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Sample records for women aged 15-49

  1. To estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group (15-49 years).

    PubMed

    Kousar, Junaid; Kawoosa, Zaffar; Hamid, Sajad; Munshi, Iftikhar Hussain; Hamid, Shahnawaz; Rashid, Arsalaan F

    2013-12-01

    The present study is a Cross-Sectional Study and was conducted in Post-graduate department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College, Srinagar between Feb. 2012 and Jan. 2013. The sample size of 1,041 was estimated. The study was conducted to estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group in two districts of Kashmir valley, district Srinagar and district Ganderbal, which were selected randomly. A frame of the blocks and villages in the two districts and their population was formed. From each district 10% of the blocks were selected using simple random sampling. From each block, 5% of the villages were selected using simple random sampling. A door to door survey was conducted in the selected villages and all the women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) identified and examined clinically for goiter after taking informed consent. Salt samples (one teaspoonful) from every household were taken and assessed for iodine content on spot and the iodine content of salt was assessed qualitatively by spot testing kits. The results of the present study have indicated that iodine deficiency continues to be a health problem. Almost the whole population consumes powdered salt but the storage and cooking practices diminish the iodine content of salt and results in decreased intake. Thus the need of the hour is to make people aware about proper storage and cooking practices. Women in the reproductive age group especially need to be made aware about the importance of consumption of adequately iodized salt because of the wide range of ill effects of iodine deficiency on the developing fetus and the growing child. In addition monitoring of iodine content of salt at distributor level should be done. PMID:23760753

  2. Health screening - women - ages 40 - 64

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 - 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Yearly exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 - 64; Women’s health - ages 40 - 64; Preventive care - women - ages 40 - ...

  3. Health screening - women - ages 18 - 39

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 - 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Yearly exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 - 39; Women's health - ages 18 - 39; Preventive care - women - ages 18 - ...

  4. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  5. Melatonin in aging women.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, A Yarci; Kiseli, M; Caglar, G S

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland that controls circadian rhythm, which is primarily regulated by light. Although melatonin levels are known to be altered in individuals with sleep disorders, melatonin also has modulatory effects on other body systems, including the skeletal and immune systems. In addition, melatonin has been shown to interfere with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and to have significant antioxidant effects, both directly and via its metabolites. Melatonin levels vary throughout human life and are known to decrease with age but the effects of declining melatonin levels are poorly understood. In women, this age-related decrease in melatonin levels coincides with the menopause. This review aims to summarize the impact of altered melatonin levels in aging women and the outcomes of exogenous replacement therapies. PMID:26029988

  6. Men's, Women's Hearts Age Differently

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155248.html Men's, Women's Hearts Age Differently Treatments may need to ... News) -- The heart ages differently for women and men. And this suggests a possible need for gender- ...

  7. Women, Work and Age Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGooyer, Janice

    Millions of older women who work face combined age and sex discrimination. Fifty percent more women aged 45-54 (3.5 million) will enter the job market in the next two decades and face the same problems. Illegal discriminatory practices encountered by older women when job hunting include exclusion from a job opportunity because of a male selecting…

  8. Ages of Men and Women

    Cancer.gov

    Ages of Men and Women 2 bar chart with 5 items each. Chart 1: Men. Item 1: < 55 years: 12.4%. Item 2: 55-59 years: 21.8%. Item 3: 60-64 years: 28%. Item 4: 65-69 years: 33.8%. Item 5: ?70 years: 3.9%. Chart 2: Women. Item 1: < 55 years: 13.9%. Item

  9. Women aging together in community.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Jane

    2008-01-01

    At a fiftieth birthday party 17 years ago, a group of women--lesbian, bisexual, and straight--decided to create a conscious community in which they could age together. The group, where they discuss this process and support each other, is politically and personally meaningful, and a buffer against the isolation and powerlessness many aging women experience. They meet monthly, and at weekend retreats twice a year. They have become a "family of choice", sharing holidays and celebrations and supporting each other when necessary and possible. After several years, they decided to commit for life. In the group, each feels held and seen in the complex experience of aging in today's world. PMID:19042738

  10. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary ...

  11. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  12. Women in their Fifties: wellbeing, ageing and anticipation of ageing 

    E-print Network

    Airey, Laura

    Concern about ageing western societies has led to an increase in research into later adulthood and old age. In the UK, however, there have been relatively few studies of women’s experiences of mid-life. Women at mid-life ...

  13. Rubella and measles seroprevalence among women of childbearing age, Argentina, 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, G. H.; Panero, M. S.; Urquiza, A.; Molina, M.; Prieto, S.; Del Carmen Perego, M.; Scagliotti, G.; Galimberti, D.; Carroli, G.; Wolff, C.; Bi, D.; Bellini, W.; Icenogle, J.; Reef, S.

    2005-01-01

    To assess rubella and measles susceptibility among women of childbearing age we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in four cities and one rural area in Argentina. A convenience sample of women aged 15-49 years seeking care in public health-care institutions was selected (n=2804). Serum specimens were tested for rubella and measles IgG antibody titres. The overall susceptibility to rubella and measles was 8.8 and 12.5% respectively. Seroprevalence differences were found for both rubella (P<0.001) and measles (P=0.002) across sites. Rubella seroprevalence was higher in women aged >or=40 years than in younger women (P=0.04). Measles seroprevalence tended to increase with age (P<0.001). Approximately 15% of women aged 15-29 years were not immune to measles. No risk factors were associated with rubella seronegativity; however, age (P<0.001) and having less than four pregnancies (P<0.001) were factors associated with measles seronegativity. Our findings support the introduction of supplemental immunization activities targeting adolescents and young adults to prevent congenital rubella syndrome and measles outbreaks over time. PMID:16181506

  14. Work Related Injury among Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  15. Knowledge on uterine prolapse among married women of reproductive age in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binjwala; Devkota, Bhimsen; Khadka, Badri Bahadur; Choulagai, Bishnu; Pahari, Durga Prasad; Onta, Sharad; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Uterine prolapse (UP), which affects about 10% of women of reproductive age in Nepal, is the most frequently reported cause of poor health in women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. Currently, women’s awareness of UP is unknown, and attempts to unravel the UP problem are inadequate. This study aims to assess UP knowledge among married reproductive women, and determine the association between UP knowledge and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods Our cross-sectional descriptive study investigated 25 districts representing all five administrative regions, three ecological zones, and urban and rural settings. We used structured questionnaires to interview 4,693 married women aged 15–49 years. We assessed UP knowledge by asking women whether they had ever heard about UP, followed by specific questions about symptoms and preventive measures. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population regarding socioeconomic status, assessed how many participants had ever heard about UP, and determined UP knowledge level among participants who had heard about the condition. Simple regression analysis identified a possible association between socioeconomic characteristics, ever heard about UP, and level of UP knowledge. Results Mean age of participants was 30 years (SD [standard deviation] 7.4), 67.5% were educated, 48% belonged to the advantaged Brahmin and Chhetri groups, and 22.2% were Janajati from the hill and terai zones. Fifty-three percent had never heard about UP. Among women who had heard about UP, 37.5% had satisfactory knowledge. Any knowledge about UP was associated with both urban and rural settings, age group, and education level. However, satisfactory knowledge about UP was associated with administrative region, ecological zones, caste/ethnic group, and age group of women. Conclusion Fifty-three percent of participants had never heard about UP, and UP knowledge level was satisfactory in 37.% of those who had ever heard about UP. Any knowledge was associated with urban/rural setting, age group, and education level, whereas satisfactory knowledge was associated with geography, caste/ethnic group, and age group. UP-related health promotion programs should target women from all caste/ethnic groups, age groups, and education levels, including urban and rural communities. PMID:25152633

  16. Age, Women, and Hiring: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2008-01-01

    As baby boomers reach retirement age, demographic pressures on public programs may cause policy makers to cut benefits and encourage employment at later ages. But how much demand exists for older workers? This paper reports on a field experiment to determine hiring conditions for older women in entry-level jobs in two cities. A younger worker is…

  17. Discrimination and pension income among aging women.

    PubMed

    Caputo, R K

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Mature Women's Cohort, this study examined the extent to which discrimination influenced pension receipt and levels of pension income among women aged 55-69 in 1992. It found that discrimination affected the level of pension income beyond that of demographic and human capital variables, when controlling for wage-related income, only among moderate-to-affluent near-elderly women. No relation was found between discrimination and receipt of pension income. PMID:10344936

  18. Aging and reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

  19. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors. PMID:26163075

  20. Prevalence of Anemia among Tribal Women of Reproductive Age in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Majeed, Jazeel Abdul; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Pattanshetty, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Many studies have emphasized on prevalence of anaemia among general population. This study has focussed to address the prevalence of anaemia among the tribal population in Udupi taluk. Anaemia among women in the reproductive age group is one of the causes for maternal morbidity and mortality in India. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among tribal women (aged 15 to 49 years). Settings and Design: A Community based cross sectional study was conducted among tribal women aged 14-49 years in Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka. Methods and Material: A cross sectional study during July 2012 to August 2012 was conducted. A sample size of 170 was calculated taking into consideration a relative error of 15% and the prevalence of anemia in Karnataka as 51% (as per the NFHS-3). Statistical analysis used: Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data using SPSS 15. Results: The study sample had a mean hemoglobin value of 11.3 g/dL with 95% CI of (11 – 11.6), with a standard deviation of 2g/dL. The study reveals that in the sample of tribal women in the age group of 15-49 years, the prevalence of anemia was 55.9%. Among the subjects, 6 (3.5%) were severely anemic, 33 (19.4%) were moderately anemic and 56 (32.9%) were mildly anemic. Conclusions: This study calls for an appropriate action and intervention in this tribal population to treat and prevent anaemia.

  1. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27?957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100?000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

  2. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (?12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (?43%) than in rural children (?24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru. PMID:24643049

  3. Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43

    Cancer.gov

    Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Toronto, Canada (2006) lawrence.paszat@ices.on.ca Selection criteria All women age 40 – 43 resident in Ontario on January 1, 1995 - OHIP (medicare)

  4. Eating disorders in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Nitzburg, George

    2008-10-01

    Eating disorders are generally viewed as afflicting females during adolescence and early adulthood. However, in recent years there has been a growing recognition that these disorders may occur during midlife as well. When eating disorders have been observed in middle age, they have often been believed to be associated with depression. In an Internet survey, responses by middle-aged women (N = 290; aged 45-60 years) indicated that the factors significantly associated with eating pathology-body image dissatisfaction, sociocultural pressures to be thin, and perfectionism-closely parallel those reported for younger people. Furthermore, in the presence of these factors, depression and concerns about the effects of aging on appearance are not significantly related to eating pathology. PMID:18959229

  5. Predictors of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies among women of childbearing age in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While unintended pregnancies pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of families globally, characteristics of Tanzanian women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. This analysis identifies factors associated with unintended pregnancies—both mistimed and unwanted—in three rural districts of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2,183 random households was conducted in three Tanzanian districts of Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga in 2011 to assess women’s health behavior and service utilization patterns. These households produced 3,127 women age 15+?years from which 2,199 gravid women aged 15–49 were selected for the current analysis. Unintended pregnancies were identified as either mistimed (wanted later) or unwanted (not wanted at all). Correlates of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies were identified through Chi-squared tests to assess associations and multinomial logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results Mean age of the participants was 32.1 years. While 54.1% of the participants reported that their most recent pregnancy was intended, 32.5% indicated their most recent pregnancy as mistimed and 13.4% as unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (<20 years), and single marital status were significant predictors of both mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Lack of inter-partner communication about family planning increased the risk of mistimed pregnancy significantly, and multi-gravidity was shown to significantly increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Conclusions About one half of women in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania conceive unintentionally. Women, especially the most vulnerable should be empowered to avoid pregnancy at their own will and discretion. PMID:25102924

  6. Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.

    PubMed

    Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%. PMID:24283176

  7. Vocal characteristics of middle-aged premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Depypere, Herman; Claeys, Sofie; Wuyts, Floris L; Baudonck, Nele; Van Lierde, Kristiane M

    2011-05-01

    Aging influences the laryngeal anatomy and physiology, leading to altered vocal quality. In middle-aged women, the voice is affected by a combination of aging and menopausal transition. However, in many studies about vocal aging, the menopausal transition is not taken into account. The purpose of this study was to measure and describe the effect of aging on the vocal characteristics by comparing young women (between 20 and 28 years) and middle-aged premenopausal women (between 45 and 52 years). To determine the vocal characteristics in both groups, objective (aerodynamic measurements, vocal performance measurements, acoustic analysis, and a determination of the Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective assessment techniques (perceptual evaluation, videostroboscopic evaluation, and Voice Handicap Index) were used. The middle-aged premenopausal women showed a smaller frequency and intensity range, a lower habitual fundamental frequency, and a higher soft phonation index compared with the young women. The results of this study are important when studying the voices of middle-aged women. Vocal characteristics of middle-aged women differ from young women, and these changes cannot only be because of hormonal changes during the menopause. PMID:20189350

  8. Epidemiology of Substance Use in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Wigderson, Sara; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis A significant number of women of reproductive age in the U.S. use addictive substances. In 2012 more than 50% reported current use of alcohol, 20% used tobacco products, and approximately 13% used other drugs. Among women, use of these substances is associated with a number of significant medical, psychiatric, and social consequences, and the course of illness may progress more rapidly in women than men. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in women is 19.5% and 7.1%, respectively. In addition, as most addictive substances cross the placenta and have deleterious effects on fetal development, substance use has additional potential adverse consequences for women of reproductive age who may become pregnant. Specific barriers to accessing effective substance use treatment exist for women. The prevalence of substance use and evidence of accelerated illness progression in women highlight the importance of universal substance use screening in women in primary care settings. PMID:24845483

  9. Sexual Motivation in Women as a Function of Age

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Harte, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Women’s motivations to engage in sex are likely influenced by their past sexual experiences, the type of relationship in which they are involved in, and numerous lifestyle factors such as career and family demands. The influences of these factors undoubtedly change as women age. Aim This study aimed to examine potential differences in sexual motivation between three distinct age groups of premenopausal women. Methods Women aged 18–22 years (N = 137), 23–30 years (N = 103), and 31–45 years (N = 87) completed an online survey that assessed the proportion with which they had engaged in sexual intercourse for each of 140 distinct reasons. Main Outcome Measures The YSEX? Questionnaire by Meston and Buss [1] was used to measure sexual motivation. The items of this questionnaire were composed of four primary sexual motivation factors (physical, goal attainment, emotional, insecurity), and 13 subfactors. Results Women aged 31–45 years reported a higher proportion of engaging in sex compared with one or both of the younger age groups of women for nine of the 13 YSEX? subfactors: stress reduction, physical desirability, experience seeking, resources, social status, revenge, expression, self-esteem boost, and mate guarding. At an item level, the top 25 reasons for having sex were virtually identical across age groups. Conclusion Women aged 31–45 have more motives for engaging in sex than do women aged 18–30, but the primary reasons for engaging in sex do not differ within this age range. Women aged 18–45 have sex primarily for pleasure, and love and commitment. The implications for diagnosis and treatment of women with sexual dysfunctions were discussed. PMID:19751384

  10. Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Lam, Nguyen Thi; Skeaff, C Murray; Todd, Joanne; McLean, Judy M; Green, Timothy J

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes for both mother and child. Vitamin D insufficiency has been well described in many populations of both pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age, but there is a lack of data on women living in South-East Asia. We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a representative sample of pregnant (n=64) and non-pregnant (n=477) women (15-49 years) living in Hanoi City (n=270) and rural Hai Duong Province (n=271) in northern Vietnam. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval) concentration was 81 (79, 84)nmolL(-1) . Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration differed between urban and rural (78 vs. 85nmolL(-1) ; P=0.016), farming and non-farming (89 vs. 77nmolL(-1) ; P<0.001) but not pregnant and non-pregnant or older vs. younger women. Only one woman had a 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 25nmolL(-1) , a concentration indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Of the women, 7% and 48% of the women were vitamin D insufficient based on cut-offs for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 and 75nmolL(-1) , respectively. Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of these Vietnamese women were much higher than those reported in other studies of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the region. PMID:22117931

  11. Social relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    to elevated IL-6 levels in patients with clinical sleep disorders (13) and experimental studies involvingSocial relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women Elliot M. Friedman* , Mary S of social engagement, sleep quality, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a sample of aging women (n

  12. Women, Work and Age: A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet provides statistics on various aspects of the special concern of midlife and older women in the labor force. It looks at the number of such women in the work force, marital status, displaced homemakers, and occupational categories represented by these women. Other areas of consideration are the cost-effectiveness of hiring older…

  13. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  14. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in the country. PMID:24917067

  15. Perception on prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV among women of reproductive age group in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga-Bello, AI; Adebimpe, WO; Osundina, FF; Abdulsalam, ST

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The fastest growing group of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is women. As more women contract the virus, the number of children infected in utero, intra-partum, and during breastfeeding has been growing. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of women of child bearing age towards the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Materials and methods This is a descriptive cross sectional survey of 420 women of the reproductive age group (15–49 years) selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using interviewer-administered, pretested, semistructured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15. Results A high level of awareness about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was observed among the respondents (99.8%). The knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV was high, 92.1% and 91.4%, respectively. However, a significant portion (71.27%) of the study population had poor attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS, and good knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV/AIDS among the respondents, the attitude towards PMTCT is poor. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and attitude of prevention of MTCT of HIV among women. PMID:23874124

  16. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  17. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Energy requirements of women have been based upon total energy expenditure (TEE) derived from the factorial approach or as multiples of basal metabolic rate (BMR). Objective: This study was designed to reevaluate the energy requirements of healthy underweight, normal-weight and overweigh...

  18. The Developmental Compatibility of Young Women in Service to Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papertsian, Linda King

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that younger and older adults derive benefits from close reciprocal relationships; current health care training may lack a relational component. A small survey of 15 women aged 18-22 indicated that 12 had meaningful relationships with older women and 10 would consider working with the elderly. Those without such relationships were…

  19. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  20. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  1. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age

  2. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women

  3. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  4. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and ... Fitness: Overtraining Risks Pregnancy, Nursing and Bone Health Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American ...

  5. Older women with intellectual disability and the meaning of aging.

    PubMed

    David, Niry; Duvdevani, Ilana; Doron, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Aging with intellectual disability has become an important topic in light of the significant increase in life expectancy of this population. More specifically, the combination of gender, age, and intellectual disability raises unique social issues. The aim of this research was to capture and analyze the aging experience of women with intellectual disability from their own voice and viewpoint within the Israeli experience. A phenomenological qualitative method was used in this study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Four key themes arose from the interviews: (a) the importance of work and reluctance to retire, (b) ageism and the fear of getting old, (c) the importance of a significant partner in old age, and (d) today's positive self-perception. A meaningful aging process can be constructed within the context of gender and disability. It was manifested in this study as a disability-neutral experience. However, ageism and negative attitudes toward old age still need to be addressed. PMID:25853785

  6. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  7. Ageing in a foreign country: voices of Iranian women ageing in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shemirani, Farimah Shakeri; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2006-01-01

    Older Iranian women, who immigrated to Canada in later adulthood, experience unique issues as they age. In order to better understand this experience, in-depth, personal and semi-structured interviews were conducted with five immigrant/refugee Iranian women who immigrated to Canada in their later life. Analysis revealed that although each woman's story conveyed individual differences and idiosyncrasies, all the stories highlighted the critical interweaving of the aging experience and the immigration experience: neither experience could be understood in isolation of the other; each aspect gave meaning to the other experience. Two interrelated messages dominated the women's stories: first was the importance of each woman's immigration story for grounding her experience of the aging process in Canada. Second, each woman's personal story suggested that the immigration experiences were accorded priority for accounting for her experiences in Canada. Specifically, cultural identity (i.e., social class, education, religious affiliation and immigration status) offered a valuable cloak for overshadowing the force of the aging process and the aging process emerged as an elusive force that lurked in the background without ever being fully acknowledged or given power in their lives. The implications of these findings in relation to theory development on intersectionality and professional practice are discussed. PMID:16782661

  8. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (RPACA) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either RPACA or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of RPACA were all negative; i.e., an increase in RPAC is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., ? -0.29 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial RPACA with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher RPACA from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., ? 4.37 %; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  9. Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

    Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…

  10. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  11. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

  12. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception of Chinese and Caucasian faces. Résumé Objectifs Le vieillissement entraine des changements caractéristiques de l'apparence de la peau du visage. Parmi ces changements on distingue les éléments topographiques (relâchement de la peau et rides), les taches brunes et les cernes sur le contour de l'œil. Bien que ces modifications cutanées avec l'âge soient similaires pour les visages caucasiens et chinois; leur âge d'apparition et leur degré de sévérité varient entre ces deux populations. Il y a très peu d'informations disponibles liées à l'influence du vieillissement cutané sur la perception des visages féminins par les femmes chinoises. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer la contribution des différents signes de vieillissement à la perception de l'âge et d'attirance chez ces femmes. Methodes Des photos de visages de femmes caucasiennes et chinoises d'environ 60 ans ont été manipulées de façon à réduire séparément les signes suivants: (i) le relâchement de la peau et les rides, (ii) les taches brunes, et (iii) les cernes. Enfin, tous les signes ont été atténués ensemble (iv). Des participantes chinoises ont estimé, à partir de ces photos, l'écart d'âge entre la version originale et chaque version modifiée; elles ont également évalué l'attirance des visages originaux et modifiés. Resultats Les femmes chinoises ont jugé les visages chinois plus jeunes après correction des taches qu'après correction des rides/relâchement, alors que les visages caucasiens ont été perçus les plus jeunes après correction des rides/relâchement. Les femmes chinoises ont jugé que les visages avec correction des taches étaient les plus attirants quelle que soit l'origine du visage. La manipulation des cernes a entraîné un rajeunissement des 2 types de visages et les a rendus plus attirants, m

  13. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  14. Personalizing pelvic floor reconstructive surgery in aging women.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Paolo; Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Naldini, Gabriele; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-09-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a growingly frequent condition in aging individuals. Urinary or rectal incontinence, constipation, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic pain or sexual dysfunction are common problems in this age range. Such conditions carry a severe impact on quality of life, but also limit individual independence in daily activities, favor social isolation and carry health risks. Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction in aging women is tricky, since multiple interfering conditions affecting muscle tone and nerve function are common in these individuals. Diabetes mellitus, sarcopenia, use of drugs that affect cognition or impact bowel or urinary function are just a few examples. These conditions need to be thoroughly taken into account during pre-operative work up for their potential impact on the success of surgery and vice versa. Functional reconstruction aimed at treating symptoms rather than anatomic defects is key to success. The recent advancements in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse allow for more options to achieve the best surgery in each patient. PMID:26142653

  15. Hydronephrosis due to ureteral endometriosis in women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Yan-Yuan; Jin, Bai-Ye; Xia, Dan; Wang, Shuo; Pan, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of ureteral endometriosis, and remind the clinics to be highly suspicious of it in women of reproductive age with hydronephrosis without evidence of stones and malignancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on a database of 82 patients who underwent surgery for hydronephrosis due to ureteral endometriosis between Jan. 2007 and Apr. 2014. Results: All patients evaluated in this study were divided into three groups: Group A consisted of patients between 20-30 years (n = 12), Group B comprised of patients between 31-40 years (n = 29), Group C consisted of patients between 41-50 years (n = 41). Patients in Group C had a greater prevalence of pelvic pain compared with patients in Group A and Group B (P < 0.05). However there were no differences with respect to the prevalence of other non-specific genitourinary symptoms and the urinary symptoms. Infertility was found to occur more frequently in patients in Group A compared with patients in Group B and Group C (P < 0.05). Because of the lack of specific symptoms, ureteral endometriosis was diagnosed (20.1 ± 10.3) months on average after the patients suffered from mild hydronephrosis or mild loin pain. Preoperative examinations showed different degree of hydronephrosis, but lack of specificity. All patients underwent surgery by laparotomy or laparoscopy, such as ureterectomy with ureteroureterostomy or ureterocystoneostomy. The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis. Conclusion: The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis is elusive and relies heavily on clinical suspicion. Hence, women in the reproductive age, especially with infertility and pelvic pain, who have hydronephrosis without evidence of stones and malignance, should be adequately assessed via imaging techniques or diagnostic laparoscopy or cystoscopy to highly suspect the diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis. PMID:25785093

  16. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

  17. Determinants of modern family planning use among women of reproductive age in the Nkwanta district of Ghana: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Average contraceptive prevalence rate in the Nkwanta district of Ghana was estimated to be 6.2% relative to the national average at the time, of 19%. While several efforts had been made to improve family planning in the country, the district still had very low use of modern family planning methods. This study sought to determine the factors that influenced modern family planning use in general and specifically, the factors that determined the consistently low use of modern family planning methods in the district. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Nkwanta district of Ghana to determine socio-economic, socio-cultural and service delivery factors influencing family planning usage. One hundred and thirty cases and 260 controls made up of women aged 15–49 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires. A logistic regression was fitted. Results Awareness and knowledge of modern family planning methods were high among cases and controls (over 90%). Lack of formal education among women, socio-cultural beliefs and spousal communication were found to influence modern family planning use. Furthermore, favourable opening hours of the facilities and distance to health facilities influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion While modern family planning seemed to be common knowledge among these women, actual use of such contraceptives was limited. There is need to improve use of modern family planning methods in the district. In addition to providing health facilities and consolidating close-to-client service initiatives in the district, policies directed towards improving modern family planning method use need to consider the influence of formal education. Promoting basic education, especially among females, will be a crucial step as the district is faced with high levels of school dropout and illiteracy rates. PMID:25117887

  18. [Mortality from injuries among childbearing-age women in Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil, 1991-2000].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marcelo Pontual; Faúndes, Aníbal

    2006-10-01

    Injuries comprise the main group of causes of mortality among women 15 to 35 years of age in Brazil. The present study aimed to improve the knowledge concerning mortality by injuries, using a descriptive population-based approach, including all 869 death certificates for resident 10-49-year-old women from Cascavel, Paraná State, who died between 1991 and 2000. Mortality from injuries was analyzed according to cause, age, and calendar year. Pearson chi-square was applied at p < 0.05. Injuries were the main group of causes of death up to 34 years of age and for all women 15-45 (coefficient 29.4/100,000 women) and the third most common among women 35-45. Traffic accidents were the first external cause of death in all age groups. We conclude that female mortality in Cascavel can be greatly reduced by interventions addressed to control external causes of death among young women. PMID:16951896

  19. Assessment of cardiovascular disease risk in depressed women of reproductive and menopausal age.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saima; Afridi, M Iqbal; Bano, Samina

    2015-11-01

    It is well documented that depression increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Women of age 55 and younger with depression are more likely to have CVD. The present study aims to investigate CVD risk in depressed women of reproductive age (RA) and menopausal age (MA). Adult women of RA and MA were divided in to two groups; healthy and depressed. Women were screened for depression (ICD-10 criteria) at outpatients department of local psychiatric hospital. Fasting serum cortisol, estradiol and lipid profile levels were determined. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Newman's Keuls q-test. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TGs) were raised in MA women however high density lipoprotein (HDL) and estradiol were lower as compared to RA women. Depressed RA women showed increased TC, LDL and HDL but decreased estradiol as compared to healthy women of similar age group. MA depressed women showed increased TC and LDL but decreased HDL and estradiol as compared to healthy controls. We found that MA depressed women had low HDL and estradiol as compared to RA depressed women. Circulating cortisol levels were increased in both depressed RA and MA women compared to respective healthy controls. Low HDL/LDL ratio was found in both healthy and depressed MA women when compared with respective RA women. A significant negative correlation of estradiol and cortisol was found in depressed RA women. It is concluded that low HDL/LDL ratio and hypercortisolemia in both healthy and depressed MA women make them more vulnerable to CVD. PMID:26687744

  20. Interactive Effects of Gender Ideology and Age at First Marriage on Women's Marital Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shannon N.; Greenstein, Theodore N.

    2004-01-01

    A sample of ever-married women from the NLSY79 is analyzed to examine the effects of age at first marriage and gender ideology on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption. The authors hypothesize that age at first marriage will have no effect on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption for non-traditional women, but that there…

  1. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

  2. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  3. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women’s sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women’s health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women’s sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea’s P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband’s health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband’s healths and sexual knowledge explained women’s sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women’s sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women’s sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups’ sexual function. PMID:25931738

  4. Naturopathy/herbalism consultations by mid-aged Australian women who have cancer.

    PubMed

    Adams, J; Sibbritt, D; Young, A F

    2005-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is now a significant practice issue for those delivering cancer care with a range of CAM being utilized by a significant number of patients with cancer. While various studies have explored the prevalence of CAM use among cancer patients, little is currently known about naturopathy/herbalism use by patients with cancer in Australia. This paper reports the prevalence of naturopath/herbalist consultations among mid-aged Australian women with cancer. The research was conducted as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, with the data for this analysis coming from the third survey of 11,202 women aged 50-55, conducted in 2001. For all cancers combined, 15.7% of women with cancer were found to consult a naturopath/herbalist. Mid-aged women with cancer were found to be more likely to consult a naturopath/herbalist than mid-aged women without cancer. Naturopathy/herbalism consultations appear to be utilized by the women with cancer alongside and as a supplement to conventional health services. Given the prevalence of consultations with herbal therapists/naturopaths among mid-aged women with cancer in Australia, it is important that physicians and others involved in cancer patient care and management are informed and educated about naturopathy/herbalism and its use among their patients. PMID:16274466

  5. Patterns and Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Weight Control Behaviors in Women Ages 25–45

    PubMed Central

    Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; Holle, Ann Von; Hamer, Robert M.; Swann, Rebecca; Reyes, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study describes detailed eating behaviors, dieting behaviors, and attitudes about shape and weight in 4,023 women ages 25 to 45. Method The survey was delivered on-line and participants were identified using a national quota-sampling procedure. Results Disordered eating behaviors, extreme weight loss measures, and negative cognitions about shape and weight were widely endorsed by women in this age group and were not limited to White participants. Thirty-one percent of women without a history of anorexia or binge eating reported having purged to control weight, and 74.5% of women reported that their concerns about shape and weight interfered with their happiness. Discussion Unhealthy approaches to weight control and negative attitudes about shape and weight are pervasive even among women without eating disorders. The development of effective approaches to address the impact of these unhealthy behaviors and attitudes on the general well-being and functioning of women is required. PMID:20179405

  6. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

  7. Transformations and Self-Discovery: Mature-Age Women's Reflections on Returning to University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, S.; Stone, C.

    2011-01-01

    Research has highlighted the challenges that women face as mature-age students in higher education. The challenges are particularly acute when a woman is the first in her family to go to university. Many women begin their journey as students with considerable self-doubt and lack of confidence. They may also face an ongoing struggle to find a way…

  8. Age-specific prevalence of human papilloma virus infection among Nigerian women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inconsistent trends in HPV prevalence by age have been described in Africa. We examined the age prevalence pattern and distribution of 37 HPV-DNA types among urban Nigerian women. Methods The study population was a sample of 278 women who presented to cervical cancer screening programs in Abuja, Nigeria, between April and August 2012. Using a nurse administered questionnaire, information on demographic characteristics and risk factors of cervical cancer was collected and samples of cervical exfoliated cells were obtained from all participants. Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test® was used to characterize prevalent HPV and log-binomial regression models were used to examine the association between potential correlates and the prevalence of HPV infection. Results The mean age (SD) of the women enrolled was 38 (8) years. The overall prevalence of HPV was 37%. HPV 35 was the most prevalent HPV type in the study population. Among women age ? 30 years, 52% had HPV infection compared to 23% of those women who were older than 45 years (p = 0.006). We observed a significant linear association between age and the prevalence of HPV infections. The prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (1.17, 4.34) for any HPV infection, 3.83 (1.23, 11.94) for Group 1 HPV (definite carcinogens), and 2.19 (0.99, 4.84) for Group 2a or 2b HPV (probable or possible carcinogens) types, among women aged 18–30 years, compared to women who were older than 45 years. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection was highest among younger women and decreased steadily with age among this population of urban Nigerian women. PMID:24972674

  9. Variations in the age-specific curves of human papillomavirus prevalence in women worldwide.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Clifford, Gary M; Snijders, Peter J F; Arslan, Annie; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Bosch, F Xavier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Matos, Elena; Molano, Monica; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajkumar, Raj; Ronco, Guglielmo; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Shin, Hai-Rim; Sukvirach, Sukhon; Thomas, Jaiye O; Meijer, Chris J L M; Muñoz, Nubia

    2006-12-01

    An inverse relationship between age and human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence has been reported in many developed countries, but information on this relationship is scarce in many other parts of the world. We carried out a cross-sectional study of sexually active women from the general population of 15 areas in 4 continents. Similar standardised protocols for women's enrolment, cervical specimen collection and PCR-based assays for HPV testing were used. HPV prevalence in different age groups was compared by study area. 18,498 women aged 15-74 years were included. Age-standardised HPV prevalence varied more than 10-fold between populations, as did the shape of age-specific curves. HPV prevalence peaked below age 25 or 35, and declined with age in Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Argentina, Korea and in Lampang, Thailand and Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. This was not the case in Songkla, Thailand nor Hanoi, Vietnam, where HPV prevalence was low in all age groups. In Chile, Colombia and Mexico, a second peak of HPV prevalence was detected among older women. In the poorest study areas in Asia (Shanxi, China and Dindigul, India), and in Nigeria, HPV prevalence was high across all age groups. The substantial differences observed in age-specific curves of HPV prevalence between populations may have a variety of explanations. These differences, however, underline that great caution should be used in inferring the natural history of HPV from age-specific prevalences. PMID:16991121

  10. Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over

    MedlinePLUS

    ... April 18, 2012 Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over ... and Roberto Valverde, M.P.H., Division of Health Care Statistics Abstract Objective —This report presents national estimates ...

  11. Mammography Screening for Women Ages 40-49 - February 5, 1997

    Cancer.gov

    "MAMMOGRAPHY SCREENING FOR WOMEN AGES 40-49" Statement of Richard D. Klausner, M.D. Director, National Cancer Institute on Screening Mammography Before the Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies Senator

  12. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  13. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan-min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, such as bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination. Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%). A significant association was found between the disease and educational level, pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, stress, alcohol consumption, overweight, dental visit, and teeth brushing (P<0.05). Women who suffered periodontal disease showed deep PD, obvious BOP, and clinical attachment loss. Among this population, pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (P<0.001) after adjusting for age and stress. Conclusions: The periodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently. Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted, especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness. PMID:23463766

  14. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  15. The Impact of Genital Self-Image on Gynecological Exam Behaviors of College-Aged Women 

    E-print Network

    DeMaria, Andrea Laine

    2012-07-16

    -1 THE IMPACT OF GENITAL SELF-IMAGE ON GYNECOLOGICAL EXAM BEHAVIORS OF COLLEGE-AGED WOMEN A Dissertation by ANDREA LAINE DEMARIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Health Education The Impact of Genital Self-Image on Gynecological Exam Behaviors of College-Aged Women Copyright May 2011 Andrea Laine De...

  16. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  17. Relationships between menopausal syndrome and sleeping of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yi Kyun; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the correlation between menopausal syndrome and sleep state of middle-aged women, and to examine the factors influencing menopausal syndrome. [Subjects] The subjects included 59 middle-aged women in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools were a general characteristics form, Menopause Symptom Index (MENSI), and sleep state scale. [Results] There was a significantly negative correlation between menopausal syndrome and sleep state of middle-aged women. The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R2 was 0.279, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 27.9%. The factor found to have the most influence on menopausal syndrome of middle-aged women was sleep state, followed by sexual life satisfaction, and health status. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating menopausal syndrome of middle-aged women are essential in order to improve sleep state, sexual life satisfaction, and health status. The findings from this study will contribute to help them for controlling and relieving the menopausal syndrome of middle-aged women. PMID:26357435

  18. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and prevalence of age-related nuclear cataract in older women. Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study participants aged 50 y+, at 3 sites, who reported high (above the 78th percentile...

  19. How can more women of childbearing age be encouraged to follow fish consumption recommendations?

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Lauber, T Bruce; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2014-11-01

    Several studies show that most women do not consume enough fish during pregnancy (and afterward) to derive the maximum health benefits for themselves and their babies, according to the USDA guidelines. We engaged in a two-part study to better understand what might be done to encourage women of childbearing age to eat healthy fish-a mail survey of women who recently gave birth in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania, and six focus groups with women of childbearing age living in the Great Lakes region. Similar to other studies, we found that many women changed their behavior and consumed less fish during pregnancy than before. Most women reported receiving information, primarily during pregnancy, about the types of fish and how much fish to eat. As a result, increasing access to information during pregnancy likely would not result in increasing many women's fish consumption. Based on our examination of factors influencing women to try to follow the recommendations, the strongest connection with trying to follow the recommendations was receiving enough information to decide and believing that eating fish was good for the baby. Focus group participants also reported that messages about the specific health benefits of fish consumption for their children were particularly influential. These findings suggest that refining messages through testing might be a valuable approach toward increasing women's consumption of less-contaminated fish. PMID:25262080

  20. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was...

  1. Racial/ethnic disparities in contraceptive use: Variation by age and women's reproductive experiences

    PubMed Central

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Park, Seo Young; Emeremni, Chetachi A.; Comer, Ms. Diane; Vincett, Ms. Kathryn; Borrero, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disparities in unintended pregnancy in the United States are related, in part, to black and Hispanic women being overall less likely to use effective contraceptive methods. However, the fact that these same groups are more likely to use female sterilization, a highly effective method, suggests there may be variability in disparities in contraceptive use across a woman’s life course. We sought to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and contraceptive use in a nationally representative sample and to approximate a life-course perspective by examining effect modification on these disparities by women’s age, parity and history of unintended pregnancy. Study Design We conducted an analysis of the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to determine the association between race/ethnicity and 1) use of any method; 2) use of a highly or moderately effective method among women using contraception; and 3) use of a highly effective method among women using contraception. We then performed analyses to assess interactions between race/ethnicity and age, parity and history of unintended pregnancy (ies). Results Our sample included 7,214 women aged 15–44. Compared to whites, blacks were less likely to use any contraceptive method (AOR: 0.65); and blacks and Hispanics were less likely to use a highly or moderately effective method (AORs: 0.49 and 0.57, respectively). Interaction analyses revealed that racial/ethnic disparities in contraceptive use varied by women’s age, with younger women having more prominent disparities. Conclusions Interventions designed to address disparities in unintended pregnancy should focus on improving contraceptive use among younger women. PMID:24495671

  2. Ageism and sexism at work: the middle-aged women of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tang, K L

    2000-01-01

    Employment discrimination against middle-aged women has recently captured public attention in Hong Kong. One reason is the economic slowdown and increasing unemployment since the 1993-94 and the 1997-to date economic downturns. This paper looks at sex and age discrimination against middle-aged women in colonial Hong Kong where they faced such problems as low labor force participation, occupational and industrial segregation and wage differentials, which in turn left them vulnerable to unemployment and poverty. Rampant age and sex discrimination in the workplace is due to a number of factors: traditional values and cultural devaluation of women's work and need for education, economic restructuring and labor importation, a legal vacuum, inefficient retraining policy, and the weak position of women in the labor movement. The postcolonial government under Tung Chee Hwa is heavily influenced by business interests. Women in the age group of 30-39 and above are hardest hit. They are not targeted as special groups of trainees who require special assistance. Given the limited concern for gender development on the part of the new government, the prospect for women workers does not look good. PMID:12179949

  3. HPV prevalence at enrollment and baseline results from the Carolina Women’s Care Study, a longitudinal study of HPV persistence in women of college age

    PubMed Central

    Banister, Carolyn E; Messersmith, Amy R; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Wang, Yinding; Spiryda, Lisa B; Glover, Saundra H; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical dysplasia and cancer. The Carolina Women’s Care Study (CWCS) was conducted to explore the biological, genetic, and lifestyle determinants of persistent HPV infection in college-aged European American and African American women. This paper presents the initial results of the CWCS, based upon data obtained at enrollment. Methods Freshman female students attending the University of South Carolina were enrolled in the CWCS and followed until graduation with biannual visits, including two Papanicolaou tests, cervical mucus collection, and a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors. We recruited 467 women, 293 of whom completed four or more visits for a total of 2274 visits. Results and conclusion CWCS participants were 70% European American, 24% African American, 3% Latina/Hispanic, and 3% Asian. At enrollment, 32% tested positive for any HPV. HPV16 infection was the most common (18% of infections). Together, HPV16, 66, 51, 52, and 18 accounted for 58% of all HPV infections. Sixty-four percent of all HPV-positive samples contained more than one HPV type, with an average of 2.2 HPV types per HPV-positive participant. We found differences between African American and European American women in the prevalence of HPV infection (38.1% African American, 30.7% European American) and abnormal Papanicolaou test results (9.8% African-American, 5.8% European American). While these differences did not reach statistical significance at enrollment, as the longitudinal data of this cohort are analyzed, the sample size will allow us to confirm these results and compare the natural history of HPV infection in college-aged African American and European American women. PMID:23861602

  4. Life Satisfaction and Death Anxiety in Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Lenore Artie

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the life satisfaction and death anxiety of elderly women (N=60) as a function of demographic, life history, and stress variables. Through multiple regression, life satisfaction was predicted by number of friends, good health, and, surprisingly, by having fewer offspring living in the same city. (Author)

  5. Basal leg blood flow in healthy women is related to age and hormone replacement therapy status

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kerrie L; Donato, Anthony J; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Jones, Pamela Parker; Gates, Phillip E; Seals, Douglas R

    2003-01-01

    Basal leg blood flow declines with age in healthy men, an effect that is mediated by augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction. However, in women the presence or absence of oestrogen and selective use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may alter these relationships with ageing. We studied 103 healthy women: 73 postmenopausal (41 HRT, mean ± s.e.m. 61 ± 1 years; 32 no-HRT, 63 ± 2 years) and 30 premenopausal (29 ± 1 years). Compared with the premenopausal controls, absolute femoral artery blood flow (duplex ultrasound) was 23 % lower (P < 0.001) in the postmenopausal no-HRT group, but only 13 % lower in the HRT group (P < 0.01). The age and HRT group differences in leg blood flow were consistently associated with differences in leg vascular conductance, but not with femoral artery lumen diameter, leg muscle sympathetic nerve activity or cardiac output (systemic arterial blood flow). Leg fat-free mass was smaller in the postmenopausal groups (P < 0.05). Femoral blood flow normalized for leg fat-free mass was 17 % lower (P < 0.01) in the postmenopausal no-HRT compared with the premenopausal women, but was not different in the postmenopausal HRT and premenopausal groups. Femoral artery shear stress was similar in the postmenopausal HRT and premenopausal women, but was lower in the postmenopausal no-HRT group (P < 0.01). Basal whole-leg blood flow declines with age in healthy, oestrogen-deficient women, a phenomenon that is mediated primarily by reductions in leg vascular conductance. Among postmenopausal women, chronic HRT use is associated with augmented basal leg blood flow and vascular conductance. Leg blood flow normalized for leg fat-free mass is preserved with age in women taking chronic HRT. In contrast to men, differences in leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve activity do not explain group differences in leg blood flow and vascular conductance with ageing in women. PMID:12562958

  6. Social-Emotional Support, Life Satisfaction, and Mental Health on Reproductive Age Women’s Health Utilization, US, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Willet, Michelle N.; Zaha, Rebecca L.; Fuddy, Loretta J.

    2015-01-01

    To examine the associations among social-emotional support, life satisfaction, and mental health with not having a routine checkup among women of reproductive age in the US, data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of health behaviors, were analyzed among reproductive aged (18–44 years) women in the US. Prevalence estimates were calculated for not having a routine checkup in the past year with measures of social-emotional support, life satisfaction, and mental distress. Independent multivariable logistic regressions for each measure assessed not having a routine checkup within the past year with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, education level, and health care coverage. Among women of reproductive age, 33.7 % (95 % CI 33.0–34.4) did not have a routine checkup within the past year. Factors associated with not having a routine checkup included: having social-emotional support most of the time (AOR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.20–1.38) or sometimes or less (AOR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.34–1.61) compared to those who reported always having the social-emotional support they need; reporting life satisfaction as being satisfied (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.19–1.36) or dissatisfied (AOR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.43–1.91) compared to being very satisfied; and frequent mental distress (AOR = 1.19, 95 % CI 1.09–1.30) compared to those without. Women who report lower levels of social-emotional support, less life satisfaction, and frequent mental distress are less likely to see a doctor for a routine checkup. Targeted outreach that provides appropriate support are needed so these women can access clinical services to increase exposure to preventive health opportunities and improve overall health. PMID:22956364

  7. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  8. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  9. Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women

    E-print Network

    Lummaa, Virpi

    rights reserved. Keywords: Delayed reproduction; Sexual maturity; Life history; Lineage persistence 1Theoretical Contribution Age at first reproduction and probability of reproductive failure in women predicts a trade-off between fitness benefits and costs of delaying age at first reproduction (AFR

  10. A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age

  11. Employment status and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, J T; Matthews, K A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the psychological effects of paid employment and nonemployment, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in 541 middle-aged women. METHODS. Women were seen for an extensive baseline evaluation and were reevaluated in an identical manner 3 years later. They were divided into four "synthetic" cohorts, based upon employment status at these two assessments. RESULTS. At baseline, nonemployed women reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than employed women, with nonemployed women with less education, low support from family and friends, or low marital satisfaction the most symptomatic. Symptoms decreased in women who were nonemployed initially but employed at the later exam; in all other groups, symptoms increased. Unlike the cross-sectional findings, however, the longitudinal findings showed that women who were nonemployed at baseline and had low levels of education, social support, or marital satisfaction did not benefit more from subsequent employment than did their counterparts who had high levels of these factors. CONCLUSIONS. New paid work may have a positive effect on mood for middle-aged women. However, given the contradictions between our cross-sectional and longitudinal results, caution should be exercised in drawing conclusions from cross-sectional studies that likely confound employment status, symptoms, and moderating variables. PMID:8296940

  12. Fertility preservation in reproductive-age women facing gonadotoxic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Ronn, R.; Tallon, N.; Holzer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advancements in the treatments for cancer and autoimmune and other hematologic conditions continue to improve survival and cure rates. Despite those changes, various gonadotoxic agents and other treatments can still compromise the future fertility of many women. Progress in medical and surgical reproductive technologies has helped to offset the reproductive consequences of the use of gonadotoxic therapies, and allows for future fertility and normal pregnancy. Methods A review of the literature was performed to outline the pathophysiology of gonadotoxicity from various treatments. The success of fertility preservation, fertility sparing, and cryopreservation options are reviewed. Barriers and facilitators to referral and oncofertility treatment in Canada are also outlined. Results According to the quality of the evidence, recommendations are made for fertility assessment, patient referral, cryopreservation, and other assisted reproductive technologies. Conclusions To ensure ongoing fertility in women undergoing gonadotoxic treatments, assisted reproductive technologies can be combined with a multidisciplinary approach to patient assessment and referral. PMID:26300680

  13. Leukocyte telomere length dynamics in women and men: menopause vs age effects

    PubMed Central

    Dalgård, Christine; Benetos, Athanase; Verhulst, Simon; Labat, Carlos; Kark, Jeremy D; Christensen, Kaare; Kimura, Masayuki; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Aviv, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background: A longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in women than men has been attributed to a slow rate of LTL attrition in women, perhaps due to high estrogen exposure during the premenopausal period. Methods: To test this premise we performed a longitudinal study (an average follow-up of 12 years) in a subset of the population-based Danish National Twin Registry. Participants consisted of 405 women, aged 37.5 (range 18.0–64.3) years, and 329 men, aged 38.8 (range 18.0–58.5) years, at baseline examination. Results: Women showed a longer LTL [kb?±?standard error(SE)] than men (baseline: 7.01?±?0.03 vs 6.87?±?0.04; follow-up: 6.79?±?0.03 vs 6.65?±?0.03; both P?=?0.005). Women displayed deceleration of LTL attrition (bp/years?±?SE), as they transitioned from the premenopausal period (20.6?±?1.0) through the perimenopausal period (16.5?±?1.3) to the postmenopausal period (15.1?±?1.7). Age was not associated with LTL attrition in women after statistical control for menopausal status. Men, in contrast, displayed a trend for age-dependent increase in the rate of LTL attrition, which differed significantly from the pattern in women (P for interaction?=?0.01). Conclusions: Results indicate that the premenopausal period is expressed in a higher rate of LTL attrition than the postmenopausal period. They further suggest that the sex gap in LTL stems from earlier ages—the period of growth and development. The higher rate of LTL attrition in premenopausal women, we propose, might relate to estrogen-mediated increased turnover of erythrocytes, menstrual bleeding or both. PMID:26385867

  14. Pregnancy and Obstetrical Outcomes in Women Over 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dietl, A.; Cupisti, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Schwab, M.; Zollner, U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed childbearing is increasing, and advanced maternal age has been associated with an increased risk of obstetrical complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with advanced maternal age (??40 years). Methods: Maternal and obstetrical data were collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Wuerzburg for the period from 2006 to 2011. In this retrospective analysis we compared the outcomes for women aged ??40 years (n?=?405) with those of three younger subgroups (I: women older than 40 years had more chronic diseases such as hypertension, needed medical treatment more frequently and had a higher thrombosis risk. Pregnancy-induced diseases such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension occurred more often in women ??40 years of age. Compared to mothers who were younger than 30 years, primiparous women ??40 years had a more than four times higher overall cesarean section rate and four times higher elective cesarean section rate. Furthermore, they required longer hospital stays, both after cesarean section and after vaginal delivery. The preterm birth rate (??32 weeks of gestation) was similar across the different age groups. Conclusions: The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth and for newborns born to women ??40 years did not vary significantly from those of younger women if the following conditions were met: a) pre-existing chronic diseases were treated medically and dietetically; b) pregnancy-induced morbidity was monitored regularly and controlled medically; c) women attended regular prenatal check-ups; d) a healthy lifestyle was adhered to during pregnancy, and e) delivery occurred in a perinatal center. PMID:26366002

  15. Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Deborah R.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. Design/Methods 1690 participants (1196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Results Among HIV+ women, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with poorer cognitive performance evidenced by longer Trails A and Trails B and shorter SDMT completion times. An obese BMI (30 kg/m2 or higher) was related to better performance on Trails B and worse performance on the Stroop Interference test. Among HIV- women, an obese BMI was related to worse performance on the Stroop – Color naming test. Few and inconsistent associations were observed between WC, WHR and cognition. Conclusion Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection, common anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV infected women. PMID:24338243

  16. Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Deborah R; Mielke, Michelle M; Tien, Phyllis C; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. One thousand six hundred ninety participants (1,196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Among HIV+ women, BMI?women, an obese BMI was related to worse performance on the Stroop color naming test. Few and inconsistent associations were observed between WC, WHR, and cognition. Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection, common anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV-infected women. PMID:24338243

  17. Factors that modify the association between knee pain and mobility limitation in older women: the Women's Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, S; Guralnik, J; Buchner, D; Ferrucci, L; Hochberg, M; Simonsick, E; Fried, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the influence of pain severity, knee extensor muscle weakness, obesity, depression, and activity on the association between recent knee pain and limitation of usual and fast paced walking, and ability to rise from a chair.?METHODS—A cross sectional analysis of 769 older women (mean age 77.8, range 65-101) with physical disability, but no severe cognitive impairment. Severity of knee pain in the past month was classified as none, moderate, or severe. Mobility was measured using timed performance tests.?RESULTS—The prevalence of recent knee pain was 53% (408/769). One third of the women with pain reported it to be severe. In general, knee pain was only significantly associated with limited mobility if severe. Obesity, activity and, to a lesser extent, depression intensified the effects of pain. Knee extensor weakness did not. Obesity was a distinctive risk factor in that it substantially increased the risk of mobility limitation, but only in women with pain. In women who had severe pain, activity (walking more than three city blocks in the past week) increased the risk of walking disability more than inactivity. Depression had a minor, but statistically significant effect on walking ability, but not the ability to rise from a chair.?CONCLUSION—In older women with recent knee pain, a high pain severity score, obesity, and activity are important factors that increase the risk of mobility limitation.?? PMID:10784513

  18. Perceptions of Benzodiazepine Dependence Among Women Age 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Sarah L.; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: 1) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to dependence to diabetes or blood pressure medications; 2) dependence is distinctive from addiction/abuse; 3) addiction/abuse is perceived as worse than dependence; and 4) concerns of addiction/abuse result in low-dose benzodiazepine use. PMID:24918963

  19. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R; Smith, Erin N; Chen, Christina T L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Arnold, Alice M; Bandera, Elisa V; Berenson, Gerald S; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L; Elks, Cathy E; Evans, Michelle K; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C; Musani, Solomon K; Nock, Nora L; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Schork, Nicholas J; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Woods, Nancy F; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-08-15

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  20. Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020

  1. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10?8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  2. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy can result in abortion or congenital defects. Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia are unknown. The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to September 2011. Sera of 425 women were analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. Results The study revealed that anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 81.4% of the samples of which 78.4% were positive for only IgG and 3.06% positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.14, 5.86) was suggestive of recent infections. Of the 213 pregnant women 9 (4.2 %) were IgM reactive. Out of 17 potential risk factors investigated, univariate logistic regression showed significant association of T. gondii infection with study area, age, pregnancy status, raw vegetable consumption, source of water, presence of cats at home, contact with cats, HIV status and precaution during cats’ feces cleaning (P???0.05). The final logistic regression model revealed that: the probability of acquiring T. gondii infection by women of Debre-Zeit was 4.46 times (95% CI of adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.67, 11.89; P =0.003) higher compared to women of Ambo, pregnant women were twice (95% CI aOR: 1.13, 3.59; P?=?0.018) more likely to be seropositive than non-pregnant women and women who consume raw vegetable were at increased risk of infection (aOR?=?2.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.78; P?=?0.043) than women who didn’t consume. Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia is high. Study area, pregnancy and raw vegetable consumption are risk factors to acquire T. gondii infection. Educational program, antenatal screening of pregnant women and further epidemiological studies to uncover the economic and health impact of toxoplasmosis are suggested. PMID:23442946

  3. Poor sleep in middle-aged women is not associated with menopause per se.

    PubMed

    Tao, M F; Sun, D M; Shao, H F; Li, C B; Teng, Y C

    2016-01-01

    Whether sleep problems of menopausal women are associated with vasomotor symptoms and/or changes in estrogen levels associated with menopause or age-related changes in sleep architecture is unclear. This study aimed to determine if poor sleep in middle-aged women is correlated with menopause. This study recruited women seeking care for the first time at the menopause outpatient department of our hospital. Inclusion criteria were an age ?40 years, not taking any medications for menopausal symptoms, and no sleeping problems or depression. Patients were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), modified Kupperman Index (KI), and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). A PSQI score of <7 indicated no sleep disorder and ?7 indicated a sleep disorder. Blood specimens were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. A total of 244 women were included in the study; 103 (42.2%) were identified as having a sleep disorder and 141 as not having one. In addition, 156 (64%) women were postmenopausal and 88 (36%) were not menopausal. Follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were similar between the groups. Patients with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher total modified KI score and total MRS score (both, P<0.001) compared with those without a sleep disorder. Correlations of the PSQI total score with the KI and MRS were similar in menopausal and non-menopausal women. These results do not support that menopause per se specifically contributes to sleep problems. PMID:26577848

  4. Poor sleep in middle-aged women is not associated with menopause per se

    PubMed Central

    Tao, M.F.; Sun, D.M.; Shao, H.F.; Li, C.B.; Teng, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Whether sleep problems of menopausal women are associated with vasomotor symptoms and/or changes in estrogen levels associated with menopause or age-related changes in sleep architecture is unclear. This study aimed to determine if poor sleep in middle-aged women is correlated with menopause. This study recruited women seeking care for the first time at the menopause outpatient department of our hospital. Inclusion criteria were an age ?40 years, not taking any medications for menopausal symptoms, and no sleeping problems or depression. Patients were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), modified Kupperman Index (KI), and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). A PSQI score of <7 indicated no sleep disorder and ?7 indicated a sleep disorder. Blood specimens were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. A total of 244 women were included in the study; 103 (42.2%) were identified as having a sleep disorder and 141 as not having one. In addition, 156 (64%) women were postmenopausal and 88 (36%) were not menopausal. Follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were similar between the groups. Patients with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher total modified KI score and total MRS score (both, P<0.001) compared with those without a sleep disorder. Correlations of the PSQI total score with the KI and MRS were similar in menopausal and non-menopausal women. These results do not support that menopause per se specifically contributes to sleep problems. PMID:26577848

  5. Perspectives of Middle-Aged African American Women in the Deep South on Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence

    PubMed Central

    DeMoss, Margaret; Bonney, Loida; Grant, Jennifer; Klein, Robin; del Rio, Carlos; Barker, Judith C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence of stabilization in some areas of the US, HIV infection in Black women is not declining in the Deep South. Using a phenomenological approach to qualitative inquiry, we investigated women's experiences influencing their adherence to HAART in an urban setting. Inclusion criteria specified Black women who had been aware of their HIV status for at least two years and were engaged in HIV outpatient care. Twelve single face-to-face confidential in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted from a sample of pre-dominantly middle-aged women retained in care at an HIV clinic in Atlanta, Georgia. Data was analyzed by two independent reviewers and three themes emerged from the group of women's accounts of their experiences. First, sentinel events led to changes in perspective and motivated women to adhere to HAART. Second, recognition that one had the personal strength necessary to cope with HIV fostered adherence. Finally, relationships with healthcare providers especially trust issues surrounding this relationship, impacted adherence both positively and negatively. These findings suggest that HAART adherence is a complex issue among middle-aged urban Black women with HIV in the Deep South. Providers caring for this patient population should recognize that sentinel events, personal strength, and positive healthcare relationships are opportunities to improve adherence. PMID:24099510

  6. Association between delivery at an advanced maternal age and osteoporosis in elderly Korean women.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eunju; Lee, Jungkwon; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Kim, Bo Ha

    2015-11-01

    Although several reproductive factors have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women, few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of delivery at a high-risk maternal age on BMD. Using nationally representative survey data collected from 736 women aged 65 years or older, we evaluated the relationship between delivery during adolescence or at an age of 35 years or older and osteoporosis in elderly women. Data regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle risk factors, reproductive history, and history of osteoporosis and fracture were collected by administration of self-report questionnaires. Anthropometric data and BMD were measured in accordance with standardized guidelines. Independent determinants of BMD were identified by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, and the resulting model was used to evaluate the risk of osteoporosis according to delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age. Of the 736 subjects, 426 (60.1 %) were found to have osteoporosis (T score ? -2.5), and 19.2 and 38.9 % reported delivery during adolescence and at an advanced age, respectively. The incidence of delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age was significantly higher in subjects with osteoporosis than in those without osteoporosis. After adjustment for covariates, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that elderly women with a history of delivery at an advanced maternal age are at an increased (2.164-fold greater) risk of osteoporosis (95 % confidence interval 1.109-4.223) compared with elderly women without a history of delivery at an advanced age. However, a history of delivery during adolescence did not affect the risk. PMID:25304003

  7. Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

  8. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

  9. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763

  10. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  11. Age-Based differences in Treatment Outcome among Alcohol Dependent Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaiba, Zayed; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara; Cook, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The literature suggests that women are at higher risk for negative consequences from alcohol use than men and that these risks are compounded by age. The current study investigated how alcohol dependent women from different age groups might differ in terms of baseline functioning and treatment response. The sample consisted of 181 participants drawn from 2 randomized clinical trials of cognitive behavioral treatments for alcohol dependent women. Demographic and psychopathology data were obtained at baseline using the SCID (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders) I for Axis I disorders and the SCID II or Personality Disorders Questionnaire for Axis II disorders. Social networks data were collected using the Important People and Activities Interview. Drinking data were collected at baseline and follow-up using the Timeline Follow Back Interview. Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) revealed that older women had better psychosocial functioning in terms of being better educated and reporting fewer Axis I disorders. Also, older women had more supportive social networks in terms of more people, a smaller percentage of heavy drinkers, and a non-drinking spouse. Older women reported a less severe lifetime substance use history with a later age of first drink, later onset of alcohol use disorders, fewer lifetime abuse/dependence items, and less drug use. However, they reported drinking more frequently and more heavily over the 90 days prior to treatment. Finally, older women were more compliant with treatment and responded better by reducing drinking frequency and percentage of heavy drinking days. Suggestions to enhance treatment efficacy for younger women are made as well as suggestions for future research. PMID:22369224

  12. Vitamin D Status and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Voland, Rick; Sondel, Sherie A.; Parekh, Niyati; Horst, Ronald L.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Chappell, Rick; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (nmol/L) and the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Methods Stereoscopic fundus photographs, taken from 2001–2004, assessed AMD status. Baseline (1994–1998) serum samples were available for 25(OH)D assays in 1,313 women with complete ocular and risk factor data. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early AMD (n=241), among 1,287 without advanced disease, were estimated with logistic regression and adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, family history of AMD, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hormone therapy use. Results In multivariate models, no significant relationship was observed between early AMD and 25(OH)D (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.79, 95% CI=0.50–1.24; p for trend=0.47). A significant age interaction (p=0.0025) suggested selective mortality bias in women ?75 years: serum 25(OH)D was associated with decreased odds of early AMD in women <75 years (n=968) and increased odds in women ?75 years (n=319) (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.52, 95% CI=0.29–0.91; p for trend=0.02 and 1.76, 95% CI=0.77–4.13; p for trend=0.05, respectively). Further adjustment for body mass index and recreational physical activity, predictors of 25(OH)D, attenuated the observed association in women <75 years. Additionally, among women <75 years, intake of vitamin D from foods and supplements was related to decreased odds of early AMD in multivariate models; no relationship was observed with self-reported time spent in direct sunlight. Conclusions High serum 25(OH)D concentrations may protect against early AMD in women <75 years. PMID:21482873

  13. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  14. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women. PMID:23275909

  15. Antidepressant Use, Depressive Symptoms, and Incident Frailty in Women Aged 65 and Older from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lakey, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Gray, Shelly L.; Borson, Soo; Williams, Carla D.; Calhoun, Darren; Goveas, Joseph S.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Ockene, Judith K.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Coday, Mace; Rosal, Milagros C.; Woods, Nancy F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations of depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, and duration of use with incident frailty three years later in nonfrail women ? age 65. Design Secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), a prospective cohort study. Setting WHI-OS was conducted in 40 U.S. clinical centers. Participants Women aged 65-79, not frail at baseline. Measurements Antidepressant use was assessed through medication container inspection at baseline. We created four groups according to baseline use and Burnam depression screen (range 0-1, 0.06 cut-off): antidepressant non-users without depressive symptoms (referent group), antidepressant non-users with depressive symptoms, antidepressant users without depressive symptoms, and antidepressant users with depressive symptoms. Frailty components included slowness/weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintended weight loss, ascertained through self-report and physical measurements at baseline and year 3. Results Among 27652 women at baseline, 4.9% (n=1350) were antidepressant users and 6.5% (n=1794) were categorized depressed. At year 3, 14.9% (n=4125) were frail. All groups had an increased risk for incident frailty compared to the referent group. Odds ratios ranged from 1.73 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.41-2.12) among non-depressed antidepressant users to 3.63 among depressed antidepressant users (95% CI = 2.37-5.55). All durations of use were associated with incident frailty (<1 year OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.41-2.68; 1 to 3 years OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.45-2.74; > 3 years OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.20-2.14). Conclusion In older adult women, depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were associated with frailty after 3 years follow-up. PMID:22568404

  16. Age-stratified 5-year risks of cervical precancer among women with enrollment and newly detected HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with "newly detected" HPV infections at their second screening visit. Women (57,899, 6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p?Women with enrollment versus newly detected HPV infection had higher 5-year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% versus 3.9%, (p?age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% versus 7.4% (p = 0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% versus 3.5% (p = 0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65. PMID:25136967

  17. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41–1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44–2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33–2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women. PMID:26607032

  18. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41-1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44-2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33-2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women. PMID:26607032

  19. Opioid prescription claims among women of reproductive age--United States, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Dawson, April L; Lind, Jennifer N; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Frey, Meghan T; Broussard, Cheryl S; Honein, Margaret A

    2015-01-23

    Prescription opioid use in the United States has become widespread, and studies of opioid exposure in pregnancy suggest increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome and birth defects (e.g., neural tube defects, gastroschisis, and congenital heart defects). The development of birth defects often results from exposures during the first few weeks of pregnancy, which is a critical period for organ formation. Given that many pregnancies are not recognized until well after the first few weeks and half of all U.S. pregnancies are unplanned, all women who might become pregnant are at risk. Therefore, it is important to assess opioid medication use among all women of reproductive age. CDC used Truven Health's MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicaid data to estimate the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed by outpatient pharmacies to women aged 15-44 years. During 2008-2012, opioid prescription claims were consistently higher among Medicaid-enrolled women when compared with privately insured women (39.4% compared with 27.7%, p<0.001). The most frequently prescribed opioids among women in both groups were hydrocodone, codeine, and oxycodone. Efforts are needed to promote interventions to reduce opioid prescriptions among this population when safer alternative treatments are available. PMID:25611168

  20. Understanding women's attitudes towards wife beating in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Hindin, Michelle J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with attitudes towards wife beating among women in partnerships in Zimbabwe in order to assist public health practitioners in preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: A nationally representative survey of 5907 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was conducted in Zimbabwe. Women were asked about their attitudes towards wife beating in five situations. The survey included sociodemographic characteristics, partnership characteristics, and household decision-making. FINDINGS: Over half of all women in Zimbabwe (53%) believed that wife beating was justified in at least one of the five situations. Respondents were most likely to find wife beating justified if a wife argued with her spouse (36%), neglected her children (33%), or went out without telling her spouse (30%). Among women in partnerships (n=3077), younger age, living in rural areas, lower household wealth, schooling at a lower level than secondary, and lower occupational status were associated with women reporting that wife beating is justified. Women who reported that they make household decisions jointly with their partners were less likely to say that wife beating is justified. CONCLUSIONS: Zimbabwe has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly because the younger generation of women is significantly more likely to believe that wife beating is justified compared with older women. Given the current social and political climate in Zimbabwe, finding means to negotiate rather than settle conflict through violence is essential from the household level to the national level. PMID:12973642

  1. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  2. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  3. Age related histomorphometric changes in bone in normal British men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, M T; Hoyland, J A; Denton, J; Freemont, A J

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To define the iliac crest histomorphometry of static variables in 234 individuals aged 16-100 years (91 men, 143 women) and of dynamic variables in 84 individuals aged 19-94 years (33 men, 51 women) from the North West of England. METHODS--Iliac crest biopsy specimens were sectioned, undecalcified, and examined using image analysis. RESULTS--The decrease in the quantity of cortical and trabecular bone and the connectivity of trabecular bone was more pronounced in women than men. This was associated with a reduction in bone formation and increased bone resorption which was greater in women at both the tissue and cellular level. Some of these histomorphometric differences first became evident at the natural menopause, and therefore provide clues as to the cause of the high prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS--These results show an age and sex dependent variation both in static and dynamic parameters, which differ, in some respects, from other studies and confirm the need for large regional studies to provide a database of normal morphometric results for a specific population. PMID:8063935

  4. Correlates of 15-Year Maintenance of Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of the correlates of sustained physical activity in midlife women, we used longitudinal epidemiologic data to investigate links between sustained physical activity and constructs advocated by three basic behavioral and social science theories: 1) self-determination; 2) social cognitive; and 3) social networks. Methods A random sample of 90 mid-life women, stratified by level of physical activity over 15 years, was selected from the Chicago cohort of the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Using data on self-reported physical activity collected over 15 years, women were categorized into consistently active, spoardically active, and sedentary. New data were collected on theory-relevant constructs, i.e. autonomous motivation (assessed by the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)) and self-efficacy (assessed by the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey). Every SWAN woman identified a close female friend who also completed the physical activity questionnaire. Results SWAN women with higher autonomous motivation (p=0.002) and higher self-efficacy (p<0.001) were more likely to be consistently physically active in analyses adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Sixty one percent of SWAN women with a history of consistent physical activity had a friend who is currently highly active, versus 34% and 23% for sporadically active and sedentary women, respectively (test for trend p=0.008). Conclusions In midlife women, constructs advocated by basic behavioral and social science theories were consistent with long-term patterns of physical activity behavior. Special focus should be given to these basic theories in the design of interventions to promote sustained physical activity in midlife women. PMID:23813123

  5. [Body density assessment utilizing skinfold thickness and age in Japanese women].

    PubMed

    Tahara, Y; Yukawa, K; Tsunawake, N; Saeki, S; Nishiyama, K; Urata, H; Katsuno, K; Fukuyama, Y; Michimukou, R; Moji, K

    1995-02-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the validity of skinfold-based prediction equations for body density (g/ml) by Nagamine and Suzuki (1964), and to formulate more convenient and more useful equations for predicting body density from skinfold and age in women. Subjects of the study were 512 healthy women aged 18-66 years in or near Nagasaki City. The dependent variable in the multiple regression equation, body density, was determined by hydrostatic weighing. Independent variables included eight skinfolds, the sum of two skinfolds (triceps, subscapular), the sum of three skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, and abdominal), age, and body surface area. Skinfolds were measured with an Eiken-model skinfold caliper. Age (mean 30.1, range 18-66 yrs.), weight (mean 52.6, range 38.0-83.3 kg), height (mean 157.0, range 142.0-172.0 cm), and body density, (mean 1.04125, range 0.98806-1.08650 g/ml) were also recorded. Percent body fat was calculated using the formula by Brozek et al. and ranged from 6.4% to 48.3%. Multiple correlation coefficients (MR) and standard error (SE) of 10 regression equations (A-J) for predicting body density in women were compared. The best-fitting and the most convenient prediction equation for body density was equation-E. The regression equation developed for predicting body density was: body density = 1.07931-0.00059 x sum of three skinfolds(mm)-0.00015 x age (MR = 0.77 and SE = 0.0089). The equation was cross-validated on a different sample of 46 women. The correlation coefficient between predicted and hydrostatically determined body density was 0.813 (p < 0.001). Equation-E (Tahara's equation) appears to be useful in body density analysis particularly when the subjects are Japanese women, aged 18-50 yrs, with percent body fat 17 to 34%. PMID:7718912

  6. [Consciousness about climacteric and menopausal symptoms affects the mental health of middle-aged women].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuka; Kaminaga, Moyuru; Saito, Seiichi

    2011-02-01

    Consciousness about climacteric and menopausal symptoms in relationship to menopausal stage and mental health was investigated. Midlife women (N = 407, 40-60 years old) were asked about their menstrual status, consciousness of climacteric and menopausal symptoms, self-esteem and depression. Based on their menstrual status, 222 participants were divided into three groups (pre-menopause, peri-menopause, and post-menopause). The main results are as follows. Women who were pre-menopausal had a negative consciousness about menopause, which contributed negatively to their self-esteem. Women who were perimenopausal or post-menopausal had more symptoms, which contributed negatively to their mental health. These results indicate that middle-aged women should be provided with interventions focusing on their menopausal status. PMID:21400858

  7. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  8. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  9. Prevalence of osteoporosis risk factors and treatment among women aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J K; Spangler, J G; Celestino, F S

    2000-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective review to evaluate screening, diagnosis, and treatment of 389 women aged 50 years or older at risk for osteoporosis in a large primary care practice. Records randomly selected from a computerized database were reviewed for drug history, age, height, weight, and osteoporosis-related diagnoses, symptoms, and risk factors. Among the 389 women, 255 (65.5%) were receiving bone-preserving treatment (247 estrogen replacement exclusively). Most (70.4%) were white, with an average age of 61 years, and an average of 3.3 risk factors for osteoporosis. Risk factors were postmenopausal status 94%, age 65 years or older 53%, hysterectomy 39%, cigarette smoking 33%, and physical inactivity 30%. By logistic regression, the only positive predictor of antiresorptive therapy was hysterectomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-4.14). Negative predictors were physical inactivity (AOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.71), rheumatoid arthritis (AOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.79), and age 65 years and older (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86). Controlling for age, women with four or more risk factors were 62% less likely to be receiving antiresorptive treatment (AOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.64) than those with fewer risk factors. PMID:10772371

  10. The effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle: Focusing on middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipour, Nosaybeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle affects people's health and life length, however, no sufficient studies have been done on the effect of lifestyle on middle-ageing, as the transitional period from adulthood to old-ageing, this study has been conducted to study the effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged women in Lenjan city of Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 88 middle-aged women were selected through randomized sampling from two health centers in Lenjan, and then were categorized into experimental and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-made demographic and life style questionnaire was used. The educational intervention was performed in five sessions. Data were collected from both groups in two stages: Before the intervention and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20 and P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that educational program had a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores in the intervention group, considering the physical activity, mental health, and interpersonal relationship, P < 0.001. However, regarding the nutrition, the mean increase was not significant (P = 0.113). Conclusion: According to the findings, it is evident that educational intervention is beneficial for various aspects of middle-aged women's lifestyle. Therefore, applying a healthy lifestyle seems essential for having a healthy aging period, and educational intervention can be effective. PMID:26430678

  11. Women and HIV/AIDS Epidemic: The Issue of College Age Girls' Awareness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Solomon O.; Moses, Ailemen I.; Ugiomoh, Maria M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine women and HIV/AIDS epidemic: the issue of school age girls' awareness in Nigeria information was elicited from 1,222 randomly selected regular under-graduate female students from the 11 faculties of the university of Lagos, Nigeria, with the use of a standardized structured questionnaire. Results of the major…

  12. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-aged African American women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanyka K

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-aged African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-aged urban African American women's experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56 years, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-aged, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  13. Keeping up with the caravan of life: Successful aging strategies for Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of improving life expectancy in the world in recent times, the focus has shifted to the issue of the quality and nature of life and how to assist successful aging (SA) rather than increasing physical survival and lifespan. SA is a multidimensional, relative, and context-dependent concept with different paths and outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore older women's strategies for SA in a specific context. Methods Following a grounded theory design approach, we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 21 women between the ages of 28 and 96 years. We analyzed the data from interviews, written narratives, and field notes using the grounded theory approach. Results We identified four categories: prevention of threats, internal self-control against threats, coping with threats, and optimizing the passage of time according to opportunity. These described the strategies for SA when encountering with age-related changes. Utilizing these strategies, the women accompanied the caravan of life in the context of threats and opportunities. Conclusions The findings suggest that SA is a continuous process in confronting changes related to age. The identified strategies can help to promote SA by familiarizing older women with the threats and opportunities of life and training them in how to use these strategies. PMID:26610117

  14. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  15. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  16. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  17. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  18. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  19. Differential expression of cathepsins K, S and V between young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Sage, Juliette; De Quéral, Delphine; Leblanc-Noblesse, Emmanuelle; Kurfurst, Robin; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Nizard, Carine; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lecaille, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous aging translates drastic structural and functional alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Multiple mechanisms are involved, including changes in protease levels. We investigated the age-related protein expression and activity of cysteine cathepsins and the expression of two endogenous protein inhibitors in young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that the expression of cathepsins K, S and V, as well as cystatins A and M/E within keratinocytes is reduced in photoprotected skin of aged women. Furthermore, the overall endopeptidase activity of cysteine cathepsins in epidermis lysates decreased with age. Albeit dermal elastic fiber and laminin expression is reduced in aged skin, staining of nidogen-1, a key protein in BM assembly that is sensitive to proteolysis by cysteine, metallo- and serine proteases, has a similar pattern in both young and aged skin. Since cathepsins contribute to the hydrolysis and turnover of ECM/basement membrane components, the abnormal protein degradation and deposition during aging process may be related in part to a decline of lysosomal/endosomal cathepsin K, S and V activity. PMID:23871919

  20. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20–65 Years of Age (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our ?ndings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145–150;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707 PMID:24280566

  1. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Kutima, H L; Ouma, J; Churcher, T S; Changoma, J M; Mwalisetso, M A; French, M D; Mwandawiro, C S

    2015-01-01

    Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five villages (known for their high prevalence of infection of S. haematobium) in Kwale County. Serum samples were analysed to determine levels of urea and creatinine as proxy indicators of kidney function. Data revealed that pregnant women did not, on average, have a higher prevalence or intensity of infection of urinary schistosomiasis than non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, the level of prevalence and intensity of infection of S. haematobium was highest in the first trimester (0-13 weeks), dropped in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) and rose again in the third trimester (27-40 weeks). In addition, 24.8% of women were infected with hookworm, while none were diagnosed with malaria parasites. Of 250 samples analysed for serum urea and creatinine, none had significant levels of pathology, either in pregnant or non-pregnant women. Despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that pregnant women should be treated with praziquantel after the first trimester, in practice this has not been the case in many countries, including Kenya. In view of this, healthcare providers should be informed to consider treatment of pregnant women infected with schistosomiasis during antenatal visits and whenever there is mass drug administration as recommended by the WHO. PMID:24103656

  2. Assessment of unhealthy days among Iranian reproductive age women in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jarahi, Lida; Ziaee, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy days are defined as the number of days during the past 30 days that a woman has not had a feeling of wellbeing. Wellbeing includes the woman’s judgments about the level of satisfaction and quality in her life. Assessment of a woman’s perception of unhealthy days can be used to help her determine the extent of the burdens associated with mental and physical feelings that things are not going well in her life, job and relationship. This study was conducted to measure unhealthy days and the general health status in Iranian women of reproductive age based on their own perceptions. Methods: The participants of this study were women of reproductive age who were referred to health centers in Mashhad, Iran, in 2012. With the stratified random sampling method, 220 women were included in the study. The health-related quality of life-4 (HRQOL-4) questionnaire was used to assess the women’s self-perceived unhealthy days. The data that were collected were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, Pearson correlation, and logistic linear regression tests with SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.6 years, and the median number of the self-perceived unhealthy days was 7.1 days (per month). In the domains of physical, mental, and disability unhealthy days, the data indicated 2 days, 2.1 days, and 0.1 day in a month, respectively. Also, nearly half of the participants reported that their general health status was poor to fair. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference between unhealthy days in the different age groups (p=0.01) as well as for the physical (p=0.02) and mental domains (p=0.4). The results of the regression analysis showed that the number of physical unhealthy days increased with age, number of children, and education. The number of mental unhealthy days increased with age, and the number of disability days increased as the age at which they were married decreased (p<0.05). A significant inverse relationship was observed between physical unhealthy days and education, with the number of physical unhealthy days decreasing as the years of education increased (r=?0.19, p=0.005). Conclusion: Women with less education who were older than 40, who married at an early age, and had more children reported more unhealthy days. These results emphasize the importance of preventive and educational health interventions in these vulnerable groups based on their physical and mental needs. PMID:26120415

  3. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

  4. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    PubMed

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology. PMID:23350338

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  6. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed. PMID:26337662

  7. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  8. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Beltadze, Ketevan; Barbakadze, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection). At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence. PMID:26220826

  9. Bayesian Mapping of HIV Infection among Women of Reproductive Age in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N. O.; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda. PMID:25811462

  10. 6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

    2009-01-01

    Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

  11. Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed. PMID:20099942

  12. Seroprevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, N U; Hossain, M A; Nahar, K; Mahmud, C; Paul, S K; Ahmed, S; Haque, N; Kalam, A; Parveen, U S

    2011-04-01

    The genital chlamydial infection is the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and major cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy for millions of women in the world particularly in developing countries. This study was performed to find out the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genital infection in women of reproductive age attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 through a cross sectional study. A total of 108 serum samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant and non-pregnant women were tested for CT specific IgG antibody by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A total of 31(28.7%) patients were found to have antibody of which 44% (26/59) were from pregnant group and 10.2% (5/49) from non-pregnant group. The seropositivity was 21.6% (16/74) in symptomatic cases and 44.1% (15/34) in asymptomatic cases. The study shows high prevalence of Chlamydial antibody which is common in pregnant and non-pregnant, symptomatic and asymptomatic adult women in Bangladesh. So, screening for chlamydial infection should be done routinely by suitable tests in sexually active symptomatic and asymptomatic women including pregnant women to prevent serious complications. PMID:21522085

  13. An evolutionary model of stature, age at first birth and reproductive success in Gambian women.

    PubMed

    Allal, N; Sear, R; Prentice, A M; Mace, R

    2004-03-01

    We have built a model to predict optimal age at first birth for women in a natural fertility population. The only existing fully evolutionary model, based on Ache hunter-gatherers, argues that as women gain weight, their fertility (rate of giving birth) increases-thus age at first birth represents a trade-off between time allocated to weight gain and greater fertility when mature. We identify the life-history implications of female age at first birth in a Gambian population, using uniquely detailed longitudinal data collected from 1950 to date. We use height rather than weight as an indicator of growth as it is more strongly correlated with age at first birth. Stature does not greatly influence fertility in this population but has a significant effect on offspring mortality. We model age at first reproduction as a trade-off between the time spent growing and reduced infant mortality after maturation. Parameters derived from this population are fitted to show that the predicted optimal mean age of first birth, which maximizes reproductive success, is 18 years, very close to that observed. The reaction norm associated with variation in growth rate during childhood also satisfactorily predicts the variation in age at first birth. PMID:15129955

  14. Intimate Partner Violence Attitudes and Experience among Women and Men in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda to inform IPV prevention programs in the region. Nationally representative population-based data from women ages 15–49 and from men ages 15–54 were collected between May and October, 2006 as part of the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. The survey included questions on women’s and men’s attitudes toward wife beating and information on IPV victimization (women) and perpetration (men). More than half of men and nearly three-quarters of women have attitudes supportive of wife beating in Uganda. More than half of married women report IPV victimization and 40% of married men report perpetration. Women and men who reported witnessing their fathers beating their mothers were more likely to report IPV victimization (perpetration for men). Witnessing violence was also associated with positive attitudes towards wife beating among men. IPV prevention programs need to address the important role of having witnessed wife beating between the mother and the father on men’s subsequent attitudes and behaviors. Women who witnessed wife beating are also the most likely to have supportive attitudes and IPV experience, possibly indicating that their relationship expectations are different than women who did not witness violence. Community-based prevention programs targeting men and women are needed in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa where gender norms that justify intimate partner violence prevail. PMID:19758975

  15. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  16. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives. PMID:12314886

  17. The impact of eliminating age inequalities in stage at diagnosis on breast cancer survival for older women

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, M J; Abel, G A; Greenberg, D C; Lambert, P C; Lyratzopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older women with breast cancer have poorer relative survival outcomes, but whether achieving earlier stage at diagnosis would translate to substantial reductions in mortality is uncertain. Methods: We analysed data on East of England women with breast cancer (2006–2010) aged 70+ years. We estimated survival for different stage-deprivation-age group strata using both the observed and a hypothetical stage distribution (assuming that all women aged 75+ years acquired the stage distribution of those aged 70–74 years). We subsequently estimated deaths that could be postponed beyond 5 years from diagnosis if women aged 75+ years had the hypothetical stage distribution. We projected findings to the English population using appropriate age and socioeconomic group weights. Results: For a typically sized annual cohort in the East of England, 27 deaths in women with breast cancer aged 75+ years can be postponed within 5 years from diagnosis if their stage distribution matched that of the women aged 70–74 years (4.8% of all 566 deaths within 5 years post diagnosis in this population). Under assumptions, we estimate that the respective number for England would be 280 deaths (5.0% of all deaths within 5 years post diagnosis in this population). Conclusions: The findings support ongoing development of targeted campaigns aimed at encouraging prompt presentation in older women. PMID:25734394

  18. Resilience and related factors in urban, mid-aged Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Coronado, P J; Oliva, A; Fasero, M; Piñel, C; Herraiz, M A; Pérez-López, F R

    2015-12-01

    Objective To assess resilience and related factors among urban, mid-aged Spanish women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in 227 women aged 40-65 years who filled out the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (WYRS-14), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a questionnaire containing personal sociodemographic data. Results For the whole sample, median (interquartile range) age and total WYRS-14 score were 52.4 (8.7) years and 79 (20.0) points, respectively. Resilience score was inversely related to non-working status, non-university studies, depressed mood, perimenopausal status, and higher MRS total scores (? 17). Using the 25th percentile of the obtained total WYRS-14 score as a cut-off value to define lower resilience (< 68.0 points), logistic regression analysis determined that low resilience was related to being unemployed, having depressed mood and being perimenopausal. Drinking less than 3 units/day of alcohol was significantly related to higher resilience. Conclusion In this sample of urban, mid-aged Spanish women, low resilience (lower WYRS-14 scores) was related to unemployment status, depressed mood and severe menopausal symptoms. PMID:26029984

  19. [Mortality in childbearing-age women in Campinas, São Paulo (1985-1994)].

    PubMed

    Faúndes, A; Parpinelli, M A; Cecatti, J G

    2000-01-01

    To provide a profile of the main health problems in childbearing-age women, we studied all 3,086 death certificates from the SEADE Foundation for women from 10 to 49 years of age and residing in the municipality of Campinas, from January 1, 1985, to December 31, 1994. The primary cause of death was identified and classified according to the 10th review of the ICD. Population data were obtained from the Laboratory for Epidemiological Analyses and Research, UNICAMP. One-fourth of the deaths were cardiovascular in origin, one-fifth were from external causes, and almost 20% were due to neoplasms. Maternal mortality was the ninth cause of death. External causes predominated in the 10-to-34-year age group, as compared to cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms in the 35-to-49-year group. Most alarming were the predominance of traffic accidents among causes of death in women up to age 34 (greater than AIDS during the study period) and the high mortality rate from homicides. PMID:11035506

  20. Regulation of protein metabolism in middle-aged, premenopausal women: roles of adiposity and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Toth, M J; Tchernof, A; Rosen, C J; Matthews, D E; Poehlman, E T

    2000-04-01

    The age-related loss of fat-free mass (FFM) is accelerated in women during the middle-age years and continues at an increased rate throughout the postmenopausal period. Because protein is the primary structural component of fat-free tissue, changes in FFM are largely due to alterations in protein metabolism. Knowledge of the hormonal and physiological correlates of protein metabolism in middle-aged women, therefore, has important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying changes in FFM. We measured leucine kinetics (expressed relative to FFM: micromol/kg FFM/h) in 46 middle-aged, premenopausal women (mean +/- SD, 47 +/- 3 yr) after an overnight fast (i.e. basal) and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (40 mU/m2/min) using a 5.5-h infusion of [1-13C]leucine. Additionally, we measured insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat distribution by computed tomography, and hormone levels by RIA as possible correlates of protein metabolism. Under basal conditions, stepwise regression analysis showed that leucine appearance (i.e. protein breakdown) was related to percent body fat and serum estradiol (r2 = 40%; P < 0.01), and leucine oxidation was related to serum estradiol and percent body fat (r2 = 26%; P < 0.05). Under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic conditions, no variables correlated with the percent change in leucine appearance. The percent change in leucine oxidation was related to intraabdominal adipose tissue area and glucose disposal rate (r2 = 48%; P < 0.01). Correlates and r2 values for nonoxidative leucine disposal (i.e. protein synthesis) under basal and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic conditions were similar to those observed for leucine appearance. From these results, we conclude that adiposity and/or serum estradiol may contribute to the regulation of protein metabolism and FFM in middle-aged, premenopausal women. PMID:10770170

  1. Frequency of intimate partner violence and rural women's mental health in four Indian states.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the association between self-reported frequency of verbal, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health among 6,303 rural married women (age 15-49), in four Indian states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Data are taken from the 2002-2003 National Family Health Survey-2 Follow-Up Survey. The results indicate that experiencing physical, verbal, or sexual IPV is associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Our results provide support for the importance of screening for IPV in mental health settings, especially in resource-poor settings where both IPV and mental health are often overlooked. PMID:24142954

  2. Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background The age of peak swim performance has been investigated for freestyle swimmers for distances ranging from 50 m to 1500 m among swimmers aged 19 to 99 years. However, studies have yet to investigate the 10 to 19 year-old age group. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the age range of peak freestyle swim speed, and (2) to find differences in age range and peak freestyle swim speed between male and female freestyle swimmers from 50 m to 1500 m at a national level. Methods The changes in age range and peak freestyle swim speed among Swiss elite freestyle swimmers aged 0–9 years and 70–79 years who were ranked on the Swiss high score list between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. Results Men were fastest at ages 22–23 years for 100 m and 200 m; at ages 24–25 years for 400 m and 800 m; and at 26–27 years for 50 m and 1500 m. Women achieved peak freestyle swim speed at ages 20–21 years for all distances with the exception of 800 m. In the 800 m, women were fastest at ages 26–27 years. The difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m (ie, 13.1% ± 1.3% in 50 m; 13.2% ± 0.9% in 100 m; 10.8% ± 0.9% in 200 m; 7.9% ± 1.3% in 400 m; and 4.2% ± 2.0% in 800 m). For 1500 m, however, the gender difference increased to 6.4% ± 2.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that peak freestyle swim speed is achieved at lower age ranges in women when compared to men at 50 m to 1500 m, but not at 800 m. The gender difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m, but not for 1500 m. These data should be confirmed with swimmers at an international level. PMID:24198602

  3. Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina

    2014-12-01

    The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ?1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ?$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ?1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406

  4. Relationship between insomnia and headache in community-based middle-aged Hong Kong Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wong, Chun-Yue

    2010-06-01

    Limited studies have investigated the prevalence of insomnia symptoms among individuals with different headache diagnoses and the association between insomnia and headache in subjects with comorbid anxiety and depression. A total of 310 community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40-60 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on headache, sleep difficulties, mood disturbances, and functional impairment. About 31% of the sample complained of recurrent headache unrelated to influenza and the common cold in the past 12 months. The percentages of women diagnosed to have migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and headache unspecified were 8.4, 15.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The most frequent insomnia complaint was "problem waking up too early" (29.4%), followed by "difficulty staying asleep" (28.0%) and "difficulty falling asleep" (24.4%). Women with headaches were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms than those without headaches. There were no significant differences among women with migraine, TTH, and headache unspecified in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that women with insomnia disorder as defined by an insomnia severity index total score >or=8 had 2.2-fold increased risk of reporting recurrent headache, 3.2-fold increased risk of migraine, and 2.3-fold increased risk of TTH, after adjusting for anxiety and depression. Individual insomnia symptoms were not independent predictors. The association between insomnia and headache was stronger in subjects with more frequent headaches. Our findings suggest that insomnia and the associated distress, but not insomnia symptoms alone, is an independent risk factor for recurrent headache in middle-aged women with mixed anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances. PMID:20186559

  5. Depressive symptoms and increased visceral fat in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A.; Wesley, Deidre; Powell, Lynda H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Mechanisms underlying the association between depression and increased cardiovascular risk remain poorly understood. Central adiposity is one potential pathway. Prior research has shown an association between depression and central adiposity but few studies have examined whether depressive symptoms are differentially associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which is more metabolically active and confers greater cardiovascular risk than subcutaneous fat (SAT). Methods We investigated the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms, assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and VAT and SAT, assessed by computed tomography, in a sample of 409 middle-aged women (44.7% African-Americans, 55.3% whites; mean age=50.4 years) participating in the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Results With adjustments for age, race, total percent fat and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), each 1-point higher score on the CES-D was associated with 1.03 cm2 greater VAT (p<.001). Women with a CES-D score of 16 or greater, indicative of clinically relevant depressive symptomatology, had 24.5% more VAT than women with lower CES-D scores (p<.001). Further adjustment for Framingham Risk Score and physical activity did not alter the findings, and associations did not vary by race. Associations were strongest in obese and overweight women. Depressive symptoms were unrelated to SAT. Conclusions Increased visceral fat may be one pathway by which depression contributes to excess risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Further research is needed to examine whether depressive symptoms influence accumulation of VAT over time. PMID:19398501

  6. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 women of reproductive age. Data were collected using questionnaires on sociodemographic factors and perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2). The relationship between the dependent variable (perceived social support) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Results The mean score of social support was 134.3?±?17.9. Women scored highest in the “worth” dimension and lowest in the “social integration” dimension. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that the variables of education, spouse’s occupation, Sufficiency of income for expenses and primary support source were significantly related to the perceived social support. Conclusion Sociodemographic factors affect social support and could be considered in planning interventions to improve social support for Iranian women. PMID:22988834

  7. Childbearing May Increase the Risk of Nondiabetic Cataract in Chinese Women's Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Manqiong; Han, Yaofeng; Fang, Ya; Chu, Cheng-I

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. Ocular changes may arise during pregnancy and after childbirth, but very few studies have reported the association between childbearing and cataract among older adults. Methods. 14,292 individuals aged 60+ years were recruited in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Physician-diagnosed cataract and diabetes status were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Childbearing status was measured by number of children (NOC). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted to examine the relationships among NOC, diabetes, and cataract. Gender-specific logistic models regressing nondiabetic cataract on NOC were performed by adjusting some covariates. Results. 14,119 participants had complete data, of whom 5.01% suffered from cataract, with higher prevalence in women than men (6.41% versus 3.51%). Estimates of SEM models for women suggested that both NOC and diabetes were risk factors for cataract and that no correlation existed between NOC and diabetes. Women who had one or more children faced roughly 2–4 times higher risk of nondiabetic cataract than their childless counterparts (OR [95% CI] = 3.88 [1.24, 17.71], 3.21 [1.04, 14.52], 4.32 [1.42, 19.44], 4.41 [1.46, 19.74], and 3.98 [1.28, 18.10] for having 1, 2, 3, 4-5, and 6 or more children, resp.). Conclusions. Childbearing may increase the risk of nondiabetic cataract in Chinese women's older age. PMID:26351572

  8. Exercise-induced vasodilation is associated with menopause stage in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Gonzales, Joaquin U.; Tucker, Steven H.; Elavsky, Steriani; Proctor, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Leg exercise hemodynamics during single-leg knee extensions were compared among healthy groups of early perimenopausal (n = 15), late perimenopausal (n = 12), and early postmenopausal (n = 11) women. Femoral blood flow (FBF) and vascular conductance (FVC) at rest and during very light work rates (0 and 5 W) were similar among all three menopause stage groups. Vascular responses at 10 W (FBF) and 20 W (FBF and FVC) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in early perimenopausal compared with late perimenopausal women. At 15 and 25 W, FBF and FVC were similar between late perimenopausal and early postmenopausal groups but higher (P < 0.05) in early perimenopausal women as compared with the other two menopausal groups. In the combined sample of all three menopause stage groups, follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly correlated with vascular conductance during submaximal (15 W) exercise (R = ?0.56, P < 0.001), even after adjustment for age, fitness, LDL cholesterol, and abdominal fat (R = ?0.46, P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest that in middle-aged women, there is an association between menopause stage and leg vascular responsiveness during exercise. PMID:22486379

  9. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR?=?1.43, 95% CI?=?1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR?=?1.48, 95% CI?=?1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  10. [The psychic state of women suffering infertility in the old reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, D B; Ermolenko, K S; Solov'eva, A V

    2013-01-01

    A total 60 infertile women aged 36-42 years treated by ART were examined to evaluate their psychic condition using CES-D and Spielberg-Khanin scales, SF-36 questionnaire. 15 (25%) patients were found (CES-D) to have mild depressive disorder; it was more pronounced in one woman. More than half of the patients exhibited enhanced anxiety, with 32 (53.3%) and 19 (31.6%) having generalized and strong anxiety respectively. Estimation of the quality of life revealed difficulties in maintaining social contacts up to complete isolation, low self-assessment of psychic health and prospects for recovery. It is concluded that comprehensive diagnostics and combined treatment are needed to manage infertile women of old reproductive age with the use of both traditional and psychocorrective methods. PMID:24417066

  11. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  12. A hidden reason for menopausal symptoms in premenopausal aged women: depression

    PubMed Central

    Cekmez, Yasemin; Torun, Fuat; Göçmen, Ahmet; ?anl?kan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between depression and reproductive hormone changes in menopausal women is well konown but recent animal studies showed that depression can also cause changes in reproductive hormone levels. According to this, we aimed to eveluate the impact of depression on circulating follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels in premenopausal women in terms of menopausal symptoms. Material-method: A total of 120 premenoupausal women (age ranges 41-45) were divided into two groups as: study group consisted of patients (n = 60) with depression and the control group (n = 60) involved healthy women. Psychometric assessment of study group was done by the Turkish version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnosis.The presence of menopausal symptoms of all subjects was assessed by the Turkish version of Menopause Rating Scale and hormonal activity by estimating estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Results: Study group had significantly lower mean concentration of estradiol and higher intensity of menopausal symptoms than control group. Presence and severity of menopausal symptoms were not associated with follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm the connection between menopausal symptoms and depression both on clinical and physiological level.The current study is unique in its ability to assess the effects of depression on menopausal symptoms in women as they are still reproductive. PMID:26131239

  13. Changes in aerobic power of women, ages 20-64 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Beard, E. F.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak) of women. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 409 healthy women, ages 20-64 yr. The 43 women of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 3.7 (+/-2.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill test. The zero-order correlation of -0.742 between VO2peak and %fat was significantly (P < 0.05) higher then the SR-PA (r = 0.626) and age correlations (r = -0.633). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.537 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.851) showed that adding %fat and SR-PA and their interaction to the regression model reduced the age regression weight of -0.537, to -0.265 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results. These findings are consistent with men's data from the same lab showing that about 50% of the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak was due to %fat and SR-PA.

  14. Knowledge and Acceptability about Adult Pertussis Immunization in Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Wie, Jeong Ha; Cheon, Juyoung; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been introduced in order to provide individual protection and reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis to infants. We assessed the knowledge and acceptability of the Tdap vaccine around pregnancy. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women of childbearing age (20-45 years) who visited obstetrics and gynecologic units of primary, secondary, or tertiary hospitals. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of Tdap. Results The questionnaire was completed by 308 women; 293 (95.1%) had not received information from doctors about Tdap, and 250 (81.2%) did not know about the need for vaccination. A significantly important factor related to subjects' intention to be vaccinated, identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression, was the knowledge (OR 13.5, CI 3.92-46.33) that adult Tdap is effective in preventing pertussis for infants aged 0-6 months. Additionally, 276 (89.6%) considered the recommendation of obstetric doctors as the most influencing factor about Tdap vaccination. Conclusion In Korea, most women of childbearing age seem to be neither recommended nor adequately informed about the vaccination, although our population was not a nationwide representative sample. Information given by healthcare workers may be critical for improving awareness and preventing pertussis. PMID:26069132

  15. [APPLICATION OF LASER TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE].

    PubMed

    Leshunov, E V; Martov, A G

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a significant health problem with considerable social impact. Prospective study was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of erbium laser (Er:Yag 2940 nm) for treatment urinary stress incontinence in women of reproductive age and its influence on quality of life in the area of sexuality. 37 women (mean age 36,2 years) with mild and moderate urinary stress incontinence were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 20 women of similar age. Treatment was delivered in outpatient settings without anesthesia and sedation. Laser system Dermablate MCL 31 (Asclepion Laser Technologies, Germany) with a set of vaginal heads V-Asclepion was employed. All patients underwent examination including Q-tip test and Valsalva maneuver and completed ICIQ-SF H FSFI forms. Within 1 month postoperatively all 37 patients noted significant reduction ofurinarystress incontinence symptoms and favorable changes in quality of sexual life. Positive trend was found in urethrovesical junction angle changes. No postoperative complications were registered. The findings from this prospective study confirmed high efficacy and an acceptable safety profile of the new treatment of urinary stress incontinence. PMID:26094384

  16. Ageing and the pursuit of slimness: dietary restraint and weight satisfaction in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, M M; Burnett, L

    1994-09-01

    Dieting and body dissatisfaction are highly prevalent amongst young women. In this study, dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, eating attitudes and body satisfaction were compared in elderly (ES) and young (YS) normal weight women. Dietary restraint and eating attitudes were similar across age groups. Differences between current body weight and desired body weight were equivalent for both age groups (ES, M = 10.8, SEM = 1.8 lb; YS, M = 11.3, SEM = 1.2 lb), although young women (Body Shape Questionnaire, BSQ, M = 78.5, SEM = 5.8) reported significantly greater dissatisfaction with their bodies than the elderly (BSQ, M = 61.7, SEM = 2.9). Of the elderly who had dieted, the majority had dieted five times or less, had started dieting between the ages of 40 and 50 years, and very few had dieted in their teens or twenties (< 8 per cent). Despite normal weight status, desire to lose weight and attempts to achieve this are experienced by young and old alike. PMID:7994225

  17. Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors with Advancing Age and Menopause Among Women With and Without HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tonya N; Weedon, Jeremy; Golub, Elizabeth T; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Levine, Alexandra M; Minkoff, Howard L; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Holman, Susan; Wilson, Tracey E

    2015-05-01

    We assessed changes in self-reported sexual activity (SA) over 13 years among HIV-infected and uninfected women. The impact of aging and menopause on SA and unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAVI) was examined among women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), stratifying by HIV status and detectable viral load among HIV-infected women. Generalized mixed linear models were fitted for each outcome, adjusted for relevant covariates. HIV-uninfected women evidenced higher levels of SA and UAVI than HIV-infected. The odds of SA declined by 62-64 % per decade of age. The odds of SA in a 6-month interval for women aged 40-57 declined by 18-22 % post-menopause (controlling for age). Among HIV+/detectable women only, the odds of any UAVI decreased by 17 % per decade of age; the odds of UAVI were unchanged pre-menopause, and then decreased by 28 % post-menopause. Elucidating the factors accounting for ongoing unprotected sex among older women should inform interventions. PMID:25245474

  18. Age-Related Ultrasound Changes in Muscle Quantity and Quality in Women.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Ikezoe, Tome; Yamada, Yosuke; Tsukagoshi, Rui; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Takagi, Yui; Kimura, Misaka; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the age-related changes in muscle quantity and quality in the trunk and limbs of women. A total of 128 females were divided into four age groups: young, middle-aged, young-old and old-old. Muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI) of the biceps brachii, quadriceps femoris, rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis were measured using B-mode ultrasonography. The EIs of the biceps brachii, quadriceps femoris and transversus abdominis were significantly higher in the middle-aged group than in the young group; however, there were no significant differences in MT. Compared with the young group, all other groups had significant changes in both MT and EI of the rectus abdominis, external oblique and internal oblique muscles. Thus, qualitative changes in muscle may occur earlier than quantitative changes, and loss of muscle mass may occur earlier in the superficial abdominal muscles than in the other muscles. PMID:26278633

  19. Longitudinal Predictors of Attitudes toward Aging among Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Blozis, Shelley; Stuifbergen, Alexa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the impact of change in functional limitation (FL), controlling for social support (SS), on attitudes toward aging using longitudinal survey data collected over a 7-year period. The 503 women with MS (age, M=57 years, SD= 10.25) were mostly Anglo (93%) and married (69%). First, growth models were specified to identify a suitable model for change in FL. A quadratic growth model best described change. Next, SS was considered a time-varying covariate of FL to assess both within- and between-individual effects of SS on FL over time. Within individuals, higher FL levels were associated with lower SS levels. Between individuals, level of but not change in FL was associated with average SS level. Finally, average SS and response level and change in FL were studied as predictors of attitudes toward aging, accounting for 38% of the variance. Women with higher FL and lower SS scores had more negative views of aging. Negative views of aging may have long-term consequences for health outcomes as well as the quality of their later years. PMID:19140653

  20. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth of the superficial reticular dermis. PMID:26066511

  1. Accuracy of BMI to detect percent fat obesity in men and women, ages 17 to 39: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A BMI of 30 kg/m2 is used to define obesity of men and women of all ages. Using variable samples, investigators have shown that age and gender account for percent fat (%Fat) variance independent of BMI. This age and gender bias can be traced to the inability of BMI to distinguish between the body's ...

  2. Women's work, worry and fear: the portrayal of sexuality and sexual health in US magazines for teenage and middle-aged women, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on an exploratory content analysis of the portrayal of sexuality, sexual health and disease in select magazines designed for two groups of women: teenagers and women in the 40-50-year-old age category in the USA. The analysis found that magazine portrayal was both similar for the two groups of women and distinctly different. Neither group of magazines focused on women's sexual desire. Both kinds of magazines emphasized that it was women's work and worry to control sexual expression. Teenagers were described as responsible for avoiding sex in order to prevent pregnancy, fearsomely described STIs and untrustworthy male sexual partners. Abstinence was presented as the only viable option for young women. Women in the 40-50-year-old age group were portrayed as responsible for the emotion work and sexual relations linked to their responsibility for maintaining their marriages and fulfilling their tasks of motherhood, especially through the monitoring of the sexuality of their female children. Sex was characterized in terms akin to women's work within the home. Possible explanations for, and consequences of, these presentations of sexuality are discussed. PMID:19337889

  3. Impact of General and Central Adiposity on Ventricular-Arterial Aging in Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfahrt, Peter; Redfield, Margaret M.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Kane, Garvan C.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Borlaug, Barry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Assess the effect of central and general obesity measures on long-term longitudinal changes in ventricular-arterial mechanics. Background Obesity, female sex and ventricular-arterial stiffening are associated with the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Fat distribution and chronic changes in body composition may impact longitudinal changes in LV properties, independent of arterial load. Methods Comprehensive echo-Doppler echocardiography was performed in 1402 subjects participating in a randomly-selected community-based study at two examinations separated by 4 years. From this population, 788 subjects had adequate paired data to determine LV end-systolic elastance (Ees), end-diastolic elastance (Eed) and effective arterial elastance (Ea). Results Over 4 years, Ea decreased by 3% in tandem with improved blood pressure control, while Ees and Eed increased by 14% and 8% (p<0.001). Greater weight loss over 4 years was associated with progressively greater decreases in Ea in men and women. After adjusting for Ea change, weight gain was correlated with increases in Eed in both women and men. Central obesity was associated with greater age-related increases in Ees in women but not in men, independent of arterial load, but central obesity did not predict changes in Eed or Ea. Conclusion Weight gain is associated with increases in LV diastolic stiffness, even after adjusting for changes in arterial afterload, while weight loss is associated with reductions in arterial stiffness. Age-related LV systolic stiffening is increased in women with central obesity but not men. Strategies to promote weight loss and reduce central adiposity may be effective to prevent HFpEF, particularly in women. PMID:25194285

  4. Genetic and Environmental Causes of Variation in the Difference Between Biological Age Based on DNA Methylation and Chronological Age for Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wong, Ee Ming; Joo, JiHoon E; Jung, Chol-Hee; Chung, Jessica; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Dite, Gillian S; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L

    2015-12-01

    The disease- and mortality-related difference between biological age based on DNA methylation and chronological age (?age) has been found to have approximately 40% heritability by assuming that the familial correlation is only explained by additive genetic factors. We calculated two different ?age measures for 132 middle-aged female twin pairs (66 monozygotic and 66 dizygotic twin pairs) and their 215 sisters using DNA methylation data measured by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. For each ?age measure, and their combined measure, we estimated the familial correlation for MZ, DZ and sibling pairs using the multivariate normal model for pedigree analysis. We also pooled our estimates with those from a former study to estimate weighted average correlations. For both ?age measures, there was familial correlation that varied across different types of relatives. No evidence of a difference was found between the MZ and DZ pair correlations, or between the DZ and sibling pair correlations. The only difference was between the MZ and sibling pair correlations (p < .01), and there was marginal evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). For weighted average correlation, there was evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than the DZ pair correlation (p < .03), and marginally greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). The varied familial correlation of ?age is not explained by additive genetic factors alone, implying the existence of shared non-genetic factors explaining variation in ?age for middle-aged women. PMID:26527295

  5. The Prevalence of Using Iodine-Containing Supplements Is Low among Reproductive-Age Women, NHANES 1999–200612

    PubMed Central

    Gahche, Jaime J.; Bailey, Regan L.; Mirel, Lisa B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy, the iodine requirement rises to meet demands for neurological development and fetal growth. If these requirements are not met, irreversible pathological cognitive and behavioral changes to the fetus may ensue. This study estimated the prevalence of iodine-containing dietary supplement (DS) use and intakes of iodine from DSs among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–39 y) who were interviewed and examined in NHANES 1999–2006 (n = 6404). Although 77.5% of pregnant women reported taking one or more DSs in the past 30 d, only 22.3% consumed an iodine-containing supplement. Most pregnant women reported using one DS and reported taking this product daily. The vast majority of iodine-containing DSs reported by pregnant women claimed an iodine content of 150 ?g iodine/serving on the label. Pregnant women using at least one DS containing iodine had a mean daily iodine intake of 122 ?g/d from supplements; the median value was 144 ?g/d. Median urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant women in the population aged 15–39 y. The median UIC was 148 ?g/L for pregnant women and 133 ?g/L for nonpregnant women. The WHO has established a cutoff for insufficient iodine intake at <150 ?g/L for pregnant women and <100 mg/L for those who are not pregnant. This suggests that as a population, we may not be meeting adequate intakes of iodine for pregnant women. More research is needed on the iodine intakes of pregnant women and women of reproductive age on their total iodine intake from all sources, not just DSs. PMID:23616501

  6. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  7. USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age
    *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    In the United States, sampling women o...

  8. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  9. A photographic scale for the evaluation of facial skin aging in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Bernois, Armand; Huber, Alexia; Derome, Caroline; Drouault, Yorik; de Quéral, Delphine; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Heusèle, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The process of facial skin aging differs between different ethnic populations. Standardized tools to objectively evaluate facial skin aging in clinical and epidemiological studies in different ethnic populations are needed. We designed and validated a photonumeric scale for assessment of facial aging in the Indian population. A total of 149 subjects were selected from an electronic photographic database of 300 women from the Mumbai region. An expert consensus panel selected nine subjects representing a spectrum of skin damage from none to severe, on the basis of wrinkling and tissue slackening. The nine-point scale, composed of one face-on and one oblique photo of the same subject per grade, was validated by nine independent judges in 99 subjects with a repetition two weeks later. Inter-observer reliability and intra-observer reproducibility were calculated using Kappa coefficients. Validation of the scale showed a high level of inter-observer reliability between the consensus and independent panels, and intra-observer reproducibility between the two evaluations performed by the independent judges. In conclusion, this nine-point facial aging scale is a reliable tool for clinical evaluations of skin damage in Indian women, suitable for use in clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:21719407

  10. Age-related changes in platelet function are more profound in women than in men.

    PubMed

    Cowman, Jonathan; Dunne, Eimear; Oglesby, Irene; Byrne, Barry; Ralph, Adam; Voisin, Bruno; Müllers, Sieglinde; Ricco, Antonio J; Kenny, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Age is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), however the effect of age on platelet function remains unclear. Ideally, platelet function should be assayed under flow and shear conditions that occur in vivo. Our study aimed to characterise the effect of age on platelet translocation behaviour using a novel flow-based assay that measures platelet function in less than 200??l of blood under conditions of arterial shear. Blood from males (n?=?53) and females (n?=?56), ranging in age from 19-82 and 21-70 respectively were perfused through custom-made parallel plate flow chambers coated with immobilised human von Willebrand Factor (VWF) under arterial shear (1,500 s(-1)). Platelet translocation behaviour on VWF was recorded by digital-image microscopy and analysed. The study showed that aging resulted in a significant decrease in the number of platelet tracks, translocating platelets and unstable platelet interactions with VWF. These age related changes in platelet function were more profound in women than in men indicating that age and gender significantly impacts on platelet interactions with VWF. PMID:26179119

  11. DNA methylation age of blood predicts future onset of lung cancer in the women's health initiative

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Morgan E.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Chen, Brian; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Horvath, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is considered an age-associated disease, whose progression is in part due to accumulation of genomic instability as well as age-related decline in system integrity and function. Thus even among individuals exposed to high levels of genotoxic carcinogens, such as those found in cigarette smoke, lung cancer susceptibility may vary as a function of individual differences in the rate of biological aging. We recently developed a highly accurate candidate biomarker of aging based on DNA methylation (DNAm) levels, which may prove useful in assessing risk of aging-related diseases, such as lung cancer. Using data on 2,029 females from the Women's Health Initiative, we examined whether baseline measures of “intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration” (IEAA) predicted subsequent lung cancer incidence. We observed 43 lung cancer cases over the nearly twenty years of follow-up. Results showed that standardized measures of IEAA were significantly associated with lung cancer incidence (HR: 1.50, P = 3.4×10?3). Furthermore, stratified Cox proportional hazard models suggested that the association may be even stronger among older individuals (70 years or above) or those who are current smokers. Overall, our results suggest that IEAA may be a useful biomarker for evaluating lung cancer susceptibility from a biological aging perspective. PMID:26411804

  12. ACTN3 genotype is associated with muscle phenotypes in women across the adult age span

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sean; Liu, Dongmei; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi; Roth, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    The R577X polymorphism in the ?-actinin-3 encoding gene (ACTN3) has been associated with elite athletic performance, and recently with differences in isometric and dynamic muscle strength and power in the general population. In this study we sought to determine the association of ACTN3 R577X genotype with muscle strength and mass phenotypes in men and women across the adult age span. Eight hundred forty-eight (n = 848) adult volunteers (454 men and 394 women) aged 22–90 yr were genotyped for ACTN3 R577X. Knee extensor (KE) shortening and lengthening peak torque values were determined using isokinetic dynamometry and fat-free mass (FFM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Women deficient in ?-actinin-3 (X/X; n = 53) displayed lower KE shortening peak torque (30°/s: 89.5 ± 3.5 vs. 99.3 ± 1.4 N·m, P = 0.011; 180°/s: 60.3 ± 2.6 vs. 67.0 ± 1.0 N·m, P = 0.019) and KE lengthening peak torque (30°/s: 122.8 ± 5.7 vs. 137.0 ± 2.2 N·m, P = 0.022; 180°/s: 121.8 ± 5.8 vs. 138.5 ± 2.2 N·m, P = 0.008) compared with R/X + R/R women (n = 341). Women X/X homozygotes also displayed lower levels of both total body FFM (38.9 ± 0.5 vs. 40.1 ± 0.2 kg, P = 0.040) and lower limb FFM (11.9 ± 0.2 vs. 12.5 ± 0.1 kg, P = 0.044) compared with R/X + R/R women. No genotype-related differences were observed in men. In conclusion, our results indicate that the absence of ?-actinin-3 protein (i.e., ACTN3 X/X genotype) influences KE peak torque and FFM in women but not men. PMID:18756004

  13. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (?=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (?=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (?=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (?=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  14. Bone density parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women.

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, K. T.; Sneyd, M. J.; Compston, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between bone density and indices of calcium metabolism including parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women. DESIGN--A cross sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--138 women volunteers aged 45-65 with no known osteoporosis and unselected for disease status recruited for a dietary assessment study from the community using general practice registers. Volunteer rate was 20%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Bone mineral density measured with dual energy x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--Bone density at the lumbar spine and neck and trochanteric regions of the femur was inversely related to serum intact parathyroid hormone concentrations and positively related to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. These associations were independent of possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index, cigarette smoking habit, menopausal status, and use of diuretics and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. These associations were apparent throughout the whole distribution of bone density and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations within the normal range, suggesting a physiological relation. CONCLUSIONS--The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations influence bone density in middle aged women. Findings from this study together with other work suggest that the role of vitamin D in osteoporosis should not be neglected. The associations with parathyroid hormone also indicate plausible biological mechanisms. The roughly 5-10% difference in bone density between top and bottom tertiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, though not large in magnitude, may have considerable public health implications in terms of prevention of osteoporosis and its sequelae, fractures. PMID:1392857

  15. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  16. Circadian sleep, illumination, and activity patterns in women: influences of aging and time reference.

    PubMed

    Jean-Louis, G; Kripke, D F; Ancoli-Israel, S; Klauber, M R; Sepulveda, R S; Mowen, M A; Assmus, J D; Langer, R D

    2000-01-01

    Patterns of sleep, illumination, and activity of women of different ages were continuously monitored in their natural environments with a wrist activity monitor. Partial correlation analyses were performed to determine relationships between age and sleep and several circadian rhythm measures including the amplitudes, mesors, and timings of sleep, of illumination, and of activity. We found no age-related decline in actigraphic sleep duration. Age was not a significant correlate of circadian rhythm parameters of sleep. Moreover, no age effects were found on daily illumination exposure or on the circadian timing of illumination and activity patterns. However, the level and amplitude of the circadian activity rhythm showed a gradual decline with aging, independent of the time reference (i.e., Daylight Saving Time versus Standard Time) when recordings were obtained. As expected, significant associations were observed between local time reference and the level and timing of peak of illumination patterns. However, changes in local time reference were not significantly and consistently associated with actigraphic sleep or activity measures. PMID:10716544

  17. Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among women in zone 3 of Dhaka city: the challenge of reaching all women of reproductive age in urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, H.; Weierbach, R.; Hossain, I.; Islam, R.

    1998-01-01

    Neonatal tetanus is still an important public health problem in both urban and rural Bangladesh, with an estimated 41,000 cases occurring annually. This article analyses the coverage of tetanus toxoid (TT) immunizations among women of reproductive age in Zone 3 of Dhaka City in 1995. Although 85% of women with a child under 1 year of age had received two TT immunizations, only 11% of women of reproductive age had obtained the complete series of five TT immunizations and only 52% of women of reproductive age had received one or more TT immunizations. Access to TT immunization, as defined by having had at least one such immunization, was lower among women aged over 30 years and also among those aged under 20 years, especially those who were not yet married or who had not yet become pregnant. Characteristics associated with TT immunization status included the following: educational level of the woman, distance from the nearest immunization centre, and level of contact with family planning field workers. Additional characteristics that influenced women's TT immunization status included age, marital and working status, recency of migration from rural to urban area, and number of children. The relationships were complex and varied depending on the number of TT immunizations received (one or two) and on the type of analysis being carried out (bivariate or multivariate). The findings point to the need for a broad-based campaign to promote access to TT immunization as well as to promote the completion of all five TT doses in Bangladesh. Reducing missed opportunities for promotion of immunization as well as targeting home visitation of women in need of additional immunizations constitute further approaches to improving coverage. Although TT coverage rates were only marginally lower among women in slum households, such women were more likely than those in non-slum households to be pregnant and hence more likely to bear a baby at risk of neonatal tetanus. Furthermore, the environment of slum households, where deliveries normally take place, is more conducive to the development of neonatal tetanus among unprotected neonates; a strategy of focusing on slum households is therefore also needed. PMID:9868835

  18. Anemia among Muslim Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni; Biderman, Aya

    2015-11-01

    There are inequalities in health indicators among different ethnic groups living in the same region and receiving the same medical services. Anemia is a global problem. Although the prevalence of anemia is not high in Israel, differences among ethnic groups have not been studied. Our objective was to assess anemia among Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in southern Israel. A retrospective observational study was conducted based on data from computerized medical records. Seven thousand eight hundred seventy-one women in the study clinics underwent complete blood counts and had blood hemoglobin levels of 11 g/dl or below. The Jewish patients were older (31.7 vs. 29.7 years, P?women had more children (3.7 vs. 1.9, P?women were pregnant during the study period (49.3 vs. 35.0 %, P?women, anemia of chronic disease (18.1 vs. 9.7 %, P??0.001). The adherence rates for treatment were very low. Three factors associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin below 8 g/dl) were being Bedouin (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.295, P?

  19. Clinical Usefulness of Shoulder Stability Exercises for Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seok-Hwa; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of shoulder stability exercises and the effect of stability exercise on the shoulder pain of middle-aged women. [Subjects] Twenty-two middle-aged female subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a shoulder stability exercise group (Experimental group, n=11) and a control group (n=11). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group performed a shoulder stability exercise, which was designed to correct abnormal location of the scapula, for 40 minutes per day, three times per week, over a period of four weeks. Range of motion, muscle strength, and grasping power were measured to determine the effect of the shoulder stability exercise. The measured parameters were evaluated before and after four weeks of exercise. [Results] Following intervention, range of motion, muscle strength, and grasping power showed greater improvements in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that shoulder stability exercise can improve the shoulder function of middle-aged women, and prevent damage to the shoulder joint. We consider this exercise would be useful in clinical rehabilitation. PMID:24259767

  20. LIFETIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPSE IN MIDDLE-AGED WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    NYGAARD, Ingrid E.; SHAW, Janet M.; BARDSLEY, Tyler; EGGER, Marlene J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine, in a case-control study, whether pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is associated with overall lifetime physical activity (combined leisure, outdoor, household, occupational), and lifetime leisure, lifetime strenuous, and teen years strenuous activity. STUDY DESIGN 191 POP cases (defined as maximal vaginal descent ?1 cm below the hymen) and 191 age and recruitment-site matched controls (defined as maximal vaginal descent ?1 cm above the hymen) between 39–65 years with no or mild urinary incontinence, were recruited chiefly from primary care clinics. Participants completed Lifetime Physical Activity (LPAQ) and Occupation (OQ) Questionnaires, recalling activities during 4 age epochs. We performed separate logistic regression models for physical activity measures. RESULTS Compared to controls, POP cases had greater BMI and parity. Median overall lifetime activity, expressed in MET-hours/week, did not differ significantly between cases and controls. In adjusted analyses, we observed no associations between odds of POP and overall lifetime physical activity, lifetime leisure activity, or lifetime strenuous activity. There was a marginally significant nonlinear relationship between teen strenuous activity and POP with an increase in the log-odds of POP for women reporting ? 21 hours/week of strenuous activity (p=0.046). CONCLUSION Lifetime physical activity does not increase the odds of anatomic POP in middle-aged women not seeking care for POP. Strenuous activity during teenage years may confer higher odds of POP. This relationship and the potential role of physical activity and POP incidence should be evaluated prospectively. PMID:24486225

  1. A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Emily R.; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 40–69 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of children’s socioeconomic circumstances—particularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher education—in maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views. PMID:22962507

  2. Association between higher levels of sexual function, activity, and satisfaction and self-rated successful aging in older postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Wesley K.; Charo, Lindsey; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if measures of successful-aging are associated with sexual activity, satisfaction, and function in older post-menopausal women. Design Cross-sectional study using self-report surveys; analyses include chi-square and t-tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Setting Community-dwelling older post-menopausal women in the greater San Diego Region. Participants 1,235 community-dwelling women aged 60-89 years participating at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative. Measurements Demographics and self-report measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction and successful aging. Results Sexual activity and functioning (desire, arousal, vaginal tightness, use of lubricants, and ability to climax) were negatively associated with age, as were physical and mental health. In contrast, sexual satisfaction and self-rated successful aging and quality of life remained unchanged across age groups. Successful aging measures were positively associated with sexual measures, especially self-rated quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction appear to be stable in the face of declines in physical health, some cognitive abilities, and sexual activity and function and are positively associated with each other across ages 60-89 years. PMID:21797827

  3. A 1st-trimester combined screening test in pregnant women of advanced maternal age in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Pan, M; Han, J; Yang, X; Zhen, L; Liao, C; Li, D Z

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test for trisomy 21 in different maternal age groups in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data on the 1st-trimester combined screening test (maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, free ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) were analysed. The study population of 17,556 pregnant women was subdivided into three groups according to maternal age: 16,113 were < 35 years of age; 1,228 were 35-39 years of age; and 215 were ? 40 years of age. The detection and false-positive rates of the 1st-trimester screening test for trisomy 21 or trisomy 18 in the three groups of women were 89.5 and 1.7%; 90.9 and 6.8%; and 100 and 22.3%, respectively. With increasing maternal age, the odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR) were increased. The balance between the detection rate and false-positive rate of the 1st-trimester combined screening test is more favourable in women < 36 years with comparable OAPR. Although the false-positive rate increases with increasing maternal age, the performance of the 1st-trimester combined screening test in women ? 35 years is more effective than screening based on maternal age alone. PMID:25057869

  4. How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Földvári, Peter; Van Leeuwen, Bas; Van Leeuwen-Li, Jieli

    2012-01-01

    The role of human capital in economic growth is now largely uncontested. One indicator of human capital frequently used for the pre-1900 period is age heaping, which has been increasingly used to measure gender-specific differences. In this note, we find that in some historical samples, married women heap significantly less than unmarried women. This is still true after correcting for possible selection effects. A possible explanation is that a percentage of women adapted their ages to that of their husbands, hence biasing the Whipple index. We find the same effect to a lesser extent for men. Since this bias differs over time and across countries, a consistent comparison of female age heaping should be made by focusing on unmarried women. PMID:22329066

  5. Influence of body weight, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, James H; Sarto, Gloria E; Habibi, Mitra; Kilpatrick, Sarah J; Tuomala, Ruth E; Shier, Janice M; Wollett, Lori; Fischer, Patricia A; Khorana, Kinnari S; Rodvold, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    Women of childbearing age commonly receive azithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including during pregnancy. This study determined azithromycin pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women and identified covariates contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. Plasma samples were collected by using a sparse-sampling strategy from pregnant women at a gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks and from nonpregnant women of childbearing age receiving oral azithromycin for the treatment of an infection. Pharmacokinetic data from extensive sampling conducted on 12 healthy women were also included. Plasma samples were assayed for azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population analysis included 53 pregnant and 25 nonpregnant women. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time provided the best fit of the data. Lean body weight, pregnancy, ethnicity, and the coadministration of oral contraceptives were covariates identified as significantly influencing the oral clearance of azithromycin and, except for oral contraceptive use, intercompartmental clearance between the central and second peripheral compartments. No other covariate relationships were identified. Compared to nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives, a 21% to 42% higher dose-adjusted azithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) occurred in non-African American women who were pregnant or receiving oral contraceptives. Conversely, azithromycin AUCs were similar between pregnant African American women and nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives. Although higher levels of maternal and fetal azithromycin exposure suggest that lower doses be administered to non-African American women during pregnancy, the consideration of azithromycin pharmacodynamics during pregnancy should guide any dose adjustments. PMID:22106226

  6. Influence of Body Weight, Ethnicity, Oral Contraceptives, and Pregnancy on the Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mitra; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Tuomala, Ruth E.; Shier, Janice M.; Wollett, Lori; Fischer, Patricia A.; Khorana, Kinnari S.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Women of childbearing age commonly receive azithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including during pregnancy. This study determined azithromycin pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women and identified covariates contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. Plasma samples were collected by using a sparse-sampling strategy from pregnant women at a gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks and from nonpregnant women of childbearing age receiving oral azithromycin for the treatment of an infection. Pharmacokinetic data from extensive sampling conducted on 12 healthy women were also included. Plasma samples were assayed for azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population analysis included 53 pregnant and 25 nonpregnant women. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time provided the best fit of the data. Lean body weight, pregnancy, ethnicity, and the coadministration of oral contraceptives were covariates identified as significantly influencing the oral clearance of azithromycin and, except for oral contraceptive use, intercompartmental clearance between the central and second peripheral compartments. No other covariate relationships were identified. Compared to nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives, a 21% to 42% higher dose-adjusted azithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) occurred in non-African American women who were pregnant or receiving oral contraceptives. Conversely, azithromycin AUCs were similar between pregnant African American women and nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives. Although higher levels of maternal and fetal azithromycin exposure suggest that lower doses be administered to non-African American women during pregnancy, the consideration of azithromycin pharmacodynamics during pregnancy should guide any dose adjustments. PMID:22106226

  7. Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ?36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 µmol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (?0.36–<0.7 µmol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7–1.4 µmol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (>1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy. PMID:25317119

  8. Type 2 Diabetes and Cognitive Decline in Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Nooyens, Astrid C.J.; Baan, Caroline A.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W.; Verschuren, W.M. Monique

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes is associated with greater decline in cognitive function in middle-aged individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the Dutch prospective Doetinchem Cohort Study, cognitive functioning was measured twice within a 5-year time interval in 2,613 men and women. Participants were aged 43–70 years at baseline (1995–2002), and no one had a history of stroke. Change in scores on global cognitive function as well as on specific cognitive function domains (memory, speed of cognitive processes, and cognitive flexibility) were compared for respondents with and without type 2 diabetes (verified by the general practitioner or random plasma glucose levels ?11.1 mmol/l). RESULTS At the 5-year follow-up, the decline in global cognitive function in diabetic patients was 2.6 times greater than that in individuals without diabetes. For individuals aged ?60 years, patients with incident and prevalent diabetes showed a 2.5 and 3.6 times greater decline, respectively, in cognitive flexibility than individuals without diabetes. For most cognitive domains, the magnitude of cognitive decline in patients with incident diabetes was intermediate between that of individuals without diabetes and that of patients with diabetes at baseline. CONCLUSIONS Middle-aged individuals with type 2 diabetes showed a greater decline in cognitive function than middle-aged individuals without diabetes. PMID:20519662

  9. Trauma exposure and the subsequent risk of coronary heart disease among mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    May-Ling, June Lee; Loxton, Deborah; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether exposure to trauma in the form of a history of physical, mental, emotional or sexual abuse or violence predicted new onset of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. In addition, this study aimed to examine the mediation effects of psychological, lifestyle and health related factors in the abuse-CHD relationship. Data from 6 surveys over 15 years, from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a large prospective cohort study, were used. Participants from the 1946-1951 cohort who did not self-report heart disease at surveys 1 (1996) and 2 (1998) and who had provided information on other variables were included (n = 9,276). After adjusting for age, women who reported trauma exposure at baseline were 1.54 times more likely (95% confidence interval 1.29-1.83) to report new onset of CHD than those who did not report trauma exposure. The association between trauma and CHD was largely explained by psychological factors, suggesting a direct pathway between exposure to trauma and risk of CHD. PMID:24923258

  10. Women, Work and Age: Policy Challenges. Proceedings of the Conference (Lansing, Michigan, April 11-12, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Gerontology, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Proceedings of a conference on women, work, and age are presented. The introduction by Carol Hollenstead give background on the topic, identifies the conference's goals and objectives, and describes the rationale behind the published proceedings. The keynote address, "Age Discrimination: The Invisible Barriers" (Sandra V. Porter), discusses…

  11. HPV vaccination in women aged 27 to 45 years: what do general practitioners think?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is registered in Australia for females aged 9 to 45 years, females aged 27 to 45 years have shown limited vaccine uptake. Our study explored general practitioners’ (GPs) views concerning HPV vaccination of females in this age group, with particular focus on the barriers and the facilitators to the delivery of the HPV vaccine. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 randomly selected general practitioners from metropolitan Melbourne. Questions were based on a theoretical framework that explained the barriers and facilitators to professional behaviour change. Results According to the GPs, the major barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine included the cost of the vaccine, time constraints, and the three-dose schedule. Other barriers that were identified included GPs’ and patients’ beliefs that females in this age group were at low risk of contracting HPV, lack of awareness about the vaccine, and uncertainty about the benefits of this vaccine for females in this age group. In contrast, the facilitators that were identified included the availability of the vaccine on site, the availability of vaccine clinics or nurses for administering the vaccine, the availability of information related to the vaccine either on site or online, and positive opinions from experts in the field. Conclusions Our study has identified some of the barriers and facilitators to the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine in females aged 27 to 45 years, as perceived by GPs. Further studies should be conducted to determine which of these should be targeted or prioritised for intervention. The views of women in this age group should also be considered as these would also be influential in designing effective intervention strategies for improving the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25074404

  12. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Methods Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. Results In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09–1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Conclusion Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course. PMID:26062026

  13. What is the optimal gestational age for women with gestational diabetes type A1 to deliver?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ms. Brenda; Lee, Ms. Vanessa R.; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Frias, Antonio E.; Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Gestational diabetes type A1 (A1GDM), also known as diet-controlled gestational diabetes, is associated with an increase in adverse perinatal outcomes such as macrosomia and Erb’s palsy. However, it remains unclear when to deliver these women because optimal timing of delivery requires balancing neonatal morbidities from early term delivery against the risk of IUFD. We sought to determine the optimal gestational age (GA) for women with A1GDM to deliver. STUDY DESIGN A decision-analytic model was built to compare the outcomes of delivery at 37 through 41 weeks in a theoretical cohort of 100,000 women with A1GDM. Strategies involving expectant management until a later GA accounted for probabilities of spontaneous delivery, indicated delivery, and IUFD during each week. GA associated risks of neonatal complications included cerebral palsy, infant death, and Erb’s palsy. Probabilities were derived from the literature, and total quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated. Sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the robustness of the baseline assumptions. RESULTS Our model showed that induction at 38 weeks maximized QALYs. Within our cohort, delivery at 38 weeks would prevent 48 stillbirths but lead to 12 more infant deaths compared to 39 weeks. Sensitivity analysis revealed that 38 weeks remains the optimal timing of delivery until IUFD rates fall below 0.3-fold of our baseline assumption at which expectant management until 39 weeks is optimal. CONCLUSION By weighing the risks of IUFD against infant deaths and neonatal morbidities from early term delivery, the ideal GA for women with A1GDM to deliver is 38 weeks. PMID:24912097

  14. Understanding the implications of population ageing for mid-life women.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sarah

    2003-12-01

    Population ageing now affects every region of the world, with all societies beginning to adopt a mature demographic profile. Falling fertility and increased longevity impact upon women's transitions as workers, carers, mothers and grandmothers, and also on the social structures within which these individual roles and responsibilities occur. Shifts from a high-mortality/high-fertility society to a low-mortality/low-fertility society and the ageing of family transitions have significant implications for both family relationships and kinship roles. Low-mortality/low-fertility results in an increase in the number of living generations, and a decrease in the number of living relatives within these generations. Women in mid-life will thus face increasing care demands as children of frail parents and mothers of adult working children with children. In addition, they will increasingly face mid and late life divorce, and the new demands of reconstituted or step families. This will occur within the framework of reduced extended kin to call upon for practical and psychological support. PMID:15107256

  15. Experience of Late–Middle-Aged Women who Reside in Small and Medium-Sized Cities in Becoming Psychologically Mature Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Euna; Kim, Haeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to search the inner world of postmenopausal women in late-middle age who are facing senescence and live in small and medium-sized cities. Methods The methods of the study were the investigation and classification of answers to questions according to a declarative ethnography analysis. The questions asked to late–middle-aged women living in small and medium-sized cities were “How do you interpret and recognize the changes in the body after menopause?” and “Which methods do you choose and practice to maintain your health in relation to aging during middle age?”. Results Four positive topics and two negative topics were drawn from the study. The four positive themes were: ambition; completion of a great mission; life with a sense of affection; and gratitude for maintaining health. The negative themes were: undulating emotion; and filling the emptiness. Conclusion The recognition of changes in the body after menopause in late–middle-aged women in small and medium-sized cities can affect their preparation processes towards senescence. It is critical to find the means to manage emergency health cases from early adulthood to middle age, based on the outcomes of the study. The study also emphasizes the importance of the woman's family's alternative strategies and supportive systems, which can fit into the cultural context of the community. PMID:26430612

  16. The Effect of Urinary Incontinence on Quality of Life of Women at Childbearing Age in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bakarman, Marwan A; Al-Ghamdi, Sadiah Saeed

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among women of childbearing age at Maternity and Children's Hospital (MCH), Jeddah, 2012, and to assess its impact on the quality of their life. A cross- sectional analytic approach was carried out among women of childbearing age seen at MCH, Jeddah. Systematic random sampling technique was followed. Each woman fulfilling the inclusion criteria was invited to enroled in the study, the inclusion criteria were women aged 15-50 years, agreed to participate in the study, the exclusion criteria were pregnant women and patients who are seriously ill. Self-administered questionnaire using the King's Health Questionnaire was utilized to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of patients with UI. Out of 1200 patients attending the gynecology clinic in the MCH, 412 (34.3%) were diagnosed as having UI. Their age ranged between 15 and 50 years with a mean of 34.3 + 7.2 years. Almost 50% indicated that UI affected them badly as wife, mother, their emotions, and their physical and social activities. The most commonly occurring problems were frequent micturition (88.3%), nocturnal enuresis (87.9%). The least occurring, were kidney problems (38.6%) and dripping during sexual activities (40.8%). Increasing age and higher parity were significantly associated with limitations in different life domains. Urinary incontinence is common and often disturbing for Saudi women. It adversely impaired their quality of life. PMID:26383213

  17. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  18. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ?3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week. PMID:24959115

  19. Long Term Effects on Cognitive Function of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Prescribed to Women Aged 50–55 Years

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Leng, Iris; Manson, JoAnn E.; Brown, Candice M.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Vaughan, Leslie; Robinson, Jennifer; Rapp, Stephen R.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Lane, Dorothy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Li, Wenjun; Resnick, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) may adversely affect older women’s cognitive function. It is not known whether this extends to younger women. Methods 1,326 postmenopausal women, who had begun treatment in two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hormone therapy when aged 50–55 years, were assessed with an annual telephone-administered cognitive battery that included measures of global (primary outcome) and domain-specific cognitive functions (verbal memory, attention, executive function, verbal fluency, and working memory). The clinical trials in which they participated had compared 0.625 mg CEE with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) over an average of 7.0 years. Cognitive testing was conducted an average of 7.2 years following the end of the trials, when women had mean age 67.2 years, and repeated one year later. Results Global cognitive function scores from women who had been assigned to CEE-based therapies were similar to those from women assigned to placebo: mean [95% confidence interval] intervention effect of 0.02 [?0.08,0.12]standard deviation units (p=0.66). Similarly, no overall differences were found for any individual cognitive domain (all p>0.15). Pre-specified subgroup analyses found some evidence that CEE-based therapies may have adversely affected verbal fluency among women who had prior hysterectomy or prior use of hormone therapy: mean treatment effects of ?0.17 [?0.33, ?0.02] and ?0.25 [?0.42, ?0.08], respectively, however this may be a chance finding. We are not able to address whether initiating hormone therapy during the menopause and maintaining therapy until any symptoms are passed affects cognitive function, either in the short or longer term. Conclusions CEE-based therapies produced no overall sustained benefit or risk to cognitive function when administered to postmenopausal women aged 50–55 years. PMID:23797469

  20. Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the Bent-Knee Push-Up for College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Heather M.; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    The revised push-up test has been found to have good validity but it produces many zero scores for women. Maybe there should be an alternative to the revised push-up test for college-age women. The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity, reliability, and validity for the bent-knee push-up test (executed on hands and knees) for…

  1. Perspectives of middle-aged African-American women in the Deep South on antiretroviral therapy adherence.

    PubMed

    DeMoss, Margaret; Bonney, Loida; Grant, Jennifer; Klein, Robin; del Rio, Carlos; Barker, Judith C

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence of stabilization in some areas of the USA, HIV infection in black women is not declining in the Deep South. Using a phenomenological approach to qualitative inquiry, we investigated women's experiences influencing their adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in an urban setting. Inclusion criteria specified black women who had been aware of their HIV status for at least two years and were engaged in HIV outpatient care. Twelve single face-to-face confidential in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted from a sample of predominantly middle-aged women retained in care at an HIV clinic in Atlanta, Georgia. Data were analyzed by two independent reviewers and three themes emerged from the group of women's accounts of their experiences. First, sentinel events led to changes in perspective and motivated women to adhere to HAART. Second, recognition that one had the personal strength necessary to cope with HIV fostered adherence. Finally, relationships with healthcare providers especially trust issues surrounding this relationship, impacted adherence both positively and negatively. These findings suggest that HAART adherence is a complex issue among middle-aged urban black women with HIV in the Deep South. Providers caring for this patient population should recognize that sentinel events, personal strength, and positive healthcare relationships are opportunities to improve adherence. PMID:24099510

  2. Observer age and the social transmission of attractiveness in humans: Younger women are more influenced by the choices of popular others than older women.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Caldwell, Christine A; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    Being paired with an attractive partner increases perceptual judgements of attractiveness in humans. We tested experimentally for prestige bias, whereby individuals follow the choices of prestigious others. Women rated the attractiveness of photographs of target males which were paired with either popular or less popular model female partners. We found that pairing a photo of a man with a woman presented as his partner positively influenced the attractiveness of the man when the woman was presented as more popular (Experiment 1). Further, this effect was stronger in younger participants compared to older participants (Experiment 1). Reversing the target and model such that women were asked to rate women paired with popular and less popular men revealed no effect of model popularity and this effect was unrelated to participant age (Experiment 2). An additional experiment confirmed that participant age and not stimulus age primarily influenced the tendency to follow others' preferences in Experiment 1 (Experiment 3). We also confirmed that our manipulations of popularity lead to variation in rated prestige (Experiment 4). These results suggest a sophisticated model-based bias in social learning whereby individuals are most influenced by the choices of those who have high popularity/prestige. Furthermore, older individuals moderate their use of such social information and so this form of social learning appears strongest in younger women. PMID:25314951

  3. Awareness of methylmercury in fish and fish consumption among pregnant and postpartum women and women of childbearing age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lando, Amy M; Fein, Sara B; Choinière, Conrad J

    2012-07-01

    In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reissued joint advice recommending that pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not consume fish high in mercury such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish, and not consume more than 12 ounces (340.2g) of other lower mercury fish per week. These groups were encouraged to eat up to 12 ounces (340.2g) of low mercury fish per week to get the health benefits of fish. Using a survey of 1286 pregnant women, 522 postpartum women, and a control group of 1349 non-pregnant/non-postpartum women of childbearing age, this study evaluated awareness of mercury as a problem in food and examined fish consumption levels across groups using regression analysis. We also compared awareness of mercury as a problem in food to awareness of Listeria, dioxins and PCBs. We found that the majority of all 3 groups of women were aware of mercury and that nearly all women in all 3 groups limited consumption consistent with the advice; they ate less than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish per week and no high mercury fish. Compared with the control group, pregnant and postpartum women were more likely to be aware of mercury as a problem in food, and pregnant women ate less total fish and were less likely to eat fish, to eat more than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish, and to eat high mercury fish. However, all groups ate much less than the recommended 340.2g (12 oz) of low mercury fish per week for optimum health benefits. Among women who ate fish, the median intake of total fish was 51.6 g/wk (1.8 oz/wk), 71.4 g/wk (2.5 oz/wk), and 85.3 g/wk (3.0 oz/wk) for the pregnant, postpartum, and control groups, respectively. Thus, it appears that the targeted groups of women were more aware of mercury and were eating fish within the FDA/EPA guidelines, but these women may be missing the health benefits to themselves and their children of eating a sufficient amount of fish. PMID:22534145

  4. Multiple sclerosis; a disease of reproductive-aged women and the dilemma involving contraceptive methods

    PubMed Central

    Türky?lmaz, Esengül; Y?ld?r?m, Melahat; Av?ar, Ay?e Filiz Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nerves system. Because the disease predominantly affects women of reproductive ages, having knowledge about contraception options for MS patients can make clinicians provide better counseling. Although most contraceptive methods are generally accepted as safe and effective in MS patients, recent studies have raised questions about their potential adverse effects on the disease. The use of contraceptive methods to avoid unintended pregnancies is crucial in MS patients, particularly during the relapse phase of the disease or the time when the disease is not completely under control. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. Providing appropriate contraception options to multiple sclerosis patients will be one of the most challenging issues for clinicians to deal with. Recent studies have raised questions that the use of hormonal contraceptives may at least partly contribute to the rise in incidence of MS in women. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. PMID:25788851

  5. [Efficacy of general magnetotherapy in conservative therapy of uterine myoma in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Kulishova, T V; Tabashnikova, N A; Akker, L V

    2005-01-01

    Sixty women of the reproductive age with uterine myoma were divided into two groups. Thirty patients of the study group received combined therapy plus general magnetotherapy (GMT). Patients of the control group received only combined treatment. Ultrasound investigation registered a reduction in the size of myoma nodes by 16.7% in the study group, while in the controls myoma size did not change (p < 0.05). 1-year follow-up data for the study group demonstrated no cases of the myoma growth while 16.6% of the controls showed growth of myoma nodes, in 6.6% of them supravaginal myoma amputation was made for rapidly growing myoma. PMID:15759473

  6. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to determine the rate of uptake. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine variables influencing the uptake at 5% significance level. Participants A total of 33?223 sexually active women of reproductive age. Outcome measure Time of uptake of a modern contraceptive after first sexual intercourse. Results The median modern contraceptive uptake time was 4?years in never-married and 14?years among ever-married women. Significant differences in modern contraceptive uptake existed in respondents’ age, location, education and wealth status. Never-married women were about three times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than ever-married women (aHR=3.24 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.65)). Women with higher education were six times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than those without education (aHR=6.18 (95% CI 5.15 to 7.42)). Conclusions The rate of modern contraceptive uptake is low, and timing of contraceptive uptake during or after first sexual intercourse differed according to marital status. Age and number of children ever born influenced modern contraceptive uptake among the never-married women, but religion and place of residence were associated with the probability of modern contraceptive uptake among ever-married women. PMID:26671948

  7. Hostility is associated with Visceral, but not Subcutaneous, Fat in Middle-Aged African-American and White women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Janssen, Imke; Wesley, Deidre; Powell, Lynda H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The current study was designed to examine the cross-sectional association between hostility and measures of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in middle-aged African-American and white women. Because fat-patterning characteristics are known to differ by race,we were particularly interested in examining whether these associations were similar for women of both racial/ethnic groups. Methods Participants were 418 (45% African-American, 55% white) middle-aged women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Visceral and Subcutaneous fat were measured by Computed Tomographic Scans and hostility was assessed via questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted to test associations among race/ethnicity, hostility and measures of abdominal fat. Results In models adjusted for race/ethnicity and total percent fat, higher levels of hostility were associated with a greater amount of visceral fat (B=1.8, s.e.=.69, p=.01). This association remained significant after further adjustments for age, education, and multiple coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Hostility was not associated with subcutaneous fat (p=.8). Although there were significant racial/ethnic differences in hostility (p<.001) and the amount of total body (p<.001), subcutaneous (p<.001) and visceral fat (p<.001), the associations between hostility and measures of abdominal fat did not differ for African-American compared to white women (race/ethnicity*hostility interaction p=.67 for visceral, p=.85 for subcutaneous). Conclusions Hostility may affect CHD risk in women via the accumulation of visceral fat. Despite significant black-white differences in fat patterning and overall CHD risk, the association between hostilty and visceral fat appears to be similar for both African-American and white women. PMID:19592520

  8. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P < 0.001), indicating optimal iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P < 0.01). A higher frequency of seafood meals was a significant predictor of UI in both groups, but household use of iodized salt was not. These data suggest the median UI in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored. PMID:19403711

  9. Serologic Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian Women of Child Bearing Age and Effects of Social and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarman; Munawwar, Arshi; Rao, Sugandhi; Mehta, Sanjay; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare. Aim To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted. Results Most women were in the 18–25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26–30 years (28.2%) and 31–35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18–25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers. Conclusions This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737–176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24675656

  10. Body mass index of married Bangladeshi women: trends and association with socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M G; Bharati, P; Aik, Saw; Lestrel, Pete E; Abeer, Almasri; Kamarul, T

    2012-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a good indicator of nutritional status in a population. In underdeveloped countries like Bangladesh, this indicator provides a method that can assist intervention to help eradicate many preventable diseases. This study aimed to report on changes in the BMI of married Bangladeshi women who were born in the past three decades and its association with socio-demographic factors. Data for 10,115 married and currently non-pregnant Bangladeshi women were extracted from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). The age range of the sample was 15-49 years. The mean BMI was 20.85 ± 3.66 kg/m(2), and a decreasing tendency in BMI was found among birth year cohorts from 1972 to 1992. It was found that the proportion of underweight females has been increasing in those born during the last 20 years of the study period (1972 to 1992). Body mass index increased with increasing age, education level of the woman and her husband, wealth index, age at first marriage and age at first delivery, and decreased with increasing number of ever-born children. Lower BMI was especially pronounced among women who were living in rural areas, non-Muslims, employed women, women not living with their husbands (separated) or those who had delivered at home or non-Caesarean delivery. PMID:22340969

  11. Low dietary calcium is associated with self-rated depression in middle-aged Korean women.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Soon-Kyung

    2012-12-01

    It is thought that calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) may be related to mental disorders such as depression; however, there have been few studies investigating the association between Ca and Mg nutrition status with depression in middle-aged female adults. Study subjects in this study included 105 women between the ages of 41 and 57 years. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) score: Group I (SDS score < 33 percentile; n = 32), Group II (33 percentile ? SDS score < 67 percentile; n = 37), and Group III (67 percentile ? SDS score; n = 36). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake survey using 3-day dietary records, SDS questionnaire and measurement of serum Ca and Mg were obtained and analyzed. No differences were observed in Ca, plant Ca, and Mg intake among the three groups. However, animal Ca intake by Group III was 141.3 mg, which was significantly lower than 207.6 mg by Group I and 198.3 mg by Group II (P = 0.0345). There were no significant differences in serum levels of Ca, and Mg among the three groups. Correlation analysis indicated that the SDS score had negative correlations with Ca intake (r = -0.2927, P < 0.01) and animal Ca (r = -0.3411, P < 0.001) after adjusting for age, menopause and energy intake. In conclusion, dietary Ca and animal Ca had negative associations with SDS score among middle-aged Korean female adults. Additional analysis of factors related to the association of calcium and magnesium nutritional status and depression is necessary. PMID:23346303

  12. Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within the society. PMID:21714854

  13. Access and Use of Interventions to Prevent and Treat Malaria among Pregnant Women in Kenya and Mali: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women’s access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Methods Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15–49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data. Results Women and men’s perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Conclusion Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable to the women they serve. PMID:25798847

  14. Bioidentical hormones, menopausal women, and the lure of the "natural" in U.S. anti-aging medicine.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jennifer R; Flatt, Michael A; Settersten, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    In 2002, the Women's Health Initiative, a large-scale study of the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women conducted in the United States, released results suggesting that use of postmenopausal HRT increased women's risks of stroke and breast cancer. In the years that followed, as rates of HRT prescription fell, another hormonal therapy rose in its wake: bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Anti-aging clinicians, the primary prescribers of BHRT, tout it as a safe and effective alternative to treat menopausal symptoms and, moreover, as a preventative therapy for age-related diseases and ailments. Through in-depth interviews with 31 U.S.-based anti-aging clinicians and 25 female anti-aging patients, we analyze attitudes towards BHRT. We illustrate how these attitudes reveal broader contemporary values, discourses, and discomforts with menopause, aging, and biomedicine. The attraction to and promise of BHRT is rooted in the idea that it is a "natural" therapy. BHRT is given both biomedical and embodied legitimacy by clinicians and patients because of its purported ability to become part of the body's "natural" processes. The normative assumption that "natural" is inherently "good" not only places BHRT beyond reproach, but transforms its use into a health benefit. The clinical approach of anti-aging providers also plays a role by validating patients' embodied experiences and offering a "holistic" solution to their symptoms, which anti-aging patients see as a striking contrast to their experiences with conventional biomedical health care. The perceived virtues of BHRT shed light on the rhetoric of anti-aging medicine and a deeply complicated relationship between conventional biomedicine, hormonal technologies, and women's bodies. PMID:25795991

  15. Acute right lower abdominal pain in women of reproductive age: Clinical clues

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study possible gynecological organ pathologies in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower abdominal pain in patients of reproductive age. METHODS: Following Clinical Trials Ethical Committee approval, the retrospective data consisting of physical examination and laboratory findings in 290 patients with sudden onset right lower abdominal pain who used the emergency surgery service between April 2009 and September 2013, and underwent surgery and general anesthesia with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were collated. RESULTS: Total data on 290 patients were obtained. Two hundred and twenty-four (77.2%) patients had acute appendicitis, whereas 29 (10%) had perforated appendicitis and 37 (12.8%) had gynecological organ pathologies. Of the latter, 21 (7.2%) had ovarian cyst rupture, 12 (4.2%) had corpus hemorrhagicum cyst rupture and 4 (1.4%) had adnexal torsion. Defense, Rovsing’s sign, increased body temperature and increased leukocyte count were found to be statistically significant in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and gynecological organ pathologies. CONCLUSION: Gynecological pathologies in women of reproductive age are misleading in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PMID:24744594

  16. [Individual specificities and heart rhythm variability under emotional influence in women of various age].

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, N A

    2011-01-01

    The autonomic regulation of heart rhythm against the background of emotiogenic factors in women aged 30-60 was studied. A method of variational pulsemetry based on the analysis of heart rhythm variability (HRV - temporal and spectral) was used for physiological control of the status of those under investigation. Modeling negative emotions in introverts and in those tested at intropunitive type of reaction resulted in a similar directivity of changes in HRV indices vs. initial condition: SDNN, RMSSD, triangular index and power in HF-range decreased, while Baevsky index increased. This may signify that people having above peculiarities demonstrated changes in the autonomic balance towards activation of sympathoadrenal link, decrease of efficacy of baroreflex regulation and a tension of organism's regulatory systems. Such changes in HRV values were shown to be similar to those observed during aging. Peculiarities of the emotional pattern of the personality, determined by both congenital features of the nervous system and the acquired system of emotional relationships, play a significant role in health strengthening and prevention of neurogenic disorders. The results obtained enable to explain some of the mechanisms of neurogenic diseases during prolonged emotional stress. PMID:22184984

  17. Fertility Desires and Intentions of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R.; Hart, Trevor A.; Mohammed, Saira S.; Su, DeSheng; Ralph, Edward D.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Soje, Lena C.; Muchenje, Marvelous; Rachlis, Anita R.; Smaill, Fiona M.; Angel, Jonathan B.; Raboud, Janet M.; Silverman, Michael S.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Gough, Kevin; Yudin, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Improvements in life expectancy and quality of life for HIV-positive women coupled with reduced vertical transmission will likely lead numerous HIV-positive women to consider becoming pregnant. In order to clarify the demand, and aid with appropriate health services planning for this population, our study aims to assess the fertility desires and intentions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario, Canada. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study with recruitment stratified to match the geographic distribution of HIV-positive women of reproductive age (18–52) living in Ontario was carried out. Women were recruited from 38 sites between October 2007 and April 2009 and invited to complete a 189-item self-administered survey entitled “The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire” designed to assess fertility desires, intentions and actions. Logistic regression models were fit to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of significant predictors of fertility intentions. The median age of the 490 participating HIV-positive women was 38 (IQR, 32–43) and 61%, 52%, 47% and 74% were born outside of Canada, living in Toronto, of African ethnicity and currently on antiretroviral therapy, respectively. Of total respondents, 69% (95% CI, 64%–73%) desired to give birth and 57% (95% CI, 53%–62%) intended to give birth in the future. In the multivariable model, the significant predictors of fertility intentions were: younger age (age<40) (p<0.0001), African ethnicity (p<0.0001), living in Toronto (p?=?0.002), and a lower number of lifetime births (p?=?0.02). Conclusions/Significance The proportions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario desiring and intending pregnancy were higher than reported in earlier North American studies. Proportions were more similar to those reported from African populations. Healthcare providers and policy makers need to consider increasing services and support for pregnancy planning for HIV-positive women. This may be particularly significant in jurisdictions with high levels of African immigration. PMID:19997556

  18. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  19. Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to…

  20. USE OF COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY FOR OBTAINING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Commercial Telephone Directories to Obtain a Population-Based Sample for Mail Survey of Women of Reproductive Age

    Danelle T. Lobdella, Germaine M. Buckb, John M. Weinerc, Pauline Mendolaa

    aUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and ...

  1. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  2. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  3. Are Men Aging as Oaks and Women as Reeds? A Behavioral Hypothesis to Explain the Gender Paradox of French Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Balard, Frédéric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as “oaks,” seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as “reeds,” seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

  4. Are men aging as oaks and women as reeds? A behavioral hypothesis to explain the gender paradox of French centenarians.

    PubMed

    Balard, Frédéric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as "oaks," seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as "reeds," seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

  5. Age and Sleep Disturbances Among American Men And Women: Data From the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jackson, Nicholas J.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Pien, Grace; Perlis, Michael L.; Xie, Dawei; Sha, Daohang; Weaver, Terri; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: Explore the prevalence of sleep-related complaints across age groups, examining effects of sex, general health, and depressed mood. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: Complete-case analysis included 155,877 participants who responded to questions related to Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance (SLEEPDIST) and Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy (TIREDNESS). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Outcomes were self-reported complaints in response to survey questions assessing SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS, dichotomized as reporting a complaint < 6 versus ? 6 nights or days, respectively, in a 2-wk period. Predictors were age, general health, and depressed mood. All analyses were adjusted for race/ethnicity, income, education, and time since last medical checkup. Across all age groups, women reported more SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Poor general health, mild depressed mood, and moderate/severe depressed mood were associated with SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Both SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS generally declined across the life span, with fewest endorsements in respondents older than 80 yr. For SLEEPDIST, odds ratios (ORs, reference = 80+) declined from age 18-54 yr, rose slightly, and then declined again after age 59 yr in men. The pattern was similar for women, except a more marked rise was noted from age 40-59 yr. The pattern was similar for TIREDNESS. Conclusions: Advancing age was not associated with increased Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance or Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy. These results suggest that the often-reported increase in sleep problems with age is a nonlinear phenomenon, mediated by factors other than physiologic aging. Citation: Grandner MA; Martin JL; Patel NP; Jackson NJ; Gehrman PR; Pien G; Perlis ML; Xie D; Sha D; Weaver T; Gooneratne NS. Age and sleep disturbances among American men and women: data from the U.S. behavioral risk factor surveillance system. SLEEP 2012;35(3):395-406. PMID:22379246

  6. Estimated intake levels of methylmercury in children, childbearing age and pregnant women in a Mediterranean region, Murcia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Rodriguez, Kristina; Calatayud, Marta; Martin, Marlene; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Sánchez-Alarcon, Mari Carmen; Torres Cantero, Alberto Manuel; Galindo-Cascales, Consuelo; Gil-Vázquez, Juana María; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Sánchez-Solís, Manuel; Alfonso-Marsilla, Blas; Romero-Braquehais, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a bioaccumulable toxin in the trophic chain and a powerful neurotoxin during fetal and child development. Consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish is a principal environmental source of MeHg exposure. This study was designed to assess the Hg and estimated MeHg intake in vulnerable groups of the Murcia region, a Mediterranean part of Spain, compared with international regulations. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess seafood consumptions in 320 children younger than 10 years, 301 women of childbearing age, and 537 pregnant women. Hg concentrations were measured in the most consumed fish products by cold vapor generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The weekly intake of MeHg (microg/kg bw/week) was 2.60 (95% CI = 2.10-3.10) in children 1-5 years, 2.65 (95% CI = 2.26-3.03) in children 6-10 years, 0.98 (95% CI = 0.89-1.07) in women of childbearing age, and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.81-0.95) in pregnant women. The main exposure to MeHg, especially in young children, is related to intake of bluefin tuna and swordfish. Fifty-four percent of children aged 1-10 years, 10% of pregnant women, and 15% of women of childbearing age exceed the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives provisional tolerable weekly intake of MeHg. In the Murcia region, where fish is a central component of the diet, the focus should be on educating vulnerable populations to reorient fish consumption in order to lower the amount of Hg incorporated with the diet as well as to reduce Hg emissions into the environment. PMID:19096874

  7. Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was ?0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having ?4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747

  8. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

  9. Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age: United States, 2011-2013

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Community Preventive Services Task Force. TABLE 1. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of nonpregnant women ... years) was selected as the referent. TABLE 2. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of pregnant women ...

  10. Women Should Get Annual Mammograms Starting At Age 45: Cancer Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... slightly later date for mammography screening," said Dr. Lydia Pace, a women's health specialist at Brigham and ... Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City; Lydia Pace, M.D., M.P.H., women's health ...

  11. Taking It One Day at a Time: African American Women Aging with HIV and Co-Morbidities

    PubMed Central

    Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies. PMID:24933093

  12. A Comparison of the Weights and Ages of Women and Men on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Lauren; Silverstein, Brett

    Eating disorders are more common among women than men, perhaps because of the present cultural emphasis on thinness for women. Television is one potential communicator of this thin standard of attractiveness. To assess how men and women are presented on television, 139 male characters and 82 female characters from 33 popular television shows were…

  13. Educational level, prevalence of hysterectomy, and age at amenorrhoea: a cross-sectional analysis of 9536 women from six population-based cohort studies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy prevalence has been shown to vary by education level. Hysterectomy influences age at amenorrhoea. The aim of this study was to examine these associations in Germany within population-based data sets. Methods Baseline assessments in six population-based cohorts took place from 1997 through 2006 and included 9,548 women aged 20–84 years. All studies assessed hysterectomy history, school and professional degrees. Degrees were categorized into three levels each. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Prevalences were higher in West Germany than East Germany, increased by age, and leveled off starting at 55–64 years. The age- and study-adjusted prevalence ratio (lowest versus highest school level) was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.28-5.30), 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.81), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80-1.28) for women aged 20–45, 45–64, and 65 and more years respectively. The estimated adjusted prevalence ratios per one unit decrement of the educational qualification score (range 1?=?lowest, 8?=?highest) were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02-1.64), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.12), and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.03) for women aged 20–44, 45–64, and 65–84 years respectively. Age at amenorrhoea was on average 6.2 years lower (43.5 years versus 49.7 years) among women with a history of hysterectomy than those without. Conclusions Lower educational level was associated with a higher hysterectomy prevalence among women aged 20–64 years. Several mediators associated with educational level and hysterectomy including women’s disease risk, women’s treatment preference, and women’s access to uterus-preserving treatment may explain this association. At population level, hysterectomy decreases the age of amenorrhoea on average by 6.2 years. PMID:24433474

  14. Correlation of gestational age by sonographic measurement of fetal parameters in women in eastern Nepal with existing standard normograms.

    PubMed

    Karki, Dan Bahadur; Sharma, Umesh; Rauniyar, Raj Kumar

    2006-09-01

    This is the prospective study carried out to correlate gestational age by sonographic measurements of fetal parameters by normograms of Frank P Hadlock with the gestational age by Last Menstrual Period (LMP) (considered our standard) in various trimesters of normal pregnant women of eastern Nepal. Seventy normal pregnant women with regular menstrual cycles of eastern Nepal were evaluated in this study. Gestational age was calculated by Rempen (in case of Mean Sac Diameter) and Hadlock (in case of Biparietal Diameter, Head circumference, Femoral Length and Abdominal circumference) normograms. Calculations of gestational age was also done by LMP at the same time. Correlation of gestational age by Rempen and Hadlock with average of different fetal parameters in different trimesters was done with gestational age by LMP applying paired t test. On applying paired t test between gestational age by Mean Sac Diameter and Crown-Rump Length in the first trimesters, mean difference was only -3.58 days (significance < 0.01). It showed statistically significant difference though difference is little. Paired t test application in second trimester showed significant difference (-5.06 days) with gestational age by LMP at < 001 significance level. In 3rd trimesters, paired t test showed significant difference with gestational age by LMP with mean of difference -7.86 days. Significant difference between average gestational age by Hadlock and gestational age by LMP in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy indicates that we should stantardise our measurements of different fetal parameters for estimation of gestational age. PMID:17203824

  15. Healthy Diet and Nutrition Education Program among Women of Reproductive Age: A Necessity of Multilevel Strategies or Community Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Dunneram, Yashvee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive years represent a major proportion of women?s life. This review focuses on recommended nutritional considerations, physical activity pattern as well as the effect of nutrition education (NE) on behavior modification and health outcomes of women of reproductive age using either single-level, multiple-level or community-level interventions. Methods: For this narrative review, numerous searches were conducted on databases of PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar search engine using the keywords women, reproductive age, NE, interventions, community-based. Results: Even though single intervention is effective, multiple intervention programmes in addition to behavior modification components are even more successful in terms of modified behaviors and health outcomes. Moreover, community based interventions using multilevel strategies are further useful for improved health outcomes and behavior modification. Conclusion: NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modification measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle. PMID:26290827

  16. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. Methods: A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ?25 and ?30), waist circumference (WC; ?80 cm and ?88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ?35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. Results: The sensitivity of WC ?80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ?80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ?80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ?88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Conclusions: Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ?80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ?88 cm showed better validity than WC ?80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. PMID:25294689

  17. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ? skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  18. Cardiovascular Disease, its Risk Factors and Treatment, and Age-related Macular Degeneration: Women’s Health Initiative Sight Exam Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Deng, Yingzi; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Hyman, Leslie; Seddon, Johanna; Frank, Robert N.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hendrix, Susan L.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Langer, Robert D.; Kuller, Lewis; Brunner, Robert; Johnson, Karen C.; Thomas, Asha M.; Haan, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD risk factors, and CVD treatment with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Methods Setting The Women’s Health Initiative Sight Examination (WHISE), an ancillary study to the Women’s Health Initiative’s (WHI) clinical trial of hormone replacement therapy. Study Population 4,288 women aged 63 years and older. Observation Procedures Information on CVD and its risk factors were obtained from a standardized questionnaire and examination. Main Outcome Measure AMD as determined by standardized grading of fundus photographs. Results Prevalence of any AMD was 21.4% (n=919). Of those with AMD, 5.8% (n=53) had signs of exudative AMD (n=39) or pure geographic atrophy (n=14), limiting the power to examine associations. Significant associations between late AMD and CVD risk factors were (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) older age (1.19, 1.13, 1.27, p < 0.0001), more pack years smoked (1.02 per pack-year smoked, 1.003, 1.03, p = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (0.84 per 10 mmHg, 0.71, 0.995, p = 0.04), report of taking calcium channel blockers (CCB) (2.49, 1.21, 5.12, p = 0.04), self-reported history of diabetes (2.00, 1.01, 3.96, p = 0.05), and greater body mass index (1.05 per 1 kg/m2, 1.001, 1.10, p = 0.05). History of myocardial infarction, stroke, use of statins, or white blood cell were not associated with AMD. Conclusions Results suggest that smoking, use of CCBs, diabetes, and obesity are risk factors for late AMD in women. However, the association of late AMD with systolic blood pressure and the effects of other CVD risk factors on early AMD need to be further explored. PMID:17317391

  19. Relationship of Intimate Partner Violence, HIV Risk Behaviors, and Powerlessness in African-American Women of Childbearing Age.

    PubMed

    Manfrin-Ledet, Linda; Porche, Demetrius J; Westbrook, Sue

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and the phenomenon of powerlessness in African-American women of childbearing age, and (2) to investigate the differences between type and severity of IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and powerlessness in African-American women of childbearing age who have and have not reported IPV This study used the theory of gender and power as a conceptual framework. A purposive sample of 130 African-American women ranging from 18 to 49 years of age from southeastern Louisiana was recruited from community clinics. A correlation/comparative analysis design was used in this study. Three self-report, self-administered surveys were used: The Abuse Assessment Screen-Revised, the HIV-Risk Screening Instrument-Revised, items from the subscale of powerlessness in the Trauma-Related Belief Questionnaire, and a demographics questionnaire. Statistically significant relationships between IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and powerlessness were identified. Participants who had experienced emotional or physical abuse by their partners were identified to be at risk for HIV infection and a statistically significant relationship between IPV and powerlessness was identified. Participants who feared their partner or ex-partner reported higher degrees of powerlessness. Findings emphasized that for women who are identified as survivors of IPV, nurses need to screen for HIV infection, provide access to care and community resources, and teach skills for effective coping and risk-reduction decision-making. PMID:26371359

  20. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D; Abdool Karim, S S; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Colvin, M; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored. PMID:10063657

  1. Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49–79

    PubMed Central

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p?=?0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p?=?0.0027. p?=?0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p?=?0.0050, P?=?0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P?=?0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P?=?0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P?=?0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P?=?0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities –frequent attendance clubs/lodges/groups”, and with ‘a little’ vs. ‘none’ or ‘great deal’ of strength and comfort from religion. PMID:24896649

  2. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  3. Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22366948

  4. Effect of menopausal status on lipolysis: comparison of plasma glycerol levels in middle-aged, premenopausal and early, postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Toth, Michael J; Sites, Cynthia K; Poehlman, Eric T; Tchernof, Andre

    2002-03-01

    To determine whether menopausal status affects systemic lipolysis, we measured plasma glycerol concentrations following an overnight fast and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic conditions (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1)) in 43 middle-aged, premenopausal women (mean +/- SE; 47 +/- 0.4 years) and 26 early, postmenopausal (51 +/- 0.8 years) women. In addition, body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by computed tomography (CT). Postmenopausal women had greater amounts of whole body (fat mass, 22.8 +/- 1.4 v 17.4 +/- 1.2 kg; percent fat, 34.7 +/- 1.2 v 29.1 +/- 1.4; both P <.01) and intra-abdominal fat (89.0 +/- 6.5 v 55.9 +/- 4.4 cm2; P <.01) compared with premenopausal women. Despite greater adiposity, plasma glycerol concentrations were similar between pre- and postmenopausal women following an overnight fast (142.7 +/- 9.7 v 136.1 +/- 6.4 micromol/L) and at 30 minutes (112.7 +/- 5.5 v 108.4 +/- 4.5 micromol/L ) and 120 minutes (92.7 +/- 4.5 v 97.5 +/- 5.9 micromol/L ) into the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Plasma glycerol levels remained similar after statistical adjustment for fat mass, percent fat, and intra-abdominal fat. Moreover, no differences in plasma glycerol were observed in pre- and postmenopausal women matched (+/- 5%) for fat mass (n = 22/group) or intra-abdominal fat (n = 15/group). In premenopausal women, plasma glycerol levels at 30 and 120 minutes of hyperinsulinemia were positively related to adiposity measures (range, r =.314 to r =.493; P <.05 to P <.01), although no relationships were found in postmenopausal women. Our results suggest no effect of menopausal status on plasma glycerol levels under postabsorptive or hyperinsulinemic conditions. PMID:11887168

  5. Dyspareunia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative middle-aged women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Gomes, Debora de C; D'Avanzo, Walquíria C; Moura, Alexandre S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Sousa, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether dyspareunia is associated with HIV status in menopausal women and also to assess which factors are associated with dyspareunia in a group of HIV-positive menopausal women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 178 HIV-negative and 128 HIV-positive women aged 40–60?years. The Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ) was used to collect data. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioural and reproductive factors were evaluated, as well as factors related to the HIV infection. Dyspareunia was defined as pain during intercourse. A bivariate analysis and Poisson multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Overall, 41.4% of the HIV-positive women reported dyspareunia compared with 34.8% of the HIV-negative women (p=0.242). In the HIV-positive women, bivariate analysis revealed an association between dyspareunia and having a steady partner (p=0.047); the woman’s partner having undergone HIV testing (p=0.020); vaginal dryness (p<0.001); muscle/joint pain (p=0.021); physical/emotional violence (p=0.049); urinary incontinence (p=0.004); and the use of lamivudine/zidovudine (p=0.048). The Poisson multiple regression analysis found an association between dyspareunia and vaginal dryness (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.96, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.50, p=0.023) and urinary incontinence (PR=1.86, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.27, p=0.031). Conclusions Dyspareunia was common in this group of HIV-positive women and was associated principally with vaginal dryness and urinary incontinence. The importance of treating dyspareunia within the context of sexual health in this group of women should be emphasised and appropriate management of this issue may reduce the likelihood of lesions on the vaginal wall, which may act as a portal of entry for other infections. PMID:25421335

  6. Secular Trends in Menarcheal Age in India-Evidence from the Indian Human Development Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Tripathi, Niharika; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified. Methods We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15–49 years) in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey. Results The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77) in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85) among women born prior to 1955–1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67) among women born during late 1985–1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955–1964 (95% CI: 14.89–15.11) to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63–12.56) during 1985–1989. Conclusion The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women. PMID:25369507

  7. Age-related loss of proximal femoral strength in elderly men and women: the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study--Reykjavik.

    PubMed

    Lang, T F; Sigurdsson, S; Karlsdottir, G; Oskarsdottir, D; Sigmarsdottir, A; Chengshi, J; Kornak, J; Harris, T B; Sigurdsson, G; Jonsson, B Y; Siggeirsdottir, K; Eiriksdottir, G; Gudnason, V; Keyak, J H

    2012-03-01

    The risk of hip fracture rises rapidly with age, and is particularly high in women. This increase in fracture risk reflects both the age-related change in the risk of falling and decrements in the strength of the proximal femur. To better understand the extent to which proximal femoral density, structure and strength change with age as a function of gender, we have carried out a longitudinal analysis of proximal femoral volumetric quantitative computed tomographic (vQCT) images in men and women, analyzing changes in trabecular and cortical bone properties, and using subject-specific finite element modeling (FEM) to estimate changes in bone strength. In the AGES-Reykjavik Study vQCT scans of the hip were performed at a baseline visit in 2002-2006 and at a second visit 5.05±0.25 years later. From these, 223 subjects (111 men, 112 women, aged 68-87 years) were randomly selected. The subjects were evaluated for longitudinal changes in three bone variables assessed in a region similar to the total femur region quantified by DXA: areal bone mineral density (aBMD), trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (tBMD) and the ratio of cortical to total tissue volume (cvol/ivol). They were also evaluated for changes in bone strength using FEM models of the left proximal femur. Models were analyzed under single-limb stance loading (F(Stance)), which approximates normal physiologic loading of the hip, as well as a load approximating a fall onto the posterolateral aspect of the greater trochanter (F(Fall)). We computed five-year absolute and percentage changes in aBMD, tBMD, cvol/ivol, F(Fall) and F(Stance). The Mann-Whitney Test was employed to compare changes in bone variables between genders and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to compare changes in bone strength between loading conditions. Multiple (linear) regression was employed to determine the association of changes in F(Fall) and F(Stance) with baseline age and five-year weight loss. Both men and women showed declines in indices of proximal femoral density and structure (aBMD: men -3.9±6.0%, women -6.1±6.2%; tBMD: men -14.8±20.3%, women -23.9±26.8%; cvol/ivol: men -2.6±4.6%, women -4.7±4.8%, gender difference: p<0.001). Both men and women lost bone strength in each loading condition (F(Stance): men -4.2±9.9%, women -8.3±8.5%; F(Fall): men -7.0±15.7%, women -12.8±13.2%; all changes from baseline p<0.0001). The gender difference in bone strength loss was statistically significant in both loading conditions (p<0.001 for F(Stance) and P<0.01 for F(Fall)) and F(Fall) was lost at a higher rate than F(Stance) in men (p<0.01) and women (p<0.0001). The gender difference in strength loss was statistically significant after adjustment for baseline age and weight loss in both loading conditions (p<0.01). In these multi-linear models, men showed increasing rates of bone loss with increasing age (F(Fall): p=0.002; F(Stance): p=0.03), and women showed increasing bone strength loss with higher degrees of weight loss (F(Stance): p=0.003). The higher loss of F(Fall) compared to F(Stance) supports previous findings in animal and human studies that the sub-volumes of bone stressed under normal physiologic loading are relatively better protected in aging. The gender difference in hip bone strength loss is consistent with the higher incidence of hip fracture among elderly women. PMID:22178403

  8. Passive leg movement-induced vasodilation in women: the impact of age.

    PubMed

    Groot, H Jonathan; Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael; Ives, Stephen J; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    Passive leg movement (PLM), an assessment of predominantly nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation, is decreased with age and cannot be augmented by posture-induced increases in femoral perfusion pressure in older men. However, this novel method of assessing vascular function has yet to be used to evaluate alterations in nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation with age in females. PLM was performed in 10 young (20 ± 1 yr) and 10 old (73 ± 2 yr) women in both the supine and upright-seated postures, whereas central and peripheral hemodynamic measurements were acquired second by second using noninvasive techniques (finger photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound, respectively). The heart rate response to PLM was attenuated in the old compared with the young in both the supine (young, 10 ± 1; and old, 5 ± 1 beats/min; P < 0.05) and upright-seated posture (young, 10 ± 2; and old, 5 ± 1 beats/min; P < 0.05), leading to a blunted cardiac output response in the old in the upright-seated posture (young, 1.0 ± 0.2; and old, 0.3 ± 0.1 l/min; P < 0.05). The PLM-induced peak change in leg vascular conductance was lower in the old compared with the young in both postures (young supine, 5.7 ± 0.5; old supine, 2.6 ± 0.3; young upright, 9.2 ± 0.7; and old upright, 2.2 ± 0.4 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1); P < 0.05) and was significantly augmented by the upright-seated posture in the young only, revealing a vasodilatory reserve capacity in the young (3.5 ± 0.6 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.05) that was absent in the old (-0.5 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.18). These data support previous literature demonstrating attenuated PLM-induced vasodilation with age and extend these findings to include the female population, thus bolstering the utility of PLM as a novel assessment of vascular function across the life span in humans. PMID:26188023

  9. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Moonga, Baljit S.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH and UCd are associated with bone loss, in US women aged 42-60 years.

  10. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. Methods we conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16–40 year old women (n=1057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Results The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0–15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P<.001). Obese women (P=.002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P=.030), and some college hours/degree (P<.001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food (odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.18), switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Conclusions Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  11. Feasibility of power-type strength training for middle aged men and women: self perception, musculoskeletal symptoms, and injury rates

    PubMed Central

    Surakka, J; Aunola, S; Nordblad, T; Karppi, S; Alanen, E

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the feasibility of a power-type strength training programme for middle aged men and women, the impact of the training programme on perceived health and fitness and on knee and low back symptoms, and the rate of exercise induced injuries. Methods: A total of 154 voluntary, healthy, sedentary men and women participated in a training programme lasting about four months. The explosive force of leg extensor muscles was measured by means of standing long jumps and vertical squat jumps. Perceived health, perceived fitness, and low back and knee symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention by using a questionnaire. Musculoskeletal disorders and exercise induced injuries were reported during the training programme. Results: Perceived fitness improved in both men (p<0.01) and women (p<0.0001), but perceived health only in women (p<0.01). Men with increased explosive force in squat jumping also showed better perceived health (p<0.05), and women with increased explosive force in standing long jump showed better perceived fitness (p<0.05). Exercising men who had increased knee symptoms had significantly higher body mass index than the other exercising men (p<0.05). The exercise induced injury rate was 19% in men and 6% in women. Conclusions: Successful completion of the exercise programme, together with the increased physical activity and relatively low injury rate, may have contributed to the participants finding the exercise programme positive and stimulating and believing that their health and fitness had improved. The low rate of musculoskeletal injury suggests that this type of supervised exercise programme is feasible for untrained middle aged people. PMID:12663354

  12. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-06-01

    To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16-40 year old women (n = 1,057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0-15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P < .001). Obese women (P = .002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P = .030), and some college hours/degree (P < .001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.18], switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  13. Relation between alcohol consumption and arterial stiffness: A cross-sectional study of middle-aged Japanese women and men.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kita, Toshiko; Okada, Eisaku; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological data indicate the existence of a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mobility and mortality. However, studies assessing the relationship between alcohol consumption and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness have provided inconsistent results. In addition, data regarding the effect of alcohol on arterial stiffness in women has been limited. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between alcohol consumption and PWV among female and male workers in Japan. Study participants were local government employees in Hokkaido, Japan, who underwent annual health check-ups. All data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The average daily alcohol consumption of the previous month, based on the alcohol concentration of each beverage type (g/day, ethanol equivalent), was estimated according to the frequency and amount of consumption. Data from 3893 participants (812 women and 3081 men) were analyzed. In women, non-drinkers had significantly higher PWV than women who consumed <10 g/day of alcohol. In men, compared with those who reportedly drank 20-39 g/day, non-drinkers and those who drank <20 g/day and ?60 g/day had significantly higher PWV. Alcohol consumption showed a J-shaped association with PWV in men (p for quadratic term < 0.036) and marginally in women (p < 0.056). The results of stratified analyses by age groups showed a significant J-shaped association, which was most notable for men ?45 years (p < 0.005). In middle-aged Japanese women and men, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower PWV, which in turn correlates with a reduction in vascular stiffness. PMID:24239150

  14. Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Sleeth, Michelle L.; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid-hormone production of pregnancy, women who may become pregnant should ideally consume 150 ?g iodine/day [US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)]. As few UK data exist in this population group, our aim was to assess iodine intake and status in women of childbearing age in a cross-sectional study at the University of Surrey. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24-h urine samples in 57 women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90% of ingested iodine was excreted. Average iodine intake was also estimated from 48-h food diaries that the women completed. The median urinary-iodine concentration (63.1 ?g/L) classified the group as mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24-h iodine excretion (149.8 ?g/24-h), suggested a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. Median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 ?g/day, whereas it was lower, at 123 ?g/day, when estimated from the 48-h food-diaries. Iodine intake from food diaries and 24-h iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. Our study highlights a need for revised cut-offs for iodine deficiency that are method- and age-group specific. PMID:25274294

  15. Assessment of Pregnancy Status, Malaria Knowledge and Malaria Fever Morbidity among Women of Reproductive Ages in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    OYEKALE, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is one the major health problem in Nigeria. During pregnancy, it poses serious threat to the survival of both unborn foetus and the mothers. This study determined the effect of adequate malaria knowledge and pregnancy status of women on use of mosquito nets and reported malaria fever morbidity. Methods The data were collected during the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) from 4632 women. Data analyses were carried out with descriptive statistics and Seemingly Unrelated Bivariate Probit regression. Results Results show that 13.19% of the women were pregnant, of which about one-third slept under mosquito nets. Also, 25.26% reported malaria associated fever in the previous two weeks to the time of interview, while 78.28% correctly answered that mosquitoes are responsible for malaria. Knowledge on malaria prevention was low with 55.70% and 14.93% indicating sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN, respectively. Probability of sleeping under mosquito nets significantly increased with knowing that sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN could prevent malaria while it decreased with having fever, age, urban residence and knowing that use of mosquito spray and coil can prevent malaria. The probability of having fever increased significantly with household size, being pregnant and age at first birth but decreased with age, knowing that sleeping under ITN, cutting grasses and closing door/windows would prevent malaria. Conclusions Use of mosquito nets among the women was low. Also, efforts to enhance their knowledge on malaria prevention and ensuring adequate access to mosquito nets especially for pregnant women would curtail the impact of malaria. PMID:26175973

  16. Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among women seeking induced abortion in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261

  17. Dental anxiety in relation to mental health and personality factors. A longitudinal study of middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hägglin, C; Hakeberg, M; Hällström, T; Berggren, U; Larsson, L; Waern, M; Pálsson, S; Skoog, I

    2001-02-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal course of dental anxiety in relation to age, mental health and personality factors. In 1968 69 a representative sample of 778 women aged 38 to 54 yr took part in a psychiatric examination. Three hundred and ten were followed up in 1992-93. A phobia questionnaire, including assessment of dental fear, and the Eysenck Personality Inventory were distributed to the participants at both occasions. High dental fear was reported by 16.8% of the women at baseline and was associated with a higher number of other phobias, a higher level of neuroticism, more psychiatric impairment, more social disability due to phobic disorder, and a higher anxiety level. Among women who reported high dental fear in 1968 69 (n=36), 64% remitted and 36% remained fearful. Among women with low dental fear in 1968 69 (n = 274), 5% reported high dental fear in 1992-93. Chronicity was associated with higher neuroticism, lower extraversion, and more psychiatric impairment at base-line. Remission was associated with higher extraversion at baseline. Dental anxiety increased or decreased over time in concert with the number of other fears. PMID:11330931

  18. Quantitative risk-benefit analysis of fish consumption for women of child-bearing age in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chen, M Y Y; Wong, W W K; Chung, S W C; Tran, C H; Chan, B T P; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Maternal fish consumption is associated with both risks from methylmercury (MeHg) and beneficial effects from omega-3 fatty acids to the developing foetal brain. This paper assessed the dietary exposure to MeHg of women of child-bearing age (20-49 years) in Hong Kong, and conducted risk-benefit analysis in terms of the effects in children's intelligent quotient (IQ) based on local data and the quantitative method derived by the expert consultation of FAO/WHO. Results showed that average and high consumers consume 450 and 1500 g of fish (including seafood) per week, respectively. About 11% of women of child-bearing age had a dietary exposure to MeHg exceeding the PTWI of 1.6 µg kg(-1) bw. In pregnant women MeHg intake may pose health risks to the developing foetuses. For average consumers, eating any of the 19 types of the most commonly consumed fish and seafood during pregnancy would result in 0.79-5.7 IQ points gain by their children. For high consumers, if they only ate tuna during pregnancy, it would cause 2.3 IQ points reduction in their children. The results indicated that for pregnant women the benefit outweighed the risk associated with eating fish if they consume different varieties of fish in moderation. PMID:24444393

  19. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  20. Choice of contraceptive method for birth control and attitudes toward abortion in Swedish women ages 23-29.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M; Sjödén, P O

    1995-01-01

    In Sweden, contraceptive methods for birth control are readily available, but one in four pregnancies was legally terminated during the period from 1975 to 1990. Our purpose in conducting the present study was to describe young women's choices and use of contraceptive methods and their attitudes to abortion. The participants were 305 Swedish women ages 23-29 years. Eighty-eight percent of the women were using some contraceptive method. The most common method was hormonal (43%), followed by a barrier method (22%). The women considered that abortion should not be used as a method of birth control and that the fact that a pregnancy is unintended is not a sufficient reason for terminating it. An acceptable reason, they thought, for a woman to have an abortion is the woman's present situation, in particular her social situation. The women were aware that the use of contraceptive methods gives them the chance to choose if and when they wish to have children. PMID:7706142

  1. Factors Predicting Consumption of Fonio Grain ("Digitaria exilis") among Urban Malian Women of Reproductive Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; van Dam, Bianca; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain A. M.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors influencing intention to consume an indigenous nutritious grain, fonio ("Digitaria exilis"), among women in Mali. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model. Setting and Participants: One hundred and eight women (31.5 plus or minus 10.5 years),…

  2. Age and Meanings of Violence: Women's Experiences of Partner Violence in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piispa, Minna

    2004-01-01

    The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men's violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don't support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as…

  3. Attitudes toward Wife Beating among Palestinian Women of Reproductive Age from Three Cities in West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhaher, Enas A.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Maxwell, Annette E.; Kramer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A total of 450 women were interviewed in Mother and Child Health Care Centers in three cities in West Bank, Palestine, to assess attitudes toward wife beating. Overall, women perceived wife beating to be justified if a wife insults her husband (59%), if she disobeys her husband (49%), if she neglects her children (37%), if she goes out without…

  4. Using the Web To Promote Smoking Cessation and Health for College-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily

    Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…

  5. Barriers to male involvement in contraceptive uptake and reproductive health services: a qualitative study of men and women’s perceptions in two rural districts in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spousal communication can improve family planning use and continuation. Yet, in countries with high fertility rates and unmet need, men have often been regarded as unsupportive of their partner’s use of family planning methods. This study examines men and women’s perceptions regarding obstacles to men’s support and uptake of modern contraceptives. Methods A qualitative study using 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected men aged 15–54 and women aged 15–49 as well as eight key informant interviews (KIIs) with government and community leaders was conducted in 2012 in Bugiri and Mpigi Districts, Uganda. Open-ended question guides were used to explore men and women’s perceptions regarding barriers to men’s involvement in reproductive health. All FGDs and KIIs were recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti. Results Five themes were identified as rationale for men’s limited involvement: (i) perceived side effects of female contraceptive methods which disrupt sexual activity, (ii) limited choices of available male contraceptives, including fear and concerns relating to vasectomy, (iii) perceptions that reproductive health was a woman’s domain due to gender norms and traditional family planning communication geared towards women, (iv) preference for large family sizes which are uninhibited by prolonged birth spacing; and (v) concerns that women’s use of contraceptives will lead to extramarital sexual relations. In general, knowledge of effective contraceptive methods was high. However, lack of time and overall limited awareness regarding the specific role of men in reproductive health was also thought to deter men’s meaningful involvement in issues related to fertility regulation. Conclusion Decision-making on contraceptive use is the shared responsibility of men and women. Effective development and implementation of male-involvement family planning initiatives should address barriers to men’s supportive participation in reproductive health, including addressing men's negative beliefs regarding contraceptive services. PMID:24597502

  6. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  7. Loading dose of physical activity is related to muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Jaswinder; Lee, Raymond; Luo, Jin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between loading dose of physical activity, muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women. Thirty four healthy women (mean age=49.8±7.5years) were recruited. They were requested to wear an accelerometer for a period of 10h (from 9am to 7pm) on a day to record the acceleration. On a separate day their knee extension torque (KET) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) at the heel by an ultrasound bone scanner. The loading dose of physical activity was calculated at four intensity categories - very light, light, moderate, and vigorous (intensities of <5BW/s, 5-10BW/s, 10-15BW/s and >15BW/s) and for three frequency bands - 0.1-2Hz, 2-4Hz, and 4-6Hz. Correlation analysis was used to examine the association between loading dose and age, KET, and BUA. With the increase of age, there tended to be a decrease in the loading dose of vigorous activity in 2-4 and 4-6Hz frequency bands (Kendall's tau=-.22, p<.1). The increase of loading dose in all three frequency bands in moderate or vigorous activity was associated with higher BUA (Kendall's tau=.27-.41, p<.05). The increase of loading dose in all frequency bands in light, moderate, or vigorous activity was associated with higher KET (Kendall's tau=.30-.45, p<.05). It is concluded that physical activity, especially that at high intensity level and high frequency range, may have beneficial effect on muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women. PMID:24999224

  8. Pharmacologic management of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mimi S; Coppenrath, Valerie A; Dallinga, Bree A

    2015-02-01

    The numbers of women of childbearing age with pregestational diabetes mellitus (diabetes existing before pregnancy) are increasing, primarily because more patients are developing type 2 diabetes at younger ages. The teratogenicity associated with hyperglycemia in early pregnancy is well documented, and tight glucose control minimizes the risk of congenital malformation. Preconception planning is essential; thus contraception that does not worsen complications of diabetes is desirable. In addition, because contraceptives are not 100% effective, the treatment of elevated blood glucose levels, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these women requires consideration of unplanned pregnancy. We summarized the literature to aid clinicians in choosing individualized treatment that minimizes risk in case pregnancy occurs and maximizes benefit in preventing the complications of diabetes. In women with well-controlled diabetes without vascular disease, all contraceptive methods are safe. Intrauterine devices are recommended due to their minimal effects on risk factors for diabetic complications and their lack of reliance on patient adherence for efficacy. Among insulins, the insulin analogs-insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin detemir-offer patients greater convenience than regular insulin and NPH insulin, and they are safe in case of unplanned pregnancy. Of the noninsulin agents, glyburide and metformin are the safest during pregnancy, but many of the other agents pose minimal risk as long as they are withdrawn during early pregnancy. The risks and benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in women with compelling indications must be weighed individually. In hypertensive patients at a high risk for unplanned pregnancy, nifedipine should be considered due to literature supporting its safety during early pregnancy. Pravastatin is recommended for women with dyslipidemia who are using effective contraception because there have been no reports of birth defects with this statin when used during early pregnancy in humans and animals. PMID:25644781

  9. Women segmentation based on contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    El-zanaty, F H

    1994-06-01

    In the past, the Egyptian Information, Education and Communication Center (IEC) SIS/IEC Center has used research findings to develop messages on the health benefits of family planning to mothers and children, proper use of contraceptive methods, and the need for acquiring correct information. A recent analysis of the 1995 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey data on 9153 currently married women aged 15-49 aimed to generate preliminary audience segments and profiles of different groups of current users, never users, and discontinuers of family planning methods so the Center can develop messages on family planning and birth spacing. 47.1% of all women in the analysis currently used contraception. 19.8% had used contraception, but did not do so currently. 33.1% had never used contraception. The leading factors affecting contraceptive use were husband's approval, husband-wife communications, desire for more children, and religion. Based on what was learned from discontinuers, the Center made two general conclusions. It needs to design special messages targeting discontinuers or never users. These special messages need to concern the groups' knowledge about different family planning methods, side effects, birth spacing methods, and birth limiting methods. Husband involvement in family planning is essential. Thus, the Center needs to develop special messages geared to men. To do so, however, a cluster analysis for husbands would be helpful in message development. PMID:12290886

  10. Vitamin D Intake, Month the Mammogram Was Taken and Mammographic Density in Norwegian Women Aged 50–69

    PubMed Central

    Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Grotmol, Tom; Kaur Sakhi, Amrit; Hofvind, Solveig; Qureshi, Samera; Skov Markussen, Marianne; Couto, Elisabeth; Vos, Linda; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD). We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway—a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year. Methods 3114 women aged 50–69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ) questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements) vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California) after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT), education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes. Results There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03). Conclusion Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old. PMID:25938768

  11. Effect of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, strength, and blood lipid of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the effects of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. The subjects of this study are a total of 24 middle-aged women in the swimming group and the control group, with 12 women for each group. The swimming group performed swimming exercise for 60 min every time for 3 times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. For data processing, SPSS 21.0 statistics program was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. For the difference verification on the change in mean for each group and between the groups, paired and independent t-tests were respectively used. As a result, for physical composition, the body fat rate decreased in the swimming group. Moreover, the difference verification result showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. For physical strength, the difference verification result for each group showed that the swimming group had a statistically significant difference in flexibility and cardiovascular endurance. Moreover, the difference verification result between the groups showed a statistically significant difference only for flexibility. For blood lipids, as a result of the difference verification for each group, T-C and TG showed a significant decrease, and HDL-C, a significant increase. However, in the difference verification result between the groups, only T-C and TG showed a statistically significant difference. With these results, it is considered that regular swimming exercise is effective for improving the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. PMID:26535217

  12. Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one…

  13. The Treatment Decision-Making Process: Age Differences in a Sample of Women Recently Diagnosed with Nonrecurrent Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrisek, Ann C.; Laliberte, Linda L.; Allen, Susan M.; Mor, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    Using retrospective, self-report data collected from women recently diagnosed with breast cancer (N=179), examines the influence of age differences in the treatment decision-making process. Findings indicate that older women were less likely than their younger counterparts to have desired participation in therapy selection or sought out medical…

  14. Evaluation of new and established age-related macular degeneration susceptibility genes in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. This is a multice...

  15. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  16. Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.

    PubMed

    Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. PMID:24215967

  17. Exploring the factors associated with preconception health behaviors among women of childbearing age: a naturalistic inquiry 

    E-print Network

    Delissaint, Dieula

    2009-05-15

    Poor maternal health is one of the major risk factors related to adverse birth outcomes. Women entering pregnancy with poor health status are at higher risk of these outcomes. Prenatal care has been established as the ...

  18. Do age-disparate relationships drive HIV incidence in young women? Evidence from a population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, SV; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on ethnographic investigations and mathematical models, older sexual partners are often considered a major risk factor for HIV for young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Numerous public health campaigns have been conducted to discourage young women from relationships with older men. However, longitudinal evidence relating sex-partner age-disparity on HIV acquisition in women is limited. Methods Using data from a population-based, open cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we studied 15–29 year old women who were HIV seronegative at first interview between January 2003 and June 2012 (n=2,444). Using proportional hazards models, we analysed whether the age-disparity of each woman’s most recent sexual partner at each annual round of HIV testing was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition. Results 458 HIV seroconversions occurred over 5,913 person-years of follow-up (incidence rate: 7.75 per 100 person-years). The age-disparity of women’s partners was not associated with HIV acquisition when measured either continuously (hazard ratio [HR] for a one-year increase in partner’s age: 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97–1.03) or categorically (man ?5 years older: HR 0.98, 95%CI 0.81–1.20; man ?10 years older: HR 0.98, 95%CI 0.67–1.43). These results were robust to adjustment for known socio-demographic and behavioural HIV risk factors, and did not vary significantly by women’s age, marital status, education attainment, or household wealth. Conclusions In this rural KwaZulu-Natal setting with very high HIV incidence, partner age-disparity did not predict HIV acquisition amongst young women. Campaigns to reduce age-disparate sexual relationships may not be a cost-effective use of HIV-prevention resources in this community. PMID:24815854

  19. Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    A wide variety of strategies were used to recruit women into an acupuncture trial. The investigators collected data on the numbers of study inquiries (telephone calls and e-mail messages) received from women in the study area and sorted them by recruitment method. Posters, flyers, and direct mailings proved to be the most effective methods. However, maximizing study exposure through active recruitment using multiple methods was necessary to reach accrual goals.

  20. The Association of Elevated HDL Levels With Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Women With Untreated Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidi, Helen; Pavlidis, George; Trivilou, Paraskevi; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Tzortzis, Stavros; Xenogiannis, Iosif; Schoinas, Antonios; Lekakis, John

    2015-11-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), a negative risk factor, is positively associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease. We investigated the association between high HDL-C levels and target organ damage (TOD) in never treated women with hypertension. We measured HDL-C levels in 117 women followed by estimation of TODs, that is, pulse wave velocity, microalbuminuria, left ventricular mass index, coronary flow reserve, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Women were divided into 2 groups (HDLH and HDLL), regarding HDL-C quartiles (upper quartile vs the first 3 lower quartiles). In HDLH group : HDL ?70 mg/dL), cIMT was nonindependently, negatively related to HDL-C (? = -.42, P < .05). Using receiver -operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis in the HDLH group, we concluded that the cutoff value of HDL ?76.5 mg/dL moderately predicted the absence of carotid atherosclerosis (area under the curve: 0.77, P = .02; confidence interval: 0.57-0.97; sensitivity 73% and specificity 67%). Increased HDL-C may predict the absence of carotid atherosclerosis in middle-age women with untreated essential hypertension and consequently contribute to total cardiovascular risk estimation and treatment planning. PMID:25694515

  1. Early life stress, negative paternal relationships, and chemical intolerance in middle-aged women: support for a neural sensitization model.

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Baldwin, C M; Russek, L G; Schwartz, G E; Hardin, E E

    1998-11-01

    This study (ntotal = 35) compared early life stress ratings, parental relationships, and health status, notably orthostatic blood pressures, of middle-aged women with low-level chemical intolerance (CI group) and depression, depressives without CI (DEP group), and normals. Environmental chemical intolerance is a symptom of several controversial conditions in which women are overrepresented, that is, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia. Previous investigators have postulated that people with CI have variants of somatization disorder, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) initiated by childhood abuse or a toxic exposure event. One neurobehavioral model for CI, somatization disorder, recurrent depression, and PTSD is neural sensitization, that is, the progressive amplification of host responses (e.g., behavioral, neurochemical) to repeated intermittent stimuli (e.g., drugs, chemicals, endogenous mediators, stressors). Females are more vulnerable to sensitization than are males. Limbic and mesolimbic pathways mediate central nervous system sensitization. Although both CI and DEP groups had high levels of life stress and past abuse, the CI group had the most distant and weak paternal relationships and highest limbic somatic dysfunction subscale scores. Only the CI group showed sensitization of sitting blood pressures over sessions. Together with prior evidence, these data are consistent with a neural sensitization model for CI in certain women. The findings may have implications for poorer long-term medical as well as neuropsychiatric health outcomes of a subset of women with CI. Subsequent research should test this model in specific clinical diagnostic groups with CI. PMID:9861591

  2. [Level of knowledge on the hazards and ailments of menopause among women at pre-menopausal age].

    PubMed

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the project was to evaluate women's knowledge about symptoms, health hazards and preventive or mitigative measures against ailments of this life period. The study was conducted among 100 randomly chosen women, aged 42-49, experiencing the pre-menopausal time of life. The research tool was an anonymous questionnaire of own authorship. The results showed that it was menopausal symptoms the women were more familiar with rather than the health hazards resulting from hormonal deficiency. The surveyed indicated the following symptoms of this life period: mood fluctuations (82%), nervousness (74%), decreased elasticity of the skin (70%), hot flashes (69%), fatigue (66%), feeling unwell physically (65%), depressed mood (59%), tendency to cry (52%), sleep disturbances (50%). The women were not aware of the means to mitigate the disturbing symptoms of this time of life (with the exception of the hormone replacement therapy), having no knowledge on the role soya and soya-based supplements play in the alleviation of the nuisance of menopause. PMID:21735983

  3. The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Susan; Taylor, E Laurette; Hofford, Craig W; Brittain, Danielle R; Branscum, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance-10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, ?(2) > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women. PMID:24652905

  4. A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K.

    2007-08-01

    Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels > 300 {mu}g of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.

  5. Effect of thorax correction exercises on flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Myung-jun; Kim, Suhn-yeop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of thorax correction exercises on flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants included 41 elderly women who were divided into a thorax correction exercise group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 21). Participants in the exercise group completed a specific exercise program that included breathing correction, thorax mobility, thorax stability, and thorax alignment training performed twice per week, 1 hour each session, for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the flexed posture (thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head posture) and chest function (vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in a second, and chest expansion length). [Results] Participants in the thorax correction exercise group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head, and chest expansion than those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study provides a promising exercise intervention that may improve flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis. PMID:25995579

  6. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A. H.; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18–45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a “healthy” pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a “fast food & smoking” pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a “traditional sedentary” pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  7. Hepatitis B e Antigen Status and Hepatitis B DNA Levels in Women of Childbearing Age with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection Screening for Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tram T.; Gordon, Stuart C.; Fung, Scott; Dinh, Phillip; Yee, Leland; Martins, Eduardo Bruno; Buti, Maria; Marcellin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Perinatal or mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in a high frequency of chronic infection. Risk of mother-to-child transmission is associated with maternal viral factors including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity and viral load. Aim To investigate associations between age, HBeAg status, HBV DNA levels and genotype in female patients screened for inclusion into two contemporary, randomized HBV trials. Methods Retrospective analyses focused on differences between women of childbearing age (?44 years) and older women. Female patients (N = 355; 18–69 years) were included in the analysis: 41.7% of patients were Asian. In total, 44.4% were HBeAg-positive. Results Significantly more women aged ?44 years were HBeAg-positive compared to women ?45 years (57.2% versus 27.5%, respectively, p<0.0001), this proportion declined with increasing age. Younger women were significantly more likely to have high HBV viral load (HBV DNA>108 copies mL: ?44 years 46.0% vs ?45 years 25.5%, respectively; p<0.0001), and this declined with increasing age. HBeAg positivity was slightly higher in Asian women, associated with a higher proportion of HBV genotypes B and C in this population. There was no obvious relationship between genotype and viral load. Conclusions Women of childbearing age with CHB are more likely to have high HBV viral load and HBeAg positivity than older women; this likelihood decreases with age. Maternal serological and virological status should therefore be established early in pregnancy, taking into account age and genotype, and a risk-reducing strategy implemented in any patient who is HBeAg positive and has a high viral load. PMID:25789483

  8. The effect of joint contraceptive decisions on the use of Injectables, Long-Acting and Permanent Methods (ILAPMs) among married female (15–49) contraceptive users in Zambia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zambia’s fertility rate and unmet need for family planning are still high. This is in spite of the progress reported from 1992 to 2007 of the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate from 15% to 41% and use of modern methods of family planning from 9% to 33%. However, partner disapproval of family planning has been cited by many women in many countries including Zambia. Given the effectiveness of long-acting and permanent methods of family planning (ILAPMs) in fertility regulation, this paper sought to examine the relationship between contraceptive decision-making and use of ILAPMs among married women in Zambia. Methods This paper uses data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. The analysis is based on married women (15–49) who reported using a method of family planning at the time of the survey. Out of the 7,146 women interviewed, only 1,630 women were valid for this analysis. Cross-tabulations and binary logistic regressions with Chi-square were used to analyse associations and the predictors of use of ILAPMs of contraception, respectively. A confidence interval of .95 was used in determining relationships between independent and dependent variables. Results Two thirds of women made joint decisions regarding contraception and 29% of the women were using ILAPMs. Women who made joint contraceptive decisions are significantly more likely to use ILAPMs than women who did not involve their husband in contraceptive decisions. However, the most significant predictor is the wealth index. Women from rich households are more likely to use ILAPMs than women from medium rich and poor households. Results also show that women of North Western ethnicities and those from Region 3 had higher odds of using ILAPMs than Tonga women and women from Region 2, respectively. Conclusion Joint contraceptive decision-making between spouses is key to use of ILAPMs in Zambia. Our findings have also shown that the wealth index is actually the strongest factor determining use of these methods. As such, family planning programmes directed at increasing use of LAPMs ought to not only encourage spousal communication but should also consider rolling out interventions that incorporate economic empowerment. PMID:24993034

  9. Association between leukocyte telomere length and bone mineral density in women 25-93 years of age.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Bendix, Laila; Harboe, Maria; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and bone mineral density (BMD) are associated with health and mortality. Because osteoporosis is an age-related condition and LTL is considered to be a biomarker of aging, we hypothesized that shorter LTL could predict lower BMD. The aim of our study was to assess whether there is an association of LTL with BMD and to determine whether this possible association is independent of age. The BMDs of the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) were evaluated in 460 women using DXA. LTL was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The women completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire. The associations were estimated by regression models that considered age, body mass index (BMI), menopause, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits. We found a statistically significant unadjusted association between LTL and age (estimate and 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.003 (-0.005; -0.002)); and between BMI adjusted age and logarithmic transformed BMD. Estimates and 95% CI were as follows: LS: -0.13 (-0.26; -0.01); right TH: -0.44 (-0.53; -0.34); left TH: -0.38 (-0.48; -0.28); right FN: -0.57 (-0.67; -0.46) and left FN: -0.51 (-0.62; -0.40). There were no statistically significant associations between BMD and LTL (both logarithmically transformed) with or without age adjustments. The age-adjusted estimates and CI were as follows: LS: -0.10 (-0.71; 0.52); right TH: -0.13 (-0.66; 0.41); left TH: -0.13 (-0.67; 0.42); right FN: -0.03 (-0.58; 0.52) and left FN: 0.09 (-0.47; 0.66). In conclusion, we found no statistically significant associations between BMD and LTL, although the estimates of the crude associations were all positive, indicating hypothesis consistency; that shorter LTL predict lower BMD values. This positive association was no longer apparent after adjusting for age. As expected, age was statistically significantly associated with both telomere length and BMI adjusted BMD. PMID:25868397

  10. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  11. Validity of self-reported body mass index among middle-aged participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study

    PubMed Central

    Skeie, Guri; Mode, Nicolle; Henningsen, Maria; Borch, Kristin Benjaminsen

    2015-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight has been criticized as being biased because of an observed tendency for overweight and obese people to overestimate height and underestimate weight, resulting in higher misclassification for these groups. We examined the validity of BMI based on self-reported values in a sample of Norwegian women aged 44–64 years. Methods The study sample of 1,837 participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study self-reported height and weight, and then, within 1 year, either self-reported anthropometric again, or were measured by medical staff. Demographic and anthropometric were compared using t-tests and chi-square tests of independence. Misclassification of BMI categories was assessed by weighted Cohen’s kappa and Bland–Altman plot. Results On average, the two measurements were taken 8 months apart, and self-reported weight increased by 0.6 kg (P<0.05), and BMI by 0.2 kg/m2 (P<0.05). The distribution of BMI categories did not differ between self-reported and measured values. There was substantial agreement between self-reported values and those measured by medical staff (weighted kappa 0.73). Under-reporting resulting in misclassification of BMI category was most common among overweight women (36%), but the highest proportion of extreme under-reporting was found in obese women (18% outside the 95% limits of agreement). The cumulative distribution curves for the measured and self-reported values closely followed each other, but measurements by medical staff were shifted slightly toward higher BMI values. Conclusion While there was substantial agreement between self-reported and measured BMI values, there was small but statistically significant under-reporting of weight and thus self-reported BMI. The tendency to under-report was largest among overweight women, while the largest degree of under-reporting was found in the obese group. Self-reported weight and height provide a valid ranking of BMI for middle-aged Norwegian women. PMID:26170718

  12. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ponikowska, Irena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1?ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24971341

  13. Heart Rate Dynamics after Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Middle-Aged Women: Heterogeneity of Responses

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Tulppo, Mikko P.; Laaksonen, David E.; Nyman, Kai; Keskitalo, Marko; Häkkinen, Arja; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2013-01-01

    The loss of complexity in physiological systems may be a dynamical biomarker of aging and disease. In this study the effects of combined strength and endurance training compared with those of endurance training or strength training alone on heart rate (HR) complexity and traditional HR variability indices were examined in middle-aged women. 90 previously untrained female volunteers between the age of 40 and 65 years completed a 21 week progressive training period of either strength training, endurance training or their combination, or served as controls. Continuous HR time series were obtained during supine rest and submaximal steady state exercise. The complexity of HR dynamics was assessed using multiscale entropy analysis. In addition, standard time and frequency domain measures were also computed. Endurance training led to increases in HR complexity and selected time and frequency domain measures of HR variability (P<0.01) when measured during exercise. Combined strength and endurance training or strength training alone did not produce significant changes in HR dynamics. Inter-subject heterogeneity of responses was particularly noticeable in the combined training group. At supine rest, no training-induced changes in HR parameters were observed in any of the groups. The present findings emphasize the potential utility of endurance training in increasing the complex variability of HR in middle-aged women. Further studies are needed to explore the combined endurance and strength training adaptations and possible gender and age related factors, as well as other mechanisms, that may mediate the effects of different training regimens on HR dynamics. PMID:24013586

  14. Sleep Duration and Mortality: A Prospective Study of 113,138 Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate associations of sleep duration with total mortality and disease-specific mortality in a Chinese population. Design: Prospective study conducted from 1996 (for women)/2002 (for men) to 2010. Setting: A population-based cohort study in Shanghai, China. Intervention: None. Measurements and Results: A total of 113,138 participants (68,548 women and 44,590 men) of the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies, aged 44–79 y and 40–75 y (women and men, respectively) at sleep duration assessment, were included in the study. In-person interviews were conducted to collect information on sleep duration, socioeconomic status, living conditions, history of chronic disease, participation in regular exercise, and family history of disease. The cohort has been followed using a combination of biannual in-person interviews and record linkages with Shanghai's population-based death registry. Survival status of participants on December 31, 2010 was included as the study outcome. Relative risks were calculated using a Cox proportional model stratified by sex and comorbidity score. There were 4,277 deaths (2,356 among women; 1,921 among men) during a median follow-up time of 7.12 y for women and 6.07 y for men. Among both women and men, sleep duration showed a J-shaped association with total mortality. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.15 (1.01–1.32), 1.06 (0.94–1.20), 1.17 (1.04–1.32), 1.36 (1.13–1.64), and 2.11 (1.77–2.52) for women and 1.06 (0.90–1.25), 1.07 (0.94–1.23), 1.13 (1.00–1.28), 1.34 (1.10–1.62), and 1.55 (1.29–1.86) for men who slept 4–5, 6, 8, 9, and ? 10 h per day, respectively, compared with those who slept 7 h per day. Associations for disease-specific mortality, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer, also generally followed the same J-shaped pattern. The sleep duration-mortality association was more evident among participants with comorbidities, but varied little by sex. Conclusion: In our study population of Chinese adults, shorter and longer sleep durations were independently associated with increased risk of mortality. But longer sleep duration had a higher mortality risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes than short sleep. Citation: Cai H, Shu XO, Xiang YB, Yang G, Li H, Ji BT, Gao J, Gao YT, Zheng W. Sleep duration and mortality: a prospective study of 113,138 middle-aged and elderly Chinese men and women. SLEEP 2015;38(4):529–536. PMID:25348122

  15. Can a woman refuse sex if her husband has a sexually transmitted infection? Attitudes toward safer-sex negotiation among married women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2014-06-01

    In developing countries, HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy take an enormous toll on women's reproductive health, yet preventive programmes are lacking as married women's risks are frequently underestimated. We examined predictors of married Bangladeshi women's attitudes towards safer-sex negotiation using data on 15,178 currently married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. Approximately 92% of women believed that a wife's refusal to have sex with her husband is justified if he has an STI. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of a woman holding this belief increased with her autonomy, as measured by the ability to go to a health centre/hospital without another adult, participation in household decision making and rejection of wife beating (p < 0.001). Other significant predictors were knowledge/awareness of STIs (p < 0.05), living in Dhaka division (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that sexual health education programmes may be more effective if they include strategies to address social norms and cultural practices that limit women's autonomy in society. PMID:24735199

  16. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury exposure in inuit women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, G; Ayotte, P; Dewailly E; Jacobson, S W; Jacobson, J L

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to to identify maternal characteristics associated with traditional food consumption and to examine food items associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury body burden in pregnant Inuit women from Northern Québec. We interviewed women from three communities at mid-pregnancy and at 1 and 11 months postpartum. We measured PCBs, Hg, and selenium in maternal blood; Hg was also measured in maternal hair. The women reported eating significant amounts of fish, beluga muktuk/fat, seal meat, and seal fat. Although consumption of fish and seal was associated with lower socioeconomic status, consumption of beluga whale was uniform across strata. Fish and seal meat consumption was associated with increased Hg concentrations in hair. Traditional food intake during pregnancy was unrelated to PCB body burden, which is more a function of lifetime consumption. This study corroborated previous findings relating marine mammal and fish consumption to increased Hg and selenium body burden. Despite widespread knowledge regarding the presence of these contaminants in traditional foods, a large proportion of Inuit women increased their consumption of these foods during pregnancy, primarily because of pregnancy-related changes in food preferences and the belief that these foods are beneficial during pregnancy. PMID:11673127

  17. Multiple environmental chemical exposures to lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls among childbearing-aged women (NHANES 1999–2004): Body burden and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Marcella Remer; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are neurotoxicants with intergenerational health consequences from maternal body burden and gestational exposures. Little is known about multiple chemical exposures among childbearing-aged women. Objectives To determine the percentage of women aged 16–49 of diverse races and ethnicities whose body burdens for all three xenobiotics were at or above the median; to identify mixed exposures; and to describe those women disproportionately burdened by two or more of these chemicals based on susceptibility- and exposure-related attributes, socioeconomic factors and race-ethnicity. Methods Secondary data analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Results The best-fit logistic regression model without interactions contained 12 variables. Four risk factors associated with body burden were notable (P ? 0.05). An exponential relationship was demonstrated with increasing age. Any fish consumption in past 30 days more than doubled the odds. Heavy alcohol consumption increased the relative risk. History of breastfeeding reduced this risk. These women were more likely to have two xenobiotics at or above the median than one. More than one-fifth of these childbearing-aged women had three xenobiotic levels at or above the median. Conclusions These findings are among the first description of US childbearing-aged women’s body burden and risk factors for multiple chemical exposures. This study supports increasing age, any fish consumption and heavy alcohol consumption as significant risk factors for body burden. History of breastfeeding lowered the body burden. Limited evidence was found of increased risk among minority women independent of other risk factors. PMID:23158727

  18. Influences of player nationality, playing position, and height on relative age effects at women's under-17 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young male soccer players who are born early in a cohort are overrepresented on elite soccer teams. Selection advantages such as this have been termed 'relative age effects' (RAEs). Few studies have examined RAEs in elite women's youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of RAEs in the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) U-17 Women's World Cup competition and their link to playing positions. In the entire cohort of 672 players, we found significant RAEs in the geographical zones of Europe and North and Central America, no RAEs in the zones of Asia, Oceania, and South America, and significant inverse RAEs in the zone of Africa. Additionally, significant RAEs were found for goalkeepers and defenders from Europe and North and Central America. Inverse RAEs occurred for African goalkeepers, defenders, and strikers. Goalkeepers of all zones were significantly taller than players of all other playing positions. The results of this study show that remarkable RAEs do exist at elite women's youth soccer. Similar to men's soccer, there is a bias toward the inclusion of relatively older players, and a link between RAEs and playing positions. PMID:22909307

  19. The association of perceived stress, contextualized stress, and emotional eating with body mass index in college-aged Black women.

    PubMed

    Diggins, Allyson; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Waters, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the association between adverse stress experiences and health inequities, including obesity, among African American/Black women. Adverse stress experiences can contribute to poor appetite regulation, increased food intake, emotional eating, binge eating, and sedentary behavior, all of which can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Most research studies concerning the effect of psychological stress on eating behaviors have not examined the unique stress experience, body composition, and eating behaviors of African American/Black women. Even fewer studies have examined these constructs among Black female college students, who have an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to their counterparts. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the associations among emotional eating, perceived stress, contextualized stress, and BMI in African American female college students. All participants identified as African American or Black (N=99). The mean age of the sample was 19.4years (SD=1.80). A statistically significant eating behavior patterns×perceived stress interaction was evident for body mass index (BMI) (?=0.036, S.E.=.0118, p<.01). In addition, a statistically significant eating behavior patterns×contextualized stress interaction was observed for BMI (?=0.007, S.E.=.0027, p=.015). Findings from this study demonstrate that the stress experience interacts with emotional eating to influence BMI. Based on these findings, culturally relevant interventions that target the unique stress experience and eating behavior patterns of young African American women are warranted. PMID:26496005

  20. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance of Urinary Tract Isolates in Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis among College-Aged Women: Choosing a First-Line Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hames, Leesa; Rice, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors of this retrospective case study focused on antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary tract isolates in cases of acute uncomplicated cystitis in college-aged women, aged 18 to 24 years, diagnosed at a major south-central university student health center. Methods: The authors obtained pertinent data from…

  2. In the last decades, population surveys have demonstrated a consistent rise in the average age at first marriage among women across the

    E-print Network

    age at first marriage among women across the developing world. This demographic shift has coincided with a global campaign against child marriage which often links marriage practices with rates of maternal death marriage ages and maternal health more closely, it becomes clear that it is largely considerations

  3. Malaria-related perceptions and practices of women with children under the age of five years in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria remains to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and children in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the local perceptions, practices and treatment seeking behaviour for malaria among women with children under the age of five years. Methods This community-based study was conducted in 2003 in an area of seasonal malaria transmission in Adami Tulu District, south-central Ethiopia. Total samples of 2087 rural women with children less than five years of age from 18 rural kebeles (the smallest administrative units) were interviewed about their perceptions and practices regarding malaria. In addition, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted on similar issues to complement the quantitative data. Results Malaria, locally known as busaa, is perceived as the main health problem in the study area. Mosquitoes are perceived to be the main cause of the disease, and other misperceptions were also widespread. The use of prevention measures was very low. Most mothers were familiar with the main signs and symptoms of mild malaria, and some of them indicated high grade fever, convulsions and mental confusion as a manifestation of severe malaria. Very few households (5.6%) possessed one or two nets. More than 60% of the mothers with recent episodes of malaria received initial treatment from non-public health facilities such as community health workers (CHWs) (40%) and private care providers (21%). Less than 40% of the reported malaria cases among women were treated by public health facilities. Conclusion Malaria was perceived as the main health problem among women and children. The use of malaria preventive measures was low. A significant proportion of the respondents received initial malaria treatments from CHWs, private care providers and public health facilities. Concerted effort is needed to scale-up the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and improve the knowledge of the community about the link between malaria and mosquitoes. Effective antimalarial drugs should also be available at the grassroots level where the problem of malaria is rampant. PMID:19627572

  4. Age, mode of conception, health service use and pregnancy health: a prospective cohort study of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence about the ways in which maternal age and mode of conception interact with psychological, sociodemographic, health and health service factors in governing pregnancy health. The aim of this study was to establish in what ways maternal age and mode of conception are associated with, health behaviours, health service use and self-rated physical and mental health during pregnancy. Method A prospective cohort study was conducted in a collaboration between universities, infertility treatment services and public and private obstetric hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia,. Consecutive cohorts of nulliparous English-literate women at least 28 weeks pregnant who had conceived through ART (ARTC) or spontaneously (SC) in three age-groups: 20–30; 31–36 and at least 37 years were recruited. Data were obtained via structured individual telephone interviews and self-report postal questionnaires at recruitment and four months postpartum. Study-specific questions assessed: sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive health; health behaviours and health service use. Standardized instruments assessed physical health: SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS) and mental health: SF12 Mental Component Score (MCS); State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main outcome measures were the SF 12 PCS, SF12 MCS scores and pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Results Of 1179 eligible women 791 (67%) participated, 27 had fertility treatment without oocyte retrieval and were excluded and 592/764 (78%) completed all pregnancy assessments. When other factors were controlled speaking a language other than English, having private health insurance and multiple gestation were associated with worse physical health and having private health insurance and better physical health were associated with better mental health. Pregnancy-related hospital admissions were associated with worse physical health and multiple gestation. Conclusions Maternal age and mode of conception are not associated with pregnancy health and health service use when sociodemographic factors are considered. PMID:23565589

  5. Length of residence, age and patterns of medicinal plant knowledge and use among women in the urban Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper explores patterns of women’s medicinal plant knowledge and use in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, this paper examines the relationship between a woman’s age and her use and knowledge of medicinal plants. It also examines whether length of residence in three different areas of the Amazon is correlated with a woman’s use and knowledge of medicinal plants. Two of the areas where respondents may have resided, the jungle/seringal and farms/colonias, are classified as rural. The third area (which all of the respondents resided in) was urban. Methods This paper utilizes survey data collected in Rio Branco, Brazil. Researchers administered the survey to 153 households in the community of Bairro da Luz (a pseudonym). The survey collected data on phytotherapeutic knowledge, general phytotherapeutic practice, recent phytotherapeutic practice and demographic information on age and length of residence in the seringal, on a colonia, and in a city. Bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the inter-relationships among the key variables. Three dependent variables, two measuring general phytotherapeutic practice and one measuring phytotherapeutic knowledge were regressed on the demographic factors. Results The results demonstrate a relationship between a woman’s age and medicinal plant use, but not between age and plant knowledge. Additionally, length of residence in an urban area and on a colonia/farm are not related to medicinal plant knowledge or use. However, length of residence in the seringal/jungle is positively correlated with both medicinal plant knowledge and use. Conclusions The results reveal a vibrant tradition of medicinal plant use in Bairro da Luz. They also indicate that when it comes to place of residence and phytotherapy the meaningful distinction is not rural versus urban, it is seringal versus other locations. Finally, the results suggest that phytotherapeutic knowledge and use should be measured separately since one may not be an accurate proxy for the other. PMID:24565037

  6. Uneducated and unhealthy: the plight of women in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ibraz, T S; Fatima, A

    1993-01-01

    A general case can be made that Pakistani women, particularly in rural areas, have been culturally assigned with low priorities for female education and with social rewards in reproduction and domestic activities. Female mortality is high, and there is a lack of access to medical facilities. Female literacy was 21.30% in 1991-92, and male literacy was 45.50%. There are only 30,200 primary schools and 3300 middle schools for girls compared to 85,400 and 5200 for boys. Approximately 33% of mortality among women aged 15-49 years is related to maternal causes. In a sample village in Rawalpindi, 50 km from Islamabad, there are no medical facilities. The nearest health unit is 3 km away and lacks any trained birth attendants. Two local women without formal training handle childbirth. Cultural restrictions prevent better knowledge about proper hygiene and sanitation. The required female tasks of cleaning animal pens puts women at higher risk of health problems and tetanus. Mud stoves and use of fuel wood in unventilated spaces exposes women to respiratory diseases. Home remedies and local perceptions of illness can cause harm. Evil spirits are considered as precipitating causes of illness. Women are excluded from monetary transactions in markets for the goods they produce. Education for girls is thought to "spoil" and distract from attention to household tasks. There is no value placed on girls attaining more than a primary education. An example in one household was given to show the impact of lack of education and mistreatment of hearing loss for one girl. The mother fed her sons well, but gave her daughter and herself only "roti" with tea. The justification was that men work harder. The cycle of poor education and lack of knowledge continues to be perpetuated. PMID:12346814

  7. Female reproductive tract infections: understandings and care seeking behaviour among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reproductive tract infections (RTI's) are endemic in developing countries and entail a heavy toll on women. If untreated, RTI's can lead to adverse health outcomes such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy and increased vulnerability to transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. It is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While RTI's and its sequelae abound in Nigeria, there is paucity of publications on the subject in the country. This study assessed the understandings and care seeking behavior with regards to RTI's among women of reproductive age in Lagos, Nigeria with the aim of improving awareness on the subject. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey of women attending the gynaecological outpatient and family planning clinics of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital was carried out between 1st June 2008 and 31st August 2008 using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analysed using the Epi-Info 3.5 statistical software of the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta U.S.A. Results Most of the respondents (77.2%) had heard of RTI's. Toilet was the most perceived mode of contracting RTI's (44.6%), followed by sexual intercourse and poor hygiene. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom of RTI's named while inability to get pregnant was the commonest named complication. Majority of the respondent's demonstrated poor overall knowledge of symptoms and complications of RTI"s. 37.4% of the respondents had experienced symptoms of RTI's in the preceding six months. Vaginal discharge was the commonest symptom reported (21.8%) and the majority of those who reported symptoms sought medical treatment. Government health centres were the most visited health facilities for treatment. Conclusion Even though most of the respondents have heard of RTI's and sought treatment when symptomatic, they demonstrated poor overall understanding of the subject. There is need to educate women on preventive strategies, as RTI's are often assymptomatic. PMID:20331888

  8. TMPRSS6 rs855791 Polymorphism Influences the Susceptibility to Iron Deficiency Anemia in Women at Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Sung-Nan; Ma, Ming-Chun; You, Huey-Ling; Fu, Hung-Chun; Kuo, Ching-Yuan; Rau, Kun-Ming; Wang, Ming-Chung; Lee, Chien-Te

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide-association studies have identified the TMPRSS6 polymorphism rs855791 has the strongest association with red blood cell indices or iron parameters in general population. Whether this genetic variant influences the susceptibility of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in women with menstruation has not been well studied. Methods: In this case-control study, we enrolled 67 women with IDA and 107 healthy volunteers, and analyzed their complete blood counts, rs855791 genotypes, and menstrual amounts. Menstrual blood loss was evaluated with a pictorial blood-loss assessment chart. Results: There were significantly fewer rs855791 C homozygotes in the IDA group than in the healthy group (11.9% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.03). The odds ratio (OR) of C homozygotes having IDA versus non-CC subjects having IDA was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.17 - 0.95, p = 0.04). When the analysis was confined to study subjects with menorrhagia, this difference became more prominent (9.6% vs. 28.6%, p = 0.01; OR, 0.27, 95% CI, 0.09 - 0.77, p = 0.01). For women with non-CC genotypes, there was an inverse correlation between hemoglobin levels and menstrual loss (p < 0.001); however, this association was not found for those with genotypes CC (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Our study suggests homozygosity for TMPRSS6 rs855791 C genotype has a protective role against IDA in women at reproductive age, especially in those with menorrhagia. PMID:24782651

  9. Dose-response relations between second-hand smoke exposure and depressive symptoms among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaohua; Li, LiXia; Gao, Yanhui; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi; Chen, Sidong

    2015-09-30

    A growing body of evidence indicates a strong association between smoking and depression. However, little is known about the possible effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on depression. This study aimed to examine the potential dose-response relation between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms among non-smoking middle-aged women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a stratified three-stage sampling method. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a cut-off point of 16. Self-reported SHS exposure was defined as non-smokers? inhalation of the smoke exhaled from smokers on at least one day a week. The multivariable logistic regression analysis was completed with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 1280 middle-aged women, 19.4% were classified as having depressive symptoms. There was a 104% increased odds of depressive symptoms corresponding to SHS exposure in general (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.48-2.79) using no exposure as reference. There were significant positive relations between SHS exposure in general and depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner. These significant trends were observed consistently whether SHS exposure occurred in homes or workplaces. Our findings suggest that long-term and regular SHS exposure is associated with a significant, dose-dependent increase in risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:26231582

  10. Endocrine and behavioural effects of transdermal buprenorphine in pain-suffering women of different reproductive ages.

    PubMed

    Aurilio, Caterina; Ceccarelli, Ilaria; Pota, Vincenzo; Sansone, Pasquale; Massafra, Cosimo; Barbarisi, Manlio; Pace, Maria Caterina; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Bravi, Fabio; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common problem in clinical practice and women are affected more often than men. Morphine is often used for long-term pain relief, but it induces side effects including endocrine alterations. The aim of the present study was to assess the behavioural and hormonal effects of transdermal buprenorphine in women suffering from persistent non-malignant pain. Hormones (LH, FSH, total and free testosterone, estradiol, cortisol) and pain measures (visual analogue scale, McGill Pain questionnaire, present pain intensity test) were evaluated at baseline and after 1, 3 and 6 months. Subjects were recruited in the Second University of Naples Pain Research Centre. Eighteen chronic pain women were included in the study, divided into pre- and post-menopausal groups. A transdermal buprenorphine patch (Buprenorphine TDS, 35 µg/h) was administered every 72 h. As expected, buprenorphine administration led to a decrease in pain intensity and no side effects suggestive of hypogonadism were recorded. Pain measures decreased at the first control visit (T1) in both groups. Total and free testosterone were not reduced by treatment (they tended to increase in both groups) while cortisol progressively recovered from the quite low levels detected at the beginning of treatment. These data confirm that buprenorphine is a safe and effective drug for pain relief in women. It is free from the adverse effects on gonadal hormones frequently associated with other opioid treatments. The lack of opioid-induced effects on gonadal hormones (i.e., hypogonadism) is important to guarantee safe long-term pain treatment. PMID:21937837

  11. The role of gender inequities in women’s access to reproductive health care: a population-level study of Namibia, Kenya, Nepal, and India

    PubMed Central

    Namasivayam, Amrita; Osuorah, Donatus C; Syed, Rahman; Antai, Diddy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The role of gender inequities in explaining women’s access to reproductive health care was examined in four countries (two sub-Saharan African and two South Asian countries). The extent of gender inequities varies across and within countries, and is rooted in the different cultural practices and gender norms within these different countries, and differences in the status and autonomy of women. Methods: Demographic and Health Survey data from women aged 15–49 years within these countries were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the role of multidimensional characteristics of gender inequities, operationalized as access to skilled antenatal care, tetanus toxoid injection during pregnancy, and access to skilled antenatal care. Results: Significant associations were found between several dimensions of gender inequities (with the exception of decision-making autonomy) and reported use of maternal reproductive health care services. Several pathways of influence between the outcome and exposure variables were also identified. Conclusion: Dimensions of gender inequities (with the exception of decision-making autonomy) differentially influenced woman’s use of reproductive health care services, thus highlighting the urgent need for concerted and sustained efforts to change these harmful traditional values if several of these countries are to meet Millennium Development Goal-5. PMID:22927766

  12. The medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Linda D; Gueye, Ndeye-Aicha

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, once a thorough history, physical examination, and indicated imaging studies are performed and all significant structural causes are excluded, medical management is the first-line approach. Determining the acuity of the bleeding, the patient's medical history, assessing risk factors, and establishing a diagnosis will individualize their medical regimen. In acute abnormal uterine bleeding with a normal uterus, parenteral estrogen, a multidose combined oral contraceptive regimen, a multidose progestin-only regimen, and tranexamic acid are all viable options, given the appropriate clinical scenario. Heavy menstrual bleeding can be treated with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, combined oral contraceptives, continuous oral progestins, and tranexamic acid with high efficacy. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be utilized with hormonal methods and tranexamic acid to decrease menstrual bleeding. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are indicated in patients with leiomyoma and abnormal uterine bleeding in preparation for surgical interventions. In women with inherited bleeding disorders all hormonal methods as well as tranexamic acid can be used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding. Women on anticoagulation therapy should consider using progestin-only methods as well as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to treat their heavy menstrual bleeding. Given these myriad options for medical treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, many patients may avoid surgical intervention. PMID:26254516

  13. Levels, trends and reasons for unmet need for family planning among married women in Botswana: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Letamo, Gobopamang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study are: (1) to estimate the prevalence of unmet need for family planning among married women using Botswana Family Health Survey 2007 data and (2) to identify risk factors for unmet need for family planning among married women. Design This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to provide a snapshot of health issues in Botswana. Setting Nationally representative population survey data. Participants 2601 married or in union women aged 15–49?years who participated in the 2007 Botswana Family Health Survey were included in the analysis. Primary outcome Unmet need for family planning, which was defined as the percentage of all fecund married women who are not using a method of contraception even though they do not want to get pregnant. Results Married women who had unmet need for family planning were 9.6% in 2007. Most of the unmet need was for limiting (6.7%) compared to spacing (2.9%). Unmet need for family planning was more likely to be among women whose partners disapproved of family planning, non-Christians, had one partner and had never discussed family planning with their partner. Women of low parity, aged 25–34?years, and greater exposure to mass media, were less likely to have experienced unmet need. The patterns and magnitude of covariates differed between unmet need for limiting and for spacing. Conclusions The prevalence of unmet need for family planning was low in Botswana compared to other sub-Saharan African countries. The findings from this study reemphasise the importance of women's empowerment and men's involvement in women's sexual and reproductive healthcare needs and services. Different approaches are needed to satisfy the demand for family planning for spacing and limiting. PMID:25829370

  14. Determination of numbers of lead-exposed women of childbearing age and pregnant women: An integrated summary of a report to the U. S. Congress on childhood lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Crocetti, A.F. ); Mushak, P. ); Schwartz, J. )

    1990-11-01

    In a Congressionally mandated study carried out under the aegis of the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and summarized in this article, the authors have provided estimates of the numbers of American women of childbearing age and the numbers of American pregnant women whose lead exposure is sufficiently elevated to pose an intrauterine toxicity risk. Exposures associated with such risk were defined as blood lead (PbB) levels > 10, > 15, < 20, and < 25 {mu}g/dL. Using PbB prevalence projection techniques based on the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), they first generated projected 1984 prevalence of these PbB levels in white and black women of childbearing age, ages 15 to 19 and 20 to 44. White women in the two age bands had rates of PbBs > 10 {mu}g/dL of 9.2 and 9.7%, respectively. For black women, the corresponding rates were 8.2 and 19.7%, respectively. Pregnant black and white women in US SMSAs are approximately 9% of the US black and white childbearing age total, i.e., 3.6 million out of a 41.3 million SMSA total. Of these, 403,200 pregnant women were estimated to have PbB levels > 10 {mu}g/dL. Cumulative totals of exposed fetuses with persisting long-term exposure will be greater, in as much as a given fetus is never counted more than once in this type of survey. Over 10 years, the number would be over 4 million fetuses at elevated risk of health effects.

  15. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma genitalium in British men and women aged 16–44 years: evidence from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Pam; Ison, Catherine A; Clifton, Soazig; Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Alexander, Sarah; Khanom, Rumena; Saunders, Pamela; Copas, Andrew J; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H; Johnson, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are currently no large general population epidemiological studies of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), which include prevalence, risk factors, symptoms and co-infection in men and women across a broad age range. Methods: In 2010-–12, we conducted the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a probability sample survey in Britain. Urine from 4507 sexually-experienced participants, aged 16–44 years, was tested for MG. Results: MG prevalence was 1.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–1.8%] in men and 1.3% (0.9–1.9%) in women. There were no positive MG tests in men aged 16–19, and prevalence peaked at 2.1% (1.2–3.7%) in men aged 25–34 years. In women, prevalence was highest in 16–19 year olds, at 2.4% (1.2–4.8%), and decreased with age. Men of Black ethnicity were more likely to test positive for MG [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 12.1; 95% CI: 3.7–39.4). For both men and women, MG was strongly associated with reporting sexual risk behaviours (increasing number of total and new partners, and unsafe sex, in the past year). Women with MG were more likely to report post-coital bleeding (AOR 5.8; 95%CI 1.4–23.3). However, the majority of men (94.4%), and over half of women (56.2%) with MG did not report any sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms. Men with MG were more likely to report previously diagnosed gonorrhoea, syphilis or non-specific urethritis, and women previous trichomoniasis. Conclusions: This study strengthens evidence that MG is an STI. MG was identified in over 1% of the population, including in men with high-risk behaviours in older age groups that are often not included in STI prevention measures. PMID:26534946

  16. A multi-case report of the pathways to and through genetic testing and cancer risk management for BRCA mutation-positive women aged 18–25

    PubMed Central

    Werner-Lin, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Much of the extant literature addressing the psychosocial aspects of BRCA1/2 mutation testing and risk management aggregates mutation carriers of all ages in study recruitment, data analysis, and interpretation. This analytic strategy does not adequately address the needs of the youngest genetic testing consumers, i.e., women aged 18–25. Despite low absolute cancer risk estimates before age 30, BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women aged 18–25 feel vulnerable to a cancer diagnosis but find themselves in a management quandary because the clinical utility of screening and prevention options are not yet well defined for such young carriers. We present three cases, selected from a larger study of 32 BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women who completed or considered genetic testing before age 25, to demonstrate the unique developmental, relational and temporal influences, as well as the challenges, experienced by very young BRCA mutation-positive women as they complete genetic testing and initiate cancer risk management. The first case describes the maturation of a young woman whose family participated in a national cancer registry. The second addresses the experiences and expectations of a young woman who completed genetic testing after learning that her unaffected father was a mutation carrier. The third case highlights the experiences of a young woman parentally bereaved in childhood, who presented for genetic counseling and testing due to intense family pressure. Together, these cases suggest that BRCA1/2-positive women aged 18–25 are challenged to reconcile their burgeoning independence from their families with risk-related support needs. Loved ones acting in ways meant to care for these young women may inadvertently apply pressure, convoluting family support dynamics and autonomous decision-making. Ongoing support from competent healthcare professionals will enable these young women to remain informed and receive objective counsel about their risk-management decisions. PMID:22864682

  17. Women with epilepsy in reproductive age group: special issues and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shehanaaz; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) have several gender based problems pertaining to social and biological domains. The stigma of epilepsy and its consequences appear to be more for women than men. They have more difficulty in getting married and sustaining a married life. The cyclical variations in the reproductive hormones can adversely impact the seizure pattern in WWE. Epileptiform discharges in the brain can influence the hypothalamic functions and lead to sexual dysfunction. The Antiepileptic drugs (AED) may alter their metabolic and hormone profile and contribute to this disorder. Most WWE tend to have uneventful pregnancies and healthy babies. Nevertheless, the risk of fetal malformations appears to be increased when AEDs are used during pregnancy. This risk is higher for those who are on polytherapy, or using valproate. Recent studies have also demonstrated that antenatal exposure to AEDs could lead to neurocognitive and developmental impairment, low IQ or language problems in exposed infants. Clinicians need to consider these special issues while initiating AED therapy in adolescent girls. All WWE need to have a detailed pre conception evaluation wherein the need to continue AEDs, the ideal AED and dosage are reassessed. The AED therapy would have to be individualized according to the clinical situations, obstetric background and family concerns. Folic acid should be prescribed to all women who could potentially become pregnant. Detailed screening for fetal malformations by estimation of serum alpha fetoprotein and fetal ultrasonography need to be carried out between 14 - 18 weeks of pregnancy. The dosage of AEDs may have to be escalated in the second half of pregnancy in selected patients. The family should be provided detailed counseling and information on how to cope with the pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and contraception. PMID:24818330

  18. Screening of Tanzanian women of childbearing age for urinary schistosomiasis: validity of urine reagent strip readings and self-reported symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Poggensee, G.; Krantz, I.; Kiwelu, I.; Feldmeier, H.

    2000-01-01

    The screening of women of childbearing age for haematuria, leukocyturia and proteinuria to detect urinary schistosomiasis can be confounded by several factors such as menstruation, pregnancy and genitourinary infections. We therefore undertook a study in an area endemic for Schistosoma haematobium in the United Republic of Tanzania to carry out the following: assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values--in women of childbearing age--of indirect indicators of urinary schistosomiasis, as measured by urine reagent strip readings; assess the predictive values of self-reported symptoms; and finally to estimate the morbidity attributable to S. haematobium. A total of 303 women (128 and 175, respectively, living in high- and low-risk sites) participated in the study. Haematuria was more frequent among women excreting S. haematobium eggs than among those who did not (65% versus 32%). The predictive potential of all indirect disease markers was poor in the highly endemic site, while in the sites with low endemicity the negative predictive values were high. Among infected women, 54% of haematuria could be attributed to S. haematobium, but for patients with more than 10 eggs/10 ml the attributable fraction rose to 70%. Symptoms of "bloody urine" and "pain while urinating" were recalled significantly more often by women living in the highly endemic site. On a population level, one-third of the self-reported cases with bloody urine could be attributed to urinary schistosomiasis. Screening of women of childbearing age for urinary schistosomiasis using urine reagent strips can be biased in two directions. The prevalence of S. haematobium will be overestimated if other causes of haematuria, such as reproductive tract infections, are highly endemic. On the other hand, women with light or very light infections will be missed and will not be treated. This is of concern because genital schistosomiasis, a possible risk factor for the transmission of HIV, occurs among women even with light infections. PMID:10885183

  19. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: 1. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 40 to 49 years.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A B; Baines, C J; To, T; Wall, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of annual screening with mammography, physical examination of the breasts and the teaching of breast self-examination in reducing the rate of death from breast cancer among women aged 40 to 49 years on entry. DESIGN: Individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen urban centres in Canada with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: Women with no history of breast cancer and no mammography in the previous 12 months were randomly assigned to undergo either annual mammography and physical examination (MP group) or usual care after an initial physical examination (UC group). The 50,430 women enrolled from January 1980 through March 1985 were followed for a mean of 8.5 years. DATA COLLECTION: Derived from the participants by initial and annual self-administered questionnaires, from the screening examinations, from the patients' physicians, from the provincial cancer registries and by record linkage to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base. Expert panels evaluated histologic and death data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of referral from screening, rates of detection of breast cancer from screening and from community care, nodal status, tumour size, and rates of death from all causes and from breast cancer. RESULTS: Over 90% of the women in each group attended the screening sessions or returned the annual questionnaires, or both, over years 2 to 5. The characteristics of the women in the two groups were similar. Compared with the Canadian population, the participants were more likely to be married, have fewer children, have more education, be in a professional occupation, smoke less and have been born in North America. The rate of screen-detected breast cancer on first examination was 3.89 per 1000 in the MP group and 2.46 per 1000 in the UC group; more node-positive tumours were found in the MP group than in the UC group. During years 2 through 5 the ratios of observed to expected cases of invasive breast cancer were 1.26 in the MP group and 1.02 in the UC group. Of the women with invasive breast cancer through to 7 years, 191 and 157 women in the MP and UC groups respectively had no node involvement, 55 and 43 had one to three nodes involved, 47 and 23 had four or more nodes involved, and 38 and 49 had an unknown nodal status. There were 38 deaths from breast cancer in the MP group and 28 in the UC group. The ratio of the proportions of death from breast cancer in the MP group compared with those in the UC group was 1.36 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 2.21). The survival rates were similar in the two groups. The highest survival rate occurred among women whose cancer had been detected by mammography alone. CONCLUSION: The study was internally valid, and there was no evidence of randomization bias. Screening with yearly mammography and physical examination of the breasts detected considerably more node-negative, small tumours than usual care, but it had no impact on the rate of death from breast cancer up to 7 years' follow-up from entry. PMID:1423087

  20. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Ma?gorzata; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Karakiewicz, Beata; Do??gowska, Barbara; Grochans, El?bieta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1) The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2) A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3) AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve. PMID:25826396

  1. Refining Measurement of Substance Use Disorders Among Women of Child-Bearing Age Using Hospital Records: The Development of the Explicit-Mention Substance Abuse Need for Treatment in Women (EMSANT-W) Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Derrington, Taletha Mae; Bernstein, Judith; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Diop, Hafsatou; Evans, Stephen R; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2015-10-01

    Substance use disorder (SUD) in women of reproductive age is associated with adverse health consequences for both women and their offspring. US states need a feasible population-based, case-identification tool to generate better approximations of SUD prevalence, treatment use, and treatment outcomes among women. This article presents the development of the Explicit Mention Substance Abuse Need for Treatment in Women (EMSANT-W), a gender-tailored tool based upon existing International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification diagnostic code-based groupers that can be applied to hospital administrative data. Gender-tailoring entailed the addition of codes related to infants, pregnancy, and prescription drug abuse, as well as the creation of inclusion/exclusion rules based on other conditions present in the diagnostic record. Among 1,728,027 women and associated infants who accessed hospital care from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008 in Massachusetts, EMSANT-W identified 103,059 women with probable SUD. EMSANT-W identified 4,116 women who were not identified by the widely used Clinical Classifications Software for Mental Health and Substance Abuse (CCS-MHSA) and did not capture 853 women identified by CCS-MHSA. Content and approach innovations in EMSANT-W address potential limitations of the Clinical Classifications Software, and create a methodologically sound, gender-tailored and feasible population-based tool for identifying women of reproductive age in need of further evaluation for SUD treatment. Rapid changes in health care service infrastructure, delivery systems and policies require tools such as the EMSANT-W that provide more precise identification methods for sub-populations and can serve as the foundation for analyses of treatment use and outcomes. PMID:25680703

  2. Induction of labour versus expectant management for nulliparous women over 35 years of age: a multi-centre prospective, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background British women are increasingly delaying childbirth. The proportion giving birth over the age of 35 rose from 12% in 1996 to 20% in 2006. Women over this age are at a higher risk of perinatal death, and antepartum stillbirth accounts for 61% of all such deaths. Women over 40 years old have a similar stillbirth risk at 39 weeks as women who are between 25 and 29 years old have at 41 weeks. Many obstetricians respond to this by suggesting labour induction at term to forestall some of the risk. In a national survey of obstetricians 37% already induce women aged 40–44 years. A substantial minority of parents support such a policy, but others do not on the grounds that it might increase the risk of Caesarean section. However trials of induction in other high-risk scenarios have not shown any increase in Caesarean sections, rather the reverse. If induction for women over 35 did not increase Caesareans, or even reduced them, it would plausibly improve perinatal outcome and be an acceptable intervention. We therefore plan to perform a trial to test the effect of such an induction policy on Caesarean section rates. This trial is funded by the NHS Research for Patient Benefit (RfPB) Programme. Design The 35/39 trial is a multi-centre, prospective, randomised controlled trial. It is being run in twenty UK centres and we aim to recruit 630 nulliparous women (315 per group) aged over 35 years of age, over two years. Women will be randomly allocated to one of two groups: Induction of labour between 390/7 and 396/7 weeks gestation. Expectant management i.e. awaiting spontaneous onset of labour unless a situation develops necessitating either induction of labour or Caesarean Section. The primary purpose of this trial is to establish what effect a policy of induction of labour at 39 weeks for nulliparous women of advanced maternal age has on the rate of Caesarean section deliveries. The secondary aim is to act as a pilot study for a trial to answer the question, does induction of labour in this group of women improve perinatal outcomes? Randomisation will occur at 360/7 – 396/7 weeks gestation via a computerised randomisation programme at the Clinical Trials Unit, University of Nottingham. There will be no blinding to treatment allocation. Discussion The 35/39 trial is powered to detect an effect of induction of labour on the risk of caesarean section, it is underpowered to determine whether it improves perinatal outcome. The current study will also act as a pilot for a larger study to address this question. Trial registration ISRCTN11517275 PMID:23231750

  3. Measuring unintended pregnancies in postpartum Iranian women: validation of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Roshanaei, S; Shaghaghi, A; Jafarabadi, M A; Kousha, A

    2015-08-01

    Research suggests a relatively sizable rate of unintended pregnancies in some subgroups of Iranian women, but there is no concise, standard scale to measure the pregnancy intention of Iranian women. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) were investigated. The Persian version of the LMUP was tested on randomly selected married women aged 15-49 years in the city of Ajabshir, East Azerbaijan province, north-west of Islamic Republic of Iran. The scale's face validity and internal consistency was examined and its construct validity was tested by exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency of the scale was acceptable (Cronbach alpha coefficient 0.87). Structural indicators of the Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin measure (0.85) and Bartlett test of sphericity (P < 0.001) verified interpretability of the exploratory factor analysis output. Applicability of the Persian version of the LMUP is accepted. Further investigation is needed to understand cultural norms that might influence Iranian women's responses to queries about pregnancy intentions. PMID:26446528

  4. Women's Empowerment and Contraceptive Use: The Role of Independent versus Couples' Decision-Making, from a Lower Middle Income Country Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Sheikh, Muhammad Ishaque; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined - and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach. Methods We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR), to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods. Results Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method. Conclusion Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to be made to educate women and their husbands equally, with particular focus on highly effective contraceptive methods. PMID:25119727

  5. Multiple meiotic errors caused by predivision of chromatids in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilisation

    PubMed Central

    Handyside, Alan H; Montag, Markus; Magli, M Cristina; Repping, Sjoerd; Harper, Joyce; Schmutzler, Andreas; Vesela, Katerina; Gianaroli, Luca; Geraedts, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome aneuploidy is a major cause of pregnancy loss, abnormal pregnancy and live births following both natural conception and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and increases exponentially with maternal age in the decade preceding the menopause. Molecular genetic analysis following natural conception and spontaneous miscarriage demonstrates that trisomies arise mainly in female meiosis and particularly in the first meiotic division. Here, we studied copy number gains and losses for all chromosomes in the two by-products of female meiosis, the first and second polar bodies, and the corresponding zygotes in women of advanced maternal age undergoing IVF, using microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH). Analysis of the segregation patterns underlying the copy number changes reveals that premature predivision of chromatids rather than non-disjunction of whole chromosomes causes almost all errors in the first meiotic division and unlike natural conception, over half of aneuploidies result from errors in the second meiotic division. Furthermore, most abnormal zygotes had multiple aneuploidies. These differences in the aetiology of aneuploidy in IVF compared with natural conception may indicate a role for ovarian stimulation in perturbing meiosis in ageing oocytes. PMID:22317970

  6. Electric blanket or mattress cover use and breast cancer incidence in women 50-79 years of age.

    PubMed

    McElroy, J A; Newcomb, P A; Remington, P L; Egan, K M; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Trentham-Dietz, A; Hampton, J M; Baron, J A; Stampfer, M J; Willett, W C

    2001-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated inconsistent associations between electromagnetic radiation, especially from electric blanket use, and breast cancer. Breast cancer risk according to electric blanket or mattress cover use was examined as part of a multicenter population-based case-control study. Breast cancer patients 50-79 years of age (N = 1949) were identified from statewide tumor registries in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin from the period June 1994 to July 1995. Women of similar age were randomly selected from population lists as controls. Information regarding electric blanket and mattress cover use and breast cancer risk factors was obtained through telephone interviews. After adjustment for age, body mass index, and other breast cancer risk factors, the risk of breast cancer was similar among ever-users (relative risk = 0.93; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.06) and lower among current users than among never-users (relative risk = 0.79; 95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.95). There was no evidence of a dose-response relation with increasing number of months that electric blankets had been used. This study provides evidence against a positive association between electric blanket or mattress cover use and breast cancer. PMID:11679786

  7. Influence of age and physical fitness on miRNA-21, TGF-? and its receptors in leukocytes of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Oesen, Stefan; Franzke, Bernhard; Stuparits, Petra; Vidotto, Claudia; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Quittan, Michael; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wessner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-? superfamily has been shown to play an important role in a wide range of physiological as well as pathological processes including ageing, immune modulation, atherosclerosis and cancer development. The aim of the current study was to investigate (i) whether TGF-? signalling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) would differ between young and old females and (ii) whether physical performance parameters of elderly women would be related to the expression of TGF-? or its receptors. Sixteen healthy young (22-28 years; YF) and 90 healthy older (65-92 years; OF) females participated in the study. In addition to several components of health-related physical fitness, circulating CRP and TGF-? levels were determined together with the mRNA expression of TGF-?, TGF-?RI, TGF-?RII, and miRNA-21 (known to interfere with TGF-? signalling) in PBMCs. Physical fitness as determined by 6-minutes walking test (YF:median 932 (range 573-1254) m; OF:360 (114-558) m), handgrip strength (YF: 32 (24-39) kg; OF:18(10-30) kg), relative isokinetic peak torque of knee extensors (YF:1.9 (1.2- 2.3) Nm/kg; OF:1.0 (0.2-1.9) Nm/kg and flexors (YF: 1.1 (0.7- 1.5) Nm/kg; OF: 0.5 (0.2-1.0) Nm/kg was substantially lower in older women (p<0.001 for all comparisons). These changes were paralleled by an increase in hs-CRP (YF: 0.9 (0.1-4.3)mg/L; OF: 2.3 (0.3-56.7)mg/L,p<0.001). Serum levels of TGF-? and TGF-? mRNA levels from PBMCs did not differ between young and old women whereas, both TGF- ?RI/GAPDH (YF: 4.07 (1.38-14.60); OF: 2.08 (0.14-28.81); p=0.020) and TGF-?RII/GAPDH levels (YF: 3.16 (1.14- 10.25); OF: 1.71 (0.51-14.86); p=0.020) were lower with respect to old age. In elderly women, only TGF-?R? expression correlated negatively with miRNA-21 expression in PBMCs (?=-0.315; p=0.004). Interestingly, hs-CRP and miRNA correlated positively with handgrip strength (?=0.237 and ?=243, p<0.05), while none of the TGF-?-related parameters were related to physical performance. The results suggest that age affects TGF-? signalling in leukocytes by altering the expression levels of its receptors. These changes seem to occur independently of physical fitness of old women. PMID:25826292

  8. Impact of physical activity and body composition on heart function and morphology in middle-aged, abdominally obese women.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Michael; Uddén, Joanna; Hemmingsson, Erik; Agewall, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have shown training induced morphological changes in the heart. Our aim was to assess how frequent, low-intensity exercise (walking and cycling) influences heart function and morphology in abdominally obese women. Fifty women with abdominal obesity (mean age 47.0 +/- 7.5 years, waist circumference (WC) 103.2 +/- 7.8 cm), free of cardiovascular problems were recruited. They were equipped with a bicycle and pedometers and instructed to start commuting in a physically active way for 6 months. Evaluation of cardiac function and morphology was performed using echocardiography (ECHO) before and after 6 months of training. The subjects increased significantly their daily physical activity. After 6 months, there was a significant decrease in WC (from 103.3 +/- 7.9 to 100.8 +/- 8.4 cm, P = 0.0003), in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (126.8 +/- 15.2 to 120.4 +/- 14.5 mmHg, P = 0.0001, and 79.8 +/- 7.8 to 77.8 +/- 8.4 mmHg, P = 0.0006, respectively). ECHO showed an increase in the right ventricular (RV) systolic longitudinal function expressed as tricuspid annular motion from 22.00 +/- 3.30 to 23.05 +/- 3.59 mm, P = 0.015; and a similar trend in left ventricular (LV) mitral annular motion, which increased from 13.09 +/- 1.53 to 13.39 +/- 1.47 mm, P = 0.070. Cycling was associated with reductions in LV systolic and RV diastolic dimensions, whereas walking was not associated with any changes in the ECHO-variables. A reduction in WC by frequent, low-intensity exercise in abdominally obese women is associated with decrease in blood pressure and improved longitudinal RV systolic function. PMID:20646010

  9. Urinary perchlorate exposure and risk in women of reproductive age in a fireworks production area of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei

    2014-07-01

    Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive age from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater exposure doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination. PMID:24859046

  10. Different dietary lifestyles and serum zinc and copper in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Breskin, M.W.; Worthington-Roberts, B.S.; Monsen, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    Nutrient intakes and biochemical measures of zinc and copper were compared in non-pregnant young women representing different dietary lifestyles, viz, those who habitually ate red meat (RM), fish or poultry (FP), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LV) sources of protein. All were in good health and concerned about their diets; none was using supplements or oral contraceptives. Three-day food records were analyzed for nutrient content. Serum and drinking water samples were assayed for zinc and copper (AAS), and serum, for ceruloplasmin (RID). Sign. diff. in dietary Zn or Cu content were not reflected by serum(Zn) or (Cu), but the incidence of serum(Zn) < the 95% CI for RM eaters was sign. higher in FP and LV groups (X/sup 2/ = 20.65, p < 0.001). Thus, use of diets limited in animal protein sources may be associated with an increase risk of low serum (Zn).

  11. Chrono- and Immunocorrection of Inflammatory Disorders of Internal Reproductive Organs in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Litvinenko, G I; Shurlygina, A V; Dergacheva, T I; Mel'nikova, E V; Trufakin, V A

    2015-05-01

    We compared the effectiveness of immunomodulators used in the treatment of patients with chronic salpingitis and oophoritis with or without changes in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in blood lymphocytes at incubation with the drug. Diurnal variations in individual reaction of SDH in blood lymphocytes to thymalin or ridostin were revealed. In the groups of women receiving ridostin or thymalin during the reaction of lymphocyte SDH to it, improvement of clinical laboratory and immunological parameters was observed in the majority of the patients and no effect was found in a lesser group of patients than in the groups treated with drugs during the absence of lymphocyte SDH reaction thereto. The timing of the presence of SDH reaction to drugs in the immunocompetent cells makes it possible to set the optimal daily regime of their application and to select a drug that would be most effective in each particular case. PMID:26033592

  12. Estrogen, Menopause, and the Aging Brain: How Basic Neuroscience Can Inform Hormone Therapy in Women

    E-print Network

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    Symposium Estrogen, Menopause, and the Aging Brain: How Basic Neuroscience Can Inform Hormone-body" level of integration. For example, effects of estro- gens such as 17- -estradiol (the major estrogen regions and the widespread distribution of estrogen receptors throughout the entire brain highlight the ex

  13. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  14. Community-level influences on women's experience of intimate partner violence and terminated pregnancy in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences for women’s physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive health outcomes such as unwanted and terminated pregnancies, fetal loss or child loss during infancy, non-use of family planning methods, and high fertility are increasingly recognized. However, little is known about the role of community influences on women's experience of IPV and its effect on terminated pregnancy, given the increased awareness of IPV being a product of social context. This study sought to examine the role of community-level norms and characteristics in the association between IPV and terminated pregnancy in Nigeria. Methods Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on nationally-representative cross-sectional data including 19,226 women aged 15–49 years in Nigeria. Data were collected by a stratified two-stage sampling technique, with 888 primary sampling units (PSUs) selected in the first sampling stage, and 7,864 households selected through probability sampling in the second sampling stage. Results Women who had experienced physical IPV, sexual IPV, and any IPV were more likely to have terminated a pregnancy compared to women who had not experienced these IPV types. IPV types were significantly associated with factors reflecting relationship control, relationship inequalities, and socio-demographic characteristics. Characteristics of the women aggregated at the community level (mean education, justifying wife beating, mean age at first marriage, and contraceptive use) were significantly associated with IPV types and terminated pregnancy. Conclusion Findings indicate the role of community influence in the association between IPV-exposure and terminated pregnancy, and stress the need for screening women seeking abortions for a history of abuse. PMID:23150987

  15. Determinants of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in middle-aged, premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Toth, M J; Sites, C K; Cefalu, W T; Matthews, D E; Poehlman, E T

    2001-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding the relative importance of adiposity, physical fitness, and physical activity in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. To address this issue, we measured insulin-stimulated glucose disposal [mg. kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1). min(-1); oxidative and nonoxidative components] in 45 nondiabetic, nonobese, premenopausal women (mean +/- SD; 47 +/- 3 yr) by use of hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU. m(-2). min(-1)) and [6,6-2H2]glucose dilution techniques. We also measured body composition, abdominal fat distribution, thigh muscle fat content, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), and physical activity energy expenditure ((2)H(2)(18)O kinetics) as possible correlates of glucose disposal. VO2 max was the strongest correlate of glucose disposal (r = 0.63, P < 0.01), whereas whole body and abdominal adiposity showed modest associations (range of r values from -0.32 to -0.46, P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). A similar pattern of correlations was observed for nonoxidative glucose disposal. None of the variables measured correlated with oxidative glucose disposal. The relationship of VO2 max to glucose disposal persisted after statistical control for FFM, percent body fat, and intra-abdominal fat (r = 0.40, P < 0.01). In contrast, correlations of total and regional adiposity measures to insulin sensitivity were no longer significant after statistical adjustment for VO2 max. VO2 max was the only variable to enter stepwise regression models as a significant predictor of total and nonoxidative glucose disposal. Our results highlight the importance of VO2 max as a determinant of glucose disposal and suggest that it may be a stronger determinant of variation in glucose disposal than total and regional adiposity in nonobese, nondiabetic, premenopausal women. PMID:11404228

  16. Implementing preventive iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in some Western Pacific countries: possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smitasiri, Suttilak; Solon, Florentino S

    2005-12-01

    Lack of effective implementation mechanisms is identified as a major obstacle in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. This paper discusses experiences gained from implementing iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The understanding of contextual elements is proposed as a foundation for planning interventions. Moreover, it is suggested that a social marketing framework should provide a way of thinking about how to influence related behaviors. The application of a social marketing framework applied using a "5 P's" approach: public relations and collaboration, product, price, place, and promotion, is described, as well as enabling factors (possibilities) and inhibiting factors (challenges) of this approach. Although a program to improve iron nutrition among women of reproductive age may not be simple to implement, it is essential to enhancing health, human development, and economic advancement in developing countries. PMID:16466083

  17. Effect of intake of gardenia fruits and combined exercise of middle-aged obese women on hormones regulating energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae Sug; Huh, Yu Sub

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study is aimed at analyzing how exercise and gardenia affect hormones that regulate energy metabolism by having middle aged, obese women exercise and take gardenia simultaneously. [Methods] This study assigned a total of 35 middle-aged obese women with body fat percentage of more than 35 percent into 9 people of the complex treatment group of intake of gardenia and exercise, 9 people of the exercise group, 9 people of the gardenia group and 8 people of the control group in order to find out the effect of the intake of gardenia fruits and Combined exercise of 8 weeks on the body composition, hormones regulating energy metabolism. This study arranged .08 g per weight of 1 kg of the gardenia fruits to be taken twice a day for 8 weeks after breakfast and dinner through the numerical method of roasting the gardenia fruits on fire. And the exercise program was set to be five times a week for 8 weeks, whereas the aerobic exercise of 60 to 70 minutes was 50 to 60 percent for HRmax; thus, the resistance exercise was set to be 1-RM 50 percent. As for the data analysis, the two-way repeated measures ANOVA was utilized for the analysis of interactive effect between groups and times. [Results] Thus, the obtained conclusion is as follows: The %fat and WHR has decreased further in the gardenia+exercise group and the exercise group as compared with the control group. And the visceral fat area has decreased further in the gardenia and exercise group and the gardenia group as compared with the control group (p<.05). In addition, the gardenia+exercise group and the exercise group were found to have a significant improvement effect in all the items of body composition, and the gardenia group has reduced the fat percentage and BMI after the treatment (p<.05). Leptin has decreased further in the gardenia+exercise group and the exercise group as compared with the control group, and the insulin resistance and GLP-1 have decreased in all the treatment groups (p<.05). [Conclusion] As a result of this study, all the treatment groups were found to have an improvement effect of research variables in general; therefore, the single treatment and complex treatment for the middle-aged obese women were found to have a positive impact on body composition, adjusting factors for energy metabolism. Also, the complex treatment was found to be more positive in terms of change amount. In particular, in the case of visceral fat area that is the major risk factor for metabolic disease of middle-aged obese women, it was found to have decreased further in the complex treatment group than the gardenia group; therefore, the complex treatment was found to be more advantageous. PMID:25566438

  18. The influence of bicycle exercise, with or without hand immersion in cold water, on forearm sweating in young and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Cable, N T; Green, J H

    1990-07-01

    Forearm sweat production rate (SPR) and external auditory meatal temperature (TEAM) were examined in five young and five middle-aged women in response to intermittent exercise, on three separate occasions. The first experiment was a control study, while in the second study the left hand was immersed in cold water at the onset of sweating during each exercise bout, and in the third study this immersion was accompanied by venous occlusion of the upper left arm. TEAM increased by 0.5 degrees C during exercise with no significant differences between the groups on any occasion. The young women displayed a greater peak SPR during exercise in the control than the middle-aged women (52.5 +/- 23.9 vs. 16.7 +/- 6.5 mg cm2 h-1, P less than 0.001). With hand immersion, peak SPR was depressed to 14.0 +/- 4.6 mg cm2 h-1 (P less than 0.001) in the young women and to 13.1 +/- 4.5 mg cm2 h-1 in the middle-aged (P less than 0.05). With hand immersion and venous occlusion the peak SPR in young women increased (43.0 +/- 9.2 mg cm2 h-1). In the older women SPR was 14.9 +/- 6.1 mg cm2 h-1, which was not different from either control or cold-immersed values. Thus, forearm SPR during low-intensity intermittent exercise is greater in young compared with middle-aged women, despite similar changes in TEAM. The response to hand immersion in cold water was more marked in the young subjects. PMID:2223053

  19. The Association of Injury With Substance Use Disorder Among Women of Reproductive Age: An Opportunity to Address a Major Contributor to Recurrent Preventable Emergency Department Visits?

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Judith; Bernstein, Edward; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J.; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Derrington, Taletha M; Diop, Hafsatou; Douriez, Carole; Evans, Stephen R.; Jacobs, Hilary; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Substance use disorder (SUD) among women of reproductive age is a complex public health problem affecting a diverse spectrum of women and their families, with potential consequences across generations. The goals of this study were 1) to describe and compare the prevalence of patterns of injury requiring emergency department (ED) visits among SUD-positive and SUD-negative women and 2) among SUD-positive women, to investigate the association of specific categories of injury with type of substance used. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of a large, multisource health care utilization data set developed to analyze SUD prevalence, and health and substance abuse treatment outcomes, for women of reproductive age in Massachusetts, 2002 through 2008. Sources for this linked data set included diagnostic codes for ED, inpatient, and outpatient stay discharges; SUD facility treatment records; and vital records for women and for their neonates. Results Injury data (ICD-9-CM E-codes) were available for 127,227 SUD-positive women. Almost two-thirds of SUD-positive women had any type of injury, compared to 44.8% of SUD-negative women. The mean (±SD) number of events also differed (2.27 ± 4.1 for SUD-positive women vs. 0.73 ± 1.3 for SUD-negative women, p < 0.0001). For four specific injury types, the proportion injured was almost double for SUD-positive women (49.3% vs 23.4%), and the mean (±SD) number of events was more than double (0.72 ± 0.9 vs. 0.26 ± 0.5, p < 0.0001). The numbers and proportions of motor vehicle incidents and falls were significantly higher in SUD-positive women (22.5% vs. 12.5% and 26.6% vs. 11.0%, respectively), but the greatest differences were in self-inflicted injury (11.5% vs. 0.8%; mean ± SD events = 0.19 ± 0.9 vs. 0.009 ± 0.2, p < 0.0001) and purposefully inflicted injury (11.5% vs 1.9%, mean ± SD events = 0.18 ± 0.1 vs. 0.02 ± 0.2, p < 0.0001). In each of the injury categories that we examined, injury rates among SUD-positive women were lowest for alcohol disorders only and highest for alcohol and drug disorders combined. Among 33,600 women identified as using opioids, 2,132 (6.3%) presented to the ED with overdose. Multiple overdose visits were common (mean ± SD = 3.67 ± 6.70 visits). After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and complex/chronic illness, SUD remained a significant risk factor for all types of injury, but for the suicide/self-inflicted injury category, psychiatric history was by far the stronger predictor. Conclusions The presence of SUD increases the likelihood that women in the 15- to 49-year age group will present to the ED with injury. Conversely, women with injury may be more likely to be involved in alcohol abuse or other substance use. The high rates of injury that we identified among women with SUD suggest the utility of including a brief, validated screen for substance use as part of an ED injury treatment protocol and referring injured women for assessment and/or treatment when scores indicate the likelihood of SUD. PMID:25491709

  20. Gene Expression in Placentas From Nondiabetic Women Giving Birth to Large for Gestational Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Ahlsson, F; Åkerud, H; Schijven, D; Olivier, J; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2015-10-01

    Gestational diabetes, obesity, and excessive weight gain are known independent risk factors for the birth of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. However, only 1 of the 10 infants born LGA is born by mothers with diabetes or obesity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare placental gene expression between healthy, nondiabetic mothers (n = 22) giving birth to LGA infants and body mass index-matched mothers (n = 24) giving birth to appropriate for gestational age infants. In the whole gene expression analysis, only 29 genes were found to be differently expressed in LGA placentas. Top upregulated genes included insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, aminolevulinate ? synthase 2, and prolactin, whereas top downregulated genes comprised leptin, gametocyte-specific factor 1, and collagen type XVII ? 1. Two enriched gene networks were identified, namely, (1) lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, and organismal development and (2) cellular development, cellular growth, proliferation, and tumor morphology. PMID:25824011

  1. Correlations of psycho-physiological parameters influencing the physical fitness of aged women.

    PubMed

    Bretz, É; Kóbor-Nyakas, D É; Bretz, K J; Hrehuss, N; Radák, Z; Nyakas, Csaba

    2014-12-01

    Regular assessment of psycho-physiological parameters in aged subjects helps to clarify physical and mental conditions which are important in the prevention of health-endangering events to assure a healthy aging. Thirty older care female residents consented voluntarily to participate in the study. The somatic and psycho-physiological parameters recorded were handgrip force, disjunctive reaction time, balance control and whole body movement coordination, the electrocardiogram and heart rate variability. Significant correlations were found between (a) reaction time and balance control efficiency (r = -0.567, p < 0.009), (b) reaction time and movement coordination accuracy (r = -0.453, p < 0.045), (c) cardiac state and movement coordination accuracy (r = 0.545, p < 0.016), (d) cardiac stress and cardiac state (r = -0.495, p < 0.031), and (e) cardiac stress and force (r = -0.822, p < 0.045). In conclusion, for the aim of establishing basic battery tests for assessing psycho-physiological condition of physical fitness our results emphasize the importance of systematic physical activity, endurance and strength training supporting muscle force, balance control and whole-body movement coordination, in addition to improving the cardiac stress index level. The strong interrelation among these parameters allows the drawing of a more complete view regarding the health condition of aged individuals. PMID:25201709

  2. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; D?browski, Zbigniew; Teleg?ó, Aneta

    2015-10-12

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted. PMID:24169095

  3. Folic acid and the prevention of neural tube defects: A survey of awareness among Latina women of childbearing age residing in southeast Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Srimathi; Menotti, Elaine; Scherer, Holly K; Dickinson, Jennifer; Larson, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce the risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). To inform southeast Michigan Latina women of childbearing age about the benefits of food and supplemental sources of the micronutrient in the prevention of NTDs, Spanish-English bilingual health educators carried out 20 education events in supermarkets and community organizations serving Latina women. One hundred and sixty Latina women ages 19 to 50 years indicated their current folic acid awareness and stated their future intentions regarding folic acid. Of 160 women surveyed, 114 (71%) had heard of folic acid, 84 (74%) knew that folic acid prevents birth defects, 63 (55%) knew the critical time to take folic acid, and 76 (67%) identified at least one source of folic acid. After participating in the education events, 136 women (85%) reported planning to eat more folate and/or folic acid-rich foods. Although general folic acid awareness is fairly high, health promotion efforts must be coordinated at community locations serving Latina women to share folic acid's specific protective effects in the prevention of NTDs, the critical timing of intake, and its food and supplement sources. PMID:16840767

  4. Semi-Parametric Spatial Joint Modeling of HIV and HSV-2 among Women in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Okango, Elphas; Mwambi, Henry; Ngesa, Oscar; Achia, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Several diseases have common risk factors. The joint modeling of disease outcomes within a spatial statistical context may provide more insight on the interaction of diseases both at individual and at regional level. Spatial joint modeling allows for studying of the relationship between diseases and also between regions under study. One major approach for joint spatial modeling is the multivariate conditional autoregressive approach. In this approach, it is assumed that all the covariates in the study have linear effects on the multiple response variables. In this study, we relax this linearity assumption and allow some covariates to have nonlinear effects using the penalized regression splines. This model was used to jointly model the spatial variation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2) among women in Kenya. The model was applied to HIV and HSV-2 prevalence data among women aged 15–49 years in Kenya, derived from the 2007 Kenya AIDS indicator survey. A full Bayesian approach was used and the models were implemented in WinBUGS software. Both diseases showed significant spatial variation with highest disease burdens occurring around the Lake Victoria region. There was a nonlinear association between age of an individual and HIV and HSV-2 infection. The peak age for HIV was around 30 years while that of HSV-2 was about 40 years. A positive significant spatial correlation between HIV and HSV-2 was observed with a correlation of 0.6831(95% CI: 0.3859, 0.871). PMID:26258939

  5. Domestic violence and its predictors among married women in reproductive age in Fagitalekoma Woreda, Awi zone, Amhara regional state, North Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is one of the most systematic and prevalent human rights abuses in the world. It is a form of discrimination and deeply rooted in power imbalances and structural inequality between women and men. Documenting the extent of the problem and associated factors is essential to develop public health interventions to tackle violence against women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine magnitude of domestic violence and identify its predictors among married women in the reproductive age in north western Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to March 15, 2011 among 682 married women and 46 key informants. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents for the quantitative method. Purposive sampling was used to select in-depth interview key informants for and focus group discussants. Data were analyzed using SPSS window version 16.0. Binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the prevalence and identify independent predictors of domestic violence against women. Statistical association was measured by adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was declared at P?women reported different forms of psychological, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Alcohol consumption by husband (AOR?=?1.9, 95%CI?=?1.3, 2.8), being pregnant (AOR?=?2.1, 95% CI?=?1.4, 3.4), decision making power (AOR?=?2.3, 95% CI?=?1.5, 3.4) and annual income (AOR?=?1.9, 95% CI?=?1.1, 3.3) were predictors of domestic violence. Conclusion The prevalence of domestic violence was very high as compared to other studies. Women’s husband alcohol consumption, decision making power annual household income and being pregnant are some of the predictors of domestic violence against women. PMID:24308763

  6. Association between toe grasping strength and accelerometer-determined physical activity in middle-aged and older women

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takashi; Thiebaud, Robert S.; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Mitsukawa, Naotoshi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To test the hypothesis that toe grasping strength is associated with daily physical activity in older adults. [Subjects] Fifty-seven Japanese women, aged 52–78?years, volunteered. [Methods] Toe grasping and knee extension strength were measured. Physical activity was also measured, using an accelerometer, and the total duration of each level of exercise intensity (light, moderate, and vigorous) and average step counts were calculated. Subjects were separated into two groups on the basis of accelerometer-determined step counts: LOW (n=28, <8000 steps/day) and HIGH (n=29, ?8000 steps/day). [Results] Body mass index and body composition (% fat and fat-free mass) were similar between the two groups. Absolute and relative toe grasping strengths (divided by body weight) were greater in HIGH than in LOW. However, both absolute and relative knee extension strength were similar between the groups. Relative toe grasping and knee extension strength correlated with all 3 intensities of physical activity and average step count. After adjusting for age, the duration of light plus moderate physical activity and average step counts correlated to toe grasping strength but not to knee extension strength. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that toe grasping strength may be associated with the amount of light intensity daily physical activity. PMID:26180343

  7. Trends and determinants of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural Guinea-Bissau, West Africa – a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few studies reporting mortality of women of reproductive age (WRA) in developing countries. The trend and patterns of their mortality may be important for documenting the health status of the population in general. Methods We used a prospective open cohort of women aged 12 to 49 years living in the Bandim Health Project’s rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 5 regions of Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 2007. Information on in- and out-migration and deaths were collected through the HDSS routine procedures. We assessed the trends in mortality and the associated determinants using Cox regression models. Results We followed 27,185 WRA for 141,693 person-years-at-risk (PYO) among whom 9,093 moved out and 1,006 died. Overall standardized mortality rate was 759 per 100,000 PYO. WRA mortality did not decline, but three periods could be distinguished: a stable mortality between 1996–2000 followed by 14% increase in mortality [Hazard rate ratio (HRR)?=?1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-1.32; p?=?0.08] between 2001–2003, and then in the last period from 2004–2007 a 25% decline (HRR?=?0.75; 95% CI: 0.64-0.87; p?age. Conclusions Over the twelve-year period mortality of WRA did not decline. A stable mortality in the beginning was followed by an increase and then a return to the previous levels. Further monitoring of mortality is needed to identify the risk factors for the striking regional differences. Advantage should be taken of the HDSS to monitor progress towards the MDGs and beyond. PMID:24304945

  8. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES). The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal. PMID:21958069

  9. An Intervention for HPV Risk Reduction Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior: An Exploratory Study with College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Jocelyn Brineman; McAnulty, Richard D.; Reeve, Charlie; Cann, Arnie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a group intervention in reducing risks of contracting human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged women. Using a randomized design, the study examined the effectiveness of an HPV educational group intervention guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was provided in a…

  10. A Review of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV Vaccine-Related Attitudes and Sexual Behaviors among College-Aged Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV vaccine-related attitudes among college-aged women and the relationship between HPV vaccine uptake and subsequent sexual behaviors. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar searches were performed from 2006, the date after the first HPV vaccine became available, to…

  11. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  12. Influence of the Perceived Taste Intensity of Chemesthetic Stimuli on Swallowing Parameters Given Age and Genetic Taste Differences in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Cathy A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the perceived taste intensity of liquids with chemesthetic properties influenced lingua-palatal pressures and submental surface electromyography (sEMG) in swallowing, compared with water. Method: Swallowing was studied in 80 healthy women, stratified by age group and genetic taste status. General Labeled…

  13. Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iraqi Kurdistan region is one of the areas where female genital mutilation is reportedly widely practiced but inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine (i) the prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city, (ii) the patterns and types of female genital mutilation, (iii) the factors associated with this practice and (iv) women’s knowledge and attitudes towards this practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary health care centers and the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, involving 1987 women aged 15–49 years. Data were obtained about female genital mutilation status and knowledge and perception towards this practice. The participants were clinically examined to verify the self-reported female genital mutilation status. Results The self-reported prevalence of female genital mutilation was 70.3%, while it was 58.6% according to clinical examination of the women’s genitalia. The most common type of female genital mutilation was type I (99.6%) and the most common age at which mutilation was performed was 4–7 years (60.2%). This practice was mostly performed by traditional birth attendants (72.5%). Only 6.4% of mutilated women reported having complications after mutilation, most commonly bleeding (3.6%). The practice was more reported among housewives (OR?=?3.3), those women whose mothers were mutilated (OR?=?15.1) or with unknown mutilation status (OR?=?7.3) and those women whose fathers were illiterate (OR?=?1.4) or could only read and write (OR?=?1.6). The common reasons for practicing female genital mutilation were cultural tradition (46.7%) and dictate of religion (38.9%). Only 30% of the participants were aware about the health consequences of female genital mutilation. More than one third (36.6%) of the women support the practice and 34.5% have intention to mutilate their daughters. Conclusions Prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city is very high; although, most cases are of type I. There is clear lack of knowledge about the health consequences of female genital mutilation and a relatively important segment of women support this practice. Custom or tradition and dictate of religion are the main reasons for this practice that need further in-depth exploration. PMID:24010850

  14. Low ponderal index is associated with decreased muscle strength and fatigue resistance in college-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Brutsaert, Tom D.; Tamvada, Kelli H.; Kiyamu, Melisa; White, Daniel D.; Gage, Timothy B

    2011-01-01

    Poor fetal growth is associated with decrements in muscle strength likely due to changes during myogenesis. We investigated the association of poor fetal growth with muscle strength, fatigue resistance, and the response to training in the isolated quadriceps femoris. Females (20.6 yrs) born to term but below the 10th percentile of ponderal index (PI)-for-gestational-age (LOWPI, n=14) were compared to controls (HIGHPI, n=14), before and after an 8-week training. Muscle strength was assessed as grip-strength and as the maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) of the quadriceps femoris. Muscle fatigue was assessed during knee extension eercise. Body composition and the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were also measured. Controlling for fat free mass (FFM), LOWPI versus HIGHPI women had ~11% lower grip-strength (P=0.023), 9–24% lower MVC values (P=0.042 pre-trained; P=0.020 post-trained), a higher rate of fatigue (pre- and post-training), and a diminished training response (P=0.016). Statistical control for FFM increased rather than decreased strength differences between PI groups. The PI was not associated with VO2max or measures of body composition. Strength and fatigue decrements strongly suggest that poor fetal growth affects the pathway of muscle force generation. This could be due to neuromotor and/or muscle morphologic changes during development e.g., fiber number, fiber type, etc. Muscle from LOWPI women may also be less responsive to training. Indirectly, results also implicate muscle as a potential mediator between poor fetal growth and adult chronic disease, given muscle’s direct role in determining insulin resistance, type II diabetes, physical activity, and so forth. PMID:21641734

  15. Genetic Determinants of Macular Pigments in Women of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Kristin J.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Bernstein, Paul S.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Karki, Chitra K.; Liu, Zhe; Igo, Robert P.; Truitt, Barbara; Klein, Michael L.; Snodderly, D. Max; Blodi, Barbara A.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Wallace, Robert B.; Robinson, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Hageman, Gregory; Tinker, Lesley; Mares, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate genetic determinants of macular pigment optical density in women from the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods. 1585 of 2005 CAREDS participants had macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measured noninvasively using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry and blood samples genotyped for 440 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 candidate genes related to absorption, transport, binding, and cleavage of carotenoids directly, or via lipid transport. SNPs were individually tested for associations with MPOD using least-squares linear regression. Results. Twenty-one SNPs from 11 genes were associated with MPOD (P ? 0.05) after adjusting for dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin. This includes variants in or near genes related to zeaxanthin binding in the macula (GSTP1), carotenoid cleavage (BCMO1), cholesterol transport or uptake (SCARB1, ABCA1, ABCG5, and LIPC), long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status (ELOVL2, FADS1, and FADS2), and various maculopathies (ALDH3A2 and RPE65). The strongest association was for rs11645428 near BCMO1 (?A = 0.029, P = 2.2 × 10?4). Conditional modeling within genes and further adjustment for other predictors of MPOD, including waist circumference, diabetes, and dietary intake of fiber, resulted in 13 SNPs from 10 genes maintaining independent association with MPOD. Variation in these single gene polymorphisms accounted for 5% of the variability in MPOD (P = 3.5 × 10?11). Conclusions. Our results support that MPOD is a multi-factorial phenotype associated with variation in genes related to carotenoid transport, uptake, and metabolism, independent of known dietary and health influences on MPOD. PMID:23404124

  16. ESTIMATES OF WATER INGESTION FOR WOMEN IN PREGNANT, LACTATING AND NON-PREGNANT AND NON-LACTATING CHILD BEARING AGE GROUPS BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96, 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKE BY INDIVIDUALS (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the child bearing age of 15 to 44 years and, in particular, pregnant and lactating women in this age cohort are considered a sensitive subpopulation when assessing risk from ingestion of contaminated water because ingested contaminants may pose a risk not only to the mot...

  17. Growth and aging of proximal femoral bone: a study with women spanning three generations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Chen, Decai; Cheng, Shu Mei; Nicholson, Patrick; Alen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporotic hip fracture is a serious clinical event associated with high morbidity and mortality. Understanding femoral growth patterns is important for promoting bone health in the young and preventing fractures in later life. In this study, growth patterns of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and geometric properties of the proximal femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. They were studied in 251 girls from premenarche (11.2?±?0.7 years) to late adolescence (18.3?±?1.1 years) and compared with their premenopausal mothers (n?=?128, aged 44.9?±?4.1 years) and postmenopausal grandmothers (n?=?128, aged 70.0?±?6.3 years). Hip axis length (HAL) was the first to reach peak growth velocity (-10.5 months before menarche), followed by neck diameter (ND) and neck cross-sectional area (CSA), (-7.1 and -4.1 months before menarche, respectively). Both neck-shaft angle (NSA) and aBMD of neck and total hip peaked at menarche. At 18 years (7-year follow-up), girls already had higher femoral neck aBMD but similar HAL and NSA compared with their mothers. Grandmothers had the longest HAL, narrowest NSA, widest ND but lowest aBMD and CSA. Hip strength index (HSI), an index of femoral neck strength during a fall, dropped rapidly after menarche in girls but thereafter remained relatively constant. Grandmothers had lower HSI than either mothers or girls. In conclusion, differences in proximal femoral bone mass and structure in adulthood are largely established before menarche, indicating that heritable factors are responsible for most of the individual variance. The development of geometric properties precedes aBMD in puberty, resulting in relatively constant hip strength after menarche. This asynchronous growth leads to adaptation of bone strength to the imposed loads, avoiding fractures in a biologically efficient manner. Both deterioration of aBMD and inadequate compensatory change in bone geometry after menopause contribute to the increased fracture risk later in life. PMID:25195663

  18. Om.breast cancer in very young women aged 25 year-old or below in the center of Tunisia and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Fathallah, Khadija; Rouatbi, Rim; Ayachi, Malak; Hmissa, Sihem; Mokni, Moncef

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer in very young women under 40 or 35 years attracted a widespread attention. Few studies have focused on women aged below 25 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of breast cancer in women ?25 years in the center of Tunisia. Retrospective review from 1993 to 2013. Clinical, histopathological, therapeutic and outcome data were recorded. Cases were classified into different molecular subtypes based on the immunohistochemistry-based definitions. The series included 25 patients. The mean duration of symptoms was 7.5 months. The most common presenting symptom was a palpable mass. Four patients had at least one relative diagnosed with breast cancer. Mammography combined with ultrasound was suggestive of malignancy in 60 % of cases. Curative surgical treatment could be offered in 19 cases. The mean tumor size was 39 mm. Nodal metastases were detected in 9/18 cases. Twenty cases could be classified into: luminal A (5 cases), luminal B (6 cases), Her-2 (1 case), triple negative (6 cases) and unclassified (2 cases). Two women experienced locoregional recurrence and 6 had distant recurrence. Asynchronous contralateral breast cancer occurred in one case. The overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 85 and 75 % respectively. The survival was significantly lower in grade III tumors (p?=?0.04) and triple negative tumors (p?=?0.03). Breast cancer in women ?25 years is uncommon. An adequate medical education of young women and physicians is necessary. PMID:25962349

  19. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

  20. Performance of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in Screening Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged and Old Women in the Chengdu Region of China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ji-Yuan; Song, Wen-Zhong; Zeng, Hui-Rong; Huang, Mei; Wen, Qun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of an osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) for screening middle-aged and old healthy women in the Chengdu region of China. OSTA scores were used to evaluate the effect of age on the development of osteoporosis. A total of 15,752 healthy women older than 40 yr, who reside in the Chengdu region, were assigned to 9 age groups divided by 5-yr intervals. Bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae, L1-L4, and the left hip was measured with a GE Lunar Prodigy advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry system (GE Healthcare, Cincinnati, OH). All subjects were classified into 3 categories according to OSTA cutoff values. The OSTA values used to define the categories were ?-1, >-4 and <-1, and ?-4. The accuracy of the OSTA index was compared with T-scores measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at various skeletal sites. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). The detection rate of osteoporosis and osteopenia at the lumbar vertebrae and the femur was found to increase with age. Furthermore, the sensitivity of OSTA value for detection of osteoporosis also gradually enhanced with subject age. In contrast, the specificity gradually decreased with age. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the OSTA index for detecting osteoporosis gradually increased with higher OSTA cutoff values, and the specificity and positive predictive value appeared to gradually decline. It was concluded that the OSTA is a useful screening tool to detect osteoporosis in middle-aged and old women in the Chengdu region of China. Furthermore, specific OSTA cutoff values should be selected for screening individuals who belong to different age groups. PMID:25833193

  1. Relative deprivation in income and mortality by leading causes among older Japanese men and women: AGES cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Relative deprivation of income is hypothesised to generate frustration and stress through upward social comparison with one's peers. If psychosocial stress is the mechanism, relative deprivation should be more strongly associated with specific health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease (compared with other health outcomes, eg, non-tobacco-related cancer). Methods We evaluated the association between relative income deprivation and mortality by leading causes, using a cohort of 21?031 community-dwelling adults aged 65?years or older. A baseline mail-in survey was conducted in 2003. Information on cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Our relative deprivation measure was the Yitzhaki Index, derived from the aggregate income shortfall for each person, relative to individuals with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Reference groups were defined according to gender, age group and same municipality of residence. Results We identified 1682 deaths during the 4.5?years of follow-up. A Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for demographic, health and socioeconomic factors including income, the HR for death from cardiovascular diseases per SD increase in relative deprivation was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.08) in men, whereas HRs for mortality by cancer and other diseases were close to the null value. Additional adjustment for depressive symptoms and health behaviours (eg, smoking and preventive care utilisation) attenuated the excess risks for mortality from cardiovascular disease by 9%. Relative deprivation was not associated with mortality for women. Conclusions The results partially support our hypothesised mechanism: relative deprivation increases health risks via psychosocial stress among men. PMID:25700534

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese girls and women aged 9 to 45 years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengcai; Li, Juan; Hu, Yuemei; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Junzhi; Yang, Jianguo; Xia, Guodong; Dai, Qinyong; Tang, Haiwen; V Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9–17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26–45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18–25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9–17 years) vs. young women (18–25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26–45 year-old women vs. 18–25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18–25 minus 26–45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [–1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [–1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9–17 years) as compared with young women (18–25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years. PMID:25424785

  3. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults. PMID:25373419

  4. Contraception Use among Egyptian Women: Results from Egypt Demographic and Health Survey in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Awadalla, Hala Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Background The reports of a rise in contraceptive practices have not been matched by a similar decrease in population: therefore, there is a need to look into the causes of this discrepancy. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of different methods of contraception used by Egyptian women, to compare different contraception methods used among various socio-demographic groups and, finally, to identify the main decision makers of contraception use within Egyptian families. Methods The 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) is a nationally representative household survey of 18134 married women aged 15–49 years. The 2005 EDHS provides a wealth of information on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health and nutrition, and violence against women. The study sample was selected using a multistage sampling technique. A face-to-face structured interview was conducted with each of the selected women. The response rate was 99.5% for completing the questionnaires. Results The prevalence of contraception was 57.5%, nearly one third of the participants (33.1%) used IUD as a method of contraception. Both male and female were responsible for decision making regarding the use of contraception among different educational levels. Most women reporting use of contraceptive methods were 30–39 years old, were employed, were rich, educated and belonged to urban governorates. Conclusion More than half of the participants used contraception while IUDs and pills were the most commonly used methods. Whatever the level of education, the majority of women thought that family planning decisions should be made by both partners. PMID:23926542

  5. Increasing Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality From 1979 to 2010 for US Black Women Aged 20 to 49 Years

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Yang, Jianing; Armstrong, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality persist, and young Black women have higher disease incidence compared with White women. We compared trends in breast cancer mortality for young Black and White women with mortality trends for other common diseases from 1979 to 2010. In contrast to other cancers, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, the breast cancer mortality disparity has widened over the past 30 years, suggesting that unique aspects of disease biology, prevention, and treatment may explain persistent racial differences for young women. PMID:25905842

  6. Sex-Specific Effects of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Endothelium-Dependent Dilation and Endothelin Activity in Middle-Aged Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Brar, Vijaywant; Gill, Sartaj; Cardillo, Carmine; Tesauro, Manfredi; Panza, Julio A.; Campia, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women have higher endothelium-dependent dilation and lower vasoconstrictor activity of endothelin-1 than men. Whether these sex-specific differences extend to patients with cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. The current study aimed to determine whether, in patients with cardiovascular risk factors, sex-specific differences exist in endothelium-dependent dilation and endothelin-1 activity. Methods Forearm blood flow responses were measured by strain-gauge plethysmography during the intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and the selective endothelin type A receptor blocker BQ-123 in 50 women and 64 men with cardiovascular risk factors. Results Acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside induced a significant vasodilation in women and men alike (p < 0.01 for both). Also BQ-123 caused a significant vasodilation (p < 0.001) in both groups. The vasodilator response to acetylcholine was greater in women compared to men; however there were no differences in the response to sodium nitroprusside and BQ-123 (p = NS for both) between the two sex groups. Conclusions Middle-aged women with cardiovascular risk factors have significantly higher endothelium-dependent dilation than middle-aged men; however, vascular endothelin 1 activity is similar in the two groups. These findings suggest that the presence of cardiovascular risk factors is associated with sex-specific effects on endothelium-dependent dilation but not on endothelin 1 activity. Further study is needed to confirm our findings and to characterize the mechanisms underlying this sex-specific regulation of endothelial function. PMID:25807234

  7. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections and their determinants in married women residing in an urban slum of North-East Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna; Sharma, Nandini; Bhalla, Preena; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have adverse implications on the health of the women. Community-based studies in India have shown a high prevalence of RTIs but here is a lack of sizeable literature from urban slums and resettlement areas. Aims and Objectives: The objective was to document the prevalence and determinants of RTIs in married women (15-49 years) residing in an urban slum in Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of Gokulpuri in the North-East district of Delhi. Systematic random sampling method was adopted to choose the study subjects, that is, married and non-pregnant women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) residing in the study area. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire, through the house to house visits. The diagnosis of RTIs was made as per the World Health Organization syndromic approach. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A total of 802 women were interviewed. The mean age of study subjects was 30.79 ± 7 years. A total of 352 (43.9%) women currently had symptoms of RTIs. The most frequently reported symptoms included abdominal pain (68.2%), back pain (69.6%), and vaginal discharge (59.3%). Older women (?25 years) (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.4-3.5), those belonging to the lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.1, 95% CI; 1.5-2.9), those using cloth during menses (OR 2.6, 95% CI; 1.6-4.3), those having more than three pregnancies (OR 1.8, 95% CI; 1.2-2.6) and those using an intrauterine contraceptive device (OR 11.8, 95% CI; 4.3-32.0) had higher odds of having RTIs. Conclusions: A high case load was found based on the syndromic approach. Generating community awareness, ensuring proper menstrual hygiene, and improving the socioeconomic status would help in reducing the cases of RTI. PMID:26604615

  8. Salivary cortisol differs with age and sex and shows inverse associations with WHR in Swedish women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Charlotte A; Gullberg, Bo; Råstam, Lennart; Lindblad, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Background Most studies on cortisol have focused on smaller, selected samples. We therefore aimed to sex-specifically study the diurnal cortisol pattern and explore its association with abdominal obesity in a large unselected population. Methods In 2001–2004, 1811 men and women (30–75 years) were randomly selected from the Vara population, south-western Sweden (81% participation rate). Of these, 1671 subjects with full information on basal morning and evening salivary cortisol and anthropometric measurements were included in this cross-sectional study. Differences between groups were examined by general linear model and by logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Morning and ?-cortisol (morning – evening cortisol) were significantly higher in women than men. In both genders older age was significantly associated with higher levels of all cortisol measures, however, most consistently with evening cortisol. In women only, age-adjusted means of WHR were significantly lower in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of morning cortisol (p = 0.036) and ?-cortisol (p < 0.001), respectively. Furthermore, when comparing WHR above and below the mean, the age-adjusted OR in women for the lowest quartile of cortisol compared to the highest was 1.5 (1.0–2.2, p = 0.058) for morning cortisol and 1.9 (1.3–2.8) for ?-cortisol. All findings for ?-cortisol remained after adjustments for multiple covariates and were also seen in a linear regression analysis (p = 0.003). Conclusion In summary, our findings of generally higher cortisol levels in women than men of all ages are novel and the stronger results seen for ?-cortisol as opposed to morning cortisol in the association with WHR emphasise the need of studying cortisol variation intra-individually. To our knowledge, the associations in this study have never before been investigated in such a large population sample of both men and women. Our results therefore offer important knowledge on the descriptive characteristics of cortisol in relation to age and gender, and on the impact that associations previously seen between cortisol and abdominal obesity in smaller, selected samples have on a population level. PMID:19545400

  9. The cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium intake and metabolic syndrome among men and women aged 40 or older in rural areas of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Song Kyoung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Studies conducted in Western populations have suggested that dietary calcium may protect against metabolic abnormalities, but there is little evidence of this effect in Asians, who have relatively low calcium intake. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic syndrome among Korean men and women aged 40 years and over. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 6,375 subjects aged 40 years and over and were recruited between January 2005 and February 2010 from the baseline study of the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study in Rural Communities (MRCohort). A food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. RESULTS Calcium intake was related inversely to metabolic syndrome in women (P-value = 0.0091), but not in men (P = 0.1842). Among metabolic components, high waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.0426) and high blood glucose (P = 0.0027) in women and hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.0017) in men were inversely correlated with calcium intake. Excluding those who used calcium or multinutrient supplements did not attenuate the relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic abnormalities. CONCLUSION Dietary calcium intake from foods may be inversely related to metabolic syndrome, WC, and blood glucose among women in rural areas of Korea. PMID:26060546

  10. Association between Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Nutritional Status among the Women of Child Bearing Age: A Case-Control Study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Abul H.; Shahidullah, S. M.; Smith, Wayne; Hossain, Kazi S.; Hasan, Ziaul; Ahmed, Kazi T.

    2010-01-01

    The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 ?g/L) through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any) of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI < 18.5) and 360 controls (BMI 18.5–24.99) were recruited from a baseline survey conducted among 2,341 women. An excess risk for malnutrition was observed among the participants chronically exposed to higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water after adjusting for potential confounders such as participant’s age, religion, education, monthly household income and history of oral contraceptive pills. Women exposed to arsenic >50 ?g/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.6) increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20–45 years. PMID:20717540

  11. Rising inequality in mortality among working-age men and women in Sweden: a national registry-based repeated cohort study, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Rostila, Mikael; Yngwe, Monica Åberg

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past two decades, health inequality has persisted or increased in states with comprehensive welfare. Methods We conducted a national registry-based repeated cohort study with a 3-year follow-up between 1990 and 2007 in Sweden. Information on all-cause mortality in all working-age Swedish men and women aged between 30 and 64?years was collected. Data were subjected to temporal trend analysis using joinpoint regression to statistically confirm the trajectories observed. Results Among men, age-standardised mortality rate decreased by 38.3% from 234.9 to 145 (per 100?000 population) over the whole period in the highest income quintile, whereas the reduction was only 18.3% (from 774.5 to 632.5) in the lowest quintile. Among women, mortality decreased by 40% (from 187.4 to 112.5) in the highest income group, but increased by 12.1% (from 280.2 to 314.2) in the poorest income group. Joinpoint regression identified that the differences in age-standardised mortality between the highest and the lowest income quintiles decreased among men by 18.85 annually between 1990 and 1994 (p trend=0.02), whereas it increased later, with a 2.88 point increase per year (p trend <0.0001). Among women, it continuously increased by 9.26/year (p trend <0.0001). In relative terms, age-adjusted mortality rate ratios showed a continuous increase in both genders. Conclusions Income-based inequalities among working-age male and female Swedes have increased since the late 1990s, whereas in absolute terms the increase was less remarkable among men. Structural and behavioural factors explaining this trend, such as the economic recession in the early 1990s, should be studied further. PMID:25143429

  12. Associations Between Body Mass Index and Foot Joint Pain in Middle-Aged and Older Women: A Longitudinal Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Anita; Culliford, David; Leyland, Kirsten; Arden, Nigel K; Bowen, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and foot joint pain (FJP) over a 5-year period in a community-based cohort. Methods We examined a subset of women from the Chingford Women's Study, a community cohort followed up for 20 years. From a baseline of 1,003 female participants, we reviewed data from 639 women (64%) for whom complete data sets for FJP and BMI were obtained over a 5-year period between year 10 (Y10) and year 15 (Y15). Descriptive statistics, binary regression modeling, and odds ratios (ORs) were used to examine the longitudinal relationship between BMI and FJP. Results For Y10 and Y15, the median age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR] 57–67) and 66 years (IQR 62–72), respectively, and the mean ± SD BMI was 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2 and 27.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2, respectively. FJP prevalence was 21.6% at Y10 and 26.6% at Y15. Longitudinal analyses showed that both BMI and FJP increased significantly from Y10 to Y15 (P < 0.001). The odds of having FJP after a 5-year period increased by 4.9% for each BMI unit increase 5 years earlier (OR 1.049 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.011–1.089], P = 0.012). This remained significant when adjusted for age, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis (OR 1.051 [95% CI 1.011–1.091], P = 0.012). Conclusion This is the first large longitudinal cohort study demonstrating that, in middle-aged women, a high BMI precedes and is predictive of FJP independent of age. Evidence from our findings can be used to identify those individuals at risk of developing FJP. PMID:25047683

  13. Osteopenia is present at an early age and worsens across the life span in girls and women with Rett syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Girls and women with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at increased risk for osteopenia and skeletal fractures. Our objective was to characterize the natural history of bone mineralization in RTT girls and women across their life span and to identify genetic, nutritional, physical, hormonal, or inflammatory ...

  14. Etiology of Anemia Among Infants, School-Aged Children, and Young Non-Pregnant Women in Different Settings of South-Central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Righetti, Aurélie A.; Koua, Ahou-Yah G.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Niamké, Sébastien; Wegmüller, Rita; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population, but its etiology remains poorly understood. We determined the prevalence of anemia and studied underlying risk factors in infants (6–23 months), young school-aged children (6–8 years), and young non-pregnant women (15–25 years) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Blood, stool, and urine samples were subjected to standardized, quality-controlled methods. We found high prevalence of anemia, malaria, inflammation, and deficiencies of iron, riboflavin, and vitamin A but low prevalence and intensities of soil-transmitted helminth and schistosome infections. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant associations between anemia and Plasmodium falciparum for infants, inflammation for school-aged children, and cellular iron deficiency for both school-aged children and non-pregnant women. Women with riboflavin deficiency had significantly lower odds of anemia. Our findings call for interventions to protect infants from malaria, improved intake of dietary iron, better access to health care, and health education. PMID:22848097

  15. A study on verifying the effectiveness of 4-week composite weight-loss dietary supplement ingestion on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoonseok; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Sung, Suhyun; Jung, Matthew; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a composite weight-loss dietary supplement on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women. Methods Thirty seven middle-aged women living in the Kyunggi area participated in this study and they were randomly divided into 2 groups (Dietary supplement ingestion group; DG, n = 20 and Placebo group; PG, n = 17). Blood draw and dual energy x-ray (DEXA) measurements were conducted to examine changes in body composition and blood lipids. Results There were no significant changes in weight and BMI in both groups. There was an interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and lean body mass in DG and there was a significant decrease in percent body fat in DG. Blood lipid changes in the study results showed that there was no significant difference in TC, TG, and LDL in both groups; however, there was a significant interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and HDL-C as well as an increase in the HDL-C of DG. Conclusion In conclusion, it seems that 4-week ingestion of the composite weight-loss dietary supplement decreased body fat, increased lean body mass, and increased HDL-C. Therefore, the composite weight-loss dietary supplement is expected to prevent obesity and induce health improvements in middle-aged women. PMID:26527460

  16. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (? = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (? = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed. PMID:24771083

  17. Occupational Competence Strategies in old age: A mixed method comparison between Hispanic women with different levels of daily participation

    PubMed Central

    Orellano, Elsa M.; Mountain, Gail; Varas, Nelson; Labault, Nirzka

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot study we explore the difference in the use of occupational competence strategies for daily participation between highly active and low active Hispanic older women. Twenty-nine women, living alone who were ? 70 years participated in this study. We employed a mixed method design through which the principal investigator administered a tool to measure participation restrictions during the quantitative phase and conducted in-depth interviews with a subsample of the quantitative phase. Active women predominantly used transportation resources, emotional social support, and spirituality to support participation in life activities. Less active women used more practical social support, assistive technology, and environmental modifications. Personal facilitators seemed to directly modify these strategies. These results suggest that older women with different activity levels use distinct internal and external resources to maintain or enhance daily participation. Future studies should explore whether these resources remain consistent across gender, living status, and ethnicities. PMID:24669397

  18. Effect of Body Mass Index on Apolipoprotein A-I Kinetics in Middle-Aged Men and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Francine K.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Marsh, Julian B.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of body mass index (BMI) and obesity on apo A-I levels and kinetics was examined by gender. ApoA-I kinetics were determined with a primed-constant infusion of deuterated leucine in the fed state in 19 men and 13 postmenopausal women. Compared to nonobese men, nonobese women had a higher HDL-C and apoA-I level due to a 48% higher apoA-I PR (p=0.05). Obesity had no significant effects on apoA-I kinetics in women. In contrast, compared to non-obese men, obese men had a 9% lower apoA-I level due to a 64% higher FCR partially offset by a 47% higher PR. Obese women had a 52% higher HDL-C than obese men (50 mg/dL vs 33 mg/dL, respectively, p=0.012), a finding related to the faster apoA-I FCR in obese men. BMI was directly correlated with apoA-1 FCR (r = 0.84, p < 0.001) and PR (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) in men but not women. 62% of the variability in PR and 71% of the variability in FCR were due to BMI in men and only 3% and 23%, respectively, in women. In conclusion, BMI has a significant effect on apoA-I PR and FCR in men but not in women. PMID:17570251

  19. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women. PMID:25828990

  20. Cervical human papillomavirus and HIV infection in women of child-bearing age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, A; Horo, A; Charbonneau, V; Ekouevi, D K; Roncin, L; Toure, B; Coffie, P; Minga, A; Sasco, A J; Garrigue, I; Fleury, H; Dabis, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: We sought to document the association of Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and immunodeficiency with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women with no cervical neoplastic lesions identified through a cervical cancer screening programme in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods: A consecutive sample of women stratified on their HIV status and attending the national blood donor clinic or the closest HIV clinic was recruited during a cervical cancer screening programme based on the visual inspection. Diagnosis of HPV infection and genotype identification were based on the Linear Array; HPV test. Results: A total of 445 (254 HIV-positive and 191 HIV-negative) women were included. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was 53.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 47.9–59.9) in HIV-positive women and 33.7% (95% CI 27.1–40.3) in HIV-negative women (odds ratio (OR)=2.3 (95% CI 1.5–3.3)). In multivariate analysis, HIV-positive women with a CD4 count <200 cells?mm3 or between 200 and 499 cells?mm3 were more likely to harbour an oncogenic HPV compared with women with a CD4 count ?500 cells?mm3 with OR of 2.8 (95% CI 1.1–8.1) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.0–2.9), respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of oncogenic HPV was found in women with no cervical neoplastic lesions, especially in HIV-positive women. Despite antiretroviral use, immunodeficiency was a main determinant of the presence of oncogenic HPV. PMID:22782349

  1. Hemodynamic responses during graded and constant-load plantar flexion exercise in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Catherine; O'Connor, Eamonn; O'Shea, Donal; Green, Simon; Egaña, Mikel

    2014-10-01

    We tested the hypotheses that type 2 diabetes (T2D) impairs the 1) leg hemodynamic responses to an incremental intermittent plantar-flexion exercise and 2) dynamic responses of leg vascular conductance (LVC) during low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) and high-intensity (70% MVC) constant-load plantar-flexion exercise in the supine posture. Forty-four middle-aged individuals with T2D (14 women), and 35 healthy nondiabetic (ND) individuals (18 women) were tested. Leg blood flow (LBF) was measured between each contraction using venous occlusion plethysmography. During the incremental test peak force (Fpeak) relative to MVC was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in men and women with T2D compared with their respective nondiabetic counterparts. Peak LBF and the slope of LBF relative to percentage Fpeak were also reduced (P < 0.05) in women with T2D compared with healthy women (peak blood flow, 460.6 ± 126.8 vs. 628.3 ± 347.7 ml/min; slope, 3.78 ± 1.74 vs. 5.85 ± 3.14 ml·min(-1)·%Fpeak (-1)) and in men with T2D compared with nondiabetic men (peak blood flow, 621.7 ± 241.3 vs. 721.2 ± 359.7 ml/min; slope, 5.75 ± 2.66 vs. 6.33 ± 3.63 ml·min(-1)·%Fpeak (-1)). During constant-load contractions at 30% MVC T2D did not affect the dynamic responses of LVC (LBF/MAP). However, at 70% MVC [completed by a subgroup of participants (20 with T2D, 6 women; 13 ND, 6 women)] the time constant of the second growth phase of LVC was longer and the amplitude of the first growth phase was lower (P < 0.05 for both) in men and women with T2D. The results suggest that the T2D-induced impairments in performance of the leg muscles are related to reductions in blood flow in both men and women. PMID:25123197

  2. Analysis of three strategies to increase screening coverage for cervical cancer in the general population of women aged 60 to 70 years: the CRICERVA study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Despite having easy preventive and therapeutic approaches, it is an important cause of mortality among women. Methods The CRICERVA study is a cluster clinical trial which assigned one of three interventions to the target population registered in Cerdanyola, Barcelona. Among the 5,707 resident women aged 60 to 70 years in the study area, women with no record of cervical cytology over the last three years were selected. The study included four arms: three interventions all including a pre-assigned date for screening visit and i) personalized invitation letter; ii) adding to i) an informative leaflet; and, iii) in addition to ii) a personalized appointment reminder phone call, and iv) no specific action taken (control group). Participants were offered a personal interview about social-demographic characteristics and about screening attitudes. Cervical cytology and HPV DNA test (HC2) were offered as screening tests. In the case of screening positive in any of these tests, the women were followed up until a full diagnosis could be obtained. The effect size of each study arm was estimated as the absolute gain in coverage between the original coverage and the final coverage. Results From the intervention groups (4,775 women), we identified 3,616 who were not appropriately screened, of which 2,560 women answered the trial call and 1,376 were amenable to screening. HPV was tested in 920 women and cervical cytology in all 1,376. Overall, there was an absolute gain in coverage of 28.8% in the intervention groups compared to 6% in the control group. Coverage increased from 51.2% to 76.0% in strategy i); from 47.4% to 79.0% in strategy ii) and from 44.5% to 74.6% in strategy iii). Lack of information about the relevance of screening was the most important factor for not attending the screening program. Conclusions The study confirms that actively contacting women and including a date for a screening visit, notably increased participation in the screening program. Efforts to improve health education in preventative activities are warranted. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT01373723. Registered 14 June 2011. PMID:25026889

  3. Contraception for midlife women.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rebecca H; Cwiak, Carrie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decline in fertility, women of older reproductive age who do not desire pregnancy should use contraception until menopause. Unintended pregnancy can be disruptive at any age, but in older women, pregnancy is associated with higher rates of adverse health outcomes for the mother and the fetus because of advanced age and comorbid medical conditions (eg, hypertension or diabetes). Therefore, providing appropriate contraceptive care to women of older reproductive age is critical. PMID:26671193

  4. Estrogen Therapy and Ischemic Stroke in Women with Diabetes Aged Over 55 Years: A Nation-Wide Prospective Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Lee, Ching-Chih; Wu, Ming-Ju; Fu, Yun-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the possible association between the risk of ischemic stroke and conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) use in women who are over 55 years old and have diabetes. Data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan were used to identify 428 women over 55 years old with diabetes who used CEE (0.625 mg daily) from 2003 to 2009. For comparison, 21026 women with diabetes who were from the same cohort and did not use estrogen were used as a control group, excluding patients with previous ischemic stroke at the baseline. The propensity score method was used to identify a 1:3 ratio for the matched cohort (n = 1284). Covariates used for propensity score-matching included age and comorbidities. Cox’s proportional hazard model was applied to estimate the relationship between CEE use and ischemic stroke. The overall incidence of ischemic stroke was significantly lower in patients using CEE than in the control group (0.9% compared with 3.0%, p = 0.016). Further analyses using Cox’s proportional hazard model revealed that after adjusting for age, comorbidities, socioeconomic status, urbanization, and other medications associated with ischemic stroke, a lower risk was present in patients with CEE use (hazard ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.12–0.97). Time of menopause could not be identified because of the nature of the database. CEE might decrease the risk of ischemic stroke in women with diabetes aged over 55 years, according to this population-based study. PMID:26658781

  5. Common Clinical Conditions – Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    BAXI, Sanjiv M.; GREENBLATT, Ruth M.; BACCHETTI, Peter; SCHERZER, Rebecca; MINKOFF, Howard; HUANG, Yong; ANASTOS, Kathryn; COHEN, Mardge; GANGE, Stephen J.; YOUNG, Mary; SHLIPAK, Michael G.; GANDHI, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tenofovir is used commonly in HIV treatment and prevention settings, but factors that correlate with tenofovir exposure in real-world setting are unknown. Design Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of tenofovir in a large, diverse cohort of HIV-infected women over 24-hours at steady-state were performed and factors that influenced exposure (assessed by areas-under-the-time-concentration curves, AUCs) identified Methods HIV-infected women (n=101) on tenofovir-based therapy underwent intensive 24-hour PK sampling. Data on race/ethnicity, age, exogenous steroid use, menstrual cycle phase, concomitant medications, recreational drugs and/or tobacco, hepatic and renal function, weight and body mass index (BMI) were collected. Multivariable models using forward stepwise selection identified factors associated with effects on AUC. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) prior to starting tenofovir were estimated by the CKD-EPI equation using both creatinine and cystatin-C measures Results The median (range) of tenofovir AUCs was 3350 (1031–13,911) ng x h/mL. Higher AUCs were associated with concomitant ritonavir use (1.33-fold increase, p 0.002), increasing age (1.21-fold increase per decade, p=0.0007) and decreasing BMI (1.04-fold increase per 10% decrease in BMI). When GFR was calculated using cystatin-C measures, mild renal insufficiency prior to tenofovir initiation was associated with higher subsequent exposure (1.35-fold increase when pre-tenofovir GFR <70mL/min, p=0.0075). Conclusions Concomitant ritonavir use, increasing age, decreasing BMI and lower GFR prior to tenofovir initiation as estimated by cystatin C were all associated with elevated tenofovir exposure in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected women. Clinicians treating HIV-infected women should be aware of common clinical conditions that affect tenofovir exposure when prescribing this medication. PMID:24275255

  6. Dietary Adequacy of Vitamin D and Calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit Women of Child-Bearing Age in Arctic Canada: A Growing Concern

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Barr, Alison; Roache, Cindy; Sheehy, Tony; Corriveau, Andre; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Background Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Methods This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE) and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE). Results The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE?=?5.13±5.34 µg/day; NTFE?=?3.5±3.22 µg/day, p?=?0·004). The majority of women (87%) were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1299±798 mg/day) and NTFE (992±704 mg/day; p?=?0.0005), 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE?=?30.7%; NTFE?=?39.1%) and calcium (TFE?=?25.5%; NTFE?=?34.5%). Conclusions Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern. PMID:24223871

  7. Effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness and self-assessment of the quality of health of women of the perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; My?liwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health. Material and methods Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions. Results A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001). Conclusions A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health. PMID:26327897

  8. Interactions between Psychological Stress and Drinking Status in Relation to Diet among Middle-Aged Men and Women: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Kaori; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between psychological stress (PS) and drinking status in relation to diet among middle-aged Japanese men and women in a large-scale cross-sectional study. The study population included 5,587 middle-aged Japanese men and 2,718 middle-aged Japanese women who underwent annual health checkups. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (non-drinkers and drinkers) and classified as having low, moderate, or high self-reported PS levels. Energy-adjusted food and nutrient consumption was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using a general linear model, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each self-reported PS level in the 2 groups (non-drinkers and drinkers) and the interactions between self-reported PS levels and drinking status were calculated. In men, pork and beef; squid, octopus, shrimp, and clams; eggs; mushrooms; Japanese-style sweets; ice cream; bread; Chinese noodles; coffee; and soda as foods and protein, animal protein, fat, animal fat, carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, cholesterol, vitamin D, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, niacin, pantothenic acid, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc as nutrients significantly interacted with self-reported PS levels and drinking status (p for interaction <0.05 for all). No specific interactions were found in women. These findings suggest interactions between PS levels and drinking status with consumption of some foods and nutrients, especially macronutrient intake, in men but not in women. PMID:26027597

  9. Influence of genetic taste sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), dietary restraint and disinhibition on body mass index in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Beverly J; Ullrich, Natalia V

    2002-03-01

    A previous study from our laboratory reported a small, inverse association between taste sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and body mass index (BMI) among lean, young-adult males. Weaknesses in study design precluded making this same observation in females. To overcome these shortcomings, the present study investigated this relationship in older, heavier women characterized by dietary restraint and disinhibition. We tested the hypothesis that lower taste sensitivity to PROP would be associated with higher BMI but that high dietary restraint would mask this association. Thus, no relationship between taster status and BMI was expected in those with high dietary restraint. Eighty-six, middle-aged women (39.0+/-1.0 years) with a mean BMI of 27.4+/-0.8 participated. They were classified as PROP nontasters (n=23), medium tasters (n=32) or supertasters (n=31). Initial analyses revealed that disinhibition had a strong positive influence on BMI that was unrelated to PROP status (P< or =.001). After adjusting for disinhibition, a strong interaction between PROP status and restraint on BMI was noted. Among women with low dietary restraint, nontasters (P< or =.01) and medium tasters (P< or =.05) were heavier than supertasters by 6 and 4 adjusted BMI units, respectively. No differences in BMI were found across taster groups in women with high dietary restraint. These data confirm that the inverse association between PROP status and BMI reported earlier in men is also present in women and that this relationship becomes apparent when variables relevant to eating behavior in women are taken into consideration. These findings are discussed in the context of emerging theories relating genetic differences in taste to fat acceptance, fat intake and body weight. PMID:11897256

  10. An Autistic Endophenotype and Testosterone Are Involved in an Atypical Decline in Selective Attention and Visuospatial Processing in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ángel, Romero-Martínez; Luis, Moya-Albiol

    2015-01-01

    Mothers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could present mild forms of their children’s cognitive characteristics, resulting from prenatal brain exposure and sensitivity to testosterone (T). Indeed, their cognition is frequently characterized by hyper-systemizing, outperforming in tests that assess cognitive domains such as selective attention, and fine motor and visuospatial skills. In the general population, all these start to decline around the mid-forties. This study aimed to characterize whether middle-aged women who are biological mothers of individuals with ASD had better performance in the aforementioned cognitive skills than mothers of normative children (in both groups n = 22; mean age = 45), using the standardized Stroop and mirror-drawing tests. We also examined the role of T in their performance in the aforementioned tests. ASD mothers outperformed controls in both tests, giving more correct answers and making fewer mistakes. In addition, they presented higher T levels, which have been associated with better cognitive performance. Cognitive decline in specific skills with aging could be delayed in these middle-aged women, corresponding to a cognitive endophenotype, T playing an important role in this process. PMID:26694433

  11. Baseline prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in healthy Chinese women aged 18–25 years enrolled in a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fang-Hui; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Chen, Wen; Li, Juan; Hu, Yue-Mei; Hong, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Ju; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Xun; Chen, Yong; Tang, Haiwen; Zhang, Helen; Durand, Christelle; Datta, Sanjoy K; Struyf, Frank; Bi, Dan; HPV-039 study group

    2014-01-01

    Baseline human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type distribution were evaluated in young Chinese women enrolled in a clinical trial of an HPV vaccine (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00779766). Cervical specimens and blood samples were collected at baseline from women aged 18–25 years (n?=?6,051) from four sites across Jiangsu province. Cervical specimens were tested for HPV DNA by SPF10 PCR-DEIA-LiPA25 version 1, and HPV-16/18 type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibody titres were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At baseline, 15.3% of women were DNA positive for any of 14 HPV high-risk (hr) types (HPV-16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68). The most commonly detected hrHPV types in cervical specimens were HPV-52 (4.0%) and HPV-16 (3.7%). High-risk HPV DNA-positivity increased with severity of cytological abnormalities: 39.3% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 85.0% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and 97.8% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The hrHPV types most frequently detected in HSIL were HPV-16 (63.0%), HPV-18 (17.4%), HPV-52 (17.4%), HPV-58 (15.2%) and HPV-33 (15.2%). The hrHPV types most frequently detected in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ were HPV-16 (66.1%), HPV-33 (16.1%), HPV-52 (16.1%), HPV-58 (14.5%) and HPV-51 (11.3%). Multiple hrHPV infections were reported for 24.4% of hrHPV DNA positive women. Regardless of baseline HPV DNA status, 30.5% and 16.0% of subjects were initially seropositive for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18, respectively. In conclusion, the high baseline seropositivity rate and intermediate prevalence of cervical hrHPV types in Chinese women aged 18–25 years underlines the importance of early HPV vaccination in this population. What's new? In China, cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer among women aged 15–44 years. The authors collected baseline data on prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) from more than 6,000 healthy Chinese women aged 18–25 years participating in a large vaccine efficacy trial. Regardless of cytology, 15.3% of women were positive for high-risk HPV types, with HPV-52 (4.0%), HPV-16 (3.7%), HPV-51 (1.7%) and HPV-58 (1.5%) being the most frequently detected. This high baseline prevalence of high-risk HPV types underscores the importance of early vaccination among Chinese women. PMID:24740547

  12. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Fernando; Curtius, Adilson J.; Buzalaf, Marilia R.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2006-09-15

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L, with a mean of 76 {mu}g/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L in men (mean, 98.3 {mu}g/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/L (mean, 62.8 {mu}g/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.66 {mu}g/L) and 0.02-1.5 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.42 {mu}g/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P<0.001 Spearman's correlation). The two quantities are related by the line y=0.0006x {sup 1492} (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x {sup 0.702}) and women (y=0.0534x {sup 0.5209}) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity.

  13. Effectiveness of two year balance training programme on prevention of fall induced injuries in at risk women aged 75-85 living in community: Ossébo randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Cassou, Bernard; Latouche, Aurélien; Aegerter, Philippe; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a two year exercise programme of progressive balance retraining in reducing injurious falls among women aged 75-85 at increased risk of falls and injuries and living in the community. Design Pragmatic multicentre, two arm, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Setting 20 study sites in 16 medium to large cities throughout France. Participants 706 women aged 75-85, living in their own home, and with diminished balance and gait capacities, randomly allocated to the experimental intervention group (exercise programme, n=352) or the control group (no intervention, n=354). Intervention Weekly supervised group sessions of progressive balance training offered in community based premises for two years, supplemented by individually prescribed home exercises. Outcome measures A geriatrician blinded to group assignment classified falls into one of three categories (no consequence, moderate, severe) based on physical damage and medical care. The primary outcome was the rate of injurious falls (moderate and severe). The two groups were compared for rates of injurious falls with a “shared frailty” model. Other outcomes included the rates of all falls, physical functional capacities (balance and motor function test results), fear of falling (FES-I), physical activity level, and perceived health related quality of life (SF-36). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results There were 305 injurious falls in the intervention group and 397 in the control group (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.99). The difference in severe injuries (68 in intervention group v 87 in control group) was of the same order of magnitude (0.83, 0.60 to 1.16). At two years, women in the intervention group performed significantly better on all physical tests and had significantly better perception of their overall physical function than women in the control group. Among women who started the intervention (n=294), the median number of group sessions attended was 53 (interquartile range 16-71). Five injurious falls related to the intervention were recorded. Conclusion A two year progressive balance retraining programme combining weekly group and individual sessions was effective in reducing injurious falls and in improving measured and perceived physical function in women aged 75-85 at risk of falling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00545350). PMID:26201510

  14. Drinking water arsenic exposure and blood pressure in healthy women of reproductive age in Inner Mongolia, China

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K. Mendola, Pauline; Liu Zhiyi; Savitz, David A.; Heiss, Gerardo; Ling Heling; Xia Yajuan; Lobdell, Danelle; Zeng Donglin; Thorp, John M.; Creason, John P.; Mumford, Judy L.

    2007-08-01

    The extremely high exposure levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower exposure levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8790 women who had recently been pregnant in an area of Inner Mongolia, China known to have a gradient of drinking water arsenic exposure. This study observed increased systolic blood pressure levels with increasing drinking water arsenic, at lower exposure levels than previously reported in the literature. As compared to the referent category (below limit of detection to 20 {mu}g of As/L), the overall population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.29 mm Hg (95% CI 0.82, 1.75), 1.28 mm Hg (95% CI 0.49, 2.07), and 2.22 mm Hg (95% CI 1.46, 2.97) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased from 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L, respectively. Controlling for age and body weight (n = 3260), the population mean systolic blood pressure rose 1.88 mm Hg (95% CI 1.03, 2.73), 3.90 mm Hg (95% CI 2.52, 5.29), and 6.83 mm Hg (95% CI 5.39, 8.27) as drinking water arsenic concentration increased, respectively. For diastolic blood pressure effect, while statistically significant, was not as pronounced as systolic blood pressure. Mean diastolic blood pressure rose 0.78 mm Hg (95% CI 0.39, 1.16), 1.57 mm Hg (95% CI 0.91, 2.22) and 1.32 mm Hg (95% CI 0.70, 1.95), respectively, for the overall population and rose 2.11 mm Hg (95% CI 1.38, 2.84), 2.74 mm Hg (95% CI 1.55, 3.93), and 3.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84, 4.31), respectively, for the adjusted population (n = 3260) at drinking water arsenic concentrations of 21 to 50, 51 to 100, and > 100 {mu}g of As/L. If our study results are confirmed in other populations, the potential burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to drinking water arsenic is significant.

  15. Older women and domestic violence in Scotland 

    E-print Network

    Flueckiger, Jennifer

    Older women, like younger women, experience domestic violence in large numbers and suffer significant physical, emotional and social consequences. Because of existing attitudes about women and age, these older women ...

  16. Effects of Children on Women's Remarriage Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Suchindran, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Among women divorcing before age 25, being childless increased the likelihood of remarriage; among women divorcing at 35 or older, having no children decreased it. For women divorcing at age 25 to 34, there was no effect. (Author)

  17. Hormonal contraceptives and asthma in women of reproductive age: analysis of data from serial national Scottish Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nwaru, Bright I

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sex steroid hormones may explain known gender-related variations in asthma prevalence and clinical manifestation. We investigated the relationship between use of hormonal contraceptives and asthma in women, and assessed evidence of biological interaction between use of hormonal contraceptives and body mass index in this relationship. Design Population-based analysis using data from serial (i.e. 2003, 2008 and 2010) Scottish Health Surveys. Setting Random samples of the Scottish general population. Participants A total of 3257 non-pregnant, 16–45-year-old women. Exposure Current use of hormonal contraceptives. Main outcome measures Self-reported current physician-diagnosed asthma, current wheezing symptoms, wheezing attacks and treatment for asthma or wheeze. Results Women comprising 30.9% (95% confidence interval 29.3–32.5) were currently using any hormonal contraceptive and current physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 6.5% (95% confidence interval 5.7–7.4). Use of any hormonal contraceptive was associated with reduced risk of current physician-diagnosed asthma (odds ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.47–0.98) and receiving ?3 asthma care episodes (odds ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.25–0.82), but the evidence was equivocal for wheezing attacks. Use of hormonal contraceptives among overweight or obese women was non-statistically significantly associated with asthma, but there was 42–135% increased risk in overweight and obese non-contraceptive using women. Conclusions Use of hormonal contraceptives may reduce asthma exacerbations and number of care episodes. Overweight and obese non-contraceptive-using women may be at increased risk of asthma. Prospective studies are now needed to confirm these findings. Both oestrogen and progesterone may stimulate smooth airway muscle function and inhibit the activities of TH2 responses. Future studies should investigate these underlying mechanisms. PMID:26152676

  18. Alcohol, Smoking and Drug Use among Inuit Women of Childbearing Age during Pregnancy and the Risk to Children

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking, is a well-known public health concern. Aim This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Methods 248 Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Results 92% of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which corresponds to 38% of pregnant women. 36% of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy and the number of young children living with the mother. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. PMID:21332531

  19. Using Web-based screening to enhance efficiency of HMO clinical trial recruitment in women aged forty and older. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    In a trial comparing dietary change interventions for women aged 40 and older, some potential participants were given an option for Web-based screening in addition to the option of being interviewed by telephone. The addition of the Internet option resulted in a 22-percent relative increase in response rate. The Internet option also reduced staffing cost by reducing time spent conducting telephone interviews. Further testing is likely to show that combined recruitment methods that include Web-based recruitment will be beneficial for other populations.

  20. [The immune indices of women of child-bearing age who live under the conditions of a large industrial region in the Donets Basin].

    PubMed

    Bariliak, I R; Sergienko, S N; Udovika, N A; Tereshin, V A; Brezhneva, Iu V

    1998-01-01

    An attempt was made to find out whether it is feasible to use a certain set of immune tests in the evaluation of systemic effects of harmful environmental factors in women of child-bearing age, for which purpose 328 female subjects 17 to 38 years old, living under environmental health-hazard conditions within the zone of Donbass region were studied. Immunogrammes of the examines allowed judgement about relatedness of the degree of immune disorders to environmental conditions of life and presence of occupational hazards. PMID:9670649

  1. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of Cervarix and Gardasil human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical cancer vaccines in healthy women aged 18-45 years.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Edwards, Robert P; Zepp, Fred; Carletti, Isabelle; Dessy, Francis J; Trofa, Andrew F; Schuind, Anne; Dubin, Gary

    2009-10-01

    This observer-blind study compared the prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline) and Gardasil (Merck), by assessing immunogenicity and safety through one month after completion of the three-dose vaccination course. Women (n = 1106) were stratified by age (18-26, 27-35, 36-45 years) and randomized (1:1) to receive Cervarix (Months 0, 1, 6) or Gardasil (Months 0, 2, 6). At Month 7 after first vaccination, all women in the according-to-protocol cohort who were seronegative/DNA negative before vaccination for the HPV type analyzed had seroconverted for HPV-16 and HPV-18 serum neutralizing antibodies, as measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA), except for two women aged 27-35 years in the Gardasil group who did not seroconvert for HPV-18 (98%). Geometric mean titers of serum neutralizing antibodies ranged from 2.3-4.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 6.8-9.1-fold higher for HPV-18 after vaccination with Cervarix compared with Gardasil, across all age strata. In the total vaccinated cohort (all women who received at least one vaccine dose, regardless of their serological and DNA status prior to vaccination), Cervarix induced significantly higher serum neutralizing antibody titers in all age strata (p < 0.0001). Positivity rates for anti-HPV-16 and -18 neutralizing antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions and circulating HPV-16 and -18 specific memory B-cell frequencies were also higher after vaccination with Cervarix compared with Gardasil. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. The incidence of unsolicited adverse events was comparable between vaccinated groups. The incidence of solicited symptoms was generally higher after Cervarix, injection site reactions being most common. However, compliance rates with the three-dose schedules were similarly high (>or= 84%) for both vaccines. Although the importance of differences in magnitude of immune response between these vaccines is unknown, they may represent determinants of duration of protection against HPV-16/18. Long-term studies evaluating duration of efficacy after vaccination are needed for both vaccines. PMID:19684472

  2. Use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of methylmercury to estimate exposures in US women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Allen, Bruce C; Hack, C Eric; Clewell, Harvey J

    2007-08-01

    A Bayesian approach, implemented using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis, was applied with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of methylmercury (MeHg) to evaluate the variability of MeHg exposure in women of childbearing age in the U.S. population. The analysis made use of the newly available National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) blood and hair mercury concentration data for women of age 16-49 years (sample size, 1,582). Bayesian analysis was performed to estimate the population variability in MeHg exposure (daily ingestion rate) implied by the variation in blood and hair concentrations of mercury in the NHANES database. The measured variability in the NHANES blood and hair data represents the result of a process that includes interindividual variation in exposure to MeHg and interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics (distribution, clearance) of MeHg. The PBPK model includes a number of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., tissue volumes, partition coefficients, rate constants for metabolism and elimination) that can vary from individual to individual within the subpopulation of interest. Using MCMC analysis, it was possible to combine prior distributions of the PBPK model parameters with the NHANES blood and hair data, as well as with kinetic data from controlled human exposures to MeHg, to derive posterior distributions that refine the estimates of both the population exposure distribution and the pharmacokinetic parameters. In general, based on the populations surveyed by NHANES, the results of the MCMC analysis indicate that a small fraction, less than 1%, of the U.S. population of women of childbearing age may have mercury exposures greater than the EPA RfD for MeHg of 0.1 microg/kg/day, and that there are few, if any, exposures greater than the ATSDR MRL of 0.3 microg/kg/day. The analysis also indicates that typical exposures may be greater than previously estimated from food consumption surveys, but that the variability in exposure within the population of U.S. women of childbearing age may be less than previously assumed. PMID:17958503

  3. IDENTIFYING FOOD GROUPINGS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE ENERGY DENSITY OF DIETS OF WOMEN IN THE GEISINGER RURAL AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, energy density (ED) (kcal/wt of food) rather than energy intake was shown to be associated with weight status in rural older women. Specifically, diets higher in ED were associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. To understand how to guide specific dietary recommendat...

  4. Sex Role Identification and Parental Rearing Practice: Determinants of Type A Behavior in College Age Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbey, M. Marlyne; Davis, James

    Type A behavior is an epidemiological construct whose major features are aggressiveness, hostility, a sense of time urgency, and competitiveness; these features are considered measures of coronary-prone behavior in men and women. To determine a possible relationship between sex role orientation, parenting behavior, and Type A behavior, college…

  5. Body fat and body-mass index among a multiethnic sample of college-age men and women.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Catherine L; Yan, Eric; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Arechiga, Adam; Kim, Woo S; Deng, Max; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI) to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF) and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), weight by physicians' scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%), Caucasians (23%), Hispanics (7%), and Other (21%). Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9?kg/m(2); PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value?=?0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women). Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5?kg/m(2)) but the second highest PBF (27.8%). Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest (r (2) = 0.09) among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37%) to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition. PMID:23691288

  6. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual’s physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women. The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. Methods/Design This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women’s study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women’s health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. Discussion The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women’s risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and health status in women. PMID:24400870

  7. The decrease in number and change in phenotype of mucosal-associated invariant T cells in the elderly and differences in men and women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Novak, J; Dobrovolny, J; Novakova, L; Kozak, T

    2014-10-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells comprising up to 10% of the peripheral blood T cells in humans. During ontogeny, MAIT cells can first be detected in the cord blood in low amounts, but rise steadily after birth. In this population-based study, we show that their counts continue to increase, reaching maximal levels (4.5% of CD3(+) cells, 65 cells/?l) in the third and fourth decenniums. At this age, the amounts of MAIT cells exhibit the highest interindividual variability. The values then dramatically decline; subjects 80 years old and older have on average 10 times less MAIT cells, both absolutely and as a percentage among CD3(+) T cells, than subjects in fertile age. The senescence of MAIT cells is associated with decreased CD8/double negative (DN) ratio. Finally, we observed significantly higher amounts of MAIT cells in women of reproductive age than in men of the same age. Our data suggest that further studies aimed at elucidating a role of MAIT cells in human pathologies must recruit age- and gender-matched controls. PMID:24846411

  8. Individual fertility assessment and pro-fertility counselling; should this be offered to women and men of reproductive age?

    PubMed

    Hvidman, Helene W; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Larsen, Elisabeth C; Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Pinborg, Anja; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    During the 1970s new contraceptive options developed and legal abortions became accessible. Family planning clinics targeting young women and men provided advice and assistance on contraception. Today, delayed childbearing, low total fertility rates and increasing use of social oocyte freezing create a need for pro-fertility initiatives. Three years ago we established a new separate unit: The Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) clinic. The FAC clinic offers free individual counselling based on a clinical assessment including measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone and ovarian and pelvic sonography in women, sperm analysis in men, and a review of reproductive risk factors in both sexes. The FAC clinic includes a research programme with the goal to improve prediction and protection of fertility. Our first proposition is that clinics for individual assessment and counselling need to be established, as there is a strong unmet demand among women and men to obtain: (i) knowledge of fertility status, (ii) knowledge of reproductive lifespan (women) and (iii) pro-fertility advice. Addressing these issues is often more challenging than treating infertile patients. Therefore, we propose that fertility assessment and counselling should be developed by specialists in reproductive medicine. There are two main areas of concern: As our current knowledge on reproductive risk factors is primarily based on data from infertile patients, the first concern is how precisely we are able to forecast future reproductive problems. Predictive parameters from infertile couples, such as duration of infertility, are not applicable, diagnostic factors like tubal patency are unavailable and other parameters may be unsuitable when applied to the general population. Therefore, strict validation of reproductive forecasting in women and men from the general population is crucial. The second main concern is that we may turn clients into patients. Screening including reproductive forecasting may induce unnecessary anxiety through false positive predictions and may even result in overtreatment in contrast to the intended preventive concept. False negative findings may create false reassurance and result in postponement of conceptions. PMID:25406181

  9. Violence against Congolese refugee women in Rwanda and mental health: a cross-sectional study using latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L; Falb, Kathryn L; Willie, Tiara; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Bienkowski, Lauren; Meerdink, Ned; Gupta, Jhumka

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of conflict-related violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) and their associations with emotional distress among Congolese refugee women living in Rwanda. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Two Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Participants 548 ever-married Congolese refugee women of reproductive age (15–49?years) residing in Rwanda. Primary outcome measure Our primary outcome was emotional distress as measured using the Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). For analysis, we considered participants with scores greater than 10 to be experiencing emotional distress and participants with scores of 10 or less not to be experiencing emotional distress. Results Almost half of women (49%) reported experiencing physical, emotional or sexual violence during the conflict, and less than 10% of women reported experiencing of any type of violence after fleeing the conflict. Lifetime IPV was reported by approximately 22% of women. Latent class analysis derived four distinct classes of violence experiences, including the Low All Violence class, the High Violence During Conflict class, the High IPV class and the High Violence During and After Conflict class. In multivariate regression models, latent class was strongly associated with emotional distress. Compared with women in the Low All Violence class, women in the High Violence During and After Conflict class and women in the High Violence During Conflict had 2.7 times (95% CI 1.11 to 6.74) and 2.3 times (95% CI 1.30 to 4.07) the odds of experiencing emotional distress in the past 4?weeks, respectively. Furthermore, women in the High IPV class had a 4.7 times (95% CI 2.53 to 8.59) greater odds of experiencing emotional distress compared with women in the Low All Violence class. Conclusions Experiences of IPV do not consistently correlate with experiences of conflict-related violence, and women who experience high levels of IPV may have the greatest likelihood for poor mental health in conflict-affected settings. PMID:25908672

  10. Of PCOS Symptoms, Hirsutism Has the Most Significant Impact on the Quality of Life of Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Khomami, Mahnaz Bahri; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Somayeh; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder affecting women both physically and psychologically and can lead to a poor quality of life compared to their normal counterparts. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of various clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome on the health-related quality of life of Iranian women diagnosed with this syndrome. Materials and Methods A total of 796 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged 15–49 years, completed the questionnaires, interviews, and medical assessments required for this study. A reliable and validated Persian version of the health-related quality of life questionnaire for polycystic ovary syndrome patients was used. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and health-related quality of life. Results The mean age of participants was 28.02 years. 35.4% of the subjects were classified as overweight or obese. Hirsutism, was reported to have the strongest impact on the patients’ health-related quality of life, followed in descending order by body mass index, irregular menses and infertility. The relative level of hirsutism was directly proportional to decrease in health-related quality of life score (p<0.001). Conclusions The results of the study found that hirsutism had the strongest impact on the health-related quality of life measures in Iranian women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. Health care officials need to evaluate in depth the effect of each clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome separately and design management strategies, keeping in mind the psychological and physical manifestations. PMID:25874409

  11. Point-Counterpoint: Cervical Cancer Screening Should Be Done by Primary Human Papillomavirus Testing with Genotyping and Reflex Cytology for Women over the Age of 25 Years.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Mark H; Austin, R Marshall; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-09-01

    Screening for cervical cancer with cytology testing has been very effective in reducing cervical cancer in the United States. For decades, the approach was an annual Pap test. In 2000, the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) test was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for screening women who have atypical squamous cells of underdetermined significance (ASCUS) detected by Pap test to determine the need for colposcopy. In 2003, the FDA approved expanding the use of the test to include screening performed in conjunction with a Pap test for women over the age of 30 years, referred to as "cotesting." Cotesting allows women to extend the testing interval to 3 years if both tests have negative results. In April of 2014, the FDA approved the use of an HPV test (the cobas HPV test) for primary cervical cancer screening for women over the age of 25 years, without the need for a concomitant Pap test. The approval recommended either colposcopy or a Pap test for patients with specific high-risk HPV types detected by the HPV test. This was based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which included more than 40,000 women. Reaction to this decision has been mixed. Supporters point to the fact that the primary-screening algorithm found more disease (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or worse [CIN3+]) and also found it earlier than did cytology or cotesting. Moreover, the positive predictive value and positive-likelihood ratio of the primary-screening algorithm were higher than those of cytology. Opponents of the decision prefer cotesting, as this approach detects more disease than the HPV test alone. In addition, the performance of this new algorithm has not been assessed in routine clinical use. Professional organizations will need to develop guidelines that incorporate this testing algorithm. In this Point-Counterpoint, Dr. Stoler explains why he favors the primary-screening algorithm, while Drs. Austin and Zhao explain why they prefer the cotesting approach to screening for cervical cancer. PMID:25948606

  12. The Articular Morphology of the First Carpometacarpal Joint Does Not Differ between Men and Women, but Changes with Aging and Early Stage Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Halilaj, Eni; Moore, Douglas C.; Laidlaw, David H.; Got, Christopher J.; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C.; Ladd, Amy L.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA) in women has been previously linked to the articular morphology of the trapezium. However, studies report conflicting results on how the articular shapes of male and female trapezia compare to one another, mainly because their findings are based on data from older cadaver specimens. The purpose of this in vivo study was to dissociate the effect of sex from that of aging and early OA by using cohorts of healthy young and healthy older subjects, as well as patients with early stage OA. Computed tomography scans from 68 healthy subjects and 87 arthritic subjects were used to obtain 3-D bone models. The trapezial and metacarpal articular surfaces were manually delineated on scaled bone models, to remove the effect of size, and then were compared between sex, age, and health groups by using polar histograms of curvature and average curvature values. We found no sex differences, but significant age-group and health-group differences, in the articular surfaces of both bones. The older healthy subjects had higher curvature in the concave and lower curvature in the convex directions of both the trapezial and metacarpal saddles than the healthy young subjects. Subjects with early OA had significantly different metacarpal and trapezial articular shapes from healthy subjects. These findings suggest that aging and OA affect the articular shape of the CMC joint, but that, in contrast to previously held beliefs, inherent sex differences are not responsible for the higher incidence of CMC OA in women. PMID:24909332

  13. Lifetime Occupational Physical Activity and Musculoskeletal Aging in Middle-Aged Men and Women in Denmark: Retrospective Cohort Study Protocol and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Ole Steen; Reventlow, Susanne; Skov, Peder Georg; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Rubak, Tine Steen; Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars L; Lund, Rikke; Osler, Merete; Christensen, Ulla; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical function is essential for performing most aspects of daily life and musculoskeletal aging leads to a decline in physical function. The onset and rate of this process vary and are influenced by environmental, genetic, and hormonal factors. Although everyone eventually experiences musculoskeletal aging, it is beneficial to study the factors that influence the aging process in order to prevent disability. The role of occupational physical activity in the musculoskeletal aging process is unclear. In the past, hard physical work was thought to strengthen the worker, but current studies in this field fail to find a training effect in jobs with a high level of occupational physical activity. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the influence of lifetime occupational physical activity on physical function in midlife. The study follows the “occupational life-course perspective,” emphasizing the importance of occupational exposures accumulated throughout life on the musculoskeletal aging process taking socioeconomic and lifestyle factors into consideration. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study including a cross-sectional measurement of physical function in 5000 middle-aged Danes. Data was obtained from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) which is based on three existing Danish cohorts. Using questionnaire information about the five longest-held occupations, the job history was coded from the Danish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (D-ISCO 88) and a job exposure matrix containing information about occupational physical activity in Danish jobs was applied to the dataset. The primary outcomes are three tests of physical function: handgrip strength, balance, and chair rise. In the analyses, we will compare physical function in midlife according to accumulated exposure to high levels of occupational physical activity. Conclusions We have a unique opportunity to study the influence of work on early musculoskeletal aging taking other factors into account. In this study, the “healthy worker effect” is reduced due to inclusion of people from the working population and people who are already retired or have been excluded from the labor market. However, low participation in the physical tests can lead to selection bias. PMID:23611836

  14. Urine, peritoneal fluid and omental fat proteomes of reproductive age women: Endometriosis-related changes and associations with endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Katherine E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Johansen, Eric B.; Niles, Richard K.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Albertolle, Matthew; Zhou, Yan; Prasad, Namrata; Drake, Penelope M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Hall, Steven C.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Louis, Germaine M. Buck; Fisher, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis, ectopic growth of the uterine lining (endometrium), which affects 6–11% of reproductive age women, is associated with pelvic pain and infertility. We investigated the peritoneal fluid (PF), urine and omental fat (OF) proteomes of women with endometriosis vs. individuals with no surgically visualized endometriosis. All participants were enrolled in the NICHD-funded ENDO Study. A two-step proteomic study was performed. The first, a broad survey, employed a semi-quantitative gel LC-mass spectrometry (MS) workflow: SDS PAGE fractionation, trypsin digestion and LC–MS/MS. The results showed sample integrity but failed to detect any differences between women with and without endometriosis. The second step was a quantitative analysis of OF samples. We employed another sample set (n = 30) from women ± disease and isobaric mass-tag (iTRAQ) chemistry to label peptides and 2D LC–MS/MS for protein identification and quantification. Three proteins—matrix metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase, and FAM49B—were significantly lower in abundance in samples from women with endometriosis. Interestingly, neutrophil elastase and FAM49B levels were associated with higher levels of a subset of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that were previously measured in the same samples. The results of these experiments showed the feasibility of associating endometriosis with changes in the OF protein repertoire and EDC levels. Biological significance Endometriosis, pathological growth of the uterine lining, is associated with significant morbidities, including pain and infertility. However, the causes of this common condition are poorly understood. This study determined whether endometriosis was associated with changes in the protein composition of peritoneal fluid, urine and/or omental fat. A protein of unknown function (FAM49B) and two proteinases (metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase) were down regulated in OF samples from women with versus without endometriosis. These findings suggested proteinase imbalances at sites that were distant from the endometriotic lesions. Additionally, FAM49B and neutrophil elastase levels were associated with higher levels of a subset of environmental chemicals that were quantified in the same samples, suggesting other possible associations. Thus, this work generated hypotheses that will be tested in further studies. PMID:25284053

  15. Determinants of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods utilization among married women of reproductive age groups in western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melka, Alemu Sufa; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia information on the level of utilization of the long term and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factorsis lacking. The aim of this study was to understand the determinant factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age in Western Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross- sectional study design was employed. Multi stage sampling was used to select 1003 study participants. Data was collected from April 10 to April 25,2014 using a pre- tested structured questionnaire. The data were entered using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods at 95% CL. Results Use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in this study was found to be 20%. Survey results showed a significant positive association between utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.02 - 3.05), women's occupation (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11 -3.58), number of live children (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.46- 4.02), joint fertility related decision (AOR = 6.11, 95% CI: 2.29- 16.30), having radio/TV (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.40 - 3.80), and discussion with health care provider about long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (AOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 8.37 - 22.47). Conclusion Efforts need to be aimed at women empowerment, health education, and encouraging open discussion of family planning by couples PMID:26523185

  16. Synergistic effects of E2MATE and norethindrone acetate on steroid sulfatase inhibition: a randomized phase I proof-of-principle clinical study in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Oliver; Bestel, Elke; Gotteland, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The combination of a progestin such as norethindrone acetate (NETA) reducing the ovarian estrogen production with a steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitor (STS-I) decreasing the local estrogen production could result in a new treatment option for endometriosis. The study reported was a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study to investigate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and safety of the STS-I PGL2001 (E2MATE) and NETA. A total of 24 healthy women of reproductive age were treated with weekly doses of PGL2001 or daily doses of NETA or a combination of both compounds for 4 weeks. Four weeks of treatment with PGL2001 or PGL2001 + NETA reduced the STS activity in the endometrium by 91% (±3%) and 96% (±4%), respectively, and comparable values were observed 1 month after the treatment was stopped. The combined treatment of PGL2001 + NETA led to significantly higher STS inhibition at both times (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). This study showed that administration of PGL2001 alone at 4 mg/week or combined with NETA to healthy women of reproductive age led to STS inhibition and changes in functional STS biomarkers in the endometrium, resulting in synergistic effects of PGL2001 and NETA on STS activity. PMID:24604234

  17. Physical and physiological effectiveness of an overall health care program for middle-aged Japanese women with mild obesity: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Amano, Sho; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Hanafusa, Masakazu; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Nishizaka, Saiko; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of an overall health care program (OHCP) for middle-aged Japanese women through assessing physical and physiological changes. The OHCP consisted of diet modification with natural alternative foods, walking and stretching exercises, and body massage and cupping treatments. Sixty-seven participants were assigned to one of three groups during a 3-year study period (2011-2013). The OHCP was performed for 3 months in each year. After the OHCP, most participants had significant decreases in the blood levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyl transferase, and cholinesterase; body weight; body fat percentage; and body-mass index. The oxidative stress markers varied among the study years; however, a significant decrease in blood reactive oxygen-derived metabolites and a significant increase in the relative antioxidative potential were observed in 2013. In 2013, participants who were randomly selected for autonomic nervous activity measurements immediately before and after body massage and cupping treatments showed a significant predominance in parasympathetic nervous activity after the treatments. These results indicate that the OHCP in the present study is an effective and prompt method as a complementary treatment to improve the pre-obese or mild obese status without any noticeable physiological stress in most middle-aged women. However, because of the limitations of this study, the findings of this study need to be confirmed. PMID:26151017

  18. Age-related changes in force and power associated with balance of women in quiet bilateral stance on a firm surface.

    PubMed

    Skurvidas, A; Cesnaitiene, V J; Mickeviciene, D; Gutnik, B; Nicholson, J; Hudson, G

    2012-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of the fluctuations of the body centre of mass (CM) while in a stationary bilateral stance on a firm surface is an important criterion of the functional state of human motor-vestibular and sensory apparatus. From analysis of the literature we conclude that more objective characteristics of human balance in quiet standing may be the amount of energy used to maintain the CM in a constant position. Further analysis of the references showed that these characteristics have not been investigated in neurological practice. In this study, the displacement of CM in participants standing in a normal anatomical position was analysed. Forty-five healthy women in three age groups: 18-24, 45-55 and over 60 years participated in the experiments, which consisted of recording changes in partial body weight on the force platform (under one leg) in situations with opened and closed eyes. The specific power of oscillation of body sway and force of lateral swing of CM were calculated. Results indicated that the maximum specific power of oscillation and force of lateral swing were observed in the group of women older than 60 years, especially in the absence of vision. Minimum values occurred in the group of 18-24 years. We also found a considerable variability in all indices in all age groups. This indicates that the stability of the vertical posture in humans depends also on the individual biological characteristics of the central nervous and muscular systems. PMID:22520438

  19. Dietary Supplementation of Rural Gambian Women during Pregnancy Does Not Affect Body Composition in Offspring at 11–17 Years of Age12

    PubMed Central

    Hawkesworth, Sophie; Prentice, Andrew M.; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Moore, Sophie E.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal nutrition is thought to be an important determinant of later disease risk, although evidence from randomized-controlled trials in humans is lacking. We followed children born during a protein-energy supplementation trial to investigate to what extent this maternal supplement, which improved birth weight, influenced offspring body composition in adolescence. Subjects were 1270 Gambian children (659 boys, 611 girls) aged 11–17 y whose mothers had participated in the original cluster-randomized trial and had received the supplement during pregnancy (intervention) or postpartum (control). Basic anthropometry was measured using standard techniques and fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and population-specific prediction equations. For boys, mean body fat was 12.6% for both intervention and control groups. Mean trunk fat was 11.9% in the intervention group and 12.0% in the control. Intervention girls had a mean body fat of 19.5% and trunk fat of 15.2%; for control girls, it was 19.3 and 14.8%, respectively. BMI, body fat, trunk fat, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index did not differ for either sex when analyzed with generalized estimating equations adjusted for age, maternal height, maternal parity, location, season of birth, and menarche in females. Neither infant-attained size nor the onset of menarche were affected by maternal supplementation. These findings suggest that protein-energy supplements to pregnant women, compared with lactating women, do not affect offspring body composition during adolescence. PMID:19022974

  20. A multilevel analysis of effect of neighbourhood and individual wealth status on sexual behaviour among women: evidence from Nigeria 2003 Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Uthman, Olalekan A; Kongnyuy, Eugene J

    2008-01-01

    Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India – where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. Women bear the greatest burden of frequent high-risk pregnancies, raising large families, and increasingly, the AIDS epidemic. Thus, there is a need for better understanding of the determinants of high risk sexual behaviour among women. In this study, we examined factors associated with extra-marital sex among women in Nigeria and investigated how much variation in reported extra-marital sex can be attributed to individual-, and community-level factors. Methods We analyzed data from 6362 sexually active women aged 1549 years who participated in the Nigeria 2003 Demographic and Health Survey using multilevel logistic regression models. Results are presented as odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results Independent of other factors, compared to women aged 15–24 years, those 25 – 34 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.59; 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.79) and 35 years or older (OR 0.36; 95% CI: 0.24 – 0.54) were less likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners in the last 12 years. As expected, women currently or formerly married were less likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners than women never married. Women who drank alcohol in the last three months were more likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners. Compared to women from richest household, women from poorest and middle household were 83% and 51% more likely to multiple concurrent sex partners in the last 12 month respectively. After individual compositional and contextual factors, community wealth status was statistically significant with sexual behaviour. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that individual and community wealth status are independent predictors of women's sexual behaviour, and that there is significant neighbourhood variation in odds of multiple concurrent sex partners, even after controlling for effects of both individual- and community-level characteristics. Scholars trying to understand variation individual high risk sexual behaviour should pay attention to the characteristics of both individuals and places of residence. PMID:18588679

  1. Healthy Eating and Harambee: curriculum development for a culturally-centered bio-medically oriented nutrition education program to reach African American women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Srimathi; Sparks, Arlene V; Webster, J DeWitt; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lumeng, Julie

    2010-07-01

    The purpose was to develop, implement and evaluate a peer-led nutrition curriculum Healthy Eating and Harambee that addresses established objectives of maternal and infant health and to shift the stage for African American women of childbearing age in Genesee County toward healthier dietary patterns using a socio-cultural and biomedical orientation. The PEN-3 model, which frames culture in the context of health promotion interventions, was integrated with the Transtheoretical Model to guide this 13-week pre-test/post-test curriculum. Materials developed included soul food plate visuals, a micronutrient availability worksheet, a fruit stand, and gardening kits. Learning activities included affirmations, stories, case-scenarios, point-of-purchase product recognition, church health teams, and community health fairs. We investigated health-promoting dietary behaviors (consumption of more fruits and vegetables (F&V), serving more F&V to their families, and moderating dietary sodium and fat intakes), and biomedical behaviors (self-monitoring blood pressure and exercising) across five stages of change. Session attendance and program satisfaction were assessed. N = 102 women participated (mean age = 27.5 years). A majority (77%) reported adopting at least one healthy eating behavior (moderating sodium, serving more F&V to their families), 23% adopted at least two such behaviors (reading food labels for sodium; using culinary herbs/spices; serving more F&V to their families), and 45% adopted both dietary (moderating sodium; eating more fruits) and biomedical behaviors. Participants and facilitators favorably evaluated the curriculum and suggested improvements. A multi-conceptual approach coupled with cultural and biomedical tailoring has potential to promote young African American women's movement to more advanced stages of change and improve self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake, dietary sodium moderation, and self-monitoring blood pressure and physical activity. PMID:19655237

  2. Postpartum and Depression Status are Associated With Lower [11C]raclopride BPND in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Wisner, Katherine L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Berga, Sarah L; Grace, Anthony A; di Scalea, Teresa Lanza; Kaye, Walter H; Becker, Carl; Drevets, Wayne C

    2012-01-01

    The early postpartum period is associated with increased risk for affective and psychotic disorders. Because maternal dopaminergic reward system function is altered with perinatal status, dopaminergic system dysregulation may be an important mechanism of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Subjects included were non-postpartum healthy (n=13), postpartum healthy (n=13), non-postpartum unipolar depressed (n=10), non-postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7), postpartum unipolar (n=13), and postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7) women. Subjects underwent 60?min of [11C]raclopride–positron emission tomography imaging to determine the nondisplaceable striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND). Postpartum status and unipolar depression were associated with lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in the whole striatum (p=0.05 and p=0.02, respectively) that reached a maximum of 7–8% in anteroventral striatum for postpartum status (p=0.02). Unipolar depression showed a nonsignificant trend toward being associated with 5% lower BPND in dorsal striatum (p=0.06). D2/3 receptor BPND did not differ significantly between unipolar depressed and healthy postpartum women or between bipolar and healthy subjects; however, D2/3 receptor BPND was higher in dorsal striatal regions in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives (p=0.02). In conclusion, lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in postpartum and unipolar depressed women, primarily in ventral striatum, and higher dorsal striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives reveal a potential role for the dopamine (DA) system in the physiology of these states. Further studies delineating the mechanisms underlying these differences in D2/3 receptor BPND, including study of DA system responsivity to rewarding stimuli, and increasing power to assess unipolar vs bipolar-related differences, are needed to better understand the affective role of the DA system in postpartum and depressed women. PMID:22257897

  3. Application of joinpoint regression in determining breast cancer incidence rate change points by age and tumor characteristics in women aged 30–69 (years) and in Isfahan city from 2001 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dehkordi, Zahra Fazeli; Tazhibi, Mehdi; Babazade, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast cancer is a major threat to women's health. Evaluation of the changes in trend of the incidence rate provides valuable information for the assessment and planning of development indicators of each country. The aim of the present study was to apply the JoinPoint regression model for determining changes in the trend of the breast cancer incidence rate in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 3640 women with breast cancer referring to oncology and radiotherapy departments of Seyed-al-Shohada and Milad cancer treatment centers of Isfahan during 2001–2010 were studied and sampling was not done. Joinpoint regression model was used to investigate the pattern of breast cancer incidence rate. Response and independent variables were the natural logarithm of the age-standardized incidence rates and year of diagnosis of breast cancer, respectively, in which various levels of cancer tumor characteristics (P < 0.05) were analyzed. Results: The incidence rates increased annually in the age groups of 40–44 years (6.2%), 45–49 years (5.3%), and 55–59 years (5.3%). The trend of incidence rates in women with tumor size ?2 cm (18.2%), well (moderately) differentiated tumor grade [8% (10.2%)], positive estrogen (progesterone) hormone receptor status [10.5% (6.9%)], and the proportion of positive lymph node to surgery node ?25% (nonsignificant) was upward. Conclusion: The trend of incidence rates with tumor size ?2 cm, well-differentiated tumor grade, moderately differentiated tumor grade, and positive estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors was upward. The pattern of breast cancer can help in cancer prevention and prognosis, and in selecting the best type of surgery. PMID:25540788

  4. Preterm or Not – An Evaluation of Estimates of Gestational Age in a Cohort of Women from Rural Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ome-Kaius, Maria; Mola, Glen; White, Lisa; Wangnapi, Regina A.; Rogerson, Stephen J.; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge of accurate gestational age is required for comprehensive pregnancy care and is an essential component of research evaluating causes of preterm birth. In industrialised countries gestational age is determined with the help of fetal biometry in early pregnancy. Lack of ultrasound and late presentation to antenatal clinic limits this practice in low-resource settings. Instead, clinical estimators of gestational age are used, but their accuracy remains a matter of debate. Methods In a cohort of 688 singleton pregnancies from rural Papua New Guinea, delivery gestational age was calculated from Ballard score, last menstrual period, symphysis-pubis fundal height at first visit and quickening as well as mid- and late pregnancy fetal biometry. Published models using sequential fundal height measurements and corrected last menstrual period to estimate gestational age were also tested. Novel linear models that combined clinical measurements for gestational age estimation were developed. Predictions were compared with the reference early pregnancy ultrasound (<25 gestational weeks) using correlation, regression and Bland-Altman analyses and ranked for their capability to predict preterm birth using the harmonic mean of recall and precision (F-measure). Results Average bias between reference ultrasound and clinical methods ranged from 0–11 days (95% confidence levels: 14–42 days). Preterm birth was best predicted by mid-pregnancy ultrasound (F-measure: 0.72), and neuromuscular Ballard score provided the least reliable preterm birth prediction (F-measure: 0.17). The best clinical methods to predict gestational age and preterm birth were last menstrual period and fundal height (F-measures 0.35). A linear model combining both measures improved prediction of preterm birth (F-measure: 0.58). Conclusions Estimation of gestational age without ultrasound is prone to significant error. In the absence of ultrasound facilities, last menstrual period and fundal height are among the more reliable clinical measures. This study underlines the importance of strengthening ultrasound facilities and developing novel ways to estimate gestational age. PMID:25945927

  5. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Sodhi, Candy; Parmod, John; Dutta, Abhilasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group) were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2) were assessed. Results: The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml) as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001). However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92) as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72) and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30). Conclusion: We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females. PMID:26177471

  6. Joint exposure to chemical and nonchemical neurodevelopmental stressors in U.S. women of reproductive age in NHANES.

    PubMed

    Evans, Amanda M; Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Wright, J Michael

    2014-04-01

    Lead (Pb) and methyl mercury (MeHg) are well established neurodevelopmental toxicants (NDTs), but joint exposure to chemical and nonchemical (e.g., maternal stress) stressors has rarely been considered. We characterized exposure to Pb, MeHg and a measure of physiological dysregulation associated with chronic stress and examined race/ethnicity as a predictor of joint NDT exposure. Using data from the 2003-2004 NHANES, potential chronic stress exposure was estimated using allostatic load (AL), a quantitative measure of physiological dysregulation. A Hazard Index was calculated for joint exposure to Pb and MeHg (HI(NDT)). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between an indicator of elevated joint NDT exposures (HI(NDT) > 1) and race/ethnicity. The multivariate model was stratified by AL groups to examine effect measure modification. African American (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 2.2 [1.4, 3.3]) and Mexican American (1.4 [0.7, 2.6]) women were more likely to have an HI(NDT) > 1 compared to Caucasian women. Chronic stress was identified as an effect measure modifier with the largest ORs among women with high AL scores (African Americans = 4.3 [2.0, 9.5]; Mexican Americans = 4.2 [1.3, 14.1]). Chronic stress was found to modify the association between elevated joint NDT exposure and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of evaluating chemical and nonchemical stressor exposures leading to a common endpoint. PMID:24758893

  7. Chocolate Intake and Incidence of Heart Failure: A Population-Based, Prospective Study of Middle-Aged and Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Levitan, Emily B.; Wolk, Alicja; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Randomized clinical trials have shown that chocolate intake reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure and observational studies have found an inverse association between chocolate intake and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure (HF). Methods and Results We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,823 women 48–83 years old without baseline diabetes or a history of HF or myocardial infarction who were participants in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. In addition to health and lifestyle questions, participants completed a food-frequency questionnaire. Women were followed from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2006 for HF hospitalization or death through the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers. Over 9 years of follow-up, 419 women were hospitalized for incident HF (n =379) or died of HF (n = 40). Compared to no regular chocolate intake, the multivariate-adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.74 (95%CI 0.58–0.95) for those consuming 1–3 servings of chocolate per month, 0.68 (95%CI 0.50–0.93) for those consuming 1–2 servings per week, 1.09 (95%CI .74–1.62) for those consuming 3–6 servings per week and 1.23 (95%CI 0.73–2.08) for those consuming one or more servings per day (p for quadratic trend = 0.0005). Conclusions In this population, moderate habitual chocolate intake was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death but the protective association was not observed with intake of one or more servings per day. PMID:20713904

  8. Should Women Younger Than 40 Years of Age With Invasive Breast Cancer Have a Mastectomy?: 15-Year Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jeffrey Q.; Truong, Pauline T.; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Olson, Robert; Coulombe, Genevieve; Keyes, Mira; Weir, Lorna; Gelmon, Karen; Bernstein, Vanessa; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Optimal local management for young women with early-stage breast cancer remains controversial. This study examined 15-year outcomes among women younger than 40 years treated with breast-conserving surgery plus whole-breast radiation therapy (BCT) compared with those treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: Women aged 20 to 39 years with early-stage breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2003 were identified in a population-based database. Primary outcomes of breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS), overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes of local relapse–free survival (LRFS), locoregional relapse–free survival (LRRFS), and distant relapse–free survival (DRFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared between BCT and MRM cohorts using log-rank tests. A planned subgroup analysis was performed on patients considered “ideal” for BCT (ie, T1N0, negative margins and no extensive ductal carcinoma in situ) and in whom local therapy may have the largest impact on survival because of low systemic risk. Results: 965 patients were identified; 616 had BCT and 349 had MRM. The median follow-up time was 14.4 years (range, 8.4-23.3 years). Overall, 15-year rates of BCSS (76.0% vs 74.1%, P=.62), OS (74.2% vs 73.0%, P=.75), LRFS (85.4% vs 86.5%, P=.95), LRRFS (82.2% vs 81.6%, P=.61), and DRFS (74.4% vs 71.6%, P=.40) were similar between the BCT and MRM cohorts. In the “ideal” for BCT subgroup, there were 219 BCT and 67 MRM patients with a median follow-up time of 15.5 years. The 15-year BCSS (86.1% vs 82.9%, P=.57), OS (82.6% vs 82.9%, P=.89), LRFS (86.2% vs 84.2%, P=.50), LRRFS (83.1% vs 78.3%, P=.24), and DRFS (84.8% vs 79.1%, P=.17) were similar in the BCT and MRM cohorts. Conclusions: This population-based analysis with long-term follow-up confirmed that women younger than 40 years treated with BCT had similar 15-year outcomes compared with MRM. Young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

  9. Barriers to and Facilitators of Compliance with Clinic-Based Cervical Cancer Screening: Population-Based Cohort Study of Women Aged 23-60 Years

    PubMed Central

    Östensson, Ellinor; Alder, Susanna; Elfström, K. Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Zethraeus, Niklas; Arbyn, Marc; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to identify possible barri