID:22789095

Shah, Iqbal H; Ahman, Elisabeth

2012-06-01

116

Modernization and status change among aged men and women.  

PubMed

This study investigates the differences between the relationship between elderly occupational status and modernization for men and women. Consonant with previous findings, it finds that economic development is associated with relative losses of elderly men in professional and technical occupations. Augmenting those findings, however, it finds an even stronger association between development and such losses for women. In accounting for the differences, several explanations are advanced and tested, using data from fifty-one nations. PMID:1302242

Clark, R

117

Factors that affect women's attitudes toward domestic violence in Turkey.  

PubMed

This article examines the attitudes of Turkish women toward justification of intimate partner violence. The data were gathered from the 2003 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey. A random sample of 8,075, aged 15-49, participated in the survey. The findings underline the importance of patriarchal beliefs and the associated practice of brides-money in addition to rural residence, large household, illiteracy, lack of wealth, and younger age at marriage as the sources of acceptance of violence among women. The study provides a theoretical explanation for how patriarchal ideology is translated into an accepting attitude toward violence and also discusses the factors that serve as mechanisms that help women resist patriarchal hegemony and not justify domestic violence against women. The final section of the article addresses policy implications. PMID:20514820

Marshall, Gul Aldikacti; Furr, L Allen

2010-01-01

118

Relations Among Age, Exercise, and Psychological Variables in a Community Sample of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age, exercise status, and their interaction were examined in relation to self-motivation, exercise self-efficacy, and attitudes toward exercise among a community sample of women aged 20 to 85 years. Random digit telephone dialing yielded 121 participants, stratified by age and exercise status. Age was negatively related to attitudes toward exercise and exercise self-efficacy but was unrelated to self-motivation. Age also

Sara Wilcox; Martha Storandt

1996-01-01

119

Patterns and Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Weight Control Behaviors in Women Ages 25-45  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study describes detailed eating behaviors, dieting behaviors, and attitudes about shape and weight in 4,023 women ages 25 to 45. Method The survey was delivered on-line and participants were identified using a national quota-sampling procedure. Results Disordered eating behaviors, extreme weight loss measures, and negative cognitions about shape and weight were widely endorsed by women in this age group and were not limited to White participants. Thirty-one percent of women without a history of anorexia or binge eating reported having purged to control weight, and 74.5% of women reported that their concerns about shape and weight interfered with their happiness. Discussion Unhealthy approaches to weight control and negative attitudes about shape and weight are pervasive even among women without eating disorders. The development of effective approaches to address the impact of these unhealthy behaviors and attitudes on the general well-being and functioning of women is required. PMID:20179405

Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; Holle, Ann Von; Hamer, Robert M.; Swann, Rebecca; Reyes, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2013-01-01

120

PARENTAL LOSS AND EATING-RELATED COGNITIONS AND BEHAVIORS IN COLLEGE-AGE WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia Test–Revised (BULIT-R). ?Women who had experienced parental death scored significantly

MINNA R. BEAM; HEATHER L. SERVATY-SEIB; LAURA MATHEWS

2004-01-01

121

Childhood Abuse and Its Association with Mid-Aged Women's Sexual Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of recalled childhood sexual and physical abuse with current sexual functioning in mid-life. The sample was participants in the longitudinal population-based cohort of mid-aged women, The Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Three hundred sixty two of the women (92% of the available cohort) were administered the Violence Questionnaire in the

LORRAINE DENNERSTEIN; JANET R. GUTHRIE; SIMONE ALFORD

2004-01-01

122

[Role of mammography in women under 35 years of age].  

PubMed

The detection of breast cancer in women under 35 is quite an uncommon event, accounting only for 3.2-3.4% of all breast cancers. To determine the indications for mammography in women under 35, the authors correlated clinical, mammographic, and US findings with fine-needle aspiration/surgical biopsy and follow-up results in 1040 symptomatic women examined at the Center of Senology of the Institute of Radiology-University of Perugia, Italy, from 1984 to June 1990. Of 1040 women, 482 (41.6%) had normal findings; benign disease was diagnosed in 558 (53.7%) cases, and malignant disease in 49 (4.7%). Mammography was very useful to diagnose malignancy in palpable breast lesions, as well as to suggest the need for biopsy, to detect metachronous cancers and to define lesion sizes. In inflammatory process--e.g., mastitis and abscesses--both mammography and US were capable of evaluating the real extent of the process, as well as its remission after therapy. Galactography had a specific role in the evaluation of the mammary duct and demonstrated intraductal pathologic conditions. In the authors' experience, mammography never showed occult breast cancers in women with no palpable breast lesions or hematic nipple discharge. PMID:2006338

Panzarola, P; Bellucci, M C

1991-01-01

123

Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

2004-01-01

124

Urine reagent strips for diagnosis of schistosomiasis haematobium in women of fertile age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia were semiquantitatively assessed by reagent strips in single morning urine of women of fertile age visiting the outpatient department of the Mangochi district hospital, Malawi. This was part of a diagnostic approach to female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). In 51 women ova of Schistosoma haematobium were detected in urine by a filtration technique. In 33 of these

Svein Gunnar Gundersen; Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland; Gabriele Poggensee; Gertrud Helling-Giese; Joachim Richter; Lester Chitsulo; Newton Koumwenda; Ingela Krantz; Hermann Feldmeier

1996-01-01

125

Role and Status Continuity: A Study of Aging Women in Traditional Samburu Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gerontocratic is a term that is applied to societies that are governed by older men. This document reports the findings of an ethnographic study that investigated the experience of aging women in a traditional gerontocratic society in Kenya. Tribal women's roles and status were the central themes examined in light of dominant characteristics of…

Eddowes, Jeannette Rickner

126

Transformations and Self-Discovery: Mature-Age Women's Reflections on Returning to University Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has highlighted the challenges that women face as mature-age students in higher education. The challenges are particularly acute when a woman is the first in her family to go to university. Many women begin their journey as students with considerable self-doubt and lack of confidence. They may also face an ongoing struggle to find a way…

O'Shea, S.; Stone, C.

2011-01-01

127

Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.  

PubMed

Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening. PMID:23282861

2013-01-01

128

Age-specific prevalence of human papilloma virus infection among Nigerian women  

PubMed Central

Background Inconsistent trends in HPV prevalence by age have been described in Africa. We examined the age prevalence pattern and distribution of 37 HPV-DNA types among urban Nigerian women. Methods The study population was a sample of 278 women who presented to cervical cancer screening programs in Abuja, Nigeria, between April and August 2012. Using a nurse administered questionnaire, information on demographic characteristics and risk factors of cervical cancer was collected and samples of cervical exfoliated cells were obtained from all participants. Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test® was used to characterize prevalent HPV and log-binomial regression models were used to examine the association between potential correlates and the prevalence of HPV infection. Results The mean age (SD) of the women enrolled was 38 (8) years. The overall prevalence of HPV was 37%. HPV 35 was the most prevalent HPV type in the study population. Among women age ? 30 years, 52% had HPV infection compared to 23% of those women who were older than 45 years (p = 0.006). We observed a significant linear association between age and the prevalence of HPV infections. The prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (1.17, 4.34) for any HPV infection, 3.83 (1.23, 11.94) for Group 1 HPV (definite carcinogens), and 2.19 (0.99, 4.84) for Group 2a or 2b HPV (probable or possible carcinogens) types, among women aged 18–30 years, compared to women who were older than 45 years. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection was highest among younger women and decreased steadily with age among this population of urban Nigerian women. PMID:24972674

2014-01-01

129

Barriers to Middle-Aged Women's Mental Health: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Middle-aged women encounter some barriers to their mental health, putting them at great risk for developing mental disorders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers to middle-aged women’s mental health. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study conducted in 2013 in Kashan, Iran. A purposive, maximum variation sample of 23 middle-aged women was recruited to the study. Data were collected by conducting semi-structured individual interviews. We employed the conventional qualitative content analysis approach for data analysis. Results: Barriers to middle-aged women’s mental health fell into two main themes including ‘increased life concerns’ and ‘physical and psychological tensions’. The two sub-categories of the first theme included having mental concerns and increased burden of roles. The second main theme also consisted of two categories including perceived undesirable physical changes and perceived undesirable psychological changes. Conclusions: Experiences of middle-aged women showed that culturally appropriate interventions to alleviate the concerns of life, physical and mental stress is essential to preserve stability of mental health. PMID:25068059

Sharifi, Khadijeh; Anoosheh, Monireh; Foroughan, Mahshid; Kazemnejad, Anushirvan

2014-01-01

130

Mental health treatments and associated factors amongst mid-aged Melbourne women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The aim of this study was to describe lifetime treatment rate and the treatment modalities used for psychiatric problems and\\u000a to identify variables associated with the history of psychiatric treatment among mid-aged Melbourne women.\\u000a \\u000a A longitudinal observational study was carried out using a population-based sample of 438 mid-aged women interviewed annually\\u000a for eight years. The baseline data on sociodemographic profiles

J. Kim; L. Dennerstein; J. Guthrie

2006-01-01

131

A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

Perez, Shireese Redmond

2011-01-01

132

Achievement and identity in college-age vs. adult women students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested a developmental hypothesis with respect to Fear of Success (FOS), Identity Status, and the relationship between the two. Forty college students, equally divided between regular college-age women (18–23) and adult college women (over age 30), were given a multiple-choice and a projective measure of FOS; they were then interviewed regarding exploration and commitment in five content areas:

Mary Kay Freilino; Raymond Hummel

1985-01-01

133

Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Screening Mammography among Women Ages 50 and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.The associations among cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with recent screening mammograms were evaluated among women ages 50 years and older.Methods.The sample included 946 white and African-American women ages 50 years and older from the 1995 Maryland Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between current cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in

Lisa Fredman; Mary Sexton; Yadong Cui; Michelle Althuis; Lois Wehren; Pamela Hornbeck; Norma Kanarek

1999-01-01

134

Bone density parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between bone density and indices of calcium metabolism including parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women. DESIGN--A cross sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--138 women volunteers aged 45-65 with no known osteoporosis and unselected for disease status recruited for a dietary assessment study from the community using general practice registers. Volunteer rate was 20%.

K. T. Khaw; M. J. Sneyd; J. Compston

1992-01-01

135

Awareness and Attitudes Regarding Prenatal Testing among Texas Women of Childbearing Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increased visibility and availability of prenatal testing procedures, very little is known about the attitudes among\\u000a the populace toward these procedures. Using a computer assisted telephone interview of pregnant and non-pregnant women of\\u000a childbearing age we analyze awareness and attitudes regarding prenatal tests among a diverse group of women of childbearing\\u000a age in Texas. We also examine maternal characteristics

Amy P. Case; Tunu A. Ramadhani; Mark A. Canfield; Catherine A. Wicklund

2007-01-01

136

Depression following fracture in women: a study of age-matched cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objectives High levels of disability, functional impairment and mortality are independently associated with fracture and depression, however the relationship between fracture and depression is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fracture is associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of women. Design A study of age-matched fracture versus non-fracture cohorts of women. Setting Barwon Statistical Division, southeastern Australia. Participants Two samples of women aged ?35?years were drawn from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). The fracture cohort included women with incident fracture identified from radiology reports and the non-fracture cohort were randomly selected from the electoral roll during 1994–1996. Outcome measure Symptoms of depression for women with and without fracture during the 12-month period 2000–2001 were identified by self-report questionnaire based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Results A total of 296 women with fracture (12 hip, 48 vertebral, 91 wrist/forearm, 17 upper arm, 7 pelvis, 11 rib, 62 lower leg and 48 other fractures) and 590 women without fracture were included. Associations between fracture and depression differed between younger (?65?years) and older (>65?years) women. Age and weight-adjusted odds ratio for depression following fracture among younger women was 0.62 (0.35 to 1.11, p=0.12) and 3.33 (1.24 to 8.98, p=0.02) for older women. Further adjustment for lifestyle factors did not affect the results. Conclusions This study demonstrated that differences in mood status exist between older and younger women following fracture and that fracture is associated with increased depression in older women. Assessment of mood status in both the short and long term following fracture in the elderly seems justified, with early detection and treatment likely to result in improved outcomes. PMID:24561497

Williams, Lana J; Berk, Michael; Henry, Margaret J; Stuart, Amanda L; Brennan, Sharon L; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A

2014-01-01

137

Proximal femoral density distribution and structure in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.  

PubMed

Hip fracture risk rises exponentially with age, but there is little knowledge about how fracture-related alterations in hip structure differ from those of aging. We employed computed tomography (CT) imaging to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip in relation to age and incident hip fracture. We used intersubject image registration to integrate 3D hip CT images into a statistical atlas comprising women aged 21 to 97 years (n?=?349) and a group of women with (n?=?74) and without (n?=?148) incident hip fracture 4 to 7 years after their imaging session. Voxel-based morphometry was used to generate Student's t test statistical maps from the atlas, which indicated regions that were significantly associated with age or with incident hip fracture. Scaling factors derived from intersubject image registration were employed as measures of bone size. BMD comparisons of young, middle-aged, and older American women showed preservation of load-bearing cortical and trabecular structures with aging, whereas extensive bone loss was observed in other trabecular and cortical regions. In contrast, comparisons of older Icelandic fracture women with age-matched controls showed that hip fracture was associated with a global cortical bone deficit, including both the superior cortical margin and the load-bearing inferior cortex. Bone size comparisons showed larger dimensions in older compared to younger American women and in older Icelandic fracture women compared to controls. The results indicate that older Icelandic women who sustain incident hip fracture have a structural phenotype that cannot be described as an accelerated pattern of normal age-related loss. The fracture-related cortical deficit noted in this study may provide a biomarker of increased hip fracture risk that may be translatable to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and other clinical images. PMID:23109068

Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L Joseph; Keyak, Joyce; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B; Lang, Thomas F

2013-03-01

138

Persisting young age at first marriage among women in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of age at first marriage in India, and to identify the most influential variables. Identifying key determinants is critical in a country like India, which has young ages at marriage and immense regional and residential diversity. It is also an important policy issue with both individual and societal consequences. I

Gitanjali Pande

2004-01-01

139

Ageism and sexism at work: the middle-aged women of Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Employment discrimination against middle-aged women has recently captured public attention in Hong Kong. One reason is the economic slowdown and increasing unemployment since the 1993-94 and the 1997-to date economic downturns. This paper looks at sex and age discrimination against middle-aged women in colonial Hong Kong where they faced such problems as low labor force participation, occupational and industrial segregation and wage differentials, which in turn left them vulnerable to unemployment and poverty. Rampant age and sex discrimination in the workplace is due to a number of factors: traditional values and cultural devaluation of women's work and need for education, economic restructuring and labor importation, a legal vacuum, inefficient retraining policy, and the weak position of women in the labor movement. The postcolonial government under Tung Chee Hwa is heavily influenced by business interests. Women in the age group of 30-39 and above are hardest hit. They are not targeted as special groups of trainees who require special assistance. Given the limited concern for gender development on the part of the new government, the prospect for women workers does not look good. PMID:12179949

Tang, K L

2000-01-01

140

Method to Determine Age Individual Women Should Begin Mammogram Screening  

Cancer.gov

A paper in the September issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology by two investigators from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Mitchell Gail, M.D., Ph.D., of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Barbara Rimer, Dr.P.H., of the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, provides two methods to assist women and their physicians in making a decision about when to initiate regular mammograms.

141

Body Image and Beliefs About Appearance: Constraints on the Leisure of College-Age and MiddleAge Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body image, beliefs about appearance, and leisure constraints for college-age women and their mothers. The Body-Image Assessment Scale, the Beliefs About Appearance Scale, and a hierarchical leisure constraints scale were used to assess body image concerns, and leisure constraints. A convenience sample of 116 female students at a private

Toni Liechty; Patti A. Freeman; Ramon B. Zabriskie

2006-01-01

142

Age is no barrier to wanting to look good: women on body image, age and advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Most fashion advertising in the UK uses and targets young, slim women (and\\/or men). The purpose of this paper research is to ask whether this approach is relevant and appropriate to older women, who make up a large and growing segment of the market, and who generally have more disposable income to spend on clothes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Adapted

Selina Akram

2007-01-01

143

Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Methods Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. Results The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6–79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6–8 hours per day, 11.5% slept five hours or less, and 8.7% slept nine hours or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around seven hours/day (6.5–7.4 hours/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. Conclusions In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of these associations so that recommendations can be developed to reduce sleep problems in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. It also provides important information on potential confounders for investigation of sleep duration on health outcomes in this population. PMID:22938861

Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

2012-01-01

144

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

145

Relationships between measures of muscular performance, proprioceptive acuity, and aging in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: OA is a multifactorial condition, which predisposes elderly individuals to disabilities. Therefore, aging, especially in women, is considered to be a risk factor for the development and progression of this disease. The aging process and the presence of degenerative diseases lead to losses of strength and proprioceptive acuity. However, studies have reported conflicting results regarding the relationships between these

Jennifer Granja Peixoto; João Marcos Domingues Dias; Rosângela Corrêa Dias; Sérgio Teixeira da Fonseca; Luci Fuscaldi Teixeira-Salmela

2011-01-01

146

Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women  

E-print Network

Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women predicts a trade-off between fitness benefits and costs of delaying age at first reproduction (AFR of reproductive failure (no offspring produced reaching breeding) will increase with AFR if the benefit

Lummaa, Virpi

147

Phenotype of Frailty: Characterization in the Women's Health and Aging Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. ''Frailty'' is an adverse, primarily gerontologic, health condition regarded as frequent with aging and having severe consequences. Although clinicians claim that the extremes of frailty can be easily recognized, a standardized definition of frailty has proved elusive until recently. This article evaluates the cross-validity, criterion validity, and internal validity in the Women's Health and Aging Studies (WHAS) of a

Karen Bandeen-Roche; Qian-Li Xue; Luigi Ferrucci; Jeremy Walston; Jack M. Guralnik; Paulo Chaves; Scott L. Zeger; Linda P. Fried

2006-01-01

148

Achievement and Identity in College-Age vs. Adult Women Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between Fear of Success (FOS) and Identity Status. Two groups of women, regular college age (18-23) and adult (over 30) were interviewed and completed measures of FOS. The hypothesis that adult students would exhibit less FOS than their college age counterparts was confirmed. (DWH)

Freilino, Mary Kay; Hummel, Raymond

1985-01-01

149

Socioeconomic Factors, Immigration Status, and Cancer Screening Among Mexican American Women Aged 75 and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the association between socioeconomic factors and acculturation with cancer screening methods, we analyzed data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, on 1,272 women aged 75 and older residing in the United States in 2004–2005. We found that lower Pap smear or mammography uses were associated with older age, lower education, and having

Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz; Kyriakos S. Markides

2010-01-01

150

The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

Lear, Glenna

2011-01-01

151

A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age

Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

2009-01-01

152

Healthy Living and Keeping BusyA Discourse Analysis of Mid-Aged Women's Attributions for Menopausal Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menopause is a complex time in the lives of mid-aged women, and this contributes to the diversity of attributions of menopausal experience. In this study, participants' comments on a survey of attitudes about menopause were analyzed discursively to consider how mid-aged women account for their own and other women's experience of menopause. Two discourses drawn upon to make attributions about

Mary Breheny; Christine Stephens

2003-01-01

153

The Impact of Aging on Sexual Function and Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Review of Population-Based Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Scientific interest in the impact of aging on women's sexual function and dysfunction has increased in the half century since Kinsey described age-related changes in women's sexual activities. However, a range of methodological issues limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many published studies in this area. Aim. To review community-based studies investigating changes in women's sexual function

Richard Hayes; Lorraine Dennerstein

2005-01-01

154

Increased hematuria following hypergravic exposure in middle-aged women  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of simulated weightlessness on orthostatic tolerance were studied in 9 women (55 to 65 years old) who underwent acceleration and lower body negative pressure before and after 10 days of horizontal bed rest. The results of this study show the first known association of microscopic hematuria with hypergravic and orthostatic stress which suggests similarities to the 'stress hematuria syndrome' previously seen with heavy exercise (Boileau et al., 1980). In addition, the sporadic occurrence of this phenomenon indicates a multifactorial etiology in predisposed individuals. Bedrest or weightlessness simulation per se does not seem to significantly alter renal function, but may decrease microscopic hematuria with an orthostatic component.

Goldwater, D. J.; Ohara, D. B.; Sandler, H.

1982-01-01

155

To cut or not to cut: cosmetic surgery usage and women's age-related experiences.  

PubMed

Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86. From these data, this study tested whether women's cosmetic surgery usage would act as a protective factor in age-related experiences related to body image, self-esteem, and aging attitudes. Cosmetic surgery recipients evidenced less body satisfaction, and more appearance investment with age increases while only non-recipients showed improvements in self-esteem ratings with advancing age. Both recipients and non-recipients showed declines in body care with age, a greater felt discrepancy between actual and perceived age, and less aging anxiety--but non-recipients more so than recipients. Thus, despite having undertaken action to improve their appearance through surgical means at some point in their adult lives, cosmetic surgery recipients did not inevitably feel younger than their years, or better about themselves, compared to those who have not pursued surgery. Study limitations and implications are outlined, and given that cosmetic surgery may become normative practice in future cohorts of aging adults, it concludes with a call for nationally-representative studies using matched-control group research designs typical of public health inquiry more generally. PMID:22696841

Eriksen, Shelley J

2012-01-01

156

Racial difference in lean mass distribution among reproductive-aged women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Lean mass is an important determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) accrual, yet data regarding its correlates based on multiethnic premenopausal women are lacking. We examined the influence of age, race/ethnicity, and lifestyle variables on total and regional lean mass distribution in this population. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 708 healthy black, white, and Hispanic women 16–33 years of age who were seen in an outpatient clinic. In addition, 218 of these women were followed for up to 36 months to observe changes in the relevant variables. We measured body weight, height, and lean mass distribution using a digital scale, wall-mounted stadiometer, and dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Multiple linear regression and mixed-model regression analyses were used to model the relationship of age, race/ethnicity and lifestyle variables to total and regional lean mass. RESULTS For a given BMI, black women had higher total body lean mass (LMtotal) and leg lean mass (LMleg) than white and Hispanic women. Hispanic women had significantly lower LMtotal, trunk lean mass (LMtrunk), and LMleg than black and white women. The difference between blacks and whites with regard to LMtotal significantly magnified with increasing BMI. Weight-bearing exercise and age at menarche were positively associated with lean mass variables, while parity was negatively associated with LMleg. LMtotal and LMtrunk increased over 36 months. Calcium intake was positively associated with increase in LMtotal over time. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that racial differences exist in the distribution of lean mass for a given BMI among reproductive-aged women. PMID:21305820

Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.

2010-01-01

157

Season of Birth and the Risk of Hip Fracture in Danish Men and Women Aged 65+  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D status in pregnant women has been linked to childhood bone mineral density in their offspring but it is unclear if effects extend to fracture risk in adulthood or even old age. As vitamin D levels in the population show pronounced seasonal variation in Denmark, we performed an epidemiological analysis of hip fracture rates as a function of season of birth, age, and sex. We retrieved information on all hip fractures in the 9-year period between 1997 and 2005 in all men and women aged 65–95, excluded hip fractures that occurred in current and recent prednisolone users, and subsequently calculated fracture rates and relative risks. The analysis covered 541,109 men and 691,522 women. In women, we observed a small but statistically significant difference between fracture rates by season of birth for all age intervals expect the youngest (age 65–69). A similar pattern was seen in men, but this was only statistically significant in the two oldest age groups (age 85–89 and 90–95). These findings suggest that vitamin D availability in the first and second trimester of intrauterine life could have a small but lasting impact on bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Further studies are needed. PMID:22645516

Abrahamsen, Bo; Heitmann, Berit L.; Eiken, Pia A.

2011-01-01

158

Stability of Typical Patterns of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Swedish Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical patterns of general subjective well-being (SWB) were searched for in a representative longitudinal sample of Swedish\\u000a women (N = 272) at age 43 and 49. Cluster analysis at each age separately resulted in a six-cluster solution at both ages. The two\\u000a solutions were similar, indicating structural stability across 6 years. Five of the six clusters also showed significant individual\\u000a stability. Among these

Lars R. Bergman; Daiva Daukantaite

2009-01-01

159

A Qualitative Investigation of Women's and Men's Body Image Concerns and Their Attitudes Toward Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women and men (aged 22–62 years) to explore their relationships with their bodies. The particular focus was age-related changes in body image and attitudes toward the body aging, an area that has received little research attention to date. Thematic analysis revealed distinctive gender differences. Men commonly conceptualized their bodies as a holistic entity, whereas

Emma Halliwell; Helga Dittmar

2003-01-01

160

The Effects of Age and Estrogen on Stress Responsivity in Older Women  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have shown that estradiol improves mood in women around the menopause transition [1, 2] but does not improve mood for older postmenopausal women (Morrison et al. 2004). Newhouse et al. [3] have previously shown that estradiol treatment in non-depressed women resulted in increased negative mood after psychosocial stress. The current study examined whether age after menopause impacted the effect of estradiol on mood after a psychosocial stress manipulation. Participants were 22 postmenopausal women placed on either oral placebo or 17?-estradiol (1 mg/day for 1 month, then 2 mg/day for 2 months). At the end of the 3 month treatment phase they performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) followed by mood ratings. To examine the effects of age on the estrogen-stress interaction, we performed a median split on age and created four groups of participants: younger-placebo (mean age 55.5), younger-estradiol (mean age 55.5), older-placebo (mean age 73.0), and older-estradiol (mean age 76.8). The results showed that both older and younger estradiol-treated participants exhibited a significant and similar increase in negative mood after psychosocial stress compared to placebo-treated women. These results suggest that estradiol may play a significant role in modulating emotional reactivity to stressful events and that this effect persists in older women. Furthermore, responsivity to estradiol effects on emotional processing appears to be intact even years after menopause in contrast to other cognitive and behavioral effects of estradiol which may be limited to the early postmenopausal years. PMID:22832417

Dumas, Julie A.; Albert, Kimberly M.; Naylor, Magdalena R.; Sites, Cynthia K.; Benkelfat, Chawki; Newhouse, Paul A.

2012-01-01

161

Effect of aging on carotid baroreflex control of blood pressure and leg vascular conductance in women.  

PubMed

Recent work suggests that ?-adrenergic vasodilation offsets ?-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, but this effect is lost after menopause. Given these age-related vascular changes, we tested the hypothesis that older women would exhibit a greater change in vascular conductance following baroreflex perturbation compared with young women. In 10 young (21 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (62 ± 2 yr) women, mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO; Modelflow), total vascular conductance (TVC), and leg vascular conductance (LVC, duplex-Doppler ultrasound) were continuously measured in response to 5-s pulses of neck suction (NS; -60 Torr) and neck pressure (NP; +40 Torr) to simulate carotid hypertension and hypotension, respectively. Following NS, decreases in MAP were similar between groups; however, MAP peak response latency was slower in older women (P < 0.05). Moreover, at the time of peak MAP, increases in LVC (young, -11.5 ± 3.9%LVC vs. older, +19.1 ± 7.0%LVC; P < 0.05) and TVC were greater in older women, whereas young women exhibited larger decreases in HR and CO (young, -10 ± 3% CO vs. older, +0.8 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05). Following NP, increases in MAP were blunted (young, +14 ± 1 mmHg vs. older, +8 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05) in older women, whereas MAP response latencies were similar. Interestingly, decreases in LVC and TVC were similar between groups, but HR and CO (young, +7.0 ± 2% CO vs. older, -4.0 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05) responses were attenuated in older women. These findings suggest that older women have greater reliance on vascular conductance to modulate MAP via carotid baroreflex, whereas young women rely more on cardiac responsiveness. Furthermore, older women demonstrate a blunted ability to increase MAP to hypotensive stimuli. PMID:24682393

Credeur, Daniel P; Holwerda, Seth W; Boyle, Leryn J; Vianna, Lauro C; Jensen, Areum K; Fadel, Paul J

2014-05-15

162

Slower immune system aging in women versus men in the Japanese population  

PubMed Central

Background Gender-related differences in humans are commonly observed in behaviour, physical activity, disease, and lifespan. However, the notion that age-related changes in the immune system differ between men and women remains controversial. To elucidate the relationship between immunological changes and lifespan, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy Japanese subjects (age range: 20–90 years; N?=?356) were analysed by using three-colour flow cytometry. The proliferative activities and cytokine-producing capacities of T cells in response to anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody stimulation were also assessed. Results An age-related decline in the number of T cells, certain subpopulations of T cells (including CD8+ T cells, CD4+CDRA+ T cells, and CD8+CD28+ T cells), and B cells, and in the proliferative capacity of T cells was noted. The rate of decline in these immunological parameters, except for the number of CD8+ T cells, was greater in men than in women (p?age-related increase or increasing trend in the number of CD4+ T cells, CD4+CDRO+ T cells, and natural killer (CD56+CD16+) cells, as well as in the CD4+ T cell/CD8+ T cell ratio. The rate of increase of these immunological parameters was greater in women than in men (p?age-related decline that was greater in men than in women (p?age-related decline that was greater in men than in women (p?age-related decreases was observed in IFN?, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 production, when lymphocytes were cultured with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody stimulation. The rate of decline in IL-6 and IL-10 production was greater in men than in women (p?Age-related changes in various immunological parameters differ between men and women. Our findings indicate that the slower rate of decline in these immunological parameters in women than that in men is consistent with the fact that women live longer than do men. PMID:23675689

2013-01-01

163

Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women  

PubMed Central

Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020

Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

2010-01-01

164

Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women  

PubMed Central

African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10?8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

165

Folate Intake by Women of Child-Bearing Age: The Impact of Fortification  

E-print Network

In 1994-95, 50 to 75 percent of men and 75 to 90 percent of women, depending on age, had usual intakes of folate below their folate requirement (Institute of Medicine, 1998). In 1998, folate fortification of enriched breads, breakfast cereals, pasta, rice, and flour became mandatory. This policy was established by the Food and Drug Administration to increase folate intake among women of child-bearing age and thereby to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in newborns. One of the key recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 applies to women of child-bearing age who may become pregnant and those in the first trimester of pregnancy: “Consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of folate from a varied diet. ” Good sources of the food forms, or naturally occurring forms, of folate include darkgreen vegetables, such as broccoli, romaine lettuce, spinach, and other dark leafy greens; dried peas and beans, such as those used in baked beans and black-eyed peas; citrus fruits and juices; peanuts; and liver. The purposes of this research were to determine (1) the proportions of low- and higher income women of child-bearing age having folate intakes below their requirements and (2) if low-income women, compared with higher income women, get a greater proportion of their total folate intake from synthetic folic acid, which is used in fortified foods. We were interested in learning whether or not the fortification policy benefits low-income women more than it does higher income women.

United States

2005-01-01

166

Mediators of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance in Middle-aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term behavioral self-regulation is the hallmark of successful weight control. We tested mediators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance in middle-aged women who participated in a randomized controlled 12-month weight management intervention. Overweight and obese women (N = 225, BMI = 31.3 ± 4.1 kg\\/m2) were randomly assigned to a control or a 1-year group intervention designed to promote

Pedro J. Teixeira; Marlene N. Silva; Sílvia R. Coutinho; António L. Palmeira; Jutta Mata; Paulo N. Vieira; Eliana V. Carraça; Teresa C. Santos; Luís B. Sardinha

2010-01-01

167

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are widely used in the general population. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials of CAM therapies for obstetrical and gynecologic conditions and presents therapies that are likely to be used by women of reproductive age and by pregnant women. Data Sources: Sources included English-language papers in MEDLINE 1966-2002 and AMED (1985-2000) and the

Adriane Fugh-Bermana; Fredi Kronenberg

2003-01-01

168

Factors Associated with Age at Natural Menopause in a Multiethnic Sample of Midlife Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unprecedented number of women will experience menopause in the next decade. Although the timing of menopause affects long-term disease risk, little is known about factors that affect this timing. In the present 1995-1997 cross-sectional study, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, the relation of demographic and lifestyle factors to age at natural menopause was examined in seven

Ellen B. Gold; Joyce Bromberger; Sybil Crawford; Steve Samuels; Gail A. Greendale; Sioban D. Harlow; Joan Skurnick

169

A Feminine Model of Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Investigation of Middle-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors hypothesized that having traits associated with the female gender role is related to psychological distress in women. Specifically, they investigated the effect of low instrumentality and high expressivity, private self-consciousness, and anger-in on depressive symptoms measured 3 years later in 460 middle-aged women during the menopausal transition and times of stress. Multivariate analyses showed that after adjustment for

Joyce T. Bromberger; Karen A. Matthews

1996-01-01

170

Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy can result in abortion or congenital defects. Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia are unknown. The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to September 2011. Sera of 425 women were analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. Results The study revealed that anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 81.4% of the samples of which 78.4% were positive for only IgG and 3.06% positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.14, 5.86) was suggestive of recent infections. Of the 213 pregnant women 9 (4.2 %) were IgM reactive. Out of 17 potential risk factors investigated, univariate logistic regression showed significant association of T. gondii infection with study area, age, pregnancy status, raw vegetable consumption, source of water, presence of cats at home, contact with cats, HIV status and precaution during cats’ feces cleaning (P???0.05). The final logistic regression model revealed that: the probability of acquiring T. gondii infection by women of Debre-Zeit was 4.46 times (95% CI of adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.67, 11.89; P =0.003) higher compared to women of Ambo, pregnant women were twice (95% CI aOR: 1.13, 3.59; P?=?0.018) more likely to be seropositive than non-pregnant women and women who consume raw vegetable were at increased risk of infection (aOR?=?2.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.78; P?=?0.043) than women who didn’t consume. Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia is high. Study area, pregnancy and raw vegetable consumption are risk factors to acquire T. gondii infection. Educational program, antenatal screening of pregnant women and further epidemiological studies to uncover the economic and health impact of toxoplasmosis are suggested. PMID:23442946

2013-01-01

171

Cultural beliefs and attitudes of Black and Hispanic college-age women toward exercise.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural knowledge that informs exercise behaviors among Black and Hispanic college-age women. Focus groups were conducted among 26 Black or Hispanic female college students. Questions were based on constructs from social cognitive theory. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Latinas were found to be more likely to view vigorous exercise as "unfeminine" and cited family responsibilities as barriers. Black women enjoyed the competition and camaraderie of exercise, but felt pressure to conform to White standards of beauty. There appear to be distinct differences in the cultural beliefs that inform exercise behaviors among these women. PMID:18263846

D'Alonzo, Karen T; Fischetti, Natalie

2008-04-01

172

Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population. PMID:18185493

2008-01-11

173

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Use and Incident Frailty in Women Aged 65 and Older: Prospective Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between cur- rent use, duration, and potency of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and incident frailty in women aged 65 and older who were not frail at baseline. DESIGN: Data were from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), a prospective study con- ducted at 40 U.S. clinical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 65 to 79 at

Shelly L. Gray; Andrea Z. LaCroix; Aaron K. Aragaki; Mary McDermott; Barbara B. Cochrane; Charles L. Kooperberg; Anne M. Murray; Beatriz Rodriguez; Henry Black; Nancy F. Woods

174

[The characteristics of morbidity in women of fertile age residing the area of Tadjikistan aluminum factory].  

PubMed

The social hygienic characteristics of deteriorated living environment in Surkhan-Daria area around the Tadjikistan aluminum factory are described. The harmful chemical substances negatively impacting local population health especially women of fertile age are indicated. The structure of morbidity of women of fertile age based on the data of overall medical examination is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the most frequent pathology in the examined area are diseases of endocrine system, blood and hematopoietic organs, digestive system and genitourinary system. The results of studying the poor health conditions developed under the impact of poor ecological environment due to long-term and harmful influence of waste substances of factory on the air, soil and food are discussed. The system of measures targeted on the improvement of the medical care of women of fertile age residing the aluminum factory territories are proposed. PMID:19548472

Shafa?zieva, G D

2009-01-01

175

Relation of Age, Gender, and Bone Mass to Circulating Sclerostin Levels in Women and Men  

PubMed Central

Sclerostin is a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling and bone formation. However, there is currently no information on the relation of circulating sclerostin levels to age, gender, or bone mass in humans. Thus we measured serum sclerostin levels in a population-based sample of 362 women [123 premenopausal, 152 postmenopausal not on estrogen treatment (ET), and 87 postmenopausal on ET] and 318 men, aged 21 to 97 years. Sclerostin levels (mean ± SEM) were significantly higher in men than women (33.3 ± 1.0 pmol/L versus 23.7 ± 0.6 pmol/L, p < .001). In pre- and postmenopausal women not on ET combined (n = 275) as well as in men, sclerostin levels were positively associated with age (r = 0.52 and r = 0.64, respectively, p < .001 for both). Over life, serum sclerostin levels increased by 2.4- and 4.6-fold in the women and men, respectively. Moreover, for a given total-body bone mineral content, elderly subjects (age ? 60 years) had higher serum sclerostin levels than younger subjects (ages 20 to 39 years). Our data thus demonstrate that (1) men have higher serum sclerostin levels than women, (2) serum sclerostin levels increase markedly with age, and (3) compared with younger subjects, elderly individuals have higher serum sclerostin levels for a given amount of bone mass. Further studies are needed to define the cause of the age-related increase in serum sclerostin levels in humans as well as the potential role of this increase in mediating the known age-related impairment in bone formation. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20721932

Mödder, Ulrike I; Hoey, Kelley A; Amin, Shreyasee; McCready, Louise K; Achenbach, Sara J; Riggs, B Lawrence; Melton, L Joseph; Khosla, Sundeep

2011-01-01

176

Acute ovarian failure underestimates age-specific reproductive impairment for young women undergoing chemotherapy for cancer  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to describe the age-specific impact of infertility and early menopause after chemotherapy, among reproductive age women with cancer. Methods 1041 women diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 18 and 40 responded to retrospective survey on reproductive health history. Five cancer types were included: leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease (HD), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer (GI). Survey questions addressed: AOF (cessation of menses after treatment), early menopause (menopause prior to 45 years old) and infertility (failed conception). Logistic regression was used to determine the proportions of AOF and infertility based on age at diagnosis. Censored data methods were used to determine the probability of early menopause. Results 620 women received chemotherapy alone. The percentage reporting AOF was 8%, 10%, 9%, and 5% for HD, NHL, breast cancer, and GI, respectively. AOF increased significantly with age at diagnosis (p<0.05). If not in AOF, the incidence of infertility was at least 40% at age 35 and increased significantly with age at diagnosis in HD and breast cancer (p<0.05). The estimated probability of early menopause was at least 25% at age 30 and increased significantly with younger age at diagnosis in HD, NHL, and GI (p<0.05). Conclusions In order to give patients appropriate counseling, it is important that they understand the potential increased risk of infertility and early menopause beyond that of acute ovarian failure. These findings can provide improved, age-specific counseling regarding reproductive impairment for young women diagnosed with cancer. PMID:21850728

Letourneau, Joseph M; Ebbel, Erin E; Katz, Patricia P; Oktay, Kutluk H; McCulloch, Charles E.; Ai, Wei Z; Chien, A Jo; Melisko, Michelle E; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

2011-01-01

177

Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

2004-06-01

178

Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.  

PubMed

Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly disempowered. PMID:12287095

Sethna, C

1992-02-01

179

A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women's loss of reproductive value.  

PubMed

Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual's overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35-50 years and 51-65 years, respectively) and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: (1) that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; (2) that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and (3) that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female) middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources. PMID:24592253

Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C E; Traficonte, Daniel M; Wilson, M Claire

2014-01-01

180

Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

1992-01-01

181

The Day-to-Day Impact of Urogenital Aging: Perspectives from Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s day-to-day functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem. PMID:19908103

Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam

2009-01-01

182

The HPA axis response to stress in women: effects of aging and fitness.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypotheses that aging is associated with greater hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to psychological stress, and whether aerobic fitness is associated with a lower HPA axis response to psychological stress. Three groups, consisting of young-unfit women (27.9+/-2.5 yr, n=10), older-unfit women (66.3+/-1.4 yr, n=14), and older-fit women (66.6+/-2.0 yr, n=12), underwent the Matt Stress Reactivity Protocol (MSRP). The MSRP is a stress test battery that combines mental challenges, a physical challenge, and a psychosocial stressor. Definition of fitness was based on maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) where unfit was defined as having VO(2max)age group and fit was defined as VO(2max)>average for the respective age group. The MSRP elicited increases in heart rate, blood pressure, ACTH, and cortisol (P<0.001). The older-unfit women had significantly greater cortisol responses to the challenge than both the young-unfit and the older-fit women (P<0.05), who did not differ from each other. ACTH levels were significantly higher in the older-unfit women at baseline and throughout the trial, compared to both young-unfit and the older-fit (P<0.01). The ACTH response was not different between any of the groups. The young-unfit women had greater heart rate responses than the older-unfit (P<0.01), while the latter had greater systolic blood pressure responses (P<0.01). There were no significant differences between the older-unfit and older-fit in terms of heart rate or blood pressure responses. Our result shows that among unfit women, aging is associated with greater HPA axis reactivity to psychological stress, and that higher aerobic fitness among older women can attenuate these age-related changes as indicated by a blunted cortisol response to psychological stress. These findings suggest that exercise training may be an effective way of modifying some of the neuroendocrine changes associated with aging. PMID:15694119

Traustadóttir, Tinna; Bosch, Pamela R; Matt, Kathleen S

2005-05-01

183

Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.  

PubMed

Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2011-12-01

184

Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition. PMID:23624642

Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

2014-06-01

185

The Multiple Sources of Women's Aging Anxiety and Their Relationship With Psychological Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors examine associations of three sources of women's aging anxiety—declining attractiveness, health, and fertility—with social contexts of their lives, including locations in systems of inequality, connections to institutions, relationships, and health. They also explore links between aging anxieties and distress. Method: Employing data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States conducted in 1995-1996, the

Anne E. Barrett; Cheryl Robbins

2008-01-01

186

Weight Loss Readiness in Middle-Aged Women: Psychosocial Predictors of Success for Behavioral Weight Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of weight loss success and failure has eluded researchers for many years. Thus, we administered a comprehensive psychometric battery before a 4-month lifestyle behavioral weight reduction program and analyzed weight changes during that period to identify baseline characteristics of successful and unsuccessful participants, among 112 overweight and obese middle-aged women (age, 47.8 ± 4.4 years; BMI, 31.4 ±

Pedro J. Teixeira; Scott B. Going; Linda B. Houtkooper; Ellen C. Cussler; Catherine J. Martin; Lauve L. Metcalfe; Nuris R. Finkenthal; Rob M. Blew; Luis B. Sardinha; Timothy G. Lohman

2002-01-01

187

Age-related trends in hip geometry in Sri Lankan women: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indices of hip geometry are known to be predictive of hip fractures while sex and ethnic differences in hip geometry have\\u000a been previously demonstrated. Age-related trends in hip geometry among Asians, however, have not been studied sufficiently.\\u000a A total of 280 healthy, perimenopausal women, aged between 32 and 97 years, were selected from the Community Study Area of\\u000a the Faculty

Sarath Lekamwasam; Janaka Lenora

2007-01-01

188

Development and Evaluation of a Decision Aid About Prenatal Testing for Women of Advanced Maternal Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To develop and evaluate a decision aid designed to prepare patients of advanced maternal age for counseling about prenatal diagnostic testing.Setting:A regional genetics center.Design:A before\\/after study.Interventions:Participants used an audioguided workbook to learn about options and outcomes and to clarify personal risks, values, questions, and predispositions.Subjects:21 women of advanced maternal age and 17 spouses.Main outcome measures:Knowledge of prenatal testing alternatives, decisional

Elizabeth R. Drake; Lori Engler-Todd; Annette M. O'Connor; Linda C. Surh; Alasdair Hunter

1999-01-01

189

Do reports of sleep disturbance relate to coronary and aortic calcification in healthy middle-aged women?: Study of Women’s Health across the Nation  

PubMed Central

Background Poor sleep may be associated with the cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is less clear if poor sleep is associated with subclinical CVD. We evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported sleep disturbance and duration and calcification in the coronary arteries (CAC) and aorta (AC) in healthy mid-life women. Methods 512 black and white women enrolled in the SWAN Heart Study underwent a computed tomography protocol for measurement of CAC and AC and completed questionnaires about their sleep. Linear and partial proportional logit regression analyses adjusted for site, race, age, body mass index, and the Framingham risk score (model 1). Additional covariates of education, perceived health, hypnotic medication and alcohol use were evaluated (model 2), plus depressive symptoms (model 3). Results AC was related to higher levels of trouble falling asleep, waking earlier than planned, overall poor sleep quality, and cough/snoring and shorter sleep duration in linear regression analyses (model 1). Adjustment for additional covariates showed that poor sleep quality and waking earlier than planned remained associated with higher AC (models 2, 3). CAC was unrelated to sleep characteristics. Conclusions Poor sleep quality is related to AC in middle-aged women. Sleep quality should routinely be assessed in mid-life women. PMID:23352420

Matthews, Karen A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Lee, Laisze; Janssen, Imke; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

2013-01-01

190

Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.  

PubMed Central

The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

Minkowski, W L

1992-01-01

191

Factors Affecting the Vocational Choice of Women of Different Ages Selecting Clerical and Secretarial Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt was made to examine the factors affecting women of different ages in their selection of clerical and secretarial occupations. The factors considered were: health, intelligence, interests, previous work experience, stated reasons for present occupational choice, knowledge of employment opportunities and job requirements, influence of…

Willmarth, John Gary

192

Recent increase of breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the Geneva Cancer Registry, we found that in 2002–2004, breast cancer incidence in women aged 25–39 years increased by 46.7% per year (95% CI: 7.1–74.0, P=0.015), which surveillance or detection bias may not fully explain.

C Bouchardy; G Fioretta; H M Verkooijen; G Vlastos; P Schaefer; J-F Delaloye; I Neyroud-Caspar; S Balmer Majno; Y Wespi; M Forni; P Chappuis; A-P Sappino; E Rapiti

2007-01-01

193

Age before beauty: an exploration of body image in African-American and Caucasian adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on body image emphasizes risks for eating disorders and typically involves young, Caucasian women. Few studies examine body image beyond the college years and there appears to be a disregard for the mature woman, as if self-acceptance of one's body is part of the aging process. Historically, it has been assumed that race is a protective factor against body

Justine J. Reel; Sonya SooHoo; Julia Franklin Summerhays; Diane L. Gill

2008-01-01

194

How Similar are Wise Men and Women? A Comparison Across Two Age Cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orwoll and Achenbaum (1993) suggest that the path to wisdom might be considerably different for men and women, although a wise person might have integrated the feminine and masculine aspects of wisdom. Using samples of 464 undergraduate college students and 178 older adults (age 52+), univariate and multivariate analyses of variance revealed that wisdom (measured by cognitive, reflective, and affective

Monika Ardelt

2009-01-01

195

High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

Johannessen, S.; And Others

1986-01-01

196

HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AGE 35-64 IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY  

E-print Network

HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN AGE 35-64 IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY A BLACK PAPER of "Black Papers" for the Urban League of Pittsburgh. These three papers analyze health disparities by race serious health problems to exist among local African Americans. The first report provided an overview

Sibille, Etienne

197

Complex exercise rehabilitation program for women of the II period of age with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a complex exercise program integrating Eastern and Western complex exercise rehabilitation programs in order to examine the effects of it on the human body with the subjects for women of the II period of mature age with metabolic syndrome. The subjects of this study are 60 II period of mature aged women with metabolic syndrome living in G City, and the experimental group conducted Taekwon-aerobic exercise, European rehabilitation gymnastics, gym ball exercise, and elastic band exercise while the control group performed European rehabilitation gymnastics, gym ball exercise, and elastic band exercise which is the rehabilitation program being presently conducted in Russia, for 90 min per day for three weeks. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was utilized to verify pre and post-intergroup difference, and the significant level was set as P< 0.05. Whereas body weight, % fat, WHR, SBP, DBP and blood glucose were significant decreased, muscle weight and pulse wave velocity were significant increased after complex exercise rehabilitation programs Both Eastern and Western complex exercise rehabilitation programs showed positive effects on the body of the II period of mature aged women with metabolic syndrome, and if various exercise programs are conducted, it will be more effective in improving II period of mature aged women's metabolic syndrome afterwards. PMID:24278877

Lee, Eun-Ok; Olga, Kozyreva

2013-04-01

198

Gestational Age at Enrollment and Continued Substance Use Among Pregnant Women in Drug Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance use during pregnancy is associated with poor obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. Although intervention for substance use including alcohol improves pregnancy outcomes, a substantial number of women continue to use drugs or consume alcohol during treatment. To determine whether gestational age at entry into treatment (specifically first trimester enrollment) was associated with lower risk of continued substance use, we analyzed

Mishka Terplan; Joanne Garrett; Katherine Hartmann

2009-01-01

199

Use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2004.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. To prevent these defects, the U.S. Public Health Service (1992) and Institute of Medicine (1998) issued separate recommendations that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 micro g of folic acid daily, and the Food and Drug Administration mandated fortification of cereal grain products with folic acid to increase women's daily intake. Fortification of the U.S. food supply with folic acid has resulted in a 26% reduction in NTDs. However, even with fortification, not all women receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the use of vitamins containing folic acid remains an important component of NTD prevention. To monitor the use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age, the Gallup Organization has conducted a series of surveys for the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation since 1995. This report presents results from the 2004 survey, which indicated that although no substantial increase in the proportion of women who use vitamins containing folic acid daily occurred during 1995-2003, a substantial increase was observed in 2004, with 40% of women aged 18-45 years reporting daily consumption of a vitamin containing folic acid. This report also presents information about women's dieting behaviors. Regardless of dieting status, public health programs should stress the importance of women in their childbearing years consuming 400 micro g of folic acid daily through supplements, fortified foods, and a diet containing folate-rich foods. PMID:15371968

2004-09-17

200

EFFECT OF AGING ON STORAGE AND VOIDING FUNCTION IN WOMEN WITH STRESS-PREDOMINANT URINARY INCONTINENCE  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To investigate age related changes in urodynamic parameters in two large cohorts of women planning stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS Using a standardized protocol, urodynamic parameters were obtained from participants in the SISTEr and TOMUS trials undergoing baseline non-invasive flow (NIF), followed by filling cystometrogram (CMG) and pressure flow study (PFS). Bladder Contractility Index (BCI=PdetQmax+5Qmax) and detrusor hypocontractility (defined as detrusor pressure @ maximum flow (Pdet@Qmax) <10 cm H2O) were also characterized. Excluded patients had prior SUI surgery or prolapse stage >2. Propensity score analysis controlled for potential bias of combining participants from 2 clinical trials. Regression analysis (linear and logistic) adjusting for propensity score quintile assessed the association of age and an age cutoff value(<65 vs >65 years) with urodynamic parameters. RESULTS 945 women (SISTER 468, TOMUS 477) were included. Mean age was 50 in SISTEr (27-75 years) and 51 in TOMUS (24-82 years). NIF Qmax significantly decreased with age (26.2 ml/sec vs. 22 ml/sec, p=0.002); NIF voiding time increased 2.7 seconds for every 10 year age increment and Pdet@Qmax decreased 2.1 cm H20 for each 10 year increase in age (p =0.003 for both). Hypocontractility was more likely in women ? 65 years (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.59, 5.27). BCI and age were inversely related with BCI decreasing by 7.68 (1.96) cm H2O for every 10 year age increase (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS In these two cohorts, the changes in voiding parameters observed suggest that detrusor contractility and efficiency decrease with age. PMID:24518790

Zimmern, Philippe; Litman, Heather J.; Nager, Charles W.; Lemack, Gary E.; Richter, Holly E.; Sirls, Larry; Kraus, Stephen R.; Sutkin, Gary; Mueller, Elizabeth R.

2014-01-01

201

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20-65 Years of Age (NHANES)  

PubMed Central

Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our ?ndings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145–150;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707 PMID:24280566

Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

2013-01-01

202

Actual and subjective age-related differences in women's attitudes toward their bodies across the life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined actual and subjective age-related variations in women's perceptions of their weight, sexual attractiveness,\\u000a physical condition, and overall body satisfaction. To this end, 265 women between the ages of 17 and 85 years completed the\\u000a Body Esteem Scale (Franzio & Shields, 1984), the subjective age scales of the Subjective Age and Gender Scale (Montepare,\\u000a 1996), and the

Joann M. Montepare

1996-01-01

203

Women’s awareness and periconceptional use of folic acid: data from a large European survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the awareness and use of folic acid in European women of child-bearing age, particularly in the setting of pregnancy and pregnancy planning. Methods Between November 2009 and December 2009, women aged 15–49 years old from 18 European countries completed a 30-minute structured questionnaire either online or via face-to-face interviews. To achieve nationally representative samples for each country quotas were set for age, education, income, and regional distribution. Results A total of 22,925 women participated in the survey. Of the respondents, 58% had at least one biological child, and of these 38% reported that their first pregnancy was not planned. Nearly 60% of women who planned their pregnancy indicated that they had stopped using their method of contraception without first consulting a doctor or another health care professional. Overall, 70% reported that they had heard of folic acid and 40% stated that they knew the benefits of folic acid. However, when prompted to indicate which diseases and/or birth defects folic acid can protect against, only 17% knew that folic acid can reduce the risk of neural tube defects/spina bifida. Conclusions A large proportion of European women of child-bearing age in this survey were unaware that periconceptional folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of birth defects. PMID:23658501

Bitzer, Johannes; von Stenglin, Ariane; Bannemerschult, Ralf

2013-01-01

204

Factors perceived to contribute to mathematics avoidance or mathematics confidence in non-traditional age women attending a community college  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, the number of students entering postsecondary institutions immediately after high school has been decreasing, while the number of non-traditional aged students, defined as adults over 25, has substantially increased, with women making up the majority of this adult student group. Mathematics education is an area where non-traditional age women tend to have difficulty. Fifteen individual interviews

Jo Ann K Rawley

2007-01-01

205

Association of age, race, and obstetric history with urinary symptoms among women in the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to better understand associations among age, race, obstetric history, and urinary incontinence in women.STUDY DESIGN: Race and obstetric history were assessed through the use of biennial mailed questionnaires from 1976 to 1996 among participants of the Nurses' Health Study. In 1996, 83,168 women aged 50 to 75 years reported their frequency of leaking

Francine Grodstein; Ruth Fretts; Karen Lifford; Neil Resnick; Gary Curhan

2003-01-01

206

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in Pregnant Women Aged 30 to 34 Years Old at Phramongkutklao Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the prevalence of GDM in pregnant women aged 30 to 34 years old who were screened by glucose challenge test (GCT) at Phramongkutklao Hospital Material and Method: The cross-sectional data were collected from 1332 pregnant women aged between 30- 34 years who attended the antenatal care clinic and delivered at Phramongkutklao Hospital from March, 2003 to January,

207

Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Methods Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Results Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR?=?11.53, p?=?0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR?=?12.00, p?=?0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR?=?3.19, p?=?0.010). Conclusions Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. PMID:24593240

2014-01-01

208

Association of Occupational & Prediabetes Statuses with Obesity in middle aged Women  

PubMed Central

Background: The association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity is very close. The prediabetes status i.e Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) reflects an intermediate condition between normality and diabetes. The socioeconomic position (SEP) is one of the non traditional determinants of type 2 DM. The occupational status, which is a good indicator of the socioeconomic status, also indicates the level and the type of stress that they are exposed to, as well as the individual lifestyle choices. The present work was planned to study the relationship of the prediabetic status with obesity and the occupational status by estimating the Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) levels. Objectives: To study the association of the occupational status with the fasting blood glucose levels and obesity in middle aged women. Method: The Fasting Blood Glucose levels and the BMI were estimated in 300 asymptomatic middle aged women who had no family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (D.M.), who had been divided into the Control (I), the Pre – obese (IIa) and the Obese groups (IIb). The occupational status was broadly divided into the categories of housewives and service women. The results was analysed statistically by using the correlation coefficient and the ‘z’ test. Result: The mean FBG levels in the pre – obese and the obese groups were higher than those in the control group. We found significant differences in the FBG levels in the normal weight, the pre – obese as well as in the obese groups among the service women, but no significant correlation was found in the pre – obese and the obese groups. Among the housewives, we found significant differences in the FBG levels of the normal weight and the obese groups, but not in the pre – obese group. Also, no significant correlation was found in the pre – obese and obese groups among the service women. Conclusion: The BMI may be good risk predictor for Type 2 D.M. irrespective of the occupational status, especially in middle aged women. PMID:23998053

Pranita, A; Balsubramaniyan, B; Phadke, A V; Tambe, D B; Apte, G M; Kharche, J S; Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, A R

2013-01-01

209

6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging  

PubMed Central

Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

2009-01-01

210

Mammography interval and breast cancer mortality in women over the age of 75.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between mammography interval and breast cancer mortality among older women with breast cancer. The study population included 1,914 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at age 75 or later during their participation in the Women's health initiative, with an average follow-up of 4.4 years (3.1 SD). Cause of death was based on medical record review. Mammography interval was defined as the time between the last self-reported mammogram 7 or more months prior to diagnosis, and the date of diagnosis. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were computed from Cox proportional hazards analyses. Prior mammograms were reported by 73.0 % of women from 7 months to ?2 year of diagnosis (referent group), 19.4 % (>2 to <5 years), and 7.5 % (?5 years or no prior mammogram). Women with the longest versus shortest intervals had more poorly differentiated (28.5 % vs. 22.7 %), advanced stage (25.7 % vs. 22.9 %), and estrogen receptor negative tumors (20.9 % vs. 13.1 %). Compared to the referent group, women with intervals of >2 to <5 years or ?5 years had an increased risk of breast cancer mortality (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.03-2.54) and (HR 2.80, 95 % CI 1.57-5.00), respectively, p trend = 0.0002. There was no significant relationship between mammography interval and other causes of death. These results suggest a continued role for screening mammography among women 75 years of age and older. PMID:25261290

Simon, Michael S; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Thomson, Cynthia A; Ray, Roberta M; Hubbell, F Allan; Lessin, Lawrence; Lane, Dorothy S; Kuller, Lew H

2014-11-01

211

A comparison between the lifestyles of men and women--parents of school age children.  

PubMed

Women live longer than men and experience lower overall and specific mortality resulting from various diseases, even when younger. The reasons for this have yet to be satisfactorily explained. However, biological differences on one hand and differing lifestyles on the other might be responsible. The purpose of the study was to examine to what extent the lifestyle of men and women differs within a relatively homogeneous population group. The lifestyles of 4,353 parents of school age children (58% women and 42% men) were examined using questionnaires. The results show considerable differences between the genders. Men had worse dietary habits--consuming significantly less vegetables, fruit and milk, but too much meat; they consumed more processed meat and fat-containing items within the food sub-categories; they preferred less low-fat milk products and consumed less wholemeal products. Men more often consumed alcohol, drank more of it and often crossed the limits hazardous for health. There were more smokers among the men, they smoked more cigarettes and the non-smokers more often indicated passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Overweight and obesity occurred more often among men. Relatively minor differences, rather to the benefit of men, occurred in the field of leisure-time physical sporting activities, where slightly more men pursued regular sporting activities but in significantly higher amounts than the women, whereas the men did less regular daily walking. Women, as opposed to men, displayed more interest in comprehensive primary preventive medical examinations. The results obtained suggest that women lived a generally more healthy lifestyle than men within the examined homogeneous group of parents of school age children, consisting mostly of pairs of partners. They support the assumption that the healthier lifestyle of women very significantly contributes to their lower mortality. PMID:10857046

Fiala, J; Brázdová, Z

2000-05-01

212

Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. Aim To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. Material and methods The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. Results We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Conclusions Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women. PMID:24278065

Wójcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena

2013-01-01

213

Sources of Food Affect Dietary Adequacy of Inuit Women of Childbearing Age in Arctic Canada  

PubMed Central

Dietary transition in the Arctic is associated with decreased quality of diet, which is of particular concern for women of childbearing age due to the potential impact of maternal nutrition status on the next generation. The study assessed dietary intake and adequacy among Inuit women of childbearing age living in three communities in Nunavut, Canada. A culturally-appropriate quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 106 Inuit women aged 19-44 years. Sources of key foods, energy and nutrient intakes were determined; dietary adequacy was determined by comparing nutrient intakes with recommendations. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was >70%, and many consumed inadequate dietary fibre, folate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A, D, E, and K. Non-nutrient-dense foods were primary sources of fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes and contributed >30% of energy. Traditional foods accounted for 21% of energy and >50% of protein and iron intakes. Strategies to improve weight status and nutrient intake are needed among Inuit women in this important life stage. PMID:22106751

Schaefer, Sara E.; Erber, Eva; Trzaskos, Janel P.; Roache, Cindy; Osborne, Geraldine

2011-01-01

214

Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed. PMID:18458007

Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

2008-06-01

215

Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity.  

PubMed

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

Mijal, Renée S; Holzman, Claudia B

2010-07-01

216

Frequency of intimate partner violence and rural women's mental health in four Indian states.  

PubMed

This study examines the association between self-reported frequency of verbal, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health among 6,303 rural married women (age 15-49), in four Indian states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Data are taken from the 2002-2003 National Family Health Survey-2 Follow-Up Survey. The results indicate that experiencing physical, verbal, or sexual IPV is associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Our results provide support for the importance of screening for IPV in mental health settings, especially in resource-poor settings where both IPV and mental health are often overlooked. PMID:24142954

Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle

2013-09-01

217

Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation  

PubMed Central

Background The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Methods Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Results Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Conclusion Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident. PMID:24061686

de Lima, Gustavo Glotz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Simao, Mariana Fernandez; Rios, Matheus N.; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

2013-01-01

218

Lifestyle and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly women: Chiba bone survey.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis causes an enormous health and economic impact in Japan. We investigated the relation between lifestyle and bone fracture in middle-aged and elderly women. This was a population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chiba City, Japan (Chiba bone survey). This survey included 64,809 Japanese women aged > 40 years. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements including bone mineral density (BMD) and completed a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administered questionnaire also including patient lifestyle. Bone fracture during the recent 5 years was observed in 5.3%, and the fracture group had significantly higher age, BMI, and prevalence of delivery, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, kidney disease, exercise, fall, and osteoporosis, and had significantly lower BMD and proportion of menstruating participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that bone fracture was closely associated with not only low bone mass but also age, fall, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, DM, kidney disease, menopause, and lifestyle factors of dieting, exercise, and alcohol. Women's health care focusing on lifestyle-related fracture risks such as dieting, exercise, and alcohol appears necessary to prevent bone fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:23327841

Tatsuno, Ichiro; Terano, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Suzuki, Kiminori; Kubota, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Jyunichi; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Tanaka, Tomaki; Shozu, Makio

2013-01-01

219

Differential age-related changes of hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal axis hormones in healthy women and men - role of interleukin 6.  

PubMed

Aging is accompanied by marked changes of steroid hormone levels which vary among women and men. The age-related increase of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)- 6 may modulate the endocrine system. We aimed to investigate the role of IL-6 for the gender-specific changes of acrophase steroid hormone secretion in healthy subjects during aging. Out of 120 healthy subjects, 60 men and 48 women (non luteal phase) were recruited (age: 18 to 75 years). Age was positively correlated with IL-6 (female and male: p<0.001) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in women only (p<0.001). Age was negatively correlated with progesterone (female and male: p<0.001), cortisol (only female: p=0.003), androstenedione (female and male: p<0.001), but not 17OH progesterone. After correction for IL-6, the age-related decrease of steroid hormones was blunted in both gender groups except for androstenedione (female and male: p<0.005). Furthermore, the ratio of serum cortisol to plasma ACTH decreased with age only in women but not in men (female: p< 0.001). Correction for IL-6 did not markedly change the negative interrelationship between age and the mentioned ratio in these women. However, a linear regression analysis revealed that the increase of ACTH in relation to cortisol depends on serum free testosterone in men (p=0.042) and on serum free 17 beta-estradiol (p<0.001) together with serum IL-6 in women (p=0.021). In conclusion, IL-6 plays an important role for acrophase pituitary and peripheral hormone secretion in women only. The gender-specific changes of cortisol in relation to ACTH depend on the age-related decrease of the respective sex hormone in both gender groups and the increase of IL-6 in women. This study underlines the hormone-like role of IL-6 in the aging process of the endocrine system in women. PMID:11341305

Zietz, B; Hrach, S; Schölmerich, J; Straub, R H

2001-01-01

220

Changes in the muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging  

PubMed Central

Background Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR), timed get up and go (TGUG), single leg stance (SLS), and stairs walking (SW) tests. Results Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier. PMID:23482911

Mousavikhatir, Roghayeh

2012-01-01

221

Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women. Methods: A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and overweight/obesity groups based on BMI, and normal and abdominal obesity groups based on WC. Cardiometabolic variables included triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure (BP). Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in middle-aged women (32.4%) than in young women (12.0%). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was also higher in middle-aged women (60.3%) than in young women (36.2%). There were significant differences in the comparison of all related cardiometabolic variables between different BMI (or WC) categories in young and middle-aged women groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, partial correlation analysis indicated that both BMI and WC were correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables. After adjustment for age and WC, although the correlation coefficient r? was attenuated, BMI was still correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables in young and middle-aged women. After adjustment for age and BMI, partial correlation analysis showed that WC was correlated significantly with TG, FBG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in young women and significantly with TG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in middle-aged women. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was high in Chinese young and middle-aged women. BMI was a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes than WC in young and middle-aged women, and moreover, measurement of both WC and BMI may be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus than BMI or WC alone. PMID:20803767

Ying, Xin; Song, Zhen-ya; Zhao, Chang-jun; Jiang, Yan

2010-01-01

222

Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men  

PubMed Central

Background The age of peak swim performance has been investigated for freestyle swimmers for distances ranging from 50 m to 1500 m among swimmers aged 19 to 99 years. However, studies have yet to investigate the 10 to 19 year-old age group. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the age range of peak freestyle swim speed, and (2) to find differences in age range and peak freestyle swim speed between male and female freestyle swimmers from 50 m to 1500 m at a national level. Methods The changes in age range and peak freestyle swim speed among Swiss elite freestyle swimmers aged 0–9 years and 70–79 years who were ranked on the Swiss high score list between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. Results Men were fastest at ages 22–23 years for 100 m and 200 m; at ages 24–25 years for 400 m and 800 m; and at 26–27 years for 50 m and 1500 m. Women achieved peak freestyle swim speed at ages 20–21 years for all distances with the exception of 800 m. In the 800 m, women were fastest at ages 26–27 years. The difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m (ie, 13.1% ± 1.3% in 50 m; 13.2% ± 0.9% in 100 m; 10.8% ± 0.9% in 200 m; 7.9% ± 1.3% in 400 m; and 4.2% ± 2.0% in 800 m). For 1500 m, however, the gender difference increased to 6.4% ± 2.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that peak freestyle swim speed is achieved at lower age ranges in women when compared to men at 50 m to 1500 m, but not at 800 m. The gender difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m, but not for 1500 m. These data should be confirmed with swimmers at an international level. PMID:24198602

Rust, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

2012-01-01

223

Socioeconomic factors associated with trajectories of caring by young and mid-aged women: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The health and socioeconomic outcomes from being a caregiver are well described. In contrast, the long-term trajectories of caring undertaken by women, and the demographic, socioeconomic status, health status and health behaviour characteristics associated with these trajectories is not well known. Methods The data were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Participants were 14,202 women born 1973–78 followed for 13 years, and 12,282 women born 1946–1951 followed for 9 years. Latent class analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used. Results Five distinct trajectories of caring were identified for the younger women: these represented ‘ongoing’, ‘starting’, ‘never’ and 2 types of ‘transitional’ caring. While traditional indicators of poorer socioeconomic status were associated with trajectories representing ‘ongoing’ and ‘starting’ caring, they were not associated with ‘transitional’ caring trajectories. Three distinct trajectories of caring were identified for the mid-age women: these represented ‘ongoing’, ‘starting’ and ‘never’ caring. For the mid-age women, poorer socioeconomic status indicators were associated with the ‘ongoing’ caring, but not ’starting’ caring. Conclusions Women in the 1973–78 cohort showed more varying and transitional caring trajectories compared to those in the 1946–51 cohort, and these trajectories were not associated with traditional socioeconomic indicators. An ‘opportunity cost’ theory for who become carers does not support young transitional carers or mid-aged women beginning new caring. Health policies, education and awareness campaigns for women carers need to target outside previously identified populations. PMID:24456756

2014-01-01

224

Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates  

PubMed Central

Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Results: Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2–6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0–8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9–8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI ?9–38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P?>?0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15–24 years while increasing significantly among women 35–49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Conclusion: As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility. PMID:25406753

Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A.; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

2014-01-01

225

Coffee consumption and death from coronary heart disease in middle aged Norwegian men and women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To study the association between number of cups of coffee consumed per day and coronary death when taking other major coronary risk factors into account. DESIGN--Men and women attending screening and followed up for a mean of 6.4 years. SETTING--Cardiovascular survey performed by ambulatory teams from the National Health Screening Service in Norway. PARTICIPANTS--All middle aged people in three counties: 19,398 men and 19,166 women aged 35-54 years who reported neither cardiovascular disease or diabetes nor symptoms of angina pectoris or intermittent claudication. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Predictive value of number of cups of coffee consumed per day. RESULTS--At initial screening total serum cholesterol concentration, high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, height, and weight were measured and self reported information about smoking history, physical activity, and coffee drinking habits was recorded. Altogether 168 men and 16 women died of coronary heart disease during follow up. Mean cholesterol concentrations for men and women were almost identical and increased from the lowest to highest coffee consumption group (13.1% and 10.9% respectively). With the proportional hazards model and adjustment for age, total serum and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, systolic blood pressure, and number of cigarettes per day the coefficient for coffee corresponded to a relative risk between nine or more cups of coffee and less than one cup of 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 4.5) for men and 5.1 (0.4 to 60.3) for women. For men the relative risk varied among the three counties. CONCLUSIONS--Coffee may affect mortality from coronary heart disease over and above its effect in raising cholesterol concentrations. PMID:2108750

Tverdal, A; Stensvold, I; Solvoll, K; Foss, O P; Lund-Larsen, P; Bjartveit, K

1990-01-01

226

Zinc deficiency is common among healthy women of reproductive age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency is a major public health problem in many developing countries. However, its prevalence is still unknown in most populations. Women of reproductive age in developing countries are highly vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies, including that of zinc. To estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency and to identify important dietary sources of zinc, we undertook a cross-sectional survey in 500 nonpregnant Nepalese women and measured their plasma zinc concentrations. We also examined the associations between plasma zinc and dietary intake of zinc or phytate, iron status, plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, albumin, and hemoglobin. Food intake was estimated by 2 24-h dietary recalls and 1 FFQ for each woman. The plasma zinc concentration was (mean +/- SD) 8.5 +/- 2.4 micromol/L and more than three-quarters of the women were zinc deficient. Dietary zinc intake did not predict plasma zinc concentration, whereas phytate intake was negatively and significantly associated with plasma zinc. The other variables that were associated with plasma zinc were plasma albumin and hemoglobin concentration. Rice contributed 50% to the total estimated daily zinc intake and wheat and meat each contributed 15%. Rice also contributed 68% to the daily intake of phytate. In conclusion, we found that zinc deficiency was common in women of reproductive age and that the foods contributing substantial amounts of zinc also contributed importantly to the intake of phytate. PMID:19158229

Chandyo, Ram K; Strand, Tor A; Mathisen, Maria; Ulak, Manjeswori; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Bolann, Bjørn J; Sommerfelt, Halvor

2009-03-01

227

Prevalence of Anemia and Correlated Factors in the Reproductive Age Women in Rural Areas of Tabas  

PubMed Central

Objective To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis. Results The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35) and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31) were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. Conclusion Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women) groups. PMID:24971116

Sadeghian, Majid; Lesanpezeshki, Mohammad; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

2013-01-01

228

Exercise-induced vasodilation is associated with menopause stage in healthy middle-aged women  

PubMed Central

Leg exercise hemodynamics during single-leg knee extensions were compared among healthy groups of early perimenopausal (n = 15), late perimenopausal (n = 12), and early postmenopausal (n = 11) women. Femoral blood flow (FBF) and vascular conductance (FVC) at rest and during very light work rates (0 and 5 W) were similar among all three menopause stage groups. Vascular responses at 10 W (FBF) and 20 W (FBF and FVC) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in early perimenopausal compared with late perimenopausal women. At 15 and 25 W, FBF and FVC were similar between late perimenopausal and early postmenopausal groups but higher (P < 0.05) in early perimenopausal women as compared with the other two menopausal groups. In the combined sample of all three menopause stage groups, follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly correlated with vascular conductance during submaximal (15 W) exercise (R = ?0.56, P < 0.001), even after adjustment for age, fitness, LDL cholesterol, and abdominal fat (R = ?0.46, P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest that in middle-aged women, there is an association between menopause stage and leg vascular responsiveness during exercise. PMID:22486379

Moore, David J.; Gonzales, Joaquin U.; Tucker, Steven H.; Elavsky, Steriani; Proctor, David N.

2013-01-01

229

Exercise-induced vasodilation is associated with menopause stage in healthy middle-aged women.  

PubMed

Leg exercise hemodynamics during single-leg knee extensions were compared among healthy groups of early perimenopausal (n = 15), late perimenopausal (n = 12), and early postmenopausal (n = 11) women. Femoral blood flow (FBF) and vascular conductance (FVC) at rest and during very light work rates (0 and 5 W) were similar among all three menopause stage groups. Vascular responses at 10 W (FBF) and 20 W (FBF and FVC) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in early perimenopausal compared with late perimenopausal women. At 15 and 25 W, FBF and FVC were similar between late perimenopausal and early postmenopausal groups but higher (P < 0.05) in early perimenopausal women as compared with the other two menopausal groups. In the combined sample of all three menopause stage groups, follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly correlated with vascular conductance during submaximal (15 W) exercise (R = -0.56, P < 0.001), even after adjustment for age, fitness, LDL cholesterol, and abdominal fat (R = -0.46, P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest that in middle-aged women, there is an association between menopause stage and leg vascular responsiveness during exercise. PMID:22486379

Moore, David J; Gonzales, Joaquin U; Tucker, Steven H; Elavsky, Steriani; Proctor, David N

2012-06-01

230

Changes in aerobic power of women, ages 20-64 yr  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak) of women. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 409 healthy women, ages 20-64 yr. The 43 women of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 3.7 (+/-2.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill test. The zero-order correlation of -0.742 between VO2peak and %fat was significantly (P < 0.05) higher then the SR-PA (r = 0.626) and age correlations (r = -0.633). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.537 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.851) showed that adding %fat and SR-PA and their interaction to the regression model reduced the age regression weight of -0.537, to -0.265 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results. These findings are consistent with men's data from the same lab showing that about 50% of the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak was due to %fat and SR-PA.

Jackson, A. S.; Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Beard, E. F.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

1996-01-01

231

Age-related distribution of bone and skeletal parameters in 1,322 Japanese young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored factors that could serve as indices for therapeutic intervention aimed at prevention of osteoporosis. In this\\u000a cross-sectional study, we investigated the timing of peak bone mass (PBM) in 1,322 Japanese women aged 12–30 years old. We\\u000a measured height, body weight, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area at the lumbar spine and\\u000a total hip, as

Seiya Orito; Tatsuhiko Kuroda; Yoshiko Onoe; Yasuto Sato; Hiroaki Ohta

2009-01-01

232

Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in European women aged over 80 years.  

PubMed

Inadequate vitamin D status is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover and bone loss, which in turn increases fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status in European women aged over 80 years. Assessments of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) were performed on 8532 European women with osteoporosis or osteopenia of which 1984 were aged over 80 years. European countries included in the study were: France, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany. Two cut-offs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed: <75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) and <50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml). Mean (SD) age of the patients was 83.4 (2.9) years, body mass index was 25.0 (4.0) kg/m(2) and level of 25(OH)D was 53.3 (26.7) nmol/L (21.4 [10.7] ng/ml). There was a highly significant difference of 25(OH)D level across European countries (p<0.0001). In these women aged over 80 years, the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 80.9% and 44.5% when considering cut-offs of 75 and 50 nmol/L, respectively. In the 397 (20.0%) patients taking supplemental vitamin D with or without supplemental calcium, the mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher than in the other patients (65.2 (29.2) nmol/L vs. 50.3 (25.2) nmol/L; P<0.001). This study indicates a high prevalence of vitamin D (25(OH)D) inadequacy in old European women. The prevalence could be even higher in some particular countries. PMID:24784761

Bruyère, Olivier; Slomian, Justine; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Cavalier, Etienne; Gillain, Sophie; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves

2014-01-01

233

Improved Prognosis of Women Aged 75 and Older with Mammography-detected Breast Cancer.  

PubMed

Purpose To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of women aged 75 years and older with mammography-detected breast cancer, an age group not represented in mammography screening effectiveness studies. Materials and Methods We conducted a HIPAA-compliant, prospective cohort study with waiver of informed consent in patients with primary breast cancer, aged 75 years and older, with stage 0-IV disease from 1990 to 2011, identified and tracked with our registry database (n = 1162). Details including stage, treatment, outcomes, and method of detection (by patient, physician, or mammography) were noted from the chart at the time of diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier estimation was used to compare invasive disease-specific survival rates. Results Among patients with breast cancer aged 75 years and older, mammography detection of cancers increased over time, from 49% to 70% (P < .001). Mammography-detected cases were more often stage I (62%), whereas patient- and physician-detected cases were more likely stage II and III (59%). Over time, from 1990 to 2011, the incidence of stage II cancers decreased by 8%, the incidence of stage III cancers decreased by 8%, and the incidence of stage 0 cancers increased by 15% (P < .001). Patients with mammography-detected invasive breast cancer were more often treated with lumpectomy and radiation and underwent fewer mastectomies and less chemotherapy than patients with cancer detected by patients and physicians (P < .001). Mammography detection was associated with significantly better 5-year disease-specific survival for invasive breast cancer (97% vs 87% for patient- and physician-detected cancer [P < .001], respectively). Conclusion Mammography-detected breast cancer in women 75 years and older was diagnosed at an earlier stage, required less treatment, and had better disease-specific survival than patient- or physician-detected breast cancer. These findings indicate that the same benefits of mammography detection observed in younger women extend to older women. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25093690

Malmgren, Judith A; Parikh, Jay; Atwood, Mary K; Kaplan, Henry G

2014-12-01

234

Facial rejuvenation for middle-aged women: a combined approach with minimally invasive procedures  

PubMed Central

Facial rejuvenation is a significant process involved in restoring youthfulness. The introduction of less invasive procedures has increased acceptance of such procedures. Often a combination of different techniques allows individualized treatment with optimal outcomes. Furthermore, this leads to a natural look without a significant downtime. We report herein the use of such a combined approach in middle-aged women with particular emphasis on botulinum toxin type A, dermal fillers, and chemical peels. PMID:20924438

Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

2010-01-01

235

Musculoskeletal capacity of middle-aged women and men in physical, mental and mixed occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The musculoskeletal capacity of 44 women and 39 men, mean age 55.0±3.4 years, was studied at the beginning and end of a 3.5 year period. The measurements included anthropometrics, maximal isometric trunk flexion and extension strength, maximal isometric hand grip strength and back mobility. According to a job analysis the subjects were divided into three dominating work groups: physical, mental

C. H. Nygård; T. Luopajärvi; J. Ilmarinen

1988-01-01

236

Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers. PMID:24693364

Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

2013-01-01

237

Vitamin D deficiency in reproductive age Mongolian women: a cross sectional study.  

PubMed

Vitamin D production is critical not only for rickets prevention but for its role in several chronic diseases of adulthood. Maternal vitamin D status also has consequences for the developing fetus. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]<20ng/ml) and insufficiency [25(OH)D=20-29ng/ml] in spring, among reproductive age Mongolian women. Blood was drawn in March and April, 2009 from 420 Mongolian women, 18-44 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, anthropometric measurements were performed and information was collected by interview on lifestyle, dietary and reproductive factors. Logarithm-transformed 25(OH)D levels were compared across risk factor categories by analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the independent associations of factors with vitamin D status. Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis was assessed between December and July using a standard 7-dehydrocholesterol ampoule model. The vast majority of women 415 (98.8%) had serum 25(OH)D<20ng/ml (50nmol/l) with an additional 4 women (<1%) in the insufficient range (20-29ng/ml); only one women (0.2%) had sufficient levels (>30ng/ml or 75nmol/l). 25(OH)D concentrations were positively and independently associated with educational status and use of vitamin D supplements, but not with other demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, or anthropometric factors. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with dietary factors in this population, as there is little access to foods containing vitamin D in Mongolia. No production of previtamin D3 was observed until March and was maximally effective in April and was sustained through July. These data suggest that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in spring among reproductive age women in Mongolia is high. Given the lack of naturally vitamin D-rich food in the diet and limited use of vitamin D supplements, food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D should be considered among these women. PMID:24076033

Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Holick, Michael F; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Frazier, Lindsay A; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Janes, Craig; Hoover, Robert N; Troisi, Rebecca

2014-01-01

238

Women will evolve into having children at older age The fashion for having children later in life could lead to women becoming more fertile in their 40s and beyond, scientists have  

E-print Network

the norm in modern society, but at ages where fewer women have the chance to reproduce, we should expect said that in today's society however, women do not start childbearing until an older age as marriageWomen will evolve into having children at older age The fashion for having children later in life

Lummaa, Virpi

239

20-year trends in Filipino women's weight reflect substantial secular and age effects.  

PubMed

Increasing obesity in low- and middle-income countries is well documented in cross-sectional studies. However, few longitudinal studies identify factors that influence individual weight gain patterns over time in relation to the major social and economic changes that now characterize these settings. This study uses data from adult Filipino women participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey from 1983 to 2005. A sample of 3005 women contributed 1-8 observations each. Longitudinal mixed effects models identified how age and secular weight trends related to underlying effects of urbanization and changing household socioeconomic status (SES) and to proximate individual effects of reproductive history, diet, and occupational physical activity. The 23-y secular trend in weight amounted to nearly 10 kg. Younger women gained more weight than older women (12.4 kg in those < 20 y old in 1983 vs. 4.9 kg in those > 35 y). Periods of more rapid weight gain corresponded to periods of rapid increase in SES and urbanization. Weight was positively related to energy intake, percentage of calories from protein, and more sedentary occupations, but negatively related to months pregnant and lactating and postmenopausal status. These effects all varied with age and over time. The trends contributed to a 6-fold increase in prevalence of overweight and an increasing number of women who have or are likely to develop obesity-related metabolic diseases. The trends are highly relevant for health policy and preventive health measures in the Philippines and other countries now facing the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. PMID:21325475

Adair, Linda S; Gultiano, Socorro; Suchindran, Chiriyath

2011-04-01

240

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

Samieri, Cecilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

2013-01-01

241

The Relationship between Menopausal Symptoms and Heart Rate Variability in Middle Aged Women  

PubMed Central

Background The study of the correlation of menopausal symptoms with heart rate variability (HRV) has not been adequate. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between postmenopausal symptoms measured by the menopause rating scale (MRS) and HRV. Methods We assessed postmenopausal symptoms (using MRS) with age, BMI, educational status, occupation, marital status, alcohol and caffeine consumption, smoking history, exercise, duration of sleep and amenorrhea, degree of anxiety and depression, menarcheal age, and heart rate variability. For evaluation of HRV, the record of electrocardiogram for 5 minutes in the resting state was divided into temporal categories and frequency categories, and analyzed. Results No significant differences in age, BMI, duration of amenorrhea, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein were observed between two groups, which were divided according to menopausal symptoms. Low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio was significantly higher in symptomatic women, compared with asymptomatic women (P < 0.05). No significant differences of HRV index by the severity of postmenopausal symptoms were observed. LF/HF ratio of HRV parameters showed a significant increase in moderate or severe degree of "hot flashes" and "sleep problem" score (P < 0.05). Anxiety scale in symptomatic women was significantly higher than in asymptomatic women (P < 0.05). Conclusion The above data suggest that postmenopausal symptoms are associated with altered autonomic control of heart rate. In particular, hot flashes and sleep problems in moderate or severe degree are related to increase of sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:22745867

Lee, Jin Oh; Kang, Sung Goo; Kim, Se Hong; Park, Seo Jin

2011-01-01

242

Please cite this article in press as: Nunnemann, S. et al., Accelerated aging of the putamen in men but not in women, Neurobiol Aging (2007), doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2007.05.016  

E-print Network

constitute the structural substrate for age-related differences in motor function between men and women) focusing on differential aging between men and women (i.e., interaction of age and gender). Compared effects of gender and/or age were detected in most of these studies, differences in aging between men

Gaser, Christian

243

Costs of medicines and health care: a concern for Australian women across the ages  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from Australia and other countries suggests that some individuals struggle to meet the costs of their health care, including medicines, despite the presence of Government subsidies for low-income earners. The aim of our study was to elucidate women’s experiences with the day to day expenses that relate to medicines and their health care. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) conducts regular surveys of women in three age cohorts (born 1973–78, 1946–51, and 1921–26). Our data were obtained from free text comments included in surveys 1 to 5 for each cohort. All comments were scanned for mentions of attitudes, beliefs and behaviours around the costs of medicines and health care. Relevant comments were coded by category and themes identified. Results Over 150,000 responses were received to the surveys, and 42,305 (27%) of these responses included free-text comments; 379 were relevant to medicines and health care costs (from 319 individuals). Three broad themes were identified: costs of medicines (33% of relevant comments), doctor visits (49%), and complementary medicines (13%). Age-specific issues with medicine costs included contraceptive medicines (1973–78 cohort), hormone replacement therapy (1946–51 cohort) and osteoporosis medications (1921–26 cohort). Concerns about doctor visits mostly related to reduced (or no) access to bulk-billed medical services, where there are no out-of-pocket costs to the patient, and costs of specialist services. Some women in the 1973–78 and 1946–51 cohorts reported ‘too much income’ to qualify for government health benefits, but not enough to pay for visits to the doctor. In some cases, care and medicines were avoided because of the costs. Personal feelings of embarrassment over financial positions and judgments about bulk-billing practices (‘good ones don’t bulk-bill’) were barriers to service use, as were travel expenses for rural women. Conclusions For some individuals, difficulty in accessing bulk-billing services and increasing out-of-pocket costs in Australia limit affordability of health services, including medications. At greatest risk may be those falling below thresholds for subsidised care such as self-funded retirees and those on low-middle incomes, in addition to those on very low incomes, who may find even small co-payments difficult to manage. PMID:24252248

2013-01-01

244

Psychological responses to prenatal NTS counseling and the uptake of invasive testing in women of advanced maternal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines women’s psychological responses to prenatal group genetic counseling, and to subsequent individualized risk counseling. All women (N=123) aged 35 and older underwent nuchal translucency screening (NTS), a prenatal ultrasound screening test. After group counseling, decisional conflict decreased significantly among those reporting at baseline having made a decision about invasive testing (t(222)=2.00, P=0.014) and for those who were

Amy S Kaiser; Lorraine E. Ferris; Randy Katz; Anne Pastuszak; Hilary Llewellyn-Thomas; Jo-Ann Johnson; Brian F Shaw

2004-01-01

245

Effect of hormone replacement therapy on age-related increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness as measured by B-mode ultrasound in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or not. One hundred and fifty-nine healthy postmenopausal women aged 45–65 years were recruited from our menopause clinic. All the selected women were free of cardio-vascular diseases and had no cardio-vascular risk

Florence A. Tremollieres; Fabienne Cigagna; Cathy Alquier; Colette Cauneille; Jean-Michel Pouilles; Claude Ribot

2000-01-01

246

Wellness in women after 40 years of age: the role of sex hormones and pheromones.  

PubMed

In the past twenty years hundreds of peer-reviewed studies have provided a significant body of information to guide the health care of women in the second halves of their lives. The harmonic nature of the fertile reproductive system forms the background against which hormonal replacement therapy can be understood to best serve women. In addition, the 1986 discovery of human pheromones and the subsequent 1998 confirmation of their existence increases certain sexual options for maturing women. Not all hormonal replacement therapies and wellness regimens serve women well. Some regimens have the potential to produce disease, especially over-the-counter remedies like dehydroepiandrosterone and the formulas that contain estrogen. Some regimens profoundly improve the quality of life of many women; some women do not need or want such regimens. All sex hormones affect physiologic systems including the cardiovascular system, bone metabolism, cognitive function, sexual response, and sexual attractiveness. The 7 years before menopause have recently been revealed to be an extremely complex era. During this period, some women increase their estrogen levels to new lifetime highs; others start an unequivocal decline, and still others vary from month to month. Coupled to this variability in estrogen is an equally variable set of changes in progesterone secretion by the ovary as androgen secretion patterns also change. Many women show increases in circulating androgens while many others show deficiencies. Both the adrenal and the ovarian sources of these hormones show age-related changes that alter a woman's capacity to attract sexual attention through both her physical appearance (and condition) and her pheromonal excretions. The complex contributions to the overall health of a woman may not always be understood. Often a hysterectomy can exacerbate--rather than ameliorate--the conditions that led to the surgery. One in 2 American women is offered a hysterectomy, a rate 5 times higher than that of the European countries for which data are available. Ninety percent of hysterectomies are not related to cancer; they are elective procedures. Avoidance of elective hysterectomy helps prevent its side effects: sexual deficits, acceleration of cardiovascular and bone disease, and more rapid aging. No efficacy data exist that suggest that elective hysterectomy works better than the alternative approaches that do not induce these side effects. The health and well-being of women who have already had hysterectomies, with or without ovariectomies, can be improved by a recognition of the cascade of difficulties that must addressed. Estrogen, progesterone, and androgens all tend to be compromised by hysterectomy; all should be considered for replacement. Because hormonal regimens can be prescribed to enhance the quality of life, the review of the available research can allow the medical art to greatly benefit mature women. Not surprisingly, the emerging conclusion reveals that structurally human hormones, prescribed appropriately, almost always best serve the patient. PMID:9803240

Cutler, W B; Genovese-Stone, E

1998-09-01

247

The Risk of Stillbirth and Infant Death Stratified by Gestational Age in Women with Gestational Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the different mortality risks between delivery and expectant management in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Study Design This is a retrospective cohort study that included singleton pregnancies of women diagnosed with GDM delivering at 36-42 weeks gestational age (GA) in California from 1997-2006. A composite mortality rate was developed to estimate the risk of expectant management at each GA incorporating the stillbirth risk during the week of continuing pregnancy plus the infant mortality risk at the GA one week hence. Results In women with GDM, the risk of expectant management is lower than the risk of delivery at 36 weeks, (17.4 vs. 19.3 per 10,000), but at 39 weeks, the risk of expectant management exceeds that of delivery (RR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2 – 2.6). Conclusion In women with GDM, infant mortality rates at 39 weeks are lower than the overall mortality risk of expectant management for one week absolute risks of stillbirth and infant death are low. PMID:22464068

ROSENSTEIN, Melissa G.; CHENG, Yvonne W.; SNOWDEN, Jonathan M.; NICHOLSON, James A.; DOSS, Amy E.; CAUGHEY, Aaron B.

2012-01-01

248

Social network stimulation. Health promotion in a high risk group of middle-aged women.  

PubMed

The article focuses on presenting methods developed in a network stimulation program among a high-risk group of middle-aged women living in Oslo, Norway. The aim of the program was to initiate in the women a process of getting acquainted, and even making friends, - and thus establishing new self-sustaining social networks. In the long run we believed such new relations would increase the quality of life and improve the overall mental health of the participants. During the program period of one year different groups and social activities were established in the neighborhood. Out of 50 women in the experimental group, 26 became active participants. Evaluation of the process was made at certain stages during the entire program. After one year of group participation, the progress of the experimental group (n = 50) was compared to that of the control group (n = 50). The results show that the women participating in the intervention program have improved their social networks and increased their quality of life and self-esteem compared to the control group. As to mental symptoms, it seems that their change depends on the degree of activity in the groups: the most active participants make friends, improve their existing networks, increase quality of life, and improve mental status. The passive participants, on the contrary, do not seem to have profited from the program so far. The full effect of the program will be evaluated in a later follow-up. PMID:3481668

Benum, K; Anstorp, T; Dalgard, O S; Sørensen, T

1987-01-01

249

Association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ? 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P < 0.05), and the association was number-dependent. However, no significant association between history of spontaneous abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05). PMID:23389282

Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

2013-03-01

250

Valproic acid use in psychiatry: issues in treating women of reproductive age.  

PubMed Central

Valproic acid, a well known anticonvulsant, is being used by psychiatrists increasingly to manage bipolar and other affective disorders. Because of the demographics of the population affected by such psychiatric conditions, more women of childbearing age are likely to be exposed to this teratogenic drug. Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common of the major anomalies associated with in utero valproic acid exposure, and are estimated to occur in 1% to 2% of exposed fetuses. Other teratogenic effects include facial dysmorphism, congenital cardiac defects, limb reduction defects and other skeletal anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis, in particular maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening and targeted ultrasonography, should be offered to all pregnant women exposed to valproic acid and couples need to be aware of the prenatal diagnostic options available to them. Periconceptual prophylaxis with high doses of folic acid is recommended for all women on valproic acid and counselling should also emphasize planning pregnancy to optimize folic acid supplementation. Psychiatrists should be aware of the teratogenic potential of valproic acid and know how to counsel their patients of reproductive age. PMID:9785701

Kennedy, D; Koren, G

1998-01-01

251

Use of dietary supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2005.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Daily periconceptional consumption of 400 mug of folic acid, as recommended by the Public Health Service (PHS) since 1992, reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. The Food and Drug Administration ordered mandatory fortification with folic acid of U.S. cereal grain products, beginning in 1998. However, despite a 26% reduction in NTDs, not all women of childbearing age receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the number of women who take dietary supplements containing 400 mug of folic acid daily remains an important component of NTD prevention. This report summarizes results from the 2005 March of Dimes Gallup survey, which determined a decrease in the proportion of childbearing-aged women who reported taking folic acid in dietary supplements daily, from 40% in 2004 to 33% in 2005, returning to a level consistent with that reported during 1995-2003. These results emphasize the need for innovative programs to increase folic acid consumption to further reduce NTDs. PMID:16195694

2005-09-30

252

Characteristics of middle-aged women in inpatient treatment for eating disorders.  

PubMed

The current study examined descriptive characteristics of women 35 years and older seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder. A second purpose was to compare characteristics and treatment experiences of midlife patients to young adult patients. Participants were 193 women admitted for treatment to a residential eating disorders facility. All of the women received the standard inpatient treatment package offered by the treatment facility. Participants completed measures of eating attitudes, depression, anxiety, body image, and media influence at admission and discharge and a program assessment measure at discharge. Results revealed comparable scores on measures of eating attitudes, anxiety, and depression at admission, although younger patients scored significantly higher on measures of body image and media influence at admission. With regard to treatment experience, midlife patients experienced greater change with regard to depression and body image dissatisfaction and described family therapy and grief and loss group therapy as being significantly more helpful than young adult patients. There appears to be a number of similarities across age cohorts in terms of clinical presentation, but underlying causal factors may differ between age groups. In general, midlife patients and young patients describe the standard treatment package as equally helpful, although midlife patients might also benefit from groups addressing grief and loss. PMID:16864530

Forman, Maryelizabeth; Davis, William N

2005-01-01

253

The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.  

PubMed

Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

Dai, K

1991-03-01

254

Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

2009-01-01

255

Curvilinear association of CGG repeats and age at menopause in women with FMR1 premutation expansions.  

PubMed

In a sample of post-menopausal premutation carrier mothers of children with the full mutation of fragile X syndrome (n?=?88), this study examined the co-occurrence of the reproductive and psychiatric phenotypes associated with FMR1 premutations. Mean age at menopause was 43.1 years, and 35.2% of premutation carriers reported cessation of menses prior to age 40 (premature ovarian failure), but only 18% of carriers had been medically diagnosed by a physician as having Fragile X-associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency. There was a significant curvilinear association between CGG repeat length and age at menopause, with women who had mid-range repeats having the earliest menopause, similar to the pattern that has been found for the psychiatric phenotype of the FMR1 premutation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25346430

Mailick, Marsha R; Hong, Jinkuk; Greenberg, Jan; Smith, Leann; Sherman, Stephanie

2014-12-01

256

Malaria-related perceptions and practices of women with children under the age of five years in rural Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and children in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the local perceptions, practices and treatment seeking behaviour for malaria among women with children under the age of five years. METHODS: This community-based study was conducted in 2003 in an area of seasonal

Wakgari Deressa; Ahmed Ali

2009-01-01

257

Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

2012-01-01

258

Age-related variation in quantitative ultrasound at the tibia and prevalence of osteoporosis in native Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the variations in age-related speed of sound (SOS) at the tibia and prevalence of osteoporosis in native Chinese women, and establishment of a reference database by quantitative ultrasound. SOS at the right midtibia was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device (SoundScan 2000, Myriad Ultrasound Systems, Israel) in 1596 healthy Chinese women ranging from 12 years to 96

X-P Wu; E-Y LIAO; X-H LUO; R-C DAI; H ZHANG; J PENG

2003-01-01

259

USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711) In the United States, sampling women o...

260

Parameters and comparisons of the quadriceps angle of college-aged men and women in the supine and standing positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine normal, mean quadriceps angles (Q angles) for college-aged men and women, and to compare Q angles measured in the supine and the standing positions. The Q angles of 269 men and 257 women were measured in both positions by use of a specially modified goniometer. The mean Q angle for men was

Lynn H. Woodland; Rulon S. Francis

1992-01-01

261

"Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

2012-01-01

262

Prevalence of atypical antipsychotic use in psychiatric outpatients: comparison of women of childbearing age with men.  

PubMed

To characterize current treatment practices, we compared the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs among women of childbearing age to men based on electronic medical records of 1073 hospital-based psychiatric outpatients given at least one second-generation antipsychotic drug. One quarter of psychiatric outpatients sampled were prescribed at least one atypical antipsychotic, in more than half of cases for off-label indications. Women were significantly more likely than men to be diagnosed with mood or anxiety disorders than psychotic disorders and to be prescribed quetiapine (60.7 vs. 48.0 %) or aripiprazole (31.2 vs. 23.9 %), but less likely risperidone (15.8 vs. 26.1 %) or ziprasidone (10 vs. 14 %). PMID:25253022

Camsar?, Ulas; Viguera, Adele C; Ralston, Laurel; Baldessarini, Ross J; Cohen, Lee S

2014-12-01

263

High-resolution computed tomographic appearance of the intrasellar contents in women of childbearing age  

SciTech Connect

Our experience with high-resolution computed tomography has indicated that the accepted norms for appearance and size of the pituitary gland may not be entirely valid for women of childbearing age. Fifty women with normal menstrual histories and who were not taking oral contraceptives were studied. The study consisted of overlapping 1.5-mm sections through the pituitary fossa in the coronal position only, using a bolus of contrast material followed by a continuous drip during the study. The results indicate that the top of the normal range of gland height is well over the accepted 7 mm and that focal defects within the gland are common. Other variables such as gland shape, width, and overall density were also evaluated.

Swartz, J.D.; Russell, K.B.; Basile, B.A.; O'Donnell, P.C.; Popky, G.L.

1983-04-01

264

HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women  

SciTech Connect

Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

Zhang Feng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Xiong Donghai [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Wang Wei [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Shen Hui [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Xiao Peng [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Yang Fang [Laboratory of Molecular and Statistical Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Recker, Robert R. [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Deng Hongwen [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China) and Laboratory of Molecular and Statistical Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China) and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)]. E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

2006-10-06

265

Progestin Treatment of Atypical Hyperplasia and Well-Differentiated Carcinoma of the Endometrium in Women Under Age 40  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the efficacy of conservative management of atypical hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma of the endometrium in women under age 40.Methods: Pathology records were searched to identify women under age 40 diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or well-differentiated carcinoma of the endometrium between January 1990 and January 1996. All available biopsy, curettage, and hysterectomy specimens were reviewed. Follow-up was obtained

Thomas C Randall; Robert J Kurman

1997-01-01

266

Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young reproductive age women in India: implications for treatment and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most common curable sexually transmissible infection (STI) worldwide. The presentstudy describes theburdenandcorrelates ofT. vaginalisinfectionamong youngreproductive age women in Mysore, India. Methods: Between November 2005 and March 2006, sexually active women aged 15-30 years were recruited from low-income peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods of Mysore, India. Participants were interviewed and offered a physical examination and testing

Purnima MadhivananA; Melissa T. BartmanC; Karl KruppA; Anjali ArunA; Arthur L. ReingoldC; Jeffrey D. KlausnerB

267

Asthma Prevalence among Pregnant and Childbearing-aged Women in the United States: Estimates from National Health Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Asthma is a major complication of pregnancy, but there are currently no reliable national estimates for the United States of asthma prevalence in pregnancy or in the childbearing years.METHODS: The prevalence of asthma among pregnant women and all childbearing-aged women was estimated and examined by age group using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 1997–2000, the Behavioral Risk Factor

Helen L. Kwon; Kathleen Belanger; Michael B. Bracken

2003-01-01

268

Association of Alcohol Consumption to Mortality in Middle-Aged U.S. and Russian Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationships of alcohol consumption to total and cardiovascular disease mortality in U.S. and Russian men and women after adjustment for several covariates. A secondary objective is to determine how this relationship varies by country and gender.METHODS: Men aged 40–59 and women aged 40–69 screened in Russia and the U.S. between

1998-01-01

269

Plasma Interleukin6 and Soluble IL6 Receptors Are Associated With Psychological Well-Being in Aging Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that psychological well-being would predict lower plasma levels of inflammatory factors in aging women. Design: One hundred thirty-five women ages 61–91 years (M = 74.5 years) participated in this study. After completing self-administered questionnaires in their homes, participants stayed overnight at the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) at the University of Wisconsin—Madison. Blood samples

Elliot M. Friedman; Mary Hayney; Gayle D. Love; Burton H. Singer; Carol D. Ryff

2007-01-01

270

Lifecourse Adversity and Physical Performance across Countries among Men and Women Aged 65-74  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. Methods We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia) and Tirana (Albania). The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. Results A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. Conclusions We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life. PMID:25101981

Sousa, Ana Carolina Patricio de Albuquerque; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Thanh Tu, Mai; Phillips, Susan P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

2014-01-01

271

Utilization of postnatal care among Nepalese women.  

PubMed

This study investigated risk factors associated with the type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care among a nationally representative sample of Nepalese women. The 2006 Nepalese Demographic and Health Survey on women age 15-49 years old who had delivered within 3 years prior to the survey (N = 4,136) was used. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the association between socio-demographic variables and type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care. Only 23 % deliveries were assisted by skilled attendants. A majority of Nepalese women did not have postnatal check-ups. Education (OR = 1.46, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.92), wealth (OR = 2.57, 95 % CI = 1.59-4.15) and sufficiency of advice during pregnancy (OR = 3.09, 95 % CI = 2.16-4.41), were all independently associated with having postnatal check-ups. Similarly, maternal age, education, parity, wealth, sufficiency of advice and place of delivery were associated with having delivery assisted by a skilled attendant. The utilization of postnatal services is still very low in Nepal. Public health interventions are needed to increase the utilization of postnatal care as well as delivery assisted by skilled attendants. Such interventions should target poor women, the less educated and those in rural areas in Nepal. PMID:23292803

Neupane, Subas; Doku, David

2013-12-01

272

Attitudes towards embryo donation in Swedish women and men of reproductive age  

PubMed Central

Background When performing in-vitro fertilization (IVF), more embryos than needed are often derived. These embryos are usually frozen and stored, but as ruled by Swedish law they have to be discarded after 5 years. In other countries it is legal to donate the excess embryos to other infertile couples who for different reasons cannot undergo the procedure of IVF. The aim of the present study was to investigate public opinion in Sweden regarding different aspects of embryo donation. Methods A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards aspects of embryo donation was sent to a randomized sample of 1,000 Swedish women and men of reproductive age. Results A total of 34% responded to the questionnaires. A majority of the respondents (73%) were positive towards embryo donation. Seventy-five per cent agreed that it should be possible to donate embryos to infertile couples. Approximately half of the participants (49%) supported embryo donation to single women. A majority of the participants emphasized that demands should be imposed on the recipient's age (63%), alcohol addiction (79%), drug addiction (85%), and criminal record (67%). Forty-seven per cent of the respondents agreed that the recipient should be anonymous to the donor, and 38% thought that the donor should remain anonymous to the child. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate support for embryo donation among a subset of the Swedish population of reproductive age. If embryo donation were to be allowed in Sweden, strategies for treatment and counselling need to be developed. PMID:23786323

Prag, Frida; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

2013-01-01

273

A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century  

PubMed Central

Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 40–69 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of children’s socioeconomic circumstances—particularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher education—in maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views. PMID:22962507

Merchant, Emily R.; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

2012-01-01

274

Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

Milanovic, Zoran; Pantelic, Sasa; Trajkovic, Nebojsa; Sporis, Goran; Kostic, Radmila; James, Nic

2013-01-01

275

Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18–22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. ?0.015 g/cm2). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women. PMID:23487489

Ligouri, Gianna C.; Shoepe, Todd C.; Almstedt, Hawley C.

2012-01-01

276

[Age of menarche and menstruation characteristics of Puerto Rican women athletes].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine and describe the chronological age, age at menarche (AM), age at initiation of training (AIT), years dedicated to training (YDT), selected menstrual characteristics, use of oral contraceptives, family size (FZ), birth order (BO), martial status, and number of children relative to sport of Puerto Rican women athletes. Fifty five (55) women athletes (track and field n = 6, basketball n = 7, gymnastics n = 5, synchronized swimming n = 9, swimming n = 5, softball n = 14, tennis n = 4 [field tennis n = 2, table tennis n = 2], and volleyball n = 5) members of the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee delegation to the XV Central American and Caribbean Games were interview. The M +/- sd of the variables were as follows: age = 21.0 +/- 5.3 years, AIT = 11.4 +/- 4.3 years, YDT = 9.6 +/- 4.4 years, AM = 13.2 +/- 1.6 years, BO = 2.7 +/- 1.3, y FZ = 3.7 +/- 1.9. Five percent of the sample (gymnasts = 2, swimmers = 1) had not attained menarche at the time of the study. The prevalence for menstrual irregularity and dysmenorrhea was 44.2 and 40.4%, respectively. With respect to the degree of certainty in the recall of age of menarche: 61.5% were very certain, 25% certain, and 13.5% uncertain. The prevalence of the use of oral contraceptives was 7.3%. In conclusion, the results are within the range of those reported for olympic athletes. PMID:2077556

Rivera, M A; Matos, R M; Volquez, B

1990-08-01

277

Hip structural geometry in old and old-old age: Similarities and differences between men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionChanges in hip structure and geometry during aging contribute to decreased bone strength. Little is known, however, about these characteristics at advanced age, when fragility fractures are common. We examined hip structural geometry in men and women of old age (72–84 years) and old-old age (85–96 years) to determine (1) gender differences; (2) whether or not these differences are consistent with the

Laurel B. Yates; David Karasik; Thomas J. Beck; L. Adrienne Cupples; Douglas P. Kiel

2007-01-01

278

Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.  

PubMed

We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles. PMID:23627346

Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

2014-05-01

279

Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births  

PubMed Central

Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery workforce assessments conducted in collaboration with the respective Ministries of Health and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to identify disparities between population needs, health infrastructure and workforce supply. The datasets are available to the respective Ministries as part of the UNFPA programme to inform midwifery workforce planning and also publicly available through the WorldPop population mapping project. PMID:24387010

2014-01-01

280

Age at Menarche, the Leg Length to Sitting Height Ratio, and Risk of Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate the associations of age at menarche and the leg length-to-sitting-height ratio, markers of adolescent growth, with risk of diabetes in later life. Materials and Methods Information from 69,385 women and 55,311 men, aged 40–74 years from the Shanghai Women's Health Study and Shanghai Men's Health Study, were included in the current analyses. Diabetes status was ascertained through biennial in person follow-up. Cox models, with age as the time scale, were used. Results There were 2369 cases of diabetes (1831 women; 538 men) during an average of 7.3 and 3.6 years of follow-up of the women and men, respectively. In females, menarche age was inversely associated with diabetes risk after adjustment for birth cohort, education, and income (HR?=?0.95, 0.92–0.98). In both genders, leg length-to-sitting-height ratio was inversely related to diabetes (HR?=?0.88, 0.80–0.97 for men; HR?=?0.91, 0.86–0.96 for women) after adjustment for birth cohort, education, and income. Further adjustment for adult BMI at study enrollment completely eliminated the associations of age at menarche (HR?=?0.99, 0.96–1.02) and the leg length-to-sitting-height ratio (HR?=?1.00, 0.91–1.10 for men; HR?=?1.01, 0.96–1.07 for women) with diabetes risk. Conclusions Our study suggests that markers of an early age at peak height velocity, i.e. early menarche age and low leg-length-to-sitting height ratio, may be associated with diabetes risk later in life and this association is likely to be mediated through obesity. PMID:22448212

Conway, Baqiyyah N.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Xianglan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

2012-01-01

281

Internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle of middle-aged women: A qualitative approach  

PubMed Central

Background: A healthy lifestyle is one of the basic health-promotion strategies. Several factors are involved in shaping health-promotion behaviors. The internal barriers are the opinion and feelings that surround the individual and are the reasons that complicate the change of behavior. The aim of this study was to identify internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle in middle-aged Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 21 middle-aged women in the city of Yazd, who were selected using purposeful sampling approach. The interviews continued until data saturation was reached; and the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed exactly. The transcripts were analyzed. Results: Five main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: Women’s knowledge of health-promoting behaviors, importance of health and healthy behavior of women, affliction or fear of affliction to chronic disease and its consequences, responsibilities of women in the family and society, and skills of life management in women. Conclusion: The findings suggest that empowering individual participants in health promotion is the most important factor determining their health. Thus, designing appropriate programs for education and empowerment of people is essential to promoting health. Health policy makers, with knowledge of these factors, can design comprehensive, socialization programs to promote women’s health. PMID:23853654

Enjezab, Behnaz; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Taleghani, Fariba; Aflatoonian, Abbas

2012-01-01

282

Alcohol Use Trajectories in Two Cohorts of U.S. Women Ages 50 to 65 at Baseline  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To examine drinking trajectories followed by two cohorts of older women during 8–10 years of follow-up. DESIGN Longitudinal analyses of two nationally-representative cohorts using semi-parametric group-based models weighted and adjusted for baseline age. PARTICIPANTS One cohort included 5,231 women in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) ages 50–65 in 1996; the other included 1,658 National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) women ages 50–65 in 1995. MEASUREMENTS Both cohorts reported any recent drinking and their average number of drinks per drinking day using similar, but not identical questions. HRS women provided biannual data from 1996 – 2006. NLS women provided biannual data from 1995 – 2003. RESULTS All trajectory models yielded similar results. Among HRS women, four trajectory groups were observed in the model based on drinks per day: Increasing Drinkers (4.9% of cohort), Infrequent and Nondrinkers (61.8%), Consistent Drinkers (25.9%) and Decreasing Drinkers (7.4%). Corresponding NLS values from the drinks per day model were 8.8%, 61.4%, 21.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. In 2006, the average number of drinks per day among HRS women in Increasing Drinkers and Consistent Drinkers trajectories was 1.31 and 1.59, respectively. In 2003, these values for NLS women were 0.99 and 1.38, respectively. CONCLUSION Most women do not markedly change their drinking behavior after age 50, but some increase their alcohol use substantially, while others continue to exceed current recommendations. These findings underscore the importance of periodically asking older women about their drinking to assess, advise, and assist those who may be at risk for developing alcohol-related problems. PMID:21087226

Bobo, Janet Kay; Greek, April A.; Klepinger, Daniel H.; Herting, Jerald R.

2010-01-01

283

The effect of joint contraceptive decisions on the use of Injectables, Long-Acting and Permanent Methods (ILAPMs) among married female (15-49) contraceptive users in Zambia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Zambia’s fertility rate and unmet need for family planning are still high. This is in spite of the progress reported from 1992 to 2007 of the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate from 15% to 41% and use of modern methods of family planning from 9% to 33%. However, partner disapproval of family planning has been cited by many women in many countries including Zambia. Given the effectiveness of long-acting and permanent methods of family planning (ILAPMs) in fertility regulation, this paper sought to examine the relationship between contraceptive decision-making and use of ILAPMs among married women in Zambia. Methods This paper uses data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. The analysis is based on married women (15–49) who reported using a method of family planning at the time of the survey. Out of the 7,146 women interviewed, only 1,630 women were valid for this analysis. Cross-tabulations and binary logistic regressions with Chi-square were used to analyse associations and the predictors of use of ILAPMs of contraception, respectively. A confidence interval of .95 was used in determining relationships between independent and dependent variables. Results Two thirds of women made joint decisions regarding contraception and 29% of the women were using ILAPMs. Women who made joint contraceptive decisions are significantly more likely to use ILAPMs than women who did not involve their husband in contraceptive decisions. However, the most significant predictor is the wealth index. Women from rich households are more likely to use ILAPMs than women from medium rich and poor households. Results also show that women of North Western ethnicities and those from Region 3 had higher odds of using ILAPMs than Tonga women and women from Region 2, respectively. Conclusion Joint contraceptive decision-making between spouses is key to use of ILAPMs in Zambia. Our findings have also shown that the wealth index is actually the strongest factor determining use of these methods. As such, family planning programmes directed at increasing use of LAPMs ought to not only encourage spousal communication but should also consider rolling out interventions that incorporate economic empowerment. PMID:24993034

2014-01-01

284

How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.  

PubMed

The role of human capital in economic growth is now largely uncontested. One indicator of human capital frequently used for the pre-1900 period is age heaping, which has been increasingly used to measure gender-specific differences. In this note, we find that in some historical samples, married women heap significantly less than unmarried women. This is still true after correcting for possible selection effects. A possible explanation is that a percentage of women adapted their ages to that of their husbands, hence biasing the Whipple index. We find the same effect to a lesser extent for men. Since this bias differs over time and across countries, a consistent comparison of female age heaping should be made by focusing on unmarried women. PMID:22329066

Földvári, Peter; Van Leeuwen, Bas; Van Leeuwen-Li, Jieli

2012-01-01

285

Partner Age Differences and Concurrency in South Africa: Implications for HIV-Infection Risk Among Young Women.  

PubMed

Partner-age difference is an HIV-risk factor among young women in Africa, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We used nationally representative data among black South Africans (men: 3,530; women: 3,946) to examine the proportion of women in partnerships involving male partner concurrency by age of female partners and by age-disparate (?5 years) partnerships. Of all partners reported by men, 35 % of young (16-24) women were in partnerships involving male partner concurrency of 4 weeks or longer during the past 12 months. Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to be in partnerships with men who had other concurrent partners (9 %; OR 1.88 p < 0.01) and more likely to be connected to an older sexual network. Our results suggest that the relationship between male concurrency and age-disparate relationships may increase HIV risk for young women by connecting them to larger and older sexual networks. PMID:25047687

Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Kenyon, Chris; Lurie, Mark N

2014-12-01

286

RLS in middle aged women and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in their offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) could share some common genetic backgrounds, but the effect of these genetic components could be modest. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a large-scaled cross-sectional study to examine whether women with a child with ADHD had a higher risk of having RLS than women of unaffected children. Methods We included 65,554 women free of diabetes, arthritis, and pregnancy in the current analyses. Information on RLS was assessed using a set of standardized questions. Participants were considered to have RLS if they met four RLS diagnostic criteria recommended by the International RLS Study Group and had restless legs ?5 times/month. Information on ADHD in offspring was collected via questionnaire. Results We observed a significant association between presence of ADHD in the offspring and risk of having RLS; the multivariate-adjusted OR for RLS was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.41; P<0.0001), after adjusting for age, body mass index, number of deliveries during life time and other covariates. Conclusion We found that mothers of children with ADHD had an increased risk of having RLS. Further studies are warranted to explore biological mechanisms underling this association. PMID:20810309

Gao, Xiang; Lyall, Kristen; Palacios, Natalia; Walters, Arthur S.; Ascherio, Alberto

2010-01-01

287

Socio-demographic correlates of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The prevalence of excess adiposity is increasing in less developed countries. This study explored the associations of sociodemographic factors with increased BMI among Nigeria women aged 20-49 years using secondary data collected for the 2008 NDHS. Anthropometric and socio-demographic variables of interest were extracted from the data and analyzed with SPSS version 15.0. Chi(2) was used to compare categorical variables and multi-nominal logistic regression was used to examine for correlates. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI 30kg/m(2) and above) in this population were 18.1% and 7.1% respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was highest among Igbo women. Multivariable logistic regression revealed increased frequency of watching television, belonging to a particular ethnic group, having a tertiary education and increased parity as risk factors for increased BMI. This study confirms a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women and identifies high risk groups for excessive weight gain. PMID:24558783

Okoh, Mathew

2013-12-01

288

Obesity affects short-term folate pharmacokinetics in women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

Maternal folate status and body mass index (BMI) are independent risk factors for neural tube defects (NTD). Population-based studies have identified an inverse association between serum folate and BMI, after adjusting for intake. The objective of this intervention study was to compare the relationship between BMI and the short-term pharmacokinetic response to an oral dose of folic acid. Healthy obese (BMI ?30.0?kg?m(-2); n=16) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9?kg?m(-2); n=16) women of childbearing age (18-35 years) were administered a single oral dose of folic acid (400??g). Blood samples were collected over a 10-h period to evaluate the serum folate response. Fasting baseline serum folate was lower in the obese group (P=0.005); in contrast, red blood cell folate was higher (P=0.05). Area-under-the-curve for the absorption phase (0-3?h) and peak serum folate concentrations were lower in obese versus normal-weight women (P<0.005). Overall serum folate response (0-10?h) was lower in obese versus normal-weight women (repeated-measures ANOVA, P=0.001). Data suggest body distribution of folate is significantly affected by obesity, and, should pregnancy occur, may reduce the amount of folate available to the developing embryo. These findings provide additional support for a BMI-adjusted folic acid intake recommendation for NTD risk reduction. PMID:23567925

da Silva, V R; Hausman, D B; Kauwell, G P A; Sokolow, A; Tackett, R L; Rathbun, S L; Bailey, L B

2013-12-01

289

The effects of women's age and physical appearance on evaluations of attractiveness and social desirability.  

PubMed

Younger people are perceived as possessing a host of socially desirable attributes, some of which are the same traits attributed to attractive people. In the present study, 160 younger and older White Canadians rated the attractiveness and personality traits of 1 of 4 target women. The results indicated an interaction between the participant's age and gender and the age and attractiveness of the target person. Both younger and older judges showed an attractiveness bias and downrated the social desirability of younger unattractive targets. Younger judges rated younger and older attractive targets as equal in social desirability. Older male judges rated older attractive targets as less socially desirable than younger attractive targets. Results are discussed in terms of cultural expectations of beauty. PMID:10410621

Perlini, A H; Bertolissi, S; Lind, D L

1999-06-01

290

HPV prevalence at enrollment and baseline results from the Carolina Women's Care Study, a longitudinal study of HPV persistence in women of college age  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical dysplasia and cancer. The Carolina Women’s Care Study (CWCS) was conducted to explore the biological, genetic, and lifestyle determinants of persistent HPV infection in college-aged European American and African American women. This paper presents the initial results of the CWCS, based upon data obtained at enrollment. Methods Freshman female students attending the University of South Carolina were enrolled in the CWCS and followed until graduation with biannual visits, including two Papanicolaou tests, cervical mucus collection, and a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors. We recruited 467 women, 293 of whom completed four or more visits for a total of 2274 visits. Results and conclusion CWCS participants were 70% European American, 24% African American, 3% Latina/Hispanic, and 3% Asian. At enrollment, 32% tested positive for any HPV. HPV16 infection was the most common (18% of infections). Together, HPV16, 66, 51, 52, and 18 accounted for 58% of all HPV infections. Sixty-four percent of all HPV-positive samples contained more than one HPV type, with an average of 2.2 HPV types per HPV-positive participant. We found differences between African American and European American women in the prevalence of HPV infection (38.1% African American, 30.7% European American) and abnormal Papanicolaou test results (9.8% African-American, 5.8% European American). While these differences did not reach statistical significance at enrollment, as the longitudinal data of this cohort are analyzed, the sample size will allow us to confirm these results and compare the natural history of HPV infection in college-aged African American and European American women. PMID:23861602

Banister, Carolyn E; Messersmith, Amy R; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Wang, Yinding; Spiryda, Lisa B; Glover, Saundra H; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

2013-01-01

291

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INDUCED ABORTION AMONG WOMEN IN HOHOE, GHANA  

PubMed Central

In Hohoe, induced abortion is the second highest cause of hospital admissions. We aimed to describe factors influencing induced abortion among 408 randomly selected women aged 15–49 years. 21% of women had had an abortion; of those, 36% said they did not want to disrupt their education or employment; 66% of the abortions were performed by doctors. Bivariate logistic regression showed that compared with women with secondary education, women with basic education (OR=0.31, CI:0.18–0.54) and uneducated women (OR=0.24, CI:0.07–0.70) were significantly less likely to have had an abortion. Women who were married (OR=1.83, CI:1.10–3.04), peri-urban residents, compared with rural (OR=1.88, CI:0.95–3.94), and women with formal employment (OR=2.22, CI:0.86–5.45), were more likely to have had an abortion. Stakeholders should improve access to effective contraception to lower the chance of needing an abortion and targeting education programmes at those with unmet need for contraception. PMID:21812204

Mote, CV.; Larsen-Reindorf, R; Otupiri, E.; Hindin, M

2014-01-01

292

Cancer-Related Concerns among Women Newly Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer: An Exploration of Age Group Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to characterize cancer-related concerns among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. The study compared degree of cancer-related concern between young women (? 45 years), middle age women (46–64 years), and older women (? 65 years). Methods/Materials Data from women (N =243) diagnosed with primary gynecological cancer who were participating in a randomized control trial were analyzed. Women completed a measure that assessed degree of concern in twelve cancer-related domains (physical functioning, cancer treatment, emotional functioning, sexual functioning, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, relationship with others, employment, and finances). Multivariate comparisons were made between the three age groups on the cancer-related concerns. Results There were age group differences in overall cancer-related concern and specific cancer-related domains. Young women reported the greatest cancer-related concern (p < .001). They reported greater concern over emotional functioning (p < .001) and sexual functioning (p < .001) compared to the middle and older age groups. Older women reported less concern over the impact of cancer on finances (p = 007). There were no differences between age groups in concern over physical impairment, cancer treatment, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, and relationship with others. Conclusions Age may play an important role in the impact of a gynecological cancer diagnosis in domains of functioning, specifically emotional functioning, sexual functioning, and finances. Other cancer-related areas may represent more universal degree of impact. Professionals may benefit form considering the impact of cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. PMID:24346489

Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L.; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norm; Graff, John J.

2014-01-01

293

Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ?36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 µmol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (?0.36–<0.7 µmol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7–1.4 µmol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (>1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy.

Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

2014-01-01

294

Circulating Vitamin D Correlates with Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone Levels in Late Reproductive-Aged Women: Women's Interagency HIV Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the correlation between circulating 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25OH-D) levels and serum AMH in women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting WIHS, a multicenter prospective study. Patient(s) All premenopausal women (n=388) with regular menstrual cycles were included and subdivided into three groups: group 1 with age <35 (N=128), group 2 with age 35 to 39 (N=119), and group 3 with age ? 40 (N=141). Intervention(s) Serum for 25OH-D, AMH, fasting glucose and insulin, and creatinine levels. Main Outcome Measure(s) Correlation between 25OH-D and AMH before and after adjusting for HIV status, BMI, race, smoking, illicit drug use, glucose and insulin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate and geographic site of participation. Result(s) After adjusting for all covariates, the regression slope in all participants for total 25OH-D predicting log10AMH for 25-year-olds (youngest participant) was ?0.001 (SE=0.008, p=0.847); and for 45-year-olds (oldest participant), the corresponding slope was +0.011 (SE=0.005, p=0.021). Fasting insulin level was negatively correlated with serum AMH (p=0.016). The regression slope for the correlation between 25OH-D and AMH in group 1 was +0.002 (SE=0.006, p=0.764); in group 2 was +0.006 (SE=0.005, p=0.269); and in group 3 was +0.011 (SE=0.005, p=0.022). There was no association between HIV and AMH. Conclusion(s) A novel relationship is reported between circulating 25OH-D and AMH in women aged = 40 suggesting that 25OH-D deficiency might be associated with lower ovarian reserve in late reproductive-aged women. PMID:22494925

Merhi, Zaher O.; Seifer, David B.; Weedon, Jeremy; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin; Holman, Susan; Anastos, Kathryn; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Young, Mary; Karim, Roksana; Greenblatt, Ruth; Minkoff, Howard

2012-01-01

295

Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 days of Creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in college-aged women. Fifteen healthy college-aged women (mean ± SD = 22.3 ± 1.7 yrs) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into either placebo (PL – 10 g of flavored dextrose powder; n = 8) or creatine (Cr – 5 g di-creatine citrate plus 10 g of flavored dextrose powder; n = 7; Creatine Edge, FSI Nutrition) loading groups. Each group ingested one packet 4 times per day (total of 20 g/day) for 5 days. Prior to and following supplementation, each subject performed a discontinuous incremental cycle ergometer test to determine their EMGFT value, using bipolar surface electrodes placed on the longitudinal axis of the right vastus lateralis. Subjects completed a total of four, 60 second work bouts (ranging from 100–350 W). The EMG amplitude was averaged over 10 second intervals and plotted over the 60 second work bout. The resulting slopes from each successive work bouts were used to calculate EMGFT. A two-way ANOVA (group [Cr vs. PL] × time [pre vs. post]) resulted in a significant (p = 0.031) interaction. Furthermore, a dependent samples t-test showed a 14.5% ± 3.5% increase in EMGFT from pre- to post-supplementation with Cr (p = 0.009), but no change for the PL treatment (-2.2 ± 5.8%; p = 0.732). In addition, a significant increase (1.0 ± 0.34 kg; p = 0.049) in weight (kg) was observed in the Cr group but no change for PL (-0.2 kg ± 0.2 kg). These findings suggest that 5 days of Cr loading in women may be an effective strategy for delaying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry. PMID:18039377

Smith, Abbie E; Walter, Ashley A; Herda, Trent J; Ryan, Eric D; Moon, Jordan R; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

2007-01-01

296

Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 days of Creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in college-aged women. Fifteen healthy college-aged women (mean +/- SD = 22.3 +/- 1.7 yrs) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into either placebo (PL - 10 g of flavored dextrose powder; n = 8) or creatine (Cr - 5 g di-creatine citrate plus 10 g of flavored dextrose powder; n = 7; Creatine Edge, FSI Nutrition) loading groups. Each group ingested one packet 4 times per day (total of 20 g/day) for 5 days. Prior to and following supplementation, each subject performed a discontinuous incremental cycle ergometer test to determine their EMGFT value, using bipolar surface electrodes placed on the longitudinal axis of the right vastus lateralis. Subjects completed a total of four, 60 second work bouts (ranging from 100-350 W). The EMG amplitude was averaged over 10 second intervals and plotted over the 60 second work bout. The resulting slopes from each successive work bouts were used to calculate EMGFT. A two-way ANOVA (group [Cr vs. PL] x time [pre vs. post]) resulted in a significant (p = 0.031) interaction. Furthermore, a dependent samples t-test showed a 14.5% +/- 3.5% increase in EMGFT from pre- to post-supplementation with Cr (p = 0.009), but no change for the PL treatment (-2.2 +/- 5.8%; p = 0.732). In addition, a significant increase (1.0 +/- 0.34 kg; p = 0.049) in weight (kg) was observed in the Cr group but no change for PL (-0.2 kg +/- 0.2 kg). These findings suggest that 5 days of Cr loading in women may be an effective strategy for delaying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry. PMID:18039377

Smith, Abbie E; Walter, Ashley A; Herda, Trent J; Ryan, Eric D; Moon, Jordan R; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

2007-01-01

297

Persistent organic pollutants and transthyretin-bound thyroxin in plasma of Inuit women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

The Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada) is highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through their traditional diet. Some POPs, i.e., hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), compete with thyroxin (T4) for binding sites on transthyretin (TTR), a T4 transport protein found in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. We tested the hypothesis that these TTR-binding compounds decrease circulating concentrations of T4 bound to TTR (T4-TTR) in Inuit women of reproductive age. We measured the concentration of T4-TTR in plasma samples obtained from 120 Inuit women (18-39 years old) by combining native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques. Total T4, TTR, and thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations were also determined, while POPs levels had been previously measured. The mean T4-TTR concentration was 8.4 nmol/L (SD = 2.4) with values ranging from 2.9 to 14.4 nmol/L. Linear regression analysis revealed that TTR, TBG, and total T4 concentrations were significant predictors (p < 0.002) of T4-TTR levels (total adjusted R-squared = 0.26, p < 0.0001) but not levels of OH-PCBs, chlorophenols, or PFOS. Our results suggest that circulating levels of these TTR-binding compounds in Inuit women of childbearing age are not high enough to affect TTR-mediated thyroid hormone transport. The possibility of increased delivery of these compounds to the developing brain requires further investigation. PMID:24160776

Audet-Delage, Y; Ouellet, N; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

2013-11-19

298

Acculturation, Food Insecurity, Diet Quality, and Body Mass Index Among Pre-Conception-Aged Latino Women in Eastern North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined associations between acculturation, food insecurity, diet quality, and body mass index (BMI) among pre- conception-aged Latino women in Pitt County, North Carolina. A convenience sample (n = 74) was recruited through the health department. Acculturation was the age of immigration. Food insecurity was determined with the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food Security Scale. Diet quality was represented

Rachel K. Ward; Stephanie B. Jilcott; Jeffrey W. Bethel

2011-01-01

299

Women, Work and Age: Policy Challenges. Proceedings of the Conference (Lansing, Michigan, April 11-12, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proceedings of a conference on women, work, and age are presented. The introduction by Carol Hollenstead give background on the topic, identifies the conference's goals and objectives, and describes the rationale behind the published proceedings. The keynote address, "Age Discrimination: The Invisible Barriers" (Sandra V. Porter), discusses…

Institute of Gerontology, Ann Arbor, MI.

300

An exploration of middle-aged and older Women's experiences of bat mitzvah within the framework of Erikson's theory of human development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of Jewish women are participating in adult bat mitzvah ceremonies in many synagogues across the United States. Little is known about the reasons why women choose to participate in a bat mitzvah ritual as an adult. It is also unclear if women of different ages have different reasons for participating in bat mitzvah.Older women were often not

Keren S Vergon

2006-01-01

301

Complement protein C3 and coronary artery calcium in middle-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls.  

PubMed

Circulating complement protein C3 (C3) levels have been associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, but have yet to be evaluated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to determine whether C3 levels were elevated in women with PCOS compared to controls and to quantify the association of C3 with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and CAC and if PCOS modified this association. This cross-sectional analysis included 132 women with PCOS and 155 controls, 35-62 years old, from the third visit of a case-control study. CAC was measured during the study visit, and circulating C3 was measured in stored sera. The presence of CAC and CAC categories (Agatston score 0, 1-9.9 and ? 10) were used for logistic and ordinal regression analysis, respectively. C3 levels were not significantly different between women with PCOS and controls. Among all women, C3 was associated with the presence of CAC and increasing CAC groups after adjusting for age, PCOS status and insulin or body mass index (BMI), all p<0.05. In addition, C3 was associated with the presence of CAC after adjusting for age, PCOS status, BMI, insulin and African American race, p=0.049. PCOS status did not modify these associations. In conclusion, circulating C3 levels may prove beneficial in identifying women at risk of CVD in women with PCOS and the general population. PMID:24592986

Snyder, Michelle L; Shields, Kelly J; Korytkowski, Mary T; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Talbott, Evelyn O

2014-07-01

302

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and recovery from high-intensity exercise in women: effects of aging and fitness.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypotheses that aging is associated with prolonged recovery after a challenge to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (acute exercise) and that aerobic fitness is associated with a blunting of the age-related loss of negative feedback sensitivity. Young (27 +/- 2.8 yr, n = 9), older (64.6 +/- 1.4 yr, n = 11), and older-fit women (66.3 +/- 2.2 yr, n = 11) underwent a short bout of treadmill exercise at high (but submaximal) intensity. The exercise trial elicited significant increases in heart rate, blood pressure, ACTH, and cortisol (P < 0.001). Although the young and the older women exhibited similar cortisol response to the trial and throughout the recovery period, the older women had a slower decrease of ACTH levels (P < 0.05), suggesting reduced negative feedback sensitivity with aging. Between the two groups of older women, the older-fit group had significantly greater rate of recovery of ACTH levels (P < 0.05) compared with the older unfit women. However, older fit women had greater cortisol production during the recovery period (P < 0.05), suggesting greater adrenal sensitivity to ACTH. These results suggest that aging is associated with changes in the dynamic function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and that these changes are attenuated by aerobic fitness. PMID:15240599

Traustadóttir, Tinna; Bosch, Pamela R; Cantu, Timasue; Matt, Kathleen S

2004-07-01

303

Breast cancer and atypia among young and middle-aged women: a study of 110 medicolegal autopsies.  

PubMed Central

In 110 consecutive, medicolegal autopsies of young and middle-aged women (range 20-54 years) the breasts were examined by an extensive histopathologic method and by correlative specimen radiography. Malignancy was found in 22 women (20%) of which only one was known to have had clinical invasive breast cancer (IBC). At autopsy 2 women had IBC (2%), the remaining in situ carcinoma (in situ BC) of microfocal type (18%), i.e. 15 (14%) intraductal carcinomas (DCIS), 4 (3%) lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and one (1%) both DCIS and LCIS. Forty-five per cent of the women with malignancy had multicentric and 41% had bilateral lesions. Forty-five per cent of all histologically confirmed malignant lesions were identified by specimen radiography. Adenosis, benign epithelial hyperplasia, papilloma and duct ectasia were positively associated with malignancy. In addition malignancy was significantly more frequent among women aged more than 40 years, with late age at first full-term pregnancy, with alcohol abuse and with steatosis or cirrhosis of the liver. The results suggest that clinically occult in situ BC are frequent in young and middle-aged women. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2829956

Nielsen, M.; Thomsen, J. L.; Primdahl, S.; Dyreborg, U.; Andersen, J. A.

1987-01-01

304

Women sleep objectively better than men and the sleep of young women is more resilient to external stressors: effects of age and menopause.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to: (i) assess gender differences of objective sleep patterns in a general population sample; (ii) evaluate the effects of menopause and hormone treatment (HT) on the sleep of the same cohort; and (iii) examine gender differences in sleep resilience towards external stressors. The participants were (i) 1324 subjects without sleep complaints, recruited from the general population of Central Pennsylvania that spent one night in the sleep laboratory and (ii) 66 young, healthy volunteers whose sleep was disturbed during night four by an external stressor, i.e. 24-h blood drawing (average of nights 2 and 3 versus night 4). Women compared with men in the general population sample had significantly higher percentage of sleep time, lower percentage of stage 1, and higher percentage of slow wave sleep. Also, menopause, in the absence of HT, was associated with prolonged sleep latency and decreased deep sleep. Finally, young, healthy women compared with men experienced less sleep disturbance because of blood draws as indicated by a significantly smaller change in per cent sleep time, and percentage of stage 1 sleep. These findings suggest that women without sleep complaints sleep objectively better across age than men and the sleep of young women is more resistant to external stressors. Also, gonadal hormones exert a beneficial effect on women's sleep. This gender dimorphism in sleep regulation may have been to protect women from the demands of infant and child care, and in part, might contribute to women's lower cardiovascular risks and greater longevity. PMID:19302341

Bixler, Edward O; Papaliaga, Maria N; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Lin, Hung-Mo; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Chrousos, George P

2009-06-01

305

Age-related declines in knee extensor strength and physical performance in healthy Hispanic and Caucasian women.  

PubMed

Hispanic women may undergo greater age-related reductions in physical functional capacity compared with Caucasian women. If so, a greater rate of decline in muscle strength with age could contribute. We tested this hypothesis in 82 healthy sedentary Caucasian (n = 37) and Hispanic (n = 45) adult women aged 21-78 years of similar socioeconomic status. Absolute one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength of the knee extensors (KE) declined with advancing age in the Caucasian (r = -.55, p < .01) and Hispanic (r = -.45, p < .01) women; the rates of decline were similar in the two groups (-7% to 8% x decade(-1), p = .60). KE strength normalized for thigh fat-free mass (FFM) also declined with age in the Caucasian (r = .52, p < .01) and Hispanic (r = -.41, p < .01) women, the rates of decline being similar (-6% to 7% x decade(-1), p = .66). For all functional performance tasks (10-m walk, stair ascent, stair descent, and chair stand), performance time increased with advancing age (mean of four tasks vs age: Caucasian, r = .64, p < .01; Hispanic, r = .56, p < .01). Absolute and normalized KE 1-RM were inversely related to the mean time for the four performance tasks (r = -.34 to -.58, all p < .01). Normalized KE 1-RM was the best independent predictor of the age-related decline in task performance in both groups. These cross-sectional findings do not support the hypothesis that Hispanic ethnicity per se is associated with a greater decline in KE strength and performance tasks associated with KE strength in healthy women. PMID:11129385

Schiller, B C; Casas, Y G; Tracy, B L; DeSouza, C A; Seals, D R

2000-12-01

306

Results from ad hoc and routinely collected data among celiac women with infertility or pregnancy related disorders: Italy, 2001-2011.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune illness triggered by gluten consumption in genetically predisposed individuals. Worldwide, CD prevalence is approximately 1%. Several studies suggest a higher prevalence of undiagnosed CD in patients with infertility. We described reproductive disorders and assessed the frequency of hospital admissions for infertility among celiac women aged 15-49. We conducted two surveys enrolling a convenient sample of celiac women, residing in Apulia or in Basilicata (Italy). Moreover, we selected hospital discharge records (HDRs) of celiac women and women with an exemption for CD, and matched the lists with HDRs for reproductive disorders. In the surveys we included 91 celiac women; 61.5% of them reported menstrual cycle disorders. 47/91 reported at least one pregnancy and 70.2% of them reported problems during pregnancy. From the HDRs and the registry of exemption, we selected 4,070 women with CD; the proportion of women hospitalized for infertility was higher among celiac women than among resident women in childbearing age (1.2% versus 0.2%). Our findings highlight a higher prevalence of reproductive disorders among celiac women than in the general population suggesting that clinicians might consider testing for CD women presenting with pregnancy disorders or infertility. PMID:24895657

Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Prato, Rosa; Pedalino, Biagio

2014-01-01

307

[Tetanus in women of childbearing age at the infectious diseases clinic in Dakar].  

PubMed

The objective of this article was to describe the epidemiological and outcome features of tetanus in the woman of childbearing age (WCBAT) and compare them with neonatal tetanus (NT) and other tetanus cases in a hospital department in Dakar from 1998 to 2007. A retrospective study was conducted using the files of WCBAT (15 to 49 years old), NT (3 to 28 days old) and other tetanus cases admitted at the Infectious Diseases Clinic, in Fann University Hospital, from 1998 to 2007. 1484 cases of tetanus were admitted in 10 years, with 176 cases of tetanus of WCBAT (11.8%) and 178 cases of NT (11.9%). In comparison with WCBAT the NT annual hospital rate significantly decreased during the study period whereas other tetanus cases rate remained stable. The average age of WCBAT was 26.1 year old and 57.9% were between 15 and 25 years old. The geographical origin was identical for all patients, with more than 71% coming from suburban areas. Most of the WCBAT cases were housewives (50.9%), single women (75%) without updated tetanus immunization (92%). The main portals of entry of WCBAT were injuries and wounds (67.4%) and maternal tetanus cases were rare (8%), mainly post-abortum. At admission, WCBAT cases were less severe than NT cases but more severe than other tetanus cases. The lethality rate of WCBAT cases (28.4%) was significantly lower than NT cases (50%, p = 0.00003), but higher than the other tetanus cases (22.2%; NS). Prognostic factors were: non-identified or intramuscular injection portal of entry and a Mollaret state III at admission. An intensification of the extended immunization program associated with supplementary immunization campaigns targeting women of child bearing age in high risk districts, are necessary to eradicate neonatal and maternal tetanus in Dakar. PMID:19950538

Manga, N M; Ndour, C T; Fortes, L; Diop, S A; Dia, N M; Mbaye, M; Ndiaye, E H M; Diop, B M; Sow, P S

2009-10-01

308

Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ?1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors. PMID:24639709

Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

2013-01-01

309

Preconception health of reproductive aged women of the Mississippi River delta.  

PubMed

Optimal preconception health (PCH) may improve maternal and infant outcomes, priority issues in Mississippi (MS). Our study objective was to compare the PCH of women in the MS Delta to other regions. We analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2005, 2007, and 2009, and limited analyses to 171,612 non-pregnant black and white women 18-44 years of age. Region was defined as 14 MS Delta counties (MS Delta), remainder of MS (MS non-Delta), Delta states (LA, AR, TN), and non-Delta US states. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) to assess associations between region and 16 indicators of optimal PCH, controlling for demographic characteristics. Healthy PCH factors such as consuming ?5 fruits and vegetables daily and normal body mass index (18.5 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2)), respectively, were more prevalent in the MS non-Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.7 and aPR = 1.2; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.4), non-MS Delta (aPR = 1.5; 95 % CI: 1.2,2.0 and aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.5) and non-Delta states (aPR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.3,2.2 and aPR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.2,1.6) compared to the MS Delta. Physical activity levels were higher among non-Delta US states compared to the MS Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.4). Household income and race confounded the associations between region and PCH. Reproductive aged women in the MS Delta had poorer PCH, particularly for physical activity and nutrition, than women in other regions. MS Delta service providers and public health practitioners should consider implementing or enhancing lifestyle, nutrition, and physical activity interventions, with a special focus on reducing income-based and racial disparities. PMID:23099798

Bish, Connie L; Farr, Sherry; Johnson, Dick; McAnally, Ron

2012-12-01

310

Effects of Aging on Perceived Exertion and Pain During Arm Cranking in Women 70 to 80 YEARS OLD  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on perceived exertion (PE) and perceived arm pain (PaP) at the end of a maximal graded arm test in 70- to 80-year -old women. Twelve healthy young (mean age 22.9 ± 3.3 years), and 12 healthy elderly (mean age 74.6 ± 3.7 years) women performed a maximal graded test (GXT) on an arm crank ergometer until exhaustion. The results revealed no significant difference between both groups concerning PE (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.62) and when heart rate (HR) was expressed as a theoretical maximal heart rate (THRmax) (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.17). Nevertheless, PaP was significantly lower (p < 0.05; Effect Size = 2.95) in the elderly compared to the young group. In conclusion, these results suggest that, at the end of GXT, PE is not influenced, whereas PaP may be altered by aging of the women tested in the present study. Therefore, it appears difficult to use PaP in these elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program. Key Points At the end of a maximal graded arm test, perceived exertion is not influenced, whereas perceived arm pain may be altered by aging. It appears difficult to use perceived arm pain in elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program. PMID:24259993

Groslambert, Alain; Grange, Celine C.; Perrey, Stephane; Maire, Jerome; Tordi, Nicolas; Rouillon, Jean Denis

2006-01-01

311

Effects of Aging on Perceived Exertion and Pain During Arm Cranking in Women 70 to 80 YEARS OLD.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on perceived exertion (PE) and perceived arm pain (PaP) at the end of a maximal graded arm test in 70- to 80-year -old women. Twelve healthy young (mean age 22.9 ± 3.3 years), and 12 healthy elderly (mean age 74.6 ± 3.7 years) women performed a maximal graded test (GXT) on an arm crank ergometer until exhaustion. The results revealed no significant difference between both groups concerning PE (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.62) and when heart rate (HR) was expressed as a theoretical maximal heart rate (THRmax) (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.17). Nevertheless, PaP was significantly lower (p < 0.05; Effect Size = 2.95) in the elderly compared to the young group. In conclusion, these results suggest that, at the end of GXT, PE is not influenced, whereas PaP may be altered by aging of the women tested in the present study. Therefore, it appears difficult to use PaP in these elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program. Key PointsAt the end of a maximal graded arm test, perceived exertion is not influenced, whereas perceived arm pain may be altered by aging.It appears difficult to use perceived arm pain in elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program. PMID:24259993

Groslambert, Alain; Grange, Céline C; Perrey, Stéphane; Maire, Jérôme; Tordi, Nicolas; Rouillon, Jean Denis

2006-01-01

312

Beyond pregnancy - the neglected burden of mortality in young women of reproductive age in Bangladesh: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe proportionate mortality and causes of death unrelated to pregnancy. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Rural northwest Bangladesh. Population A cohort of 133 617 married women of reproductive age. Methods Verbal autopsies were conducted for women who died whilst under surveillance in the cohort trial. Physician-assigned causes of death based on verbal autopsies were used to categorise deaths. Main outcome measures The proportion of deaths due to non-communicable diseases, infectious diseases, injury or pregnancy. Results Of the 1107 deaths occurring among women between 2001 and 2007, 48% were attributed to non-communicable diseases, 22% to pregnancy, 17% to infections, 9% to injury and 4% to other causes. Conclusions Although focus on pregnancy-related mortality remains important, more attention is warranted on non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age. PMID:23647788

Labrique, AB; Sikder, SS; Wu, L; Rashid, M; Ali, H; Ullah, B; Shamim, AA; Mehra, S; Klemm, R; Banu, H; West, KP; Christian, P

2013-01-01

313

Personal and Environmental Factors Associated With Physical Inactivity Among Different Racial–Ethnic Groups of U.S. Middle-Aged and Older-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal, program-based, and environmental barriers to physical activity were explored among a U.S. population-derived sample of 2,912 women 40 years of age and older. Factors significantly associated with inactivity included American Indian ethnicity, older age, less education, lack of energy, lack of hills in one's neighborhood, absence of enjoyable scenery, and infrequent observation of others exercising in one's neighborhood. For

Abby C. King; Cynthia Castro; Sara Wilcox; Amy A. Eyler; James F. Sallis; Ross C. Brownson

2000-01-01

314

A descriptive study of douching practices in Turkish women.  

PubMed

Vaginal douching is a common hygiene practice for many women all over the world. Little is known about the beliefs and attitudes that promote and maintain douching practices. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the status of vaginal douching practices of women in the Erzurum province of Turkey. The present study was a descriptive and cross-sectional quality. All participants were 15-49 years of age and all were married. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi(2) test. The present study revealed that the frequency of douching was 51.4% among women and that the most common reason for their habit was feminine hygiene and the most popular material used was water. A statistically significant relationship was found between the habit of doing the vaginal douching and the educational level, age of marriage, number of births, case of genital infections within the last year and presence of complaints indicating vaginal infections for the last month. This study provides preliminary information about women's douching practices and attitudes. It might also provide information to health-care practitioners in their efforts to educate women on the adverse effects of vaginal douching. PMID:19335521

Hacialio?lu, Nazli; Nazik, Ev?en; Kiliç, Meral

2009-04-01

315

Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.  

PubMed

A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes. PMID:19875639

Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

2010-06-01

316

Long Term Effects on Cognitive Function of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Prescribed to Women Aged 50-55 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) may adversely affect older women’s cognitive function. It is not known whether this extends to younger women. Methods 1,326 postmenopausal women, who had begun treatment in two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hormone therapy when aged 50–55 years, were assessed with an annual telephone-administered cognitive battery that included measures of global (primary outcome) and domain-specific cognitive functions (verbal memory, attention, executive function, verbal fluency, and working memory). The clinical trials in which they participated had compared 0.625 mg CEE with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) over an average of 7.0 years. Cognitive testing was conducted an average of 7.2 years following the end of the trials, when women had mean age 67.2 years, and repeated one year later. Results Global cognitive function scores from women who had been assigned to CEE-based therapies were similar to those from women assigned to placebo: mean [95% confidence interval] intervention effect of 0.02 [?0.08,0.12]standard deviation units (p=0.66). Similarly, no overall differences were found for any individual cognitive domain (all p>0.15). Pre-specified subgroup analyses found some evidence that CEE-based therapies may have adversely affected verbal fluency among women who had prior hysterectomy or prior use of hormone therapy: mean treatment effects of ?0.17 [?0.33, ?0.02] and ?0.25 [?0.42, ?0.08], respectively, however this may be a chance finding. We are not able to address whether initiating hormone therapy during the menopause and maintaining therapy until any symptoms are passed affects cognitive function, either in the short or longer term. Conclusions CEE-based therapies produced no overall sustained benefit or risk to cognitive function when administered to postmenopausal women aged 50–55 years. PMID:23797469

Espeland, Mark A.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Leng, Iris; Manson, JoAnn E.; Brown, Candice M.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Vaughan, Leslie; Robinson, Jennifer; Rapp, Stephen R.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Lane, Dorothy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Li, Wenjun; Resnick, Susan M.

2013-01-01

317

Association between leisure time physical activity and 10-year body mass change among working-aged men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether habitual leisure time physical activity and body mass change of working-aged men and women are associated. DESIGN: Prospective 10 y follow-up study. SUBJECTS: A regionally representative cohort of 19–63 y old men (n=2564) and women (n=2695) in three municipalities in Finland. MEASUREMENTS: The main outcome measures were average body mass change during the 10 y of

N Haapanen; S Miilunpalo; M Pasanen; P Oja; I Vuori

1997-01-01

318

Social-Cognitive Predictors of Intention to Vaccinate Against the Human Papillomavirus in College-Age Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined social-cognitive predictors of college-age women's intentions to obtain the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) as theoretical guides. Questionnaire data were collected from 143 women at a Midwestern university. Among the HBM variables, perceived susceptibility to HPV, perceived benefits of the vaccine, and self-efficacy to obtain the

Kymberley Bennett; Juli A. Buchanan; Alisha D. Adams

2012-01-01

319

Large-for-gestational-age newborns in women with insulin-treated gestational diabetes under strict metabolic control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of strict metabolic control in women with insulin-treated gestational diabetes on the risk of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns, the frequency of obstetrical complications and fetal outcome. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 875 women were screened for gestational diabetes mellitus with a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between weeks 24 and 28 of gestation.

Heinz Leipold; Christof Worda; Christian J. Gruber; Alexandra Kautzky-Willer; Peter W. Husslein; Dagmar Bancher-Todesca

2005-01-01

320

Influence of age on effects of endogenous 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D on calcium absorption in normal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports of increases in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH2)D] concentration with aging despite no changes or decreases in calcium absorption suggest that elderly women have intestinal resistance to vitamin D action. Thus, in 15 young adult (30±1 year) and 15 elderly (74±1 year) women (mean±SE), we assessed the responsiveness of intestinal calcium absorption to increases in circulating 1,25(OH)2D induced by

P. R. Ebeling; A. L. Yergey; N. E. Vieira; M. F. Burritt; W. M. O'Fallon; R. Kumar; B. L. Riggs

1994-01-01

321

Physiological and perceptual responses to Nordic walking in obese middle-aged women in comparison with the normal walk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare physiological and perceptual responses to Nordic walking (NW) in obese women to those of walking\\u000a (W), and to assess if these responses were modified by a learning period of NW technique. Eleven middle-aged obese women completed\\u000a exercise trials (5 min each) at 4 km\\/h, inclinations of ?5, 0 and +5%, with and without poles. Ventilation $$ \\\\left(

H. Figard-Fabre; N. Fabre; A. Leonardi; F. Schena

2010-01-01

322

Validation of the Diagnostic Score for Acute Lower Abdominal Pain in Women of Reproductive Age  

PubMed Central

Background. The differential diagnoses of acute appendicitis obstetrics, and gynecological conditions (OB-GYNc) or nonspecific abdominal pain in young adult females with lower abdominal pain are clinically challenging. The present study aimed to validate the recently developed clinical score for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominal pain in female of reproductive age. Method. Medical records of reproductive age women (15–50 years) who were admitted for acute lower abdominal pain were collected. Validation data were obtained from patients admitted during a different period from the development data. Result. There were 302 patients in the validation cohort. For appendicitis, the score had a sensitivity of 91.9%, a specificity of 79.0%, and a positive likelihood ratio of 4.39. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio in diagnosis of OB-GYNc were 73.0%, 91.6%, and 8.73, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating curves (ROC), the positive likelihood ratios, for appendicitis and OB-GYNc in the validation data were not significantly different from the development data, implying similar performances. Conclusion. The clinical score developed for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominal pain in female of reproductive age may be applied to guide differential diagnoses in these patients. PMID:24971177

Jearwattanakanok, Kijja; Yamada, Sirikan; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin; Smuthtai, Waratsuda; Patumanond, Jayanton

2014-01-01

323

AIDS awareness and knowledge among married women living in Malatya (Turkey): implications for province-based prevention programs.  

PubMed

The study was performed in 2003 to obtain baseline information on married women's knowledge of AIDS/HIV in Malatya, Turkey. The aim was to reach 1% of the population by covering 1200 married women out of 120,034 whose ages ranged from 15-49. Stratified systematic random sampling was used according to 17 health center lists. Although median HIV/AIDS knowledge score was found to be 70 (highest score was 100), it was also seen that clinical properties of the disease were not recognized adequately. The main resources of knowledge were visual (93%) and printed material (35%). These findings show that media based information does not seem to be sufficient. Therefore, it is recommended that health education should be inserted in the school curriculum and health personnel should inform the women. PMID:16035262

Genc, Metin; Gunes, Gulsen; Karaoglu, Leyla; Egri, Mucahit

2005-04-01

324

Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among women of reproductive age in the slums of Delhi and Hyderabad, India.  

PubMed

This report explores how vulnerability to HIV/AIDS applies to women in the reproductive age range living in the slum areas of Delhi and Hyderabad. The paper is based on a qualitative study of AIDS awareness levels conducted during the summer of 2006. It offers insightful narratives from a sample of 32 women, providing an in depth view of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS due to their precarious socioeconomic conditions and low AIDS awareness. The women cited lack of education, low empowerment in expressing and accessing information related to sexual matters, and poverty as key factors to vulnerability. PMID:19070950

Ghosh, Jayati; Wadhwa, Vandana; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

2009-02-01

325

The Women's Healthy Ageing Project: fertile ground for investigation of healthy participants 'at risk' for dementia.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease neuropathology (amyloid, tauopathies) and brain atrophy are present decades prior to manifestation of clinical symptoms. With the failure of treatment trials it is becoming clearer that the window for prevention and therapeutic intervention is before significant neuronal loss and clinical deterioration of cognition has occurred. Early identification of those at risk of disease and optimizing their management to prevent disease in later life are crucial to delaying disease onset and improving people's quality of life. The Women's Healthy Aging Project (WHAP) is a longitudinal study of over 400 Australian-born women, epidemiologically randomly sampled in 1990. The WHAP aims to identify modifiable mid-life risk factors for the development of late-life cognitive decline, improve the understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia, and target early disease identification utilizing clinical, biomarker and health risk profiles. These aims are fortified by the ability to leverage the considerable database on health, lifestyle and socio-demographics collected prospectively from 1990 to date. This is the first study with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, over a decade of cognitive follow-up, with all participants being offered amyloid imaging from 2012, and prospective longitudinal data including clinical and physical measures and bio-bank samples from over 20 years prior. PMID:24423225

Szoeke, Cassandra E I; Robertson, Joanne S; Rowe, Christopher C; Yates, Paul; Campbell, Katherine; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Desmond, Patricia

2013-12-01

326

Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

2011-01-01

327

Alterations in gait speed and age do not fully explain the changes in gait mechanics associated with healthy older women.  

PubMed

Older adults exhibit modified gait patterns compared to the young, adopting movement strategies in response to changes in musculoskeletal function. Investigating the functional mobility of older women is particularly important because of their increased life expectancy and greater falls risk compared to men. We explored the relationships between gait parameters and age in healthy older women whilst accounting for declining gait speeds. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-nine women (60-83 years) whilst walking at a comfortable cadence. Regression analysis assessed the capacity of gait speed and age to explain the variance in gait associated with older age. Speed explained the majority of variance in many gait parameters. By including age in the regression, the total explained variance (R2) for foot clearance (70%), ankle plantarflexion angle (30%), peak ankle plantarflexor moment (58%), and hip power generation (56%) were significantly (p<0.05) greater than for speed alone. Nonetheless, changes in speed and age did not fully explain the variance in gait mechanics associated with older age and other contributing factors must exist. Losses of 1.2%/year in gait speed were predicted by age, exceeding previous predictions of -0.7%/year. Furthermore, the accumulation of apparently small decreases of 0.2 cm/year in peak foot-to-ground clearance has clinical implications and offers insight into the mechanisms by which gait becomes hazardous in older age. PMID:23122897

Alcock, L; Vanicek, N; O'Brien, T D

2013-04-01

328

Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To assess the most effective recruitment strategies for an acupuncture clinical trial of reproductive age women. Design The underlying study is an acupuncture randomized clinical trial for an ovulatory disorder that affects approximately 6.5% of reproductive age women (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). Study participation involved 2 months of intervention and 3 months of follow-up with US$170 compensation. Success of each recruitment method used during the first 37 study months was analyzed. Setting Clinical trial in the Dept. of OB/GYN at the University of Virginia, US. The original geographic residency target was an 80 mile radius around a college town in Virginia (population 155,000), and was expanded to the state capital (population 850,000) in recruitment year 2. Main outcome measures Number of study inquiries (phone calls or emails) over time and by recruitment source. Results In the first 37 months of recruitment (Jan 2006 – Jan 2009), there were 800 study inquiries (582 by phone, 218 by email), of which 749 were screened via telephone questionnaire. The most successful recruitment methods were flyers (28% of inquiries and 26 % of participants) and direct mailing to targeted zip codes (26% and 27%, respectively). The direct mailing cost US$110/inquiry, while the flyers cost less than US$300 in total. Study inquiries were least likely in May and November. Almost all prospective participants (94%) were acupuncture-naïve. Conclusions Posters/flyers and direct mailings proved to be the most successful recruitment methods for this CAM study. Active recruitment with multiple methods was needed for continual enrollment. PMID:19632551

Pastore, Lisa M.; Dalal, Parchayi

2009-01-01

329

Associations between Vaginal Pathogenic Community and Bacterial Vaginosis in Chinese Reproductive-Age Women  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common urogenital infections among women of reproductive age that represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. The aim of our study was to evalute the diagnostic values of Gardnerella, Atopobium, Eggerthella, Megasphaera typeI, Leptotrichia/Sneathia and Prevotella, defined as a vaginal pathogenic community for BV and their associations with vaginal pH and Nugent scores. Methods and Findings We investigated the vaginal pathogenic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. with species-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 50 BV-positive and 50 BV-negative Chinese women of reproductive age. Relative to BV-negative subjects, a siginificant decline in Lactobacillus and an obvious increase in bacteria in the vaginal pathogenic community were observed in BV-postive subjects (P<0.05). With the exception of Megasphaera typeI, other vaginal pathogenic bacteria were highly predictable for BV with a better sensitivity and specificity. The vaginal pathogenic community was positively associated with vaginal pH and Nugent scores, while Lactobacillus spp., such as L. iners and L. crispatus was negatively associated with them (P<0.05). Conclusions Our data implied that the prevalance of vaginal pathogenic bacteria as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Vaginal microbiota shifts, especially the overgrowth of the vaginal pathogenic community, showed well diagnostic values in predicting BV. Postive correlations between those vaginal pathogenic bacteria and vaginal pH, Nugent score indicated the vaginal pathogenic community rather than a single vaginal microorganism, was participated in the onset of BV directly. PMID:24124575

Luo, Yueqiu; Wu, Xiaoxing; Yuan, Li; Tong, Xiaojuan; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

2013-01-01

330

Recurrent Depression, Cardiovascular Disease, and Diabetes among Middle-Aged and Older Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of this study was to investigate the concurrent and prospective relationships between a history of single and recurrent Major Depression Disorder (MDD) and the medical conditions of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes using a community sample of middle- and older-aged women. Methods Data from women (n=557 at baseline; mean age=55.7 yrs.) participating in a two-wave longitudinal study (5-year interval) were used to examine associations between single and recurrent MDD, assessed with a structured clinical interview, and three self-report indicators of CVD (heart attack or myocardial infarction, stroke, angina), major CVD risk markers (hypertension, high cholesterol), and diabetes. Analyses were conducted to evaluate hypotheses which proposed that recurrent depression would be significantly associated with the three medical outcomes, but not single episode MDD. Results After controlling for a range of important covariates (e.g., BMI, smoking, alcohol use), cross-sectional analyses indicated that recurrent MDD, but not single episode MDD, significantly predicted CVD risk and diabetes. Prospective analyses indicated that recurrent MDD, but not single episode MDD, increased the risk for CVD and diabetes. Limitations The sample was a predominantly white, middle-class sample so generalizability of findings may be limited for minorities and men. Reliance on self-report data may have biased the findings. Conclusions These findings suggest the benefits of measuring single versus recurrent MDD when investigating the risk of depression on chronic diseases. Findings also suggest the importance of identifying individuals suffering from recurrent MDD early in their lifespan with the goal of preventing future depressive episodes. PMID:23721922

Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C.

2013-01-01

331

Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

2014-01-01

332

Age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in young pregnant women, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To investigate the age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in young pregnant women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, and to determine whether an increase in prevalence occurs during adolescence. Methods HBV prevalence was quantified using data from routine antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 10?808 women aged 25 years or younger born in Hong Kong SAR and managed at a single hospital between 1998 and 2011. The effect on prevalence of maternal age, parity and birth before or after HBV vaccine availability in 1984 was assessed, using Spearman’s correlation and multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings Overall, 7.5% of women were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence ranged from 2.3% to 8.4% in those aged ??16 and 23 years, respectively. Women born in or after 1984 and those younger than 18 years of age were less likely to be HBsAg-positive (odds ratio, OR: 0.679; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.578–0.797) and (OR: 0.311; 95% CI: 0.160–0.604), respectively. For women born before 1984, there was no association between HBsAg carriage and being younger than 18 years of age (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.262–1.370) Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of HBsAg carriage was influenced more by the woman being 18 years old or older (adjusted OR, aOR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.46–5.47) than being born before 1984 (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21–1.67). Conclusion Immunity to HBV in young pregnant women who had been vaccinated as neonates decreased in late adolescence. PMID:25378739

Sahota, Daljit S; Law, Lai-Wa; Cheng, Yvonne KY; Leung, Tak-Yeung

2014-01-01

333

APOE -491 T allele may reduce the risk of atherosclerotic lesions among middle-aged women.  

PubMed

Genetic variability of the APOE gene confers susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD). Beyond variability on the coding region, polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the APOE gene have been associated with variation on plasma cholesterol levels. It has also been demonstrated a complex and multifactorial association between, APOE gene polymorphisms, gender, plasma lipids levels and risk of CAD. In the present case-control study, we examined polymorphisms -427 T/C and -491 A/T in the promoter region of APOE in relation to lipid profile and the coronary atherosclerosis, in a sample of Argentinean adults with (cases) and without (controls) atherosclerotic injuries regarding gender and age. In females below 60 years APOE -491 T allele was less prevalent in cases than in controls (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.04-0.76). Among females cases the T allele was more frequent with increasing age (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.27-0.90). Female up to 45 years who were carriers of the T allele showed lower levels of total (P = 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.02) compared with non-carriers. Levels of total and LDL cholesterol increased with the age only in female carriers (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01). No differences were observed for HDL and TG levels. Allele C of polymorphism APOE -427 was associated with higher levels of triglycerides (P < 0.01). We conclude that, in middle-aged women, APOE -491 T allele contributes keeping lower levels of LDL cholesterol in the population studied, and would have a putative protective effect for the development of CAD. PMID:22101914

Bañares, Virginia G; Bardach, Ariel; Peterson, Graciela; Tavella, Marcelo J; Schreier, Laura E

2012-03-01

334

Urinary Paraben Concentrations and Ovarian Aging among Women from a Fertility Center  

PubMed Central

Background: Parabens are preservatives commonly used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. There is documented widespread human exposure to parabens, and some experimental data suggest that they act as estrogenic endocrine disruptors. As far as we are aware, no epidemiologic studies have assessed female reproductive health effects in relation to paraben exposure. Objective: We examined the association of urinary paraben concentrations with markers of ovarian reserve in a prospective cohort study of women seeking fertility treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: Measures of ovarian reserve were day-3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and ovarian volume. Paraben concentrations [methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP)] were measured in spot urine samples collected prior to the assessment of outcome measures. We used linear and Poisson regression models to estimate associations of urinary paraben concentrations (in tertiles) with ovarian reserve measures. Results: Of the women enrolled in 2004–2010, 192 had at least one ovarian reserve outcome measured (mean age ± SD, 36.1 ± 4.5 years; range, 21.0–46.7 years). MP and PP were detected in > 99% of urine samples and BP in > 75%. We found a suggestive trend of lower AFC with increasing urinary PP tertiles [mean percent change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1, respectively, were –5.0% (–23.7, 18.4) and –16.3% (–30.8, 1.3); trend p-value (ptrend) = 0.07] as well as higher day-3 FSH with higher urinary PP tertiles [mean change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1 were 1.16 IU/L (–0.26, 2.57) and 1.02 IU/L (–0.40, 2.43); ptrend = 0.16]. We found no consistent evidence of associations between urinary MP or BP and day-3 FSH or AFC, or between urinary MP, PP, or BP and ovarian volume. Conclusions: PP may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve. However, our results require confirmation in further studies. Citation: Smith KW, Souter I, Dimitriadis I, Ehrlich S, Williams PL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2013. Urinary paraben concentrations and ovarian aging among women from a fertility center. Environ Health Perspect 121:1299–1305;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205350 PMID:23912598

Smith, Kristen W.; Souter, Irene; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

2013-01-01

335

Adequacy and change in nutrient and food intakes with aging in a seven-year cohort study in elderly women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  As women age total dietary intake falls which may increase the risk of dietary deficiencies in some individuals. The aims\\u000a of this study were to investigate the changes in nutrient and dietary intakes that occurred with aging in a seven-year longitudinal\\u000a study of elderly Australian women and to evaluate the adequacy of their dietary intakes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Longitudinal population based study on

K. Zhu; A. Devine; A. Suleska; C. Y. Tan; C. Z. J. Toh; D. Kerr; R. L. Prince

2010-01-01

336

Effect of undertreatment on the disparity in age-related breast cancer-specific survival among older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Assess the relationship between age and breast cancer-specific survival among older women and determine whether the observed\\u000a age-related disparities in survival is explained by differences in breast cancer treatments received.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Women ?65 years old at diagnosis with stage I–IIIA breast cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 1998 were recruited from four\\u000a regions of the United States and followed prospectively for 5 years after

Cynthia Owusu; Timothy L. Lash; Rebecca A. Silliman

2007-01-01

337

Women Veterans Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Care » Women Veterans Health Care Women Veterans Health Care Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care Home Program ... Breast Cancer Awareness Healthy Aging WVCC Women Veterans Health Care Did you know that women are the fastest ...

338

Benefits of family planning: an assessment of women's knowledge in rural Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The last two decades have seen an increase in literature reporting an increase in knowledge and use of contraceptives among individuals and couples in Kenya, as in the rest of Africa, but there is a dearth of information regarding knowledge about benefits of family planning (FP) in Kenya. Objectives To assess the factors associated with knowledge about the benefits of FP for women and children, among women in rural Western Kenya. Methods Data are drawn from the Packard Western Kenya Project Baseline Survey, which collected data from rural women (aged 15–49 years). Ordinal regression was used on 923 women to determine levels of knowledge and associated factors regarding benefits of FP. Results Women in rural Western Kenya have low levels of knowledge about benefits of FP and are more knowledgeable about benefits for the mother rather than for the child. Only age, spousal communication and type of contraceptive method used are significant. Conclusions Women's level of knowledge about benefits of FP is quite low and may be one of the reasons why fertility is still high in Western Kenya. Therefore, FP programmes need to focus on increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of FP in this region. PMID:24643170

Mutombo, Namuunda; Bakibinga, Pauline; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva

2014-01-01

339

Reproductive health decision making among Ghanaian women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women’s reproductive health decision-making and choices, including engaging in sexual intercourse and condom use, are essential for good reproductive health. However, issues concerning sexual intercourse and condom use are shrouded in secrecy in many sub-Saharan African countries. This study investigates factors that affect decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom among women aged 15–49. Method A nationally representative sample (N = 3124) data collected in the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study the association between women’s economic and socio-demographic characteristics and their decision making on engaging in sexual intercourse and use of condom. Results One out of five women reported that they could not refuse their partners’ request for sexual intercourse while one out of four indicated that they could not demand the use of condoms by their partners. Women aged 35–49 were more likely to make decision on engaging in sexual intercourse (OR?=?1.35) compared to those aged 15–24. Furthermore, the higher a woman’s education, the more likely that she would make decision regarding condom use. Also, if a woman had primary (OR?=?1.37) or secondary (OR?=?1.55) education, she is more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse compared to a woman who had no formal education. Compared to women in the Greater Accra region (the capital city region), women in the Western region (OR?=?2.10), Central region (OR?=?2.35), Brong Ahafo (OR?=?1.70), Upper East (OR?=?7.71) and Upper West (OR?=?3.56) were more likely to make decision regarding the use of condom. Women who were in the richest, rich and middle wealth index categories were more likely to make decision regarding engaging in sexual intercourse as well as condom use compared to the poorest. Conclusion Interventions and policies geared at empowering women to take charge of their reproductive health should focus particularly on women from less wealthy backgrounds and those with low educational attainments. PMID:24628727

2014-01-01

340

Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within the society. PMID:21714854

2011-01-01

341

Correlations of urinary phytoestrogen excretion with lifestyle factors and dietary intakes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women  

PubMed Central

Isoflavones and lignans, two major groups of phytoestrogens, have been postulated to have multiple health benefits, including anti-estrogenic, anti-cancer, pro-cardiovascular health, and ameliorating menopausal symptoms. Urinary excretion of isoflavonoids, including daidzein, genistein, glycitein, O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), dihydro-daidzein, dihydrogenistein, and equol, and lignans, including enterodiol and enterolactone, have been used as biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies. We evaluated the urinary excretion of phytoestrogens and their correlations with lifestyle and dietary factors among 2,165 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), a population-based prospective cohort study of 74,942 urban Chinese women aged 40-70 years at study enrollment (1996-2000). The medians (in nmol/mg creatinine) were: isoflavonoids, 17.13; daidzein, 5.57; genistein, 2.41; glycitein, 0.94; O-DMA, 1.52; dihydrodaidzein, 0.81; dihydrogenistein, 0.19; equol, 0.11; enterodiol, 0.30; and enterolactone, 1.18. These levels are 2- (enterodiol) to 126- (O-DMA) fold higher than levels among US women similar in age range with the exception of enterolactone, for which a similar level was observed for both populations. Urinary isoflavonoid excretion was higher among older women and women who engaged in regular exercise and significantly associated with soy food intake, but was inversely related to fruit intake. Urinary excretions of dihydrodaidzein, dihydrogenistein, equol, enterodiol, and enterolactone were inversely associated with body mass index (BMI). Urinary excretion of isoflavones correlated with soy food intake and healthy lifestyle but was inversely associated with fruit intake among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. Our study adds important information to the rapidly growing body of research on the potential health benefits of phytoestrogens. PMID:22493748

Wu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Dai, Qi; Li, Honglan; Cai, Qiuyin; Yang, Gong; Franke, Adrian A; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

2012-01-01

342

Fertility intentions among HIV positive women aged 18-49 years in Addis Ababa Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Given the degree of HIV epidemic among women and the current antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale up in Ethiopia; considering the issue of fertility is vital to ensure the delivery of integrated reproductive health along with prevention services provided to positive women. This study was aimed to assess fertility intentions of women living with HIV attending public health institutions (hospitals & health centers) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional survey was conducted, among 1855 HIV positive, women aged 18–49 years selected from different public health facilities in Addis Ababa; from June to October 2012. Information was gathered by using interviewer administered questionnaires. Data were double entered in EPI Info version 3.5.2 software, cleaned finally exported to IBM SPSS statistics version 20 for analysis. Logistic regression models were used to predict the association of study variables and adjusted for possible confounders. Result Overall, 44% of women reported fertility intention. ART users had higher fertility intention (AOR; 1.26, 95%CI; 1.01 to 1.60) than ART naïve. In addition to this, having partner being on sexual relationship, young age, being single and having fewer or no children were found to be predictors of fertility intentions. The presence of ART, improvement of health condition and the influence of husband were the main reasons for childbearing intentions of women in the study area. Conclusion A considerable proportion of women reported fertility intention. There was an association between fertility intentions and ART use. It is important for health care providers and policy makers to strengthen the fertility need of HIV positive women along with HIV care so that women may decide freely and responsibly on their fertility issues. PMID:24885318

2014-01-01

343

Age and ethnic differences in volumetric breast density in new zealand women: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer incidence differs by ethnicity in New Zealand (NZ) with M?ori (the indigenous people) women having the highest rates followed by Pakeha (people primarily of British/European descent), Pacific and Asian women, who experience the lowest rates. The reasons for these differences are unclear. Breast density, an important risk factor for breast cancer, has not previously been studied here. We used an automated system, Volpara™, to measure breast density volume from the medio-lateral oblique view of digital mammograms, by age (?50 years and >50 years) and ethnicity (Pakeha/M?ori/Pacific/Asian) using routine data from the national screening programme: age; x-ray system and mammography details for 3,091 Pakeha, 716 M?ori, 170 Pacific and 662 Asian (total n?=?4,239) women. Linear regression of the natural logarithm of absolute and percent density values was used, back-transformed and expressed as the ratio of the geometric means. Covariates were age, x-ray system and, for absolute density, the natural log of the volume of non-dense tissue (a proxy for body mass index). Median age for Pakeha women was 55 years; M?ori 53 years; and Pacific and Asian women, 52 years. Compared to Pakeha women (reference), M?ori had higher absolute volumetric density (1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.15) which remained following adjustment (1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12) and was stronger for older compared to younger M?ori women. Asian women had the greatest risk of high percentage breast density (1.35; 95% CI 1.27-1.43) while Pacific women in both the ?50 and >50 year age groups (0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.92 and 0.81; 95% CI 0.71-0.93 respectively) had the lowest percentage breast density compared to Pakeha. As well as expected age differences, we found differential patterns of breast density by ethnicity consistent with ethnic differences seen in breast cancer risk. Breast density may be a contributing factor to NZ's well-known, but poorly explained, inequalities in breast cancer incidence. PMID:23936166

Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; McKenzie, Fiona; Highnam, Ralph; Cave, Andrew; Walker, Jenny; Jeffreys, Mona

2013-01-01

344

Women's age and embryo developmental speed accurately predict clinical pregnancy after single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish a simple, objective blastocyst grading system using women's age and embryo developmental speed to predict clinical pregnancy after single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer. A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in a private infertility centre. A total of 7341 single vitrified-armed blastocyst transfer cycles were included, divided into those carried out between 2006 and 2011 (6046 cycles) and 2012 (1295 cycles). Clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate and delivery rates were stratified by women's age (<35, 35-37, 38-39, 40-41, 42-45 years) and time to blastocyst expansion (<120, 120-129, 130-139, 140-149, >149?h) as embryo developmental speed. In all the age groups, clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate and delivery rates decreased as the embryo developmental speed decreased (P < 0.0001). A simple five-grade score based on women's age and embryo developmental speed was determined by actual clinical pregnancy rates observed in the 2006-2011 cohort. Subsequently, the novel grading score was validated in the 2012 cohort (1295 cycles), finding an excellent association. In conclusion, we established a novel blastocyst grading system using women's age and embryo developmental speed as objective parameters. PMID:25129691

Kato, Keiichi; Ueno, Satoshi; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Uchiyama, Kazuo; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Segawa, Tomoya; Teramoto, Shokichi

2014-10-01

345

Impact of Reproductive Status and Age on Response of Depressed Women to Cognitive Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Previous research suggests that reproductive hormones are potential affective modulators in mood disorders and may influence response to antidepressant medications. To our knowledge, there are no data on relationships between hormonal status and response to psychotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods At two sites, female outpatients (n=353), aged 18–70, with recurrent MDD received 12–14 weeks of cognitive therapy (CT). Menopausal status and age were based on self-report. In the parent study, nonresponse to therapy was defined as persistence of a major depressive episode (MDE) as defined by the DSM-IV or a final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17-Item (HRSD17) score of ? 12 or both. More traditional definitions of response (at least a 50% reduction in pretreatment HRSD17) and remission (a final HRSD17 ? 6) were also examined. Results Controlling for pretreatment HRSD17 scores, there were no significant differences found in the rates of response to CT or symptom status among premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Conclusions We found no support for the hypotheses that response to CT or the rates of change in depressive symptoms are moderated by reproductive status. The findings, however, are limited by the absence of early follicular phase serum sampling/analysis to estimate hormone levels and the reliance on self-report to establish menopausal status. These data motivate a full investigation of the effects of reproductive status on response to psychosocial interventions. PMID:23305218

Minhajuddin, Abu; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

2013-01-01

346

Acute right lower abdominal pain in women of reproductive age: Clinical clues  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study possible gynecological organ pathologies in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower abdominal pain in patients of reproductive age. METHODS: Following Clinical Trials Ethical Committee approval, the retrospective data consisting of physical examination and laboratory findings in 290 patients with sudden onset right lower abdominal pain who used the emergency surgery service between April 2009 and September 2013, and underwent surgery and general anesthesia with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were collated. RESULTS: Total data on 290 patients were obtained. Two hundred and twenty-four (77.2%) patients had acute appendicitis, whereas 29 (10%) had perforated appendicitis and 37 (12.8%) had gynecological organ pathologies. Of the latter, 21 (7.2%) had ovarian cyst rupture, 12 (4.2%) had corpus hemorrhagicum cyst rupture and 4 (1.4%) had adnexal torsion. Defense, Rovsing’s sign, increased body temperature and increased leukocyte count were found to be statistically significant in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and gynecological organ pathologies. CONCLUSION: Gynecological pathologies in women of reproductive age are misleading in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PMID:24744594

Hatipoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

2014-01-01

347

Body mass index of married Bangladeshi women: trends and association with socio-demographic factors.  

PubMed

Body mass index (BMI) is a good indicator of nutritional status in a population. In underdeveloped countries like Bangladesh, this indicator provides a method that can assist intervention to help eradicate many preventable diseases. This study aimed to report on changes in the BMI of married Bangladeshi women who were born in the past three decades and its association with socio-demographic factors. Data for 10,115 married and currently non-pregnant Bangladeshi women were extracted from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). The age range of the sample was 15-49 years. The mean BMI was 20.85 ± 3.66 kg/m(2), and a decreasing tendency in BMI was found among birth year cohorts from 1972 to 1992. It was found that the proportion of underweight females has been increasing in those born during the last 20 years of the study period (1972 to 1992). Body mass index increased with increasing age, education level of the woman and her husband, wealth index, age at first marriage and age at first delivery, and decreased with increasing number of ever-born children. Lower BMI was especially pronounced among women who were living in rural areas, non-Muslims, employed women, women not living with their husbands (separated) or those who had delivered at home or non-Caesarean delivery. PMID:22340969

Hossain, M G; Bharati, P; Aik, Saw; Lestrel, Pete E; Abeer, Almasri; Kamarul, T

2012-07-01

348

Mortality after Distal Radius Fracture in Men and Women Aged 50 Years and Older in Southern Norway  

PubMed Central

Increased mortality rates in patients sustaining hip and vertebral fractures are well documented; however in distal radius fracture patients the results are conflicting. The aim of this study was to examine short- and long-term mortality in distal radius fracture patient in comparison with the background population. Patients aged ?50 years with distal radius fracture living in Southern Norway who suffered a fracture in the two year period 2004 and 2005 were included in the study. The mortality risk of the standard Norwegian population was used to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR). The number of distal radius fractures was 883 (166 men and 717 women). Mean age was 69 years (men 65 years and women 70 years). After one year the overall mortality rate was 3.4% (men 5.4% and women 2.9%) and after five years 4.6% (men 4.0% and women 4.8%). The SMR for men and women compared to the Norwegian population for the first year was 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 2.7) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.2), respectively, and after five years 1.7 (95% CI: 0.3, 3.0) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.7). Stratified on age groups (50–70 and >70 years) an increased SMR was only seen in female patients aged >70 years five years after the fracture (SMR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6). In conclusion, increased SMR was found in female patients aged >70 years five years after the distal radius fracture, but not in men or in women younger than 70 years. PMID:25380128

Øyen, Jannike; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Haugeberg, Glenn

2014-01-01

349

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

2013-01-01

350

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?  

PubMed Central

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

2013-01-01

351

Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was ?0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having ?4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747

Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2010-01-01

352

Intra- and inter-session reliability of vertical jump performance in healthy middle-aged and older men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its widespread use in performance assessment, the reliability of vertical jump in an ageing population has not been addressed properly. The aim of the present study was to assess intra- and inter-day reliability of countermovement jump in healthy middle-aged (55–65 years) and older (66–75 years) men and women. Eighty-two participants were recruited and asked to perform countermovement jumps on

Massimiliano Ditroilo; Roberta Forte; David McKeown; Colin Boreham; Giuseppe De Vito

2011-01-01

353

Predicting Episodic Memory Performance of Very Old Men and Women: Contributions From Age, Depression, Activity, Cognitive Ability, and Speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression models were developed to explain age-related and total variance in memory and to determine the independent contribution from general processing speed, having taken into account cognitive and noncognitive individual differences. Episodic memory was assessed for 3 tasks in a population-based sample of 951 adults comprising 515 men and 436 women (aged 70–96, M = 77.6, SD = 5.5). Correlations

Mary A. Luszcz; Janet Bryan; Patricia Kent

1997-01-01

354

Polysomnographic evaluation of sleep quality and quantitative variables in women as a function of mood, reproductive status, and age  

PubMed Central

This archival cross-sectional investigation examined the impact of mood, reproductive status (RS), and age on polysomnographic (PSG) measures in women. PSG was performed on 73 normal controls (NC) and 64 depressed patients (DP), in the course of studies in menstruating, pregnant, postpartum, and peri- and postmenopausal women. A two-factor, between-subjects multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the main effects of reproductive status (RS: menstrual vs pregnant vs postpartum vs menopausal) and diagnosis (NC vs DP), and their interaction, on PSG measures. To further refine the analyses, a two-factor, between subjects MANOVA was used to test the main effects of age (19 to 27 vs 28 to 36 vs 37 to 45 vs 46+ years) and diagnosis on the PSG data. Analyses revealed that in DP women, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly elevated relative to NC across both RS and age. Significant differences in sleep efficiency, Stage 1%, and REM density were associated with RS; differences in total sleep time, Stage 2 percentage, and Stage 4 percentage were associated with differences in age. Both RS and age were related to differences in sleep latency, Stage 3 percentage, and Delta percentage. Finally, wake after sleep onset time, REM percentage, and REM latency did not vary with respect to RS or age. Overall, this investigation examined three major variables (mood, RS, and age) that are known to impact sleep in women. Of the variables, age appeared to have the greatest impact on PSG sleep measures, reflecting changes occurring across the lifespan. PMID:23393417

Orff, Henry J.; Meliska, Charles J.; Lopez, Ana; Martinez, Fernando; Sorenson, Diane; Parry, Barbara L.

2012-01-01

355

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Women of Childbearing Age: Results from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. women of childbearing age. Methods Our study population was drawn from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and consisted of non-pregnant female\\u000a respondents aged 20–44 years with a valid body mass index (BMI) (N = 5,958). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to document variations in the prevalence of overweight

Anjel Vahratian

2009-01-01

356

The Hordaland Women's Cohort: A prospective cohort study of incontinence, other urinary tract symptoms and related health issues in middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent symptom in middle-aged women, but data on incidence is limited and rarely reported. In order to analyze incidence, remission, or development patterns of severity and types of UI, we have established a 15-year prospective cohort (1997–2012). METHODS: The Cohort is based on the national collection of health data gathered from county studies (CONOR).

David Jahanlu; Samera Azeem Qureshi; Steinar Hunskaar

2008-01-01

357

Internal barriers to help seeking for middle-aged and older women who experience intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

There has been relatively little qualitatively or quantitatively published research to guide the field in identifying and addressing barriers to seeking help for older women who experience domestic violence. Women over the age of 45 have seldom been participants in research on domestic violence. This paper describes results from a qualitative study that focused on reactions to and internalization of abusive behaviors of an intimate partner. Twenty-one focus groups were conducted with 134 middle- aged and older women. Analysis of the data identified six factors that describe reactions to abusive behavior that become barriers to help seeking, including self-blame, powerlessness, hopelessness, the need to protect family, and the need to keep such abuse secret from others. These. PMID:16931469

Beaulaurier, Richard L; Seff, Laura R; Newman, Frederick L; Dunlop, Burton D

2005-01-01

358

Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet.  

PubMed

The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p<0.045) and red meat (p<0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p<0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p<0.038) and poultry (p<0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p<0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p<0.001), red meat (p<0.001) and white and oily fish (p<0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p<0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health. PMID:17477954

Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Granada, Alicia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

2007-08-15

359

Normative data in women aged 85 and older: verbal fluency, digit span, and the CVLT-II short form.  

PubMed

Individuals aged 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the US population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remain relatively limited for this age group. Therefore the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Short Form (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997 ). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20-year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of "robust" longitudinal normative data. PMID:22224509

Fine, Eric M; Kramer, Joel H; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine; Study Of Osteoporotic Fractures Sof Research Group

2012-01-01

360

Normative Data in Women Age 85 and Older: Verbal Fluency, Digit Span, and the CVLT-II Short Form  

PubMed Central

Individuals age 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remains relatively limited for this age group. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the CVLT-II Short Form (Delis et al., 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20 year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of “robust” longitudinal normative data. PMID:22224509

Fine, Eric M.; Kramer, Joel H.; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine

2014-01-01

361

Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and lifestyle among women of childbearing age: a Danish cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) among Danish women of childbearing age according to lifestyle factors. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The Central Denmark Region. Participants 4234 women (71.5% of the invited women) aged 25–44?years who participated in a public health survey in 2006. Outcome measures Prevalence and prevalence ratios (PRs) of current and former SSRI use among women characterised by selected lifestyle factors. We obtained information on SSRI use through linkage to the Aarhus University Prescription Database covering all pharmacies in the region. Results Of the 4234 women in the study, 161 (3.8%) were current SSRI users, 60 (1.4%) were recent users, 223 (5.3%) were former users and 3790 (89.5%) were never users. Current use of SSRIs was more prevalent in obese women than in non-obese women (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.3), in current smokers compared with non-current smokers (PR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.2), in women who drank more than seven alcoholic drinks weekly compared with women who drank seven or fewer drinks weekly (PR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8) and in women with an unhealthy diet compared with women with a healthy diet (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.6). Prevalence of former use of SSRIs was similarly increased except in those with an unhealthy diet (PR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.7). SSRI use did not differ according to participation in regular physical activity. Conclusions Women with an unhealthy lifestyle were about 1.5-fold more likely to be current or former users of SSRIs than those with a healthy lifestyle. These findings may be useful for quantitative assessment of the contribution of lifestyle factors to uncontrolled confounding in studies of SSRI use in pregnancy. PMID:23903810

Laugesen, Kristina; Telen Andersen, Ane Birgitte; N?rgaard, Mette; Nielsen, Rikke Beck; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Larsen, Finn Breinholt; S?rensen, Henrik Toft

2013-01-01

362

Mediators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance in middle-aged women.  

PubMed

Long-term behavioral self-regulation is the hallmark of successful weight control. We tested mediators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance in middle-aged women who participated in a randomized controlled 12-month weight management intervention. Overweight and obese women (N = 225, BMI = 31.3 +/- 4.1 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a control or a 1-year group intervention designed to promote autonomous self-regulation of body weight. Key exercise, eating behavior, and body image variables were assessed before and after the program, and tested as mediators of weight loss (12 months, 86% retention) and weight loss maintenance (24 months, 81% retention). Multiple mediation was employed and an intention-to-treat analysis conducted. Treatment effects were observed for all putative mediators (Effect size: 0.32-0.79, P < 0.01 vs. controls). Weight change was -7.3 +/- 5.9% (12-month) and -5.5 +/- 5.0% (24-month) in the intervention group and -1.7 +/- 5.0% and -2.2 +/- 7.5% in controls. Change in most psychosocial variables was associated with 12-month weight change, but only flexible cognitive restraint (P < 0.01), disinhibition (P < 0.05), exercise self-efficacy (P < 0.001), exercise intrinsic motivation (P < 0.01), and body dissatisfaction (P < 0.05) predicted 24-month weight change. Lower emotional eating, increased flexible cognitive restraint, and fewer exercise barriers mediated 12-month weight loss (R(2) = 0.31, P < 0.001; effect ratio: 0.37), but only flexible restraint and exercise self-efficacy mediated 24-month weight loss (R(2) = 0.17, P < 0.001; effect ratio: 0.89). This is the first study to evaluate self-regulation mediators of weight loss and 2-year weight loss maintenance, in a large sample of overweight women. Results show that lowering emotional eating and adopting a flexible dietary restraint pattern are critical for sustained weight loss. For long-term success, interventions must also be effective in promoting exercise intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. PMID:19696752

Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Palmeira, António L; Mata, Jutta; Vieira, Paulo N; Carraça, Eliana V; Santos, Teresa C; Sardinha, Luís B

2010-04-01

363

Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

1985-01-01

364

Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

365

Are men aging as oaks and women as reeds? A behavioral hypothesis to explain the gender paradox of French centenarians.  

PubMed

Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as "oaks," seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as "reeds," seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

Balard, Frédéric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

2011-01-01

366

An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

Gorman, Charlotte

2001-01-01

367

The Relationship Between Well-Being and Self-Rated Health Among Middle-Aged and Older Women in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-rated health (SRH) is widely used to assess global health. This study evaluated the SRH of two groups of women aged 40 to 59 and 60+ years. In a sample (n = 306), from a random telephone survey, variables reflecting sociodemographic status, subjective well-being, and health were examined to explain SRH. The results showed that the two groups differed significantly

Esther Iecovich; Julie Cwikel

2010-01-01

368

A Social-Role Analysis of Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes for Young, Middle-Aged, and Old Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study combined data from two random, representative samples of national organizations of psychotherapists to assess the plausibility of predictions derived from a social role model regarding gender stereotypes for women and men of different ages. Broverman's Sex-Role Stereotype Questionnaire (SRSQ) was completed by 322 clinical members of the…

Turner, Castellano B.; And Others

369

Trends in screening mammograms for women 50 years of age and older - behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1987  

SciTech Connect

To assess whether the media attention to breast cancer screening and the promotional efforts in 1987 were paralleled by increases in screening of women greater than or equal to 50 years of age, CDC analyzed data from 33 states that participated in the 1987 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Not Available

1989-04-14

370

Relationships between menopausal symptoms, depression, and exercise in middle-aged women: A cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo determine the relationship between the severity of menopausal symptoms and depression in Korean women, 40–60 years of age, and to compare the severity of menopausal symptoms and depression between subjects who exercise regularly and subjects who do not exercise regularly.

Youngwhee Lee; Hwasoon Kim

2008-01-01

371

Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to…

Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

372

Age and Sleep Disturbances Among American Men And Women: Data From the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Explore the prevalence of sleep-related complaints across age groups, examining effects of sex, general health, and depressed mood. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: Complete-case analysis included 155,877 participants who responded to questions related to Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance (SLEEPDIST) and Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy (TIREDNESS). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Outcomes were self-reported complaints in response to survey questions assessing SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS, dichotomized as reporting a complaint < 6 versus ? 6 nights or days, respectively, in a 2-wk period. Predictors were age, general health, and depressed mood. All analyses were adjusted for race/ethnicity, income, education, and time since last medical checkup. Across all age groups, women reported more SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Poor general health, mild depressed mood, and moderate/severe depressed mood were associated with SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Both SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS generally declined across the life span, with fewest endorsements in respondents older than 80 yr. For SLEEPDIST, odds ratios (ORs, reference = 80+) declined from age 18-54 yr, rose slightly, and then declined again after age 59 yr in men. The pattern was similar for women, except a more marked rise was noted from age 40-59 yr. The pattern was similar for TIREDNESS. Conclusions: Advancing age was not associated with increased Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance or Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy. These results suggest that the often-reported increase in sleep problems with age is a nonlinear phenomenon, mediated by factors other than physiologic aging. Citation: Grandner MA; Martin JL; Patel NP; Jackson NJ; Gehrman PR; Pien G; Perlis ML; Xie D; Sha D; Weaver T; Gooneratne NS. Age and sleep disturbances among American men and women: data from the U.S. behavioral risk factor surveillance system. SLEEP 2012;35(3):395-406. PMID:22379246

Grandner, Michael A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jackson, Nicholas J.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Pien, Grace; Perlis, Michael L.; Xie, Dawei; Sha, Daohang; Weaver, Terri; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

2012-01-01

373

Reproductive Health Rights of Women in the Rural Areas of Meherpur District in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the reproductive health rights, women empowerment and gender equity in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods Three hundred married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Meherpur District, Bangladesh were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and purposing sampling techniques. The logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominating factors affecting reproductive health rights. To fulfill the objectives of the study the two main factors, age at marriage and family planning acceptance of the respondents, were regarded as the determinants. Results The study results revealed that almost all the respondents were housewives (82.3%), one-third (31.0%) did not avail any modern facility, and their yearly income was very low. Moreover, about half of the women (52.7%) were very young (?30 years), most of them (79.0%) had married early (<18 years) and about half of them (53.3%) had taken contraceptives based on their husbands’ choice. Finally, multi-variate analysis identified the relationship between the profession of the respondents, yearly income, number of family members, and the availability of modern facilities with age at marriage (Model 1). The study also identified the relationship between the age of respondents, education, occupation, yearly income, and the total number of family members with family planning acceptance (Model 2). Conclusion Regarding the results of this study, women's reproductive health rights, marriage after the age of 18 and family planning acceptance among couples needs to be enhanced in Mehrpur District in Bangladesh. PMID:23926496

Hossain, Md Kamal; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Akter, Mst Nazniz

2011-01-01

374

Exploring the factors associated with preconception health behaviors among women of childbearing age: a naturalistic inquiry  

E-print Network

preconception care as it relates to intended pregnancy. Studies testing women?s knowledge of preconception health focus mainly on the knowledge of intake of folic acid supplements to reduce neural tube defects (Frey & Files, 2006; Perlow, 2001; Quillin et al... preconception care as it relates to intended pregnancy. Studies testing women?s knowledge of preconception health focus mainly on the knowledge of intake of folic acid supplements to reduce neural tube defects (Frey & Files, 2006; Perlow, 2001; Quillin et al...

Delissaint, Dieula

2009-05-15

375

The Impact of a "Promotora" on Increasing Routine Chronic Disease Prevention among Women Aged 40 and Older at the U.S.-Mexico Border  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized controlled intervention tested the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program in increasing compliance with annual preventive exams among uninsured Hispanic women living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border area. During 1999-2000, household surveys were administered to women aged 40 and older. Uninsured women not receiving…

Hunter, Jennifer B.; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Papenfuss, Mary; Fernandez, Maria Lourdes; Meister, Joel; Giuliano, Anna R.

2004-01-01

376

Sexual Dimorphism of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Immunoreactive Neurons in the Infundibular Nucleus of Aged Men and Women  

PubMed Central

The secretory output of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons is critically influenced by peptidergic neurons synthesizing kisspeptins (KP) and neurokinin B (NKB) in the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (Inf). These cells mediate negative feedback effects of sex steroids on the reproductive axis. While negative feedback is lost in postmenopausal women, it is partly preserved by the sustained testosterone secretion in aged men. We hypothesized that the different reproductive physiology of aged men and women is reflected in morphological differences of KP and NKB neurons. This sexual dimorphism was studied with immunohistochemistry in hypothalamic sections of aged human male (?50?years) and female (>55?years) subjects. KP and NKB cell bodies of the Inf were larger in females. The number of KP cell bodies, the density of KP fibers, and the incidence of their contacts on GnRH neurons were much higher in aged women compared with men. The number of NKB cell bodies was only slightly higher in women and there was no sexual dimorphism in the regional density of NKB fibers and the incidence of their appositions onto GnRH cells. The incidences of NKB cell bodies, fibers, and appositions onto GnRH neurons exceeded several-fold those of KP-IR elements in men. More NKB than KP inputs to GnRH cells were also present in women. Immunofluorescent studies identified only partial overlap between KP and NKB axons. KP and NKB were colocalized in higher percentages of afferents to GnRH neurons in women compared with men. Most of these sex differences might be explained with the lack of estrogen negative feedback in aged women, whereas testosterone can continue to suppress KP, and to a lesser extent, NKB synthesis in men. Overall, sex differences in reproductive physiology of aged humans were reflected in the dramatic sexual dimorphism of the KP system, with significantly higher incidences of KP-IR neurons, fibers and inputs to GnRH neurons in aged females vs. males. PMID:22654828

Hrabovszky, Erik; Molnár, Csilla S.; Sipos, Máté T.; Vida, Barbara; Ciofi, Philippe; Borsay, Beáta A.; Sarkadi, László; Herczeg, László; Bloom, Stephen R.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Dhillo, Waljit S.; Kalló, Imre; Liposits, Zsolt

2011-01-01

377

Fertility of Men and Women Aged 15-44 Years in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 15–44 years who ever had a biological child: United States, 2006–2010 Women Men Characteristic ... n April 12, 2012 Table 4. Number of biological children fathered by men aged 15–44 years: ...

378

Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

1990-01-01

379

Views of Aging African American Women: Memories Within the Historical Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the generational experiences of older African American women using case studies of two women born in 1911. Through the telling of their life stories, these women recount their memories of their own lives. By viewing their life histories within the larger historical context, we gain a clearer understanding of their life experiences and their perspectives as older

Dena Shenk

2000-01-01

380

Influence of Age, Body Type, Fashion, and Garment Type on Women's Professional Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to extend implicit personality theory in an attempt to explain further the inferred relationship between a person's physical characteristics and personal traits. Specifically, this study examined business and professional men's and women's perceptions of the professional image of women as a function of the women's physical characteristics, the type of garment worn, and the

Jane Larkin Thurston; Sharron J. Lennon; Ruth V. Clayton

1990-01-01

381

Clomiphene citrate challenge test predicts outcome of intrauterine insemination in women aged under 37 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clomiphene citrate challenge test is a tool to predict ovarian reserve and fertility. It has mainly been used as a predictor of success of IVF\\/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Infertile young women with diminished ovarian reserve have a worse prognosis than women with adequate ovarian reserve attempting IVF\\/ICSI cycles. Nothing is known regarding the outcome of young women with

Amiram Magendzo; Juan-Enrique Schwarze; Claudia Diaz de la Vega; Elena Altieri; Fernando Zegers-Hochschild; Jose P Balmaceda

2006-01-01

382

Age and Meanings of ViolenceWomen’s Experiences of Partner Violence in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men’s violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don’t support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as making women vulnerable to spousal violence,

Minna Piispa

2004-01-01

383

A Comparison of the Weights and Ages of Women and Men on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders are more common among women than men, perhaps because of the present cultural emphasis on thinness for women. Television is one potential communicator of this thin standard of attractiveness. To assess how men and women are presented on television, 139 male characters and 82 female characters from 33 popular television shows were…

Perdue, Lauren; Silverstein, Brett

384

Characteristics of Middle-Aged Women in Inpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined descriptive characteristics of women 35 years and older seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder. A second purpose was to compare characteristics and treatment experiences of midlife patients to young adult patients. Participants were 193 women admitted for treatment to a residential eating disorders facility. All of the women received the standard inpatient treatment package offered

Maryelizabeth forman; William N. Davis

2005-01-01

385

Association of Age at Menarche With Increasing Number of Fibroids in a Cohort of Women Who Underwent Standardized Ultrasound Assessment  

PubMed Central

Age at menarche has been associated with several reproductive conditions, and frequencies differ by race. Racial disparities also impact fibroid risk. We comprehensively examined the relationship between age at menarche, fibroid characteristics, and race. Women were enrolled in Right From the Start (2001–2010), a multistate study that systematically screened for fibroids during very early pregnancy. Endovaginal ultrasounds were conducted, and fibroid presence, number, type, volume, and diameter were recorded according to standardized definitions. Generalized estimating equations adjusted for correlations within study site were used to estimate associations between age at menarche and fibroid status and to test for interactions with race. Of 5,023 participants, 11% had a fibroid. Seven percent underwent menarche before 11 years of age and 11% at 15 years or later. We did not observe interactions between age at menarche and race. A 1-year increase in age at menarche was inversely associated with fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.91). Early age at menarche had a similar positive association in individual analyses with fibroid size, type, and location but was stronger for multiple fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.83). Our findings confirm other reports of an association between age at menarche and fibroid development (regardless of characteristics), demonstrate no effect modification by race, and suggest a stronger association for women with multiple fibroids, possibly reflecting a stronger association for early-onset disease. PMID:23817917

Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Baird, Donna D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

2013-01-01

386

Cognitive Function and Fine Motor Speed in Older Women with Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background We sought to determine if type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was associated with accelerated decline in domain-specific measures of cognitive function and fine motor speed. Methods Women aged 65–80 years who were enrolled in a clinical trial of postmenopausal hormone therapy were grouped as having T2DM (n=179) or not (n=1984) and followed for an average of 5 years with annual standardized assessments of domain-specific cognitive function. Mean patterns of cognitive measures over time were contrasted between groups using general linear models and Wald tests, with varying levels of covariate adjustment. The influences of age at onset, use of oral medications, and use of insulin were also examined. Results T2DM was associated with mean deficits of 0.2–0.4 standard deviations (SD) across follow-up in most cognitive domains. Consistent evidence that rates of decline were accelerated among women with T2DM was evident only for verbal knowledge and verbal memory (p<0.05). Decrements in fine motor speed, but no measure of cognitive function, were greater for women with earlier onset T2DM. Use of oral diabetes medications was associated with better relative cognitive function. Conclusions In these women, T2DM was associated with cognitive deficits in most domains. Relative deficits in verbal knowledge and verbal memory may continue to increase after deficits in other domains have stabilized. Relative deficits in fine motor speed may be greater among women with earlier onsets of T2DM. Use of insulin, which may reflect greater T2DM severity, was associated with relatively greater cognitive deficits. PMID:21819251

Miller, Michael E.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Coker, Laura H.; Williamson, Jeff; Naughton, Michelle; Resnick, Susan M.

2011-01-01

387

Biosocial factors affecting vitamin D status of women of childbearing age in the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

Low serum 25-OHD in female Arab subjects, which may predispose their infants to hypocalcaemia, has been suggested to be due to inadequate sunshine exposure, but may include other sociobiological factors. The effects of duration of sunshine exposure--weighted against the magnitude of clothing (UV exposure) and other sociobiological variables such as age, education and living accommodation--on serum 25-OHD and mineral status of 33 UAE national women of childbearing age were compared with those of 25 non-Gulf Arabs and seventeen Europeans. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone among the groups were not significantly different. The serum concentration of 25-OHD in UAE nationals was 8.6 ng/ml (4.5-17.4), mean +/- 1 SD, and in non-Gulf Arabs 12.6 ng/ml (6.0-26.4); both these values were significantly lower (p = < 0.0001) than the 64.3 ng/ml (49-84.3) found in Europeans. Compared with Europeans, the UAE and non-Gulf Arabs in this study were younger, had fewer years of education and had significantly lower clothing and UV scores (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.59425) between serum 25-OHD and UV score, but not with length of exposure. After adjusting for other confounding variables, nationality, clothing and UV scores remained major determinants of serum 25-OHD (p < 0.0001). Therefore, limited skin exposure to sunlight appears to be an important determinant of vitamin D status in our subjects. Strategies to increase vitamin D stores should include vitamin D supplementation or advice on effective sunlight exposure. PMID:9818552

Dawodu, A; Absood, G; Patel, M; Agarwal, M; Ezimokhai, M; Abdulrazzaq, Y; Khalayli, G

1998-10-01

388

Variation in Inflammatory Cytokine/Growth-Factor Genes and Mammographic Density in Premenopausal Women Aged 50-55  

PubMed Central

Background Mammographic density (MD) has been found to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Although data from twin studies suggest that MD has a strong genetic component, the exact genes involved remain to be identified. Alterations in stromal composition and the number of epithelial cells are the most predominant histopathological determinants of mammographic density. Interactions between the breast stroma and epithelium are critically important in the maturation and development of the mammary gland and the cross-talk between these cells are mediated by paracrine growth factors and cytokines. The potential impact of genetic variation in growth factors and cytokines on MD is largely unknown. Methods We investigated the association between 89 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 cytokine/growth-factor genes (FGFR2, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, TGFB1, TNF, VEGF, IL6) and percent MD in 301 premenopausal women (aged 50 to 55 years) participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated the suggestive associations in 216 premenopausal Singapore Chinese Women of the same age. Results We found statistically significant associations between 9 tagging SNPs in the IL6 gene and MD in Norwegian women; the effect ranged from 3–5% in MD per variant allele (p-values?=?0.02 to 0.0002). One SNP in the IL6 (rs10242595) significantly influenced MD in Singapore Chinese women. Conclusion Genetic variations in IL6 may be associated with MD and therefore may be an indicator of breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. PMID:23762340

Ozhand, Ali; Lee, Eunjung; Wu, Anna H.; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Akslen, Lars A.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Ursin, Giske

2013-01-01

389

Do novel risk factors differ between men and women aged 18 to 39 years with a high risk of coronary heart disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to clarify whether high-risk premenopausal women have less atherogenic levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction, oxidation, thrombosis and inflammation, and adipokines than high-risk men of the same age. Thus, we studied levels of these markers and their determinants in 207 men and women aged 18 to 39 years with dyslipidemia and a family history of premature coronary

Serena Tonstad; Hege Thorsrud; Peter A. Torjesen; Ingebjørg Seljeflot

2007-01-01

390

Success rates and cost of a live birth following fresh assisted reproduction treatment in women aged 45 years and older, Australia 2002- 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to calculate assisted reproductive technology (ART) success rates for fresh autologous and donor cycles in women aged ? 45 and the resultant cost per live birth. METHODS: We per- formed a retrospective population-based study of 2339 ART cycles conducted in Australia, 2002-2004 to women aged ? 45 years. The cost-outcome study was performed

Elizabeth Sullivan; Yueping Wang; Michael Chapman; Georgina Chambers

2008-01-01

391

What do these Messages Really Mean? Sports Media Exposure, Sports Participation, and Body Image Distortion in Women Between the Ages of 18 and 75  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-ideal media content is said to be one of the factors responsible for promoting distorted body image perceptions in young girls and college women. This study examined the relationship between sports media exposure during the Olympic Games, overall sports media exposure, and sports participation to body image attitudes in women between the ages of 18 and 75. Age was directly

Kimberly L. Bissell

2004-01-01

392

Clinical profile and long-term prognosis of women ?50 years of age referred for coronary angiography for evaluation of chest pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant lack of information exists regarding risk factors, preventive strategies, diagnostic testing, and treatment of women with coronary artery disease (CAD), especially in the young age group. We studied the clinical profile, angiographic results, and long-term follow-up of 135 women aged ?50 years referred for coronary angiography because of chest pain. The most prominent risk factor was hyperlipidemia (60%),

Osnat Gurevitz; Michael Jonas; Valentina Boyko; Babeth Rabinowitz; Henrietta Reicher-Reiss

2000-01-01

393

Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

2009-01-01

394

Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women  

PubMed Central

Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22366948

White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

2012-01-01

395

Ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factor burden among middle-aged women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We evaluated ethnic differences in the 10-year risk of myocardial infarction or coronary death derived from Framingham risk equation and in a composite measure of emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors in women and whether statistical adjustments for educational attainment, geographic location, and lifestyle attenuated the magnitude of the ethnic differences in risk.\\u000aMETHODS: Two thousand eight hundred thirty-four premenopausal

Karen A. Matthews; Mary Fran Sowers; Carol A. Derby; Evan Stein; Heidi Miracle-McMahill; Sybil L. Crawford; Richard C. Pasternak

2005-01-01

396

The Relationship Among Obesity, Menopausal Status, and Health Behavior Among Middle-Aged Women in a Rural Community of Southern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we explored the relationship among obesity, menopausal status, and health behavior among middle-aged women in a rural community of southern Taiwan. This was a cross-sectional study using a face-to-face interview to collect data. Sixty middle-aged women from four community centers participated in this study. The results indicated that approximately 23.3% of the women had body mass index

Hsiang-Chu Pai; Hsiu-Chin Chen; Lee-Ing Tsao

2010-01-01

397

Inter-correlation of knowledge, attitude, and osteoporosis preventive behaviors in women around the age of peak bone mass  

PubMed Central

Background As silent and preventable in nature, postmenopausal osteoporosis awareness should be raised among young women prior to an irreversible period of declining bone mass. We therefore decided to assess the inter-correlation of knowledge, attitude and osteoporosis preventive behaviors in women around the age of peak bone mass. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 430 women aged 20–35 years. The participants’ knowledge, attitude and behaviors concerning osteoporosis prevention were assessed along with demographic data using a four-part questionnaire. The items in this questionnaire were established by extensive literature review, including the Guideline for Management of Osteoporosis of the Thai Osteoporosis Foundation (TOPF) 2010. The content was validated by experts in osteoporosis and reliability was obtained with a Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.83. Results The mean age of women in this study was 29.4?±?4.6 years. Half of the participants (49.5%) had heard about osteoporosis, mostly from television (95.3%, n?=?203/213) and the internet (72.8%, n?=?155/213). Most women had certain knowledge (85.2%) and positive attitude towards osteoporosis (53.3%). Nevertheless, 80% of the studied population did not have appropriate osteoporosis behaviors. We found significant correlation between the level of attitudes and osteoporosis behaviors (adjusted odd ratio?=?3.3 with 95% confidence interval of 1.9-5.7); attitude and educational level (adjusted odd ratio?=?2.2 with 95% confidence interval of 1.4-3.4); and attitude and knowledge (adjusted odd ratio?=?3.5 with 95% confidence interval of 1.8-6.8). Conclusion Despite having certain knowledge about osteoporosis, the young women did not seem to have appropriate osteoporosis preventive behaviors. Developing a right attitude towards osteoporosis may be a key determinant to improving health practices in order to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:24588970

2014-01-01

398

Correspondence Between Secular Changes in Alcohol Dependence and Age of Drinking Onset Among Women in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Several lines of evidence suggest that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence among women has increased in recent decades, but has not risen significantly for men. Early age at onset of drinking (AOD) is strongly correlated with risk for alcohol dependence and there is evidence that mean AOD has also decreased, particularly for women. The present report sought to confirm the trends in AOD and to determine the extent to which they might account for secular trends in alcohol dependence. Methods Repeated cross-sectional analyses of data from two large, national epidemiological surveys were conducted to enable estimates of cross-cohort differences while controlling for age-related factors. Regression analyses were used to compute risk for alcohol dependence associated with birth cohort membership, before and after inclusion of AOD as a covariate. Results Both men and women born between 1944 and 1963 had earlier ages of onset for drinking than did the earliest birth cohort analyzed (1934–43). However, the net decrease in AOD was twice as large for women (3.2 years) than that for men (1.6 years). After adjusting for AOD, differences in lifetime prevalence between different birth cohorts of women were rendered non-significant, indicating that AOD accounts for a substantial portion of change in the lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence. Conclusions These results suggest that a decrease in AOD accounts for much of the increase in lifetime alcohol dependence among women. AOD is likely to be an indicator of dynamic, and therefore modifiable risk behaviors impacting risk for alcohol dependence. PMID:18564104

Grucza, Richard A.; Norberg, Karen; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Bierut, Laura J.

2008-01-01

399

Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources. PMID:21070641

2010-01-01

400

Improvement of the Vietnamese Diet for Women of Reproductive Age by Micronutrient Fortification of Staples Foods and Condiments  

PubMed Central

Background A micronutrient survey carried out in 2010 among randomly selected Vietnamese women in reproductive age indicated that anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are still prevalent. The objective of this study was thus to analyze the dietary micronutrient intakes of these women, to select the food vehicles to be fortified and to calculate their contributions to meet the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for iron, zinc, vitamin A and folic acid. Main Findings Consumption data showed that the median intake was 38.4% of the RNI for iron, 61.1% for vitamin A and 91.8% for zinc. However, more than 50% of the women had daily zinc consumption below the RNI. Rice and vegetable oil were consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 320.4 g/capita/day and 8.6 g/capita/day respectively) by over 90% of the women, making them suitable vehicles for fortification. Based on consumption data, fortified vegetable oil could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 27.1% of the RNI and fortified rice could increase the intake of iron by 41.4% of the RNI, zinc by 15.5% and folate by 34.1%. Other food vehicles, such as fish and soy sauces and flavoring powders, consumed respectively by 63% and 90% of the population could contribute to increase micronutrient intakes if they are properly fortified and promoted. Wheat flower was consumed by 39% of the women and by less than 20% women from the lowest socioeconomic strata. Conclusion The fortification of edible vegetable oils with vitamin A and of rice with iron, zinc and folic acid are the most promising fortification strategies to increase micronutrient intakes of women in reproductive age in Vietnam. While rice fortification will be implemented, fortification of fish and soy sauces with iron, that has been proven to be effective, has to be supported and fortification of flavouring powders with micronutrients investigated. PMID:23226308

Laillou, Arnaud; Berger, Jacques; Le, Bach Mai; Pham, Van Thuy; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Cong Khan; Panagides, Dora; Rohner, Fabian; Wieringa, Frank; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

2012-01-01

401

Association between Vitamin D Insufficiency and Elevated Serum Uric Acid among Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Han Women  

PubMed Central

Background Association between vitamin D insufficiency and hyperuricemia has not been reported so far. We aimed to study the association of vitamin D insufficiency with elevated serum uric acid among middle-aged and elderly Chinese Han women. Methods We collected data from participants residing in Jinchang district of Suzhou from January to May, 2010. Serum uric acid, 25-hydroxy vitamin D and other traditional biomarkers including fasting plasma glucose and blood lipids were determined in 1726 women aged above 30 years. Association between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated uric acid was analyzed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Results Among postmenopausal women, 25-hydroxy vitamin D level of participants with elevated uric acid was lower than that of those with normal uric acid (median [interquartile range]: 35[28–57] vs 40[32–58], µg/L; P?=?0.006). Elevated uric acid was more prevalent in participants with vitamin D insufficiency compared to those without vitamin D insufficiency (16.50% vs 8.08%; P<0.001). Association between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated uric acid was not significant among premenopausal women. However, participants with vitamin D insufficiency were more likely to have elevated uric acid compared with those without vitamin D insufficiency among postmenopausal women (OR, 95% CI: 2.38, 1.47–3.87). Moreover, after excluding individuals with diabetes and/or hypertension, the association of vitamin D insufficiency with elevated uric acid was still significant (OR, 95% CI: 2.48, 1.17–5.44). Conclusions Vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with elevated uric acid among postmenopausal Chinese Han women. This study suggested that a clinical trial should be conducted to confirm the association of vitamin D insufficiency with hyperuricemia. PMID:23585876

Li, Chao; Chao, Xiangqin; Zhang, Qiu; Zhang, Yonghong

2013-01-01

402

The Expansion of the Pulmonary Rib Cage during Breath Stacking Is Influenced by Age in Obese Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze in obese women the acute effects of the breath stacking technique on thoraco-abdominal expansion. Design and Methods Nineteen obese women (BMI?30 kg/m2) were evaluated by anthropometry, spirometry and maximal respiratory muscle pressures and successively analyzed by Opto-Electronic Plethysmography and a Wright respirometer during quiet breathing and breath stacking maneuvers and compared with a group of 15 normal-weighted healthy women. The acute effects of the maneuvers were assessed in terms of total and compartmental chest wall volumes at baseline, end of the breath stacking maneuver and after the maneuver. Obese subjects were successively classified into two groups, accordingly to the response during the maneuver, group 1?=?prevalent rib cage or group 2?=?abdominal expansion. Results Age was significantly lower in group 1 than group 2. When considering the two obese groups, FEV1 was lower and minute ventilation was higher only in group 2 compared to controls group. During breath stacking, inspiratory capacity was significant differences in obese subjects with a smaller expansion of the pulmonary rib cage and a greater expansion of the abdomen compared to controls and also between groups 1 and 2. A significant inverse linear relationship was found between age and inspiratory capacity of the pulmonary rib cage but not of the abdomen. Conclusions In obese women the maximal expansion of the rib cage and abdomen is influenced by age and breath stacking maneuver could be a possible therapy for preventing respiratory complications. PMID:25372469

Barcelar, Jacqueline de Melo; Aliverti, Andrea; Rattes, Catarina; Ximenes, Maria Eduarda; Campos, Shirley Lima; Brandao, Daniella Cunha; Fregonezi, Guilherme; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas

2014-01-01

403

Two hypotheses of dense breasts and viral infection for explaining incidence of breast cancer by age group in Korean women  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer, the second leading type of cancer in Korean women, has shown increasing incidence over the past 10 years. However, the curves of incidence by age group cast doubt on the birth cohort effect hypothesis. To explain the curves, here I suggest two alternative hypotheses of breast density and viral infection based on pre-existing evidences. Evaluating these hypotheses would require important clues to find unknown risk factors of breast cancer and to plan more effective strategies for breast cancer control in Korean women. PMID:25266421

Bae, Jong-Myon

2014-01-01

404

Educational level, prevalence of hysterectomy, and age at amenorrhoea: a cross-sectional analysis of 9536 women from six population-based cohort studies in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Hysterectomy prevalence has been shown to vary by education level. Hysterectomy influences age at amenorrhoea. The aim of this study was to examine these associations in Germany within population-based data sets. Methods Baseline assessments in six population-based cohorts took place from 1997 through 2006 and included 9,548 women aged 20–84 years. All studies assessed hysterectomy history, school and professional degrees. Degrees were categorized into three levels each. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Prevalences were higher in West Germany than East Germany, increased by age, and leveled off starting at 55–64 years. The age- and study-adjusted prevalence ratio (lowest versus highest school level) was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.28-5.30), 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.81), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80-1.28) for women aged 20–45, 45–64, and 65 and more years respectively. The estimated adjusted prevalence ratios per one unit decrement of the educational qualification score (range 1?=?lowest, 8?=?highest) were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02-1.64), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.12), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.03) for women aged 20–44, 45–64, and 65–84 years respectively. Age at amenorrhoea was on average 6.2 years lower (43.5 years versus 49.7 years) among women with a history of hysterectomy than those without. Conclusions Lower educational level was associated with a higher hysterectomy prevalence among women aged 20–64 years. Several mediators associated with educational level and hysterectomy including women’s disease risk, women’s treatment preference, and women’s access to uterus-preserving treatment may explain this association. At population level, hysterectomy decreases the age of amenorrhoea on average by 6.2 years. PMID:244334