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Sample records for women aged 15-49

  1. To estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group (15-49 years).

    PubMed

    Kousar, Junaid; Kawoosa, Zaffar; Hamid, Sajad; Munshi, Iftikhar Hussain; Hamid, Shahnawaz; Rashid, Arsalaan F

    2013-12-01

    The present study is a Cross-Sectional Study and was conducted in Post-graduate department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College, Srinagar between Feb. 2012 and Jan. 2013. The sample size of 1,041 was estimated. The study was conducted to estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group in two districts of Kashmir valley, district Srinagar and district Ganderbal, which were selected randomly. A frame of the blocks and villages in the two districts and their population was formed. From each district 10% of the blocks were selected using simple random sampling. From each block, 5% of the villages were selected using simple random sampling. A door to door survey was conducted in the selected villages and all the women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) identified and examined clinically for goiter after taking informed consent. Salt samples (one teaspoonful) from every household were taken and assessed for iodine content on spot and the iodine content of salt was assessed qualitatively by spot testing kits. The results of the present study have indicated that iodine deficiency continues to be a health problem. Almost the whole population consumes powdered salt but the storage and cooking practices diminish the iodine content of salt and results in decreased intake. Thus the need of the hour is to make people aware about proper storage and cooking practices. Women in the reproductive age group especially need to be made aware about the importance of consumption of adequately iodized salt because of the wide range of ill effects of iodine deficiency on the developing fetus and the growing child. In addition monitoring of iodine content of salt at distributor level should be done. PMID:23760753

  2. The silent epidemic of reproductive morbidity among ever married women (15-49 years) in an urban area of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Khandekar, Jyoti; Singh, Amarjeet; Saxena, Sonal

    2013-04-01

    Concept of reproductive health has long been discussed and need to focus on reproductive morbidity as a measure of reproductive health has evolved. There is poor reproductive health with neglect of women's own health. Compounded with socio-cultural factors, the result is poor treatment seeking and hence poor quality of life. This community based study was conducted to find out the magnitude, type of reproductive morbidity and treatment seeking behavior for the same. Cross sectional study was conducted in Palam Village among married women aged 15-49years. 750 women were interviewed by visiting every fifth house through systematic random sampling. Symptomatic women were referred for gynecological examination and investigations. The overall prevalence of Reproductive Morbidity was found to be 46.3%: Gynaecological morbidity in 31.3% subjects, obstetric morbidity in 43.4% of the eligible women and contraceptive induced morbidity in 11.2% of the ever contraceptive users with 5% reporting more than one symptom. Problem perception and treatment compliance was poor for subjects with gynecological morbidity as compared with contraceptive and obstetric morbidity respectively. High self-reported obstetric morbidity was observed with good treatment seeking behavior as compared to poor treatment seeking behavior in women with gynaecological morbidity. Contraceptive morbidity was reported by fewer subjects but treatment seeking was good. There is a need to understand the pattern of reporting and health seeking behavior among women suffering from reproductive morbidity. The large magnitude of reproductive morbidity warrants attention and hints the poor quality of MCH care delivered to women. PMID:22968821

  3. Women, aging, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lord, J E; Richards, C

    1993-01-01

    Women over 65 bear high risk for developing cancer. The risk for developing most cancers grows'with increasing age. Of the 1.13 million people estimated to develop cancer in 1992,362,000 (32 percent) will be women over 65 years old (American Cancer Society, 1992). The few early detection and prevention programs that have focused on this age group have found that the women often have problems with utilization, misconceptions, and plain lack of correct information. Treatment for women over 65 with cancer may differ from that for younger women because of age bias, comorbidity, stage of disease at time of diagnosis, and a lack of research on women of this age. Even quality of life and survivorship for the woman over 65 become issues due to the lack of knowledge about how women over 65 view these concepts. The Healthy People 2000 Report has developed goals for a healthier society by the year 2000. The priority areas in relation to cancer include reduction in cigarette smoking, dietary changes, greater utilization of early detection mechanisms, and decreasing exposure to occupational and environmental carcinogens. Implementation of these goals should affect future generations in terms of healthy aging: however, specific programs do need to focus on the woman over 65 and her present needs which will impact current and future health status. PMID:23077997

  4. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  5. State-wise dynamics of the double burden of malnutrition among 15-49 year-old women in India: how much does the scenario change considering Asian population-specific BMI cut-off values?

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat Sankaranarayanan; Van Schayck, C P; Dagnelie, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the gravity of the "double burden of malnutrition" across 21 states of India, through a comparative analysis of traditional and Asian population-specific BMI categorizations for overweight and obesity. This study analyzes data on ever-married women (15-49 years) from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-1999; NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Findings depict that Indian women tilt toward high BMI resulting in a co-existence of under- and overweight populations, which portray a regional pattern. With Asian population-specific cut-offs, 11 states can be classified as "double burden states"; however, following traditional categorization, only 4 states face such dual pressure. PMID:25357268

  6. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  7. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  8. Melatonin in aging women.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, A Yarci; Kiseli, M; Caglar, G S

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland that controls circadian rhythm, which is primarily regulated by light. Although melatonin levels are known to be altered in individuals with sleep disorders, melatonin also has modulatory effects on other body systems, including the skeletal and immune systems. In addition, melatonin has been shown to interfere with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and to have significant antioxidant effects, both directly and via its metabolites. Melatonin levels vary throughout human life and are known to decrease with age but the effects of declining melatonin levels are poorly understood. In women, this age-related decrease in melatonin levels coincides with the menopause. This review aims to summarize the impact of altered melatonin levels in aging women and the outcomes of exogenous replacement therapies. PMID:26029988

  9. Men's, Women's Hearts Age Differently

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155248.html Men's, Women's Hearts Age Differently Treatments may need to ... News) -- The heart ages differently for women and men. And this suggests a possible need for gender- ...

  10. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

  11. Women, Work and Age Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGooyer, Janice

    Millions of older women who work face combined age and sex discrimination. Fifty percent more women aged 45-54 (3.5 million) will enter the job market in the next two decades and face the same problems. Illegal discriminatory practices encountered by older women when job hunting include exclusion from a job opportunity because of a male selecting

  12. Women, Work and Age Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGooyer, Janice

    Millions of older women who work face combined age and sex discrimination. Fifty percent more women aged 45-54 (3.5 million) will enter the job market in the next two decades and face the same problems. Illegal discriminatory practices encountered by older women when job hunting include exclusion from a job opportunity because of a male selecting…

  13. Illness and Women's Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Anne-Linda

    When a woman defines herself as old is a complex phenomenon reflecting, among other variables, cultural attitudes, environmental constraints, and health status. In the later years, self-perceived age lags behind chronological age, but alters with the progressive contracting of life space, changes in health status, and decreases in perceived

  14. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  15. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a

  16. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  17. Growing rejection of female genital cutting among women of reproductive age in Amhara, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Rahlenbeck, Sibylle I; Mekonnen, Wubegzier

    2009-05-01

    Data on female genital cutting are presented from 1942 women aged 15-49 years in Amhara region, Ethiopia, 2005. Reportedly 69% (1333/1942) had undergone the procedure. Rates showed a secular decline, decreasing from 77% in women aged 45-49 years old to 59% in those age 15-24 years. Of women with daughters, 64% had at least one circumcised daughter. Again, prevalence declined from 78% in daughters of mothers aged 45-49 years to 45% in those aged 15-24 years. In logistic regression, controlling for maternal FGC status, age and religion, maternal education was a strong predictor of having a circumcised daughter. Fifty-four percent of respondents disapproved of the continuation of FGC. In logistic regression controlling for covariates, education and self-empowerment were factors associated with rejecting FGC. Women who had ever attended a school had a 4-fold increase in the odds of disapproving the practice than those who never did and respondents who scored high on empowerment indices had a 1.5-fold increase in the odds to favour discontinuation compared to women scoring low. Future efforts to eliminate this harmful practice should be particularly directed to illiterate populations in rural areas. Efforts strengthening women's empowerment will accelerate the progress of these programmes. PMID:19326265

  18. Age and Identity Issues of Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.; Katrin, Susan E.

    Do women go through identifiable developmental stages? Can generalizable patterns of transition be found, and if so, do these patterns differ according to the age of the respondent? What are women's most difficult and most satisfying times of life? To provide some exploratory quantitative data on these questions, a sample of 120 women completed a

  19. Psychological aspects of aging in women.

    PubMed

    Porcino, J

    1985-01-01

    Older women are forced to cope with many societal myths and negative stereotypes. This paper reviews the influence of these stereotypes as well as some of the other psychological concerns of women who are aging. Losses such as widowhood and divorce as well as the problem of loneliness are discussed. PMID:4024651

  20. HIV/AIDS knowledge and stigma among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Etana, Dula

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma is one of the major public health challenges in Ethiopia. This study examined knowledge about HIV/AIDS and factors behind stigmatisation towards people living with the virus based on demographic and health survey data collected in 2011 from women in the age group 15-49 years. The result shows that 49.3% of rural women had adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared with 74.7% of urban women. About three-fourths (72.1%) of the rural women had stigmatising attitudes towards PLWHA whilst the proportion in urban areas was only about a third (34.2%). The likelihood of having adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was significantly higher among educated women but lower among those living in Afar, Somali, and Gambella regions and Dire Dawa City. Women with higher levels of education and frequent access to media had a lower tendency to stigmatise people living with the virus. Adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was also significantly associated with lower likelihood of stigmatisation. The results generally indicate that HIV/AIDS stigma in Ethiopia is partly explained by people's knowledge about HIV/AIDS and by socio-cultural factors that shape their perception of the epidemic. Awareness-raising efforts should thus consider the socio-cultural contexts in which stigma occurs to tackle discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26285101

  1. Age, Women, and Hiring: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2008-01-01

    As baby boomers reach retirement age, demographic pressures on public programs may cause policy makers to cut benefits and encourage employment at later ages. But how much demand exists for older workers? This paper reports on a field experiment to determine hiring conditions for older women in entry-level jobs in two cities. A younger worker is…

  2. Aging and reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

  3. Work Related Injury among Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  4. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors. PMID:26163075

  5. Sexual problems, women and aging: an overview.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Expression of one's sexuality is a fundamental mental health need of all individuals, regardless of age and gender. While the popularity and widespread use of Viagra and similar medications for male erectile dysfunction have helped many individuals, it has also reinforced a more male dominated view of sexuality-one that focuses more on genital function, and less on the relationship and issues of intimacy and meaning. Highlighting important issues and recent trends, the paper provides an overview of the diagnosis, description, etiology, assessment and treatment of women's sexual problems. A broad perspective on sexuality is emphasized, along with an understanding of the sexual response cycle. A selected review of the literature on older women and sexual dysfunction shows wide variability and the important role of biomedical, health and relational factors. In working with the sexual needs of older women, any therapeutic intervention should be based upon a solid understanding of the myths and realities of the sexual aging process, a keen understanding of the sexual challenges faced by older women, and a respect for the continuity of one's sexual lifestyle. PMID:17588884

  6. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 1549 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 1519y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (?12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (?43%) than in rural children (?24%). BMI in women aged 1519 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditionsundernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemiaconsidering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru. PMID:24643049

  7. Sexuality in Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Judith A.; Black, Jennifer J.

    2006-01-01

    Women of childbearing age have health-care needs related to sexuality. The health-care needs that are most obvious are the need for contraception and the need for the prevention and treatment of vaginal and sexually transmitted infections. Although providers may have questions related to sexual activity, sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual satisfaction, and intimate partner violence on patient history forms, they often offer little discussion on issues related to sexuality unless the patient raises the issues. Women's sexuality is intensely personal and individual. Changes may occur in sexuality during pregnancy or as a response to infertility. These changes may be physical or emotional. During her prepregnancy and prenatal care, a woman may meet with a range of health-care providers, including childbirth educators, lactation consultants, nurses, midwives, and physicians. It is within the scope of practice of each of these clinicians to address sexuality concerns, validate women's feelings, and provide suggestions of modifications in sexual practices to meet women's needs for sexual expression within the range of activities that are safe and acceptable.

  8. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  9. Treatment outcomes for substance use disorder among women of reproductive age in Massachusetts: A population-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Judith; Derrington, Taletha M.; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J.; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Diop, Hafsatou; Evans, Stephen R.; Jacobs, Hilary; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Longitudinal patterns of treatment utilization and relapse among women of reproductive age with substance use disorder (SUD) are not well known. In this statewide report spanning seven years we describe SUD prevalence, SUD treatment utilization, and differences in subsequent emergency department (ED) use and post-treatment relapse rates by type of treatment: none, acute only (detoxification/stabilization), or ongoing services. Methods We linked a statewide dataset of hospital discharge, observation stay and ED records with SUD treatment admission records from hospitals and freestanding facilities, and birth/fetal death certificates, in Massachusetts, 20022008. We aggregated episodes into individual woman records, identified evidence of SUD and treatment, and tested post-treatment outcomes. Results Nearly 150,000 (8.5%) of 1.7 million Massachusetts women aged 1549 were identified as SUD-positive. Nearly half of SUD-positive women (71,533 or 48.3%) had evidence of hospital or facility-based SUD treatment; among these, 12% received acute care/detoxification only while 88% obtained ongoing treatment. Treatment varied by substance type; women with dual diagnosis and those with opiate use were least likely to receive ongoing treatment. Treated women were older and less likely to have a psychiatric history or chronic illness. Women who received acute only services were more likely to relapse (12.4% vs. 9.6%) and had a 10% higher rate of ED visits post-treatment than women receiving ongoing treatment. Conclusions Many Massachusetts women of reproductive age need but do not receive adequate SUD treatment. Ongoing services beyond detoxification/stabilization may reduce the likelihood of post-treatment relapse and/or reliance on the ED for subsequent medical care. PMID:25496707

  10. Predictors of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies among women of childbearing age in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While unintended pregnancies pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of families globally, characteristics of Tanzanian women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. This analysis identifies factors associated with unintended pregnanciesboth mistimed and unwantedin three rural districts of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2,183 random households was conducted in three Tanzanian districts of Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga in 2011 to assess womens health behavior and service utilization patterns. These households produced 3,127 women age 15+?years from which 2,199 gravid women aged 1549 were selected for the current analysis. Unintended pregnancies were identified as either mistimed (wanted later) or unwanted (not wanted at all). Correlates of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies were identified through Chi-squared tests to assess associations and multinomial logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results Mean age of the participants was 32.1years. While 54.1% of the participants reported that their most recent pregnancy was intended, 32.5% indicated their most recent pregnancy as mistimed and 13.4% as unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (<20years), and single marital status were significant predictors of both mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Lack of inter-partner communication about family planning increased the risk of mistimed pregnancy significantly, and multi-gravidity was shown to significantly increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Conclusions About one half of women in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania conceive unintentionally. Women, especially the most vulnerable should be empowered to avoid pregnancy at their own will and discretion. PMID:25102924

  11. Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.

    PubMed

    Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%. PMID:24283176

  12. 10 CFR 15.49 - Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government. 15.49 Section 15.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Compromise of a Claim § 15.49 Mutual releases of the debtor and the Government. (a) In all appropriate instances, a...

  13. Attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: a study of rural women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Antai, Diddy E; Antai, Justina B

    2008-01-01

    Predictors of rural women's attitudes in Nigeria toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using a random sample of rural women (n = 3911) aged 15-49 years from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Findings were suggestive of social, religious, and cultural influences in the women's attitudes towards IPV. Women resident in the three northern regions, the South South region, Muslim women, women with low levels of education and low household wealth were more likely to tolerate IPV. This is reflective of the socio-economic disadvantages they face, as well as the cultural and religious restrictions imposed on these women. PMID:18842071

  14. Vocal characteristics of middle-aged premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Depypere, Herman; Claeys, Sofie; Wuyts, Floris L; Baudonck, Nele; Van Lierde, Kristiane M

    2011-05-01

    Aging influences the laryngeal anatomy and physiology, leading to altered vocal quality. In middle-aged women, the voice is affected by a combination of aging and menopausal transition. However, in many studies about vocal aging, the menopausal transition is not taken into account. The purpose of this study was to measure and describe the effect of aging on the vocal characteristics by comparing young women (between 20 and 28 years) and middle-aged premenopausal women (between 45 and 52 years). To determine the vocal characteristics in both groups, objective (aerodynamic measurements, vocal performance measurements, acoustic analysis, and a determination of the Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective assessment techniques (perceptual evaluation, videostroboscopic evaluation, and Voice Handicap Index) were used. The middle-aged premenopausal women showed a smaller frequency and intensity range, a lower habitual fundamental frequency, and a higher soft phonation index compared with the young women. The results of this study are important when studying the voices of middle-aged women. Vocal characteristics of middle-aged women differ from young women, and these changes cannot only be because of hormonal changes during the menopause. PMID:20189350

  15. Epidemiology of Substance Use in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Wigderson, Sara; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis A significant number of women of reproductive age in the U.S. use addictive substances. In 2012 more than 50% reported current use of alcohol, 20% used tobacco products, and approximately 13% used other drugs. Among women, use of these substances is associated with a number of significant medical, psychiatric, and social consequences, and the course of illness may progress more rapidly in women than men. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in women is 19.5% and 7.1%, respectively. In addition, as most addictive substances cross the placenta and have deleterious effects on fetal development, substance use has additional potential adverse consequences for women of reproductive age who may become pregnant. Specific barriers to accessing effective substance use treatment exist for women. The prevalence of substance use and evidence of accelerated illness progression in women highlight the importance of universal substance use screening in women in primary care settings. PMID:24845483

  16. Sexual Motivation in Women as a Function of Age

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Harte, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Womens motivations to engage in sex are likely influenced by their past sexual experiences, the type of relationship in which they are involved in, and numerous lifestyle factors such as career and family demands. The influences of these factors undoubtedly change as women age. Aim This study aimed to examine potential differences in sexual motivation between three distinct age groups of premenopausal women. Methods Women aged 1822 years (N = 137), 2330 years (N = 103), and 3145 years (N = 87) completed an online survey that assessed the proportion with which they had engaged in sexual intercourse for each of 140 distinct reasons. Main Outcome Measures The YSEX? Questionnaire by Meston and Buss [1] was used to measure sexual motivation. The items of this questionnaire were composed of four primary sexual motivation factors (physical, goal attainment, emotional, insecurity), and 13 subfactors. Results Women aged 3145 years reported a higher proportion of engaging in sex compared with one or both of the younger age groups of women for nine of the 13 YSEX? subfactors: stress reduction, physical desirability, experience seeking, resources, social status, revenge, expression, self-esteem boost, and mate guarding. At an item level, the top 25 reasons for having sex were virtually identical across age groups. Conclusion Women aged 3145 have more motives for engaging in sex than do women aged 1830, but the primary reasons for engaging in sex do not differ within this age range. Women aged 1845 have sex primarily for pleasure, and love and commitment. The implications for diagnosis and treatment of women with sexual dysfunctions were discussed. PMID:19751384

  17. Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p < .000) in women and body image in men (p < .0298). As for aging characteristics, decreasing hearing ability (p < .000), performance as before (p < .004), more irritability (p < .0227), ability to travel alone (p < .0429), needs check up (p < .001), and needs a geriatric home (p < .001) were statistically associated with age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people. PMID:23767841

  18. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  19. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in

  20. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study. PMID:26973037

  1. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G. Maria; Koenig, Sara S. K.; McCulle, Stacey L.; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O.; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Davis, Catherine C.; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [χ2(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

  2. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence among 12 393 rural women of childbearing age in Hainan Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic in China and it threats human health seriously. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence among women of childbearing age plays an important role in mother to child transmission of HBV, as 30% ~50% of chronic carriers can be attributed to maternal-infantile transmission. However, there are few studies which have reported on the prevalence of HBsAg among women of childbearing age in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBsAg and its associated risk factors among rural women of childbearing age in Hainan, which is the highest hepatitis B virus endemic province in China. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 12393 rural women aged 15 ~ 49years, enrolled by a multistage stratified cluster sampling, was carried out in Hainan province, China, from November 2007 to December 2008. Blood samples were obtained from each study participant, and screened for HBsAg. Results The overall HBsAg prevalence of childbearing age women was 9.51%. Risk factors for HBsAg positivity among rural women were: lower education level (OR=1.206), lower family monthly income (OR=1.233), having an HBsAg-positive family member (OR=1.300), without an immunization history (OR=1.243), tattooing (OR=1.190), body piercing (OR=1.293), vaginoscopy history (OR=1.103) and history of induced abortion (OR=1.142). Conclusions There is a high HBsAg seroprevalence rate among rural women of childbearing age in Hainan province. Hence, it is necessary to take preventive measures to reduce the seroprevalence of HBsAg and to control its associated risk factors. PMID:23332007

  3. Women's Strength Training. Lifting the Limits of Aging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinque, Chris

    1990-01-01

    Strength training is considered a male activity, but physicians are recommending it to women who want to keep their musculoskeletal systems strong and flexible as they age. This article discusses goals and problems of strength training for women and suggests it as an adjunct to cardiovascular fitness exercises. (SM)

  4. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 1549 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participants gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19year group while only individuals between 15 and 39years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in the country. PMID:24917067

  5. Why some women look young for their age.

    PubMed

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Murray, Peter G; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Strongitharm, Barbara H; Perrett, Dave I; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E; Messenger, Andrew G; Green, Martin R; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  6. Why Some Women Look Young for Their Age

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  7. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload

  8. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Energy requirements of women have been based upon total energy expenditure (TEE) derived from the factorial approach or as multiples of basal metabolic rate (BMR). Objective: This study was designed to reevaluate the energy requirements of healthy underweight, normal-weight and overweigh...

  9. Managing epilepsy in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Pamela M

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy affects the menstrual cycle, aspects of contraception, fertility, pregnancy and bone health in women. It is common for seizure frequency to vary throughout the menstrual cycle. In ovulatory cycles, two peaks can be seen around the time of ovulation and in the few days before menstruation. In anovulatory cycles, there is an increase in seizures during the second half of the menstrual cycle. There is also an increase in polycystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism associated with valproate therapy. There are no contraindications to the use of non-hormonal methods of contraception in women with epilepsy. Non-enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) [valproate, benzodiazepines, ethosuximide, levetiracetam, tiagabine and zonisamide] do not show any interactions with the combined oral contraceptive (OC). There are interactions between the combined OC and hepatic microsomal-inducing AEDs (phenytoin, barbiturates, carbamazepine, topiramate [dosages>200 mg/day], oxcarbazepine) and lamotrigine. Pre-conception counselling should be available to all women with epilepsy who are considering pregnancy. Women with epilepsy should be informed about issues relating to the future pregnancy, including methods and consequences of prenatal screening, fertility, genetics of their seizure disorder, teratogenicity of AEDs, folic acid and vitamin K supplements, labour, breast feeding and care of a child. During pregnancy, the lowest effective dose of the most appropriate AED should be used, aiming for monotherapy where possible. Recent pregnancy databases have suggested that valproate is significantly more teratogenic than carbamazepine, and the combination of valproate and lamotrigine is particularly teratogenic. Most pregnancies in women with epilepsy are without complications, and the majority of infants are delivered healthy with no increased risk of obstetric complications in women. There is no medical reason why a woman with epilepsy cannot breastfeed her child. The AED concentration profiled in breast milk follows the plasma concentration curve. The total amount of drug transferred to infants via breast milk is usually much smaller than the amount transferred via the placenta during pregnancy. However, as drug elimination mechanisms are not fully developed in early infancy, repeated administration of a drug such as lamotrigine via breast milk may lead to accumulation in the infant. Studies have suggested that women with epilepsy are at increased risk of fractures, osteoporosis and osteomalacia. No studies have been undertaken looking at preventative therapies for these co-morbidities. PMID:19388721

  10. Perception on prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV among women of reproductive age group in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga-Bello, AI; Adebimpe, WO; Osundina, FF; Abdulsalam, ST

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The fastest growing group of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is women. As more women contract the virus, the number of children infected in utero, intra-partum, and during breastfeeding has been growing. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of women of child bearing age towards the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Materials and methods This is a descriptive cross sectional survey of 420 women of the reproductive age group (1549 years) selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using interviewer-administered, pretested, semistructured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15. Results A high level of awareness about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was observed among the respondents (99.8%). The knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV was high, 92.1% and 91.4%, respectively. However, a significant portion (71.27%) of the study population had poor attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS, and good knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV/AIDS among the respondents, the attitude towards PMTCT is poor. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and attitude of prevention of MTCT of HIV among women. PMID:23874124

  11. Mammographic screening in asymptomatic women aged 40 years and older

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-05

    Currently, age-specific recommendations for screening mammograms in asymptomatic women that have been developed by professional, voluntary, and governmental organizations differ. While there is strong epidemiologic evidence that mammographic screening in asymptomatic women aged 50 years or older reduces breast cancer mortality, the evidence for mortality reduction is not as clear for women aged 40 to 49 years. However, as described in this report, findings of further mortality and survival follow-up of subjects in earlier studies, as well as observations from more recent studies, suggest reductions in mortality and better survival in younger women as well. While mammography is currently the most effective method for detecting early breast cancers, some breast cancers may develop during the intervals between screening mammograms. The costs of mammographic screening also require consideration in the process of making national screening recommendations.

  12. Age patterns of smoking in US black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T; Neidert, L J; Bound, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to describe age patterns of smoking among Black and White women of reproductive age, with cohort membership controlled for. METHOD. Data from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Supplement, weighted to be nationally representative, were used to calculate the fractions of women who were ever smokers, quitters, and current smokers by age and race. Summary distributions of age patterns of smoking behaviors by race were estimated; proportional hazard models were used to avoid confounding of age and cohort. RESULTS. White women begin smoking at younger ages than do Blacks but are more likely to quit and to do so at young ages. Rates of current smoking converge between Blacks and Whites by age 25, and may cross over by 30. Education-standardized results show larger Black-White differentials in ever smoking and smaller differences in quitting. CONCLUSIONS. Our findings confirm that women's age patterns of smoking vary by race. Age x race interactions should be considered in smoking research and anti-tobacco interventions. For Black women, delayed initiation and failure to quit call for increased emphasis on interventions tailored to adults. These findings have possible implications for understanding Black-White differences in low birthweight, child health, and women's health. PMID:8363001

  13. The Developmental Compatibility of Young Women in Service to Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papertsian, Linda King

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that younger and older adults derive benefits from close reciprocal relationships; current health care training may lack a relational component. A small survey of 15 women aged 18-22 indicated that 12 had meaningful relationships with older women and 10 would consider working with the elderly. Those without such relationships were…

  14. [Acute coronary syndrome in women below 60 years of age].

    PubMed

    Maas, Angela H E M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine; de Boer, Menko Jan

    2011-01-01

    Women below 60 years of age with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates than similarly aged men, despite the lower prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease. When ACS occurs, gender differences in symptom presentation result in later recognition by female patients themselves and by their doctors. Women with ACS have relatively more pain in the neck, back and shoulders with concomitant vaso-vegetative symptoms, feelings of anxiety, fatigue, and dyspnoea in comparison with the classical chest pain syndrome that is more prevalent in men. At a younger age smoking and a positive family history are stronger risk factors for ACS in women than in men, and the use of oral contraceptives further elevates their risk. PMID:21939573

  15. Unfit survivors: exercise as a resource for aging women.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S J; Vertinsky, P A

    1991-06-01

    Some researchers have suggested that about 50% of aging decline is preventable through improved life-style habits such as participation in regular exercise, yet exercise as a resource for healthier survival is being ignored by many aging women. Though recent research findings highlight regular physical activity as a potent factor in combatting hypokinesis (the disease of inactivity), numerous real and perceived barriers to exercise stand between the older woman and her ability to achieve a better quality of life. Among strategies that have been developed to overcome these barriers are social empowerment initiatives that may encourage women to combat disability by engaging in regular exercise. PMID:1879710

  16. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  17. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  18. Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M C; Pea, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study measured the prevalence, frequency, and severity of physical wife abuse and its risk factors in Len, Nicaragua. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 488 women 15 to 49 years of age. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spousal violence was 52% among ever-married women (n = 360). Spousal violence was significantly positively associated with poverty, parity, urban residence, and history of violence in the husband's family. No significant associations were found between spousal violence and women's age, education, marital dependency, or occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Wife abuse constitutes a major public health problem in Nicaragua, requiring urgent measures for prevention and treatment for victims. PMID:9949757

  19. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  20. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.

  1. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women

  2. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age

  3. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18

  4. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  5. Seafood Types and Age-Related Cognitive Decline in the Womens Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Seafood consumption may prevent age-related cognitive decline. However, benefits may vary by nutrient contents in different seafood types. We examined associations between total seafood consumption and cognitive decline and whether these associations differ by seafood types. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5,988 women (mean age, 72 years) from the Womens Health Study who self-reported seafood intake at Womens Health Study baseline and also participated in telephone assessments of general cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency administered 5.6 years after Womens Health Study baseline and 2 and 4 years thereafter. Primary outcomes were standardized composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. Results. After adjusting for potential confounders, different amounts of total seafood consumption were not associated with changes in global cognition (p = .56) or verbal memory (p = .29). Considering seafood types, however, compared with women consuming less than once-weekly tuna or dark-meat finfish, those with once-weekly or higher consumption had significantly better verbal memory (0.079 standard units; p < .01) after 4 yearsa difference comparable to that for women 2.1 years apart in age. There was also a statistically nonsignificant suggestion of better global cognition (p = .13) with once-weekly or higher tuna or dark-meat fish consumption. No significant associations were observed for light-meat finfish or shellfish. Conclusions. The relation of seafood to cognition may depend on the types consumed. Total consumption levels of seafood were unrelated to cognitive change. However, consumption of tuna and dark-meat fish once weekly or higher was associated with lower decline in verbal memory for a period of 4 years. PMID:23554464

  6. Central kynurenine pathway shift with age in women.

    PubMed

    de Bie, Josien; Guest, Jade; Guillemin, Gilles J; Grant, Ross

    2016-03-01

    Age is considered a dominant risk factor in the development of most neurodegenerative disorders. The kynurenine pathway, a major metabolic pathway of tryptophan is altered in the majority of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we have analysed CSF samples from 49 healthy women across a wide age range (0-90) for kynurenine pathway metabolites and the inflammatory marker neopterin. Our results show central tryptophan metabolism is increased with age in women, with an apparent shift towards the neurotoxin quinolinic acid. We also observed an increase in central levels of the inflammatory marker neopterin with age and a positive correlation between neopterin and kynurenine pathway activation. We conclude that, the changes that occur in the kynurenine pathway as a result of normal ageing are mechanistically linked to increased inflammatory signalling and have some explanatory potential with regard to age-associated degenerative diseases in the CNS. Management of health in ageing and (preventative) treatment would do well to look to the kynurenine pathway for potentially novel solutions. Both the inflammation marker neopterin and kynurenine pathway activity were increased with age in the CSF of female subjects. While levels of quinolinic acid (QUIN), picolinic acid (PIC), kynurenine and quinaldic acid (QA) were increased, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) was decreased and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) remained unchanged. Of particular interest is the increase in QUIN, a neuroexcitotoxin associated with neurodegeneration. PMID:26670548

  7. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flvio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  8. Age at menarche and its association with dysglycemia in Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Tae-Hwa; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Joungwon; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Choi, Yuni; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Recent studies have demonstrated that earlier menarche is associated with increased risks of prediabetes and diabetes in white women; however, the associations have not been fully explored in Asian populations. We investigated the associations between age at menarche and prediabetes and/or diabetes in Korean middle-aged women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 2,039 premenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 44 to 56 years who visited the health promotion center for medical checkups. Participants were divided into three groups based on age at menarche: early (<13 y), average (13-16 y), and late (>16 y). Results The mean (SD) age at menarche was 14.6 (1.6) years. Of 2,039 women, 820 and 85 women had prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or 5.7%-6.4% glycated hemoglobin) and diabetes, respectively. On logistic regression analysis, earlier menarche was significantly associated with prediabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.24-2.61; P = 0.002), diabetes (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.04-5.69; P = 0.04), and dysglycemia (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.28-2.66; P = 0.001), after adjusting for a number of confounding factors, compared with average age at menarche. On linear regression analysis, earlier age at menarche was significantly associated with increased fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, homeostatic model assessment for ?-cell function, body mass index, and waist circumference. Conclusions Age at menarche is inversely associated with various forms of dysglycemia. A history of earlier menarche may be helpful in predicting prediabetes and subsequent diabetes in Korean women. PMID:25335102

  9. Older women with intellectual disability and the meaning of aging.

    PubMed

    David, Niry; Duvdevani, Ilana; Doron, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Aging with intellectual disability has become an important topic in light of the significant increase in life expectancy of this population. More specifically, the combination of gender, age, and intellectual disability raises unique social issues. The aim of this research was to capture and analyze the aging experience of women with intellectual disability from their own voice and viewpoint within the Israeli experience. A phenomenological qualitative method was used in this study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Four key themes arose from the interviews: (a) the importance of work and reluctance to retire, (b) ageism and the fear of getting old, (c) the importance of a significant partner in old age, and (d) today's positive self-perception. A meaningful aging process can be constructed within the context of gender and disability. It was manifested in this study as a disability-neutral experience. However, ageism and negative attitudes toward old age still need to be addressed. PMID:25853785

  10. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  11. Sphincter tears in primiparous women: Is age a factor?

    PubMed Central

    BOWLING, C. Bryce; WHEELER, Thomas L.; GERTEN, Kimberly A.; CHAPMAN, Victoria R.; BURGIO, Kathryn L.; RICHTER, Holly E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis Anal sphincter tears during vaginal delivery may result in serious sequelae. We examined whether younger primiparous patients were at increased risk for sphincter tears during vaginal delivery. Methods Data from an obstetric automated record were analyzed. Primiparous women delivering term infants (n = 5,937) were included to test for an association between age and sphincter tear rates. Three age groups were considered: young adolescents (?16 years), older adolescents (17-20 years) and adults (?21 years). Results No significant difference was found in tear rates among age cohorts (9.2%, 8.0%, and 9.6% respectively; p = 0.12). Logistic regression modeling revealed that young adolescents were not more likely to have sphincter tears compared to older cohorts. Conclusions Younger adolescents may not be at increased risk of anal sphincter tears. Decisions regarding interventions to decrease sphincter tears during vaginal delivery should not be made on the basis of maternal age alone. PMID:18985267

  12. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women…

  13. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-03-11

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars).

  14. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nabukalu, Dorean; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Herbst, Kobus; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo) were determined for females (aged 15–49 years) resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown). Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95% CI) was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1), peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1) and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.4–10.9). Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.2–11.1), accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR), 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05), self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15), and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82); external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.79–3.75). Conclusion HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment in the area from 2004. Women's age, external migration status and HIV-positive status were significantly associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:24360403

  15. Attitudes toward Women: Comparison of Traditional-Aged and Older College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etaugh, Claire; Spiller, Bonnie

    1989-01-01

    Compared attitudes toward women's roles held by traditional-aged college undergraduates (N=255) and by students over age 25 (N=235) who completed the Attitudes toward Women Scale. Women in both age groups expressed more liberal attitudes than did men; older students expressed more liberal attitudes than did younger students. Predictors of…

  16. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  17. Ageing in a foreign country: voices of Iranian women ageing in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shemirani, Farimah Shakeri; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2006-01-01

    Older Iranian women, who immigrated to Canada in later adulthood, experience unique issues as they age. In order to better understand this experience, in-depth, personal and semi-structured interviews were conducted with five immigrant/refugee Iranian women who immigrated to Canada in their later life. Analysis revealed that although each woman's story conveyed individual differences and idiosyncrasies, all the stories highlighted the critical interweaving of the aging experience and the immigration experience: neither experience could be understood in isolation of the other; each aspect gave meaning to the other experience. Two interrelated messages dominated the women's stories: first was the importance of each woman's immigration story for grounding her experience of the aging process in Canada. Second, each woman's personal story suggested that the immigration experiences were accorded priority for accounting for her experiences in Canada. Specifically, cultural identity (i.e., social class, education, religious affiliation and immigration status) offered a valuable cloak for overshadowing the force of the aging process and the aging process emerged as an elusive force that lurked in the background without ever being fully acknowledged or given power in their lives. The implications of these findings in relation to theory development on intersectionality and professional practice are discussed. PMID:16782661

  18. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  19. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  20. Graves' Disease Pharmacotherapy in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Prunty, Jeremy J; Heise, Crystal D; Chaffin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. In this article, we review guideline recommendations for Graves' disease treatment in women of reproductive age including the recent guideline from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controversy regarding appropriate thioamide therapy before, during, and after pregnancy is reviewed. Surgical and radioactive iodine therapy considerations in this patient population are also reviewed. In patients who may find themselves pregnant during therapy or develop Graves' disease during their pregnancy, consideration should be given to the most appropriate treatment course for the mother and fetus. Thioamide therapy should be used with either propylthiouracil or methimazole at appropriate doses that target the upper range of normal to slightly hyperthyroid to avoid creating hypothyroidism in the fetus. Consideration should also be given to the adverse effects of thioamide, such as agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, with appropriate patient consultation regarding signs and symptoms. Individuals who wish to breastfeed their infants while taking thioamide should receive the lowest effective dose. Surgery should be reserved for extreme cases and limited to the second trimester, if possible. Radioactive iodine therapy may be used in nonpregnant individuals, with limited harm to future fertility. Radioactive iodine therapy should be withheld in pregnant women and those who are actively breastfeeding. Clinicians should keep abreast of developments in clinical trials and evidence-based recommendations regarding Graves' disease in reproductive-age women for any changes in evidence-based practice. PMID:26799350

  1. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in

  2. Prospective Predictors of Mental Health after the Development of Breast Cancer in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the prospective predictors of mental health after breast cancer diagnosis among mid-aged Australian women (initially aged 45-50 years). Two waves of data collected 2 years apart from a longitudinal population-based survey of 12,177 women identified a group of 63 women who reported onset of BC between T1 (T1) and Time 2

  3. Screening and recording of alcohol use among women of child-bearing age and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Moumita; Burnett, Margaret; Carrire, Sarah; Cox, Lori Vitale; Dell, Colleen Ann; Gammon, Holly; Geller, Brian; Koren, Gideon; Lee, Lily; Midmer, Deana; Mousmanis, Patricia; Schuurmans, Nan; Senikas, Vyta; Soucy, Danielle; Wood, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    A woman's alcohol use during pregnancy is one of the top preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities that are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The social and economic burden of FASD is substantial. Lifetime direct tangible costs per individual related to health care, education and social services in Canada have been estimated to be $1.4 million. Screening women of child-bearing age and pregnant women and recording their alcohol consumption is a practical process to identify and evaluate women at-risk and to identify potentially exposed infants. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes the following three levels of screenings which should be done on consenting women: Level I screening involves practice-based approaches that can be used by health care providers when talking to women about alcohol use, such as motivational interviewing and supportive dialogue. Level II screening includes a number of structured questionnaires that can be used with direct questioning (TLFB) or indirect /masked screening (AUDIT, BMAST / SMAST, CAGE, CRAFFT, T-ACE, TWEAK). Level III screening includes laboratory-based tools that can be used to confirm the presence of a drug, its level of exposure and determine the presence of multiple drugs. There are challenges and limitations in the use of the screening and assessment tools outlined. For example, the single question about alcohol use and the various questionnaires rely on a woman to provide details about her alcohol use. There is no consensus on the appropriate screening to use across Canada as each provincial / territorial jurisdiction, health care organization and healthcare provider uses a variety of formal and informal screening tool. In addition, there are inconsistent processes across Canada for the recording of the alcohol use in a woman's chart and the transfer of the information to the infant and the child's health records. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes eleven recommendations to improve the screening and recording processes for alcohol use in women of child-bearing age and pregnant women. PMID:19372602

  4. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  5. Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among Black Women and the Relevance of the Strong Black Woman Archetype

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Tamara A.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman’s ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  6. Aging gracefully: a comparative study of Japanese and Malaysian women aged 65-75.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Yap, Yuet Ngor

    2014-12-01

    Longer lives and extended retirement have created a 'young old age' stage of life. How people spend their "young old age" has become increasingly important. This research aims to investigate the different ageing experiences of Japanese and Malaysian women and the activities they engaged in their "young old age". In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data and an adapted grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings reveal many common characteristics for both groups of research participants. The emerging themes show that Japanese and Malaysian Chinese have different life missions evident in their daily activities, one passing on culture and the other passing on family values and life experience. They also differ in their choice of living arrangement (independent versus dependent/interdependent), attitudes to life (fighting versus accepting) and activities in which to engage (aesthetic pursuits versus family oriented activities). PMID:25456622

  7. Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 0.52 pg/mL (<11 weeks), 3.45 0.54 pg/mL (11-20 weeks), 3.32 0.43 pg/mL (21-30 weeks), 3.21 0.53 pg/mL (31-36 weeks), and 3.23 0.41 pg/mL (>36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 0.14 ng/dL (<10 weeks), 1.04 0.14 ng/dL (11-20 weeks), 0.93 0.12 ng/dL (21-30 weeks), 0.90 0.13 ng/dL (31-36 weeks), and 0.80 0.21 ng/dL (>36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (?IU/mL): 1.12 0.69 (<10 weeks), 1.05 0.67 (11-20 weeks), 1.19 0.60 (21-30 weeks), 1.38 0.76 (31-36 weeks), and 1.46 0.72 (>36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain. PMID:19939287

  8. Personalizing pelvic floor reconstructive surgery in aging women.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Paolo; Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Naldini, Gabriele; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-09-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a growingly frequent condition in aging individuals. Urinary or rectal incontinence, constipation, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic pain or sexual dysfunction are common problems in this age range. Such conditions carry a severe impact on quality of life, but also limit individual independence in daily activities, favor social isolation and carry health risks. Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction in aging women is tricky, since multiple interfering conditions affecting muscle tone and nerve function are common in these individuals. Diabetes mellitus, sarcopenia, use of drugs that affect cognition or impact bowel or urinary function are just a few examples. These conditions need to be thoroughly taken into account during pre-operative work up for their potential impact on the success of surgery and vice versa. Functional reconstruction aimed at treating symptoms rather than anatomic defects is key to success. The recent advancements in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse allow for more options to achieve the best surgery in each patient. PMID:26142653

  9. International women's movement comes of age at FWCW.

    PubMed

    O'haire, H

    1996-02-01

    This article focuses on what the women's conference achieved for women. The Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) recognized an international women's movement. Governments agreed that women were entitled to full human rights, reproductive rights, and equality in all aspects of life. Women were to become full and equal partners in the development process. Women are likely to demand action based on the paper declarations. The success of the conference is attributed to a powerful network of women's groups. A striking feature was the heading of most national delegations by women. It was recognized that women were full but neglected partners in families and societies. Governments acknowledged that women suffered discrimination within the family and society. Wording was rejected that would have given women the guaranteed right to determine the size and spacing of their families and the information and services to do so. The activity among women's groups in working together to restore this view strengthened the bonds between women's groups and created worldwide awareness and support for women's organizations. Networks that were established at Rio de Janeiro made their presence and position on reproductive health felt at the preparatory meetings to the UN Population Conference in Cairo. It was argued that a target-driven approach had the effect of treating women as reproduction machines. Women's groups also expressed strong positions on how women were to be treated in the formation of population policy and programs. 1) It was insisted that governments and population groups must stop dictating fertility regimes to women. 2) The concept of family planning must include reproductive health. 3) Women should have the freedom to exercise choice in planning their families. 4) Women should also have equal access to education and employment. Women came thus to Beijing with a clear vision of what they wanted. At Beijing domestic violence was for the first time condemned. Beijing confirmed the Cairo consensus and included some new issues such as sexual rights and confidential youth contraceptive services. PMID:12291334

  10. Micronutrient Intakes among Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Nguyen, Hieu; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Copeland, Erika; Strizich, Garrett; Lowe, Alyssa; Pham, Hoa; Truong, Truong V.; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. Methods The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA) participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. Results Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively) with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively). The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with educational programs and social development are needed. PMID:24586831

  11. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  12. Age, wage, and job placement: older women's experiences entering the retail sector.

    PubMed

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality. PMID:25607421

  13. Hydronephrosis due to ureteral endometriosis in women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Yan-Yuan; Jin, Bai-Ye; Xia, Dan; Wang, Shuo; Pan, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to improve the understanding of ureteral endometriosis, and remind the clinics to be highly suspicious of it in women of reproductive age with hydronephrosis without evidence of stones and malignancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on a database of 82 patients who underwent surgery for hydronephrosis due to ureteral endometriosis between Jan. 2007 and Apr. 2014. Results: All patients evaluated in this study were divided into three groups: Group A consisted of patients between 20-30 years (n = 12), Group B comprised of patients between 31-40 years (n = 29), Group C consisted of patients between 41-50 years (n = 41). Patients in Group C had a greater prevalence of pelvic pain compared with patients in Group A and Group B (P < 0.05). However there were no differences with respect to the prevalence of other non-specific genitourinary symptoms and the urinary symptoms. Infertility was found to occur more frequently in patients in Group A compared with patients in Group B and Group C (P < 0.05). Because of the lack of specific symptoms, ureteral endometriosis was diagnosed (20.1 ± 10.3) months on average after the patients suffered from mild hydronephrosis or mild loin pain. Preoperative examinations showed different degree of hydronephrosis, but lack of specificity. All patients underwent surgery by laparotomy or laparoscopy, such as ureterectomy with ureteroureterostomy or ureterocystoneostomy. The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis. Conclusion: The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis is elusive and relies heavily on clinical suspicion. Hence, women in the reproductive age, especially with infertility and pelvic pain, who have hydronephrosis without evidence of stones and malignance, should be adequately assessed via imaging techniques or diagnostic laparoscopy or cystoscopy to highly suspect the diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis. PMID:25785093

  14. Understanding Women's Breast Screening Behaviour: A Study Carried out in South East London, with Women Aged 50-64 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter-Godfrey, Sarah; Taket, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand low uptake of breast cancer screening through exploring the personal reasoning underlying women's attendance or non-attendance, and identifying differences between those who attend and those who decline. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community and home environments of women eligible for breast screening aged

  15. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

  16. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in

  17. Assessment of cardiovascular disease risk in depressed women of reproductive and menopausal age.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saima; Afridi, M Iqbal; Bano, Samina

    2015-11-01

    It is well documented that depression increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Women of age 55 and younger with depression are more likely to have CVD. The present study aims to investigate CVD risk in depressed women of reproductive age (RA) and menopausal age (MA). Adult women of RA and MA were divided in to two groups; healthy and depressed. Women were screened for depression (ICD-10 criteria) at outpatients department of local psychiatric hospital. Fasting serum cortisol, estradiol and lipid profile levels were determined. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Newman's Keuls q-test. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TGs) were raised in MA women however high density lipoprotein (HDL) and estradiol were lower as compared to RA women. Depressed RA women showed increased TC, LDL and HDL but decreased estradiol as compared to healthy women of similar age group. MA depressed women showed increased TC and LDL but decreased HDL and estradiol as compared to healthy controls. We found that MA depressed women had low HDL and estradiol as compared to RA depressed women. Circulating cortisol levels were increased in both depressed RA and MA women compared to respective healthy controls. Low HDL/LDL ratio was found in both healthy and depressed MA women when compared with respective RA women. A significant negative correlation of estradiol and cortisol was found in depressed RA women. It is concluded that low HDL/LDL ratio and hypercortisolemia in both healthy and depressed MA women make them more vulnerable to CVD. PMID:26687744

  18. Health Related Concerns and Psychological Well-Being of Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Grace K.

    A two-stage study of women aged 35-55 focused on issues, concerns, and gratification and their relationship to family status, work status, age, and sense of psychological well-being. The sample was composed of women who occupied jointly one of three family statuses (never married, married without children, married with children) and one of six…

  19. Voices of Transformational Learning: Life Experiences of Women Aged Eighty and above in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lorri A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the lived experiences and stories of dynamic women over 80 years of age. Their contribution to transformational and lifelong learning may offer a blueprint for baby boomers to age successfully. The exploration disclosed common patterns of the individual lives. The interviews revealed that the women were

  20. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.

  1. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

  2. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Brnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.520.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.350.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by womens age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  3. Perinatal outcome of pregnancies in women aged 40 and over.

    PubMed

    Mileti?, T; Aberle, N; Mikulandra, F; Karelovi?, D; Zakanj, Z; Banovi?, I; Tadin, I; Perisa, M; Ognjenovi?, M; Tadi?, T

    2002-06-01

    Perinatal outcome of pregnancies at forty and over was analyzed starting from the diagnosis of pregnancy to seven days following delivery. Retrospectively, pre-gestational health and reproduction status were dealt with, as well as the course of pregnancy, deliveries, and newborn children (study group). The control group was composed of pregnant women aged 20 to 29, who were identical to study group in terms of parity. Statistical data processing was done by means of chi2-test, and contingency 2 x 2 tables. The difference was significant if p < 0.05. Out of 2,099 diagnosed wanted pregnancies at forty and over, 415 (19.8%) had a miscarriage, in 33 (1.6%) an artificial abortion was performed after determining the fetus karyotype and 1,651 (78.2%) of pregnant women delivered. In 66.2% of pregnancies the fetus karyotype was determined and in 33 (2.5%) fetuses chromosomal abnormalities were found Incidence of deliveries at 40 and over is 1.38%, which is a 35.6-percent increase in the last ten years. Nullipara and pluripara had an increase, and multipara had a decrease. Pre-gestational health and reproduction status in study group is lower than in control group. Complications during pregnancy: threatened abortion, EPH gestosis, placenta praevia, gestational diabetes, late fetal death are more frequent than in control group (p < 0.05). In intrapartal terms, more frequent were induction of delivery, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, fetal distress, operative vaginal deliveries, and Cesarean section (p < 0.05). In neonatal outcome there are more premature infant, there are more VLBW, LBW, SGA, newborn with low Apgar index values, and the total perinatal death is greater than in the control group (p < 0.05). In perinatal terms, (from the diagnosis to the seventh day following delivery) 1,617 children survived (77.0%), meaning that perinatal loss was 482 (23.0%). Authors conclude that pregnancy at 40 and over is a high-risk pregnancy. There is a high risk of pre-gestational and gestational complications, and perinatal loss is high. Therefore, those pregnancies are not desirable from the medical point of view. PMID:12137307

  4. Women, Aging, and HIV: Clinical Issues and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie A.; Brandt, Cynthia A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Women are living longer with HIV infection. How best to manage the multiple co-morbidities and polypharmacy that are a hallmark of HIV infected individuals has not been studied. We explore incorporating principles of gerontology, particularly multimorbidity and polypharmacy, to optimize the health of HIV infected women. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are important issues for HIV infected women. Incorporating a gerontologic approach may optimize outcomes until research provides more definitive answers as to how best to collaborate with HIV infected women to provide them with optimal care. A case study is used to guide the discussion. PMID:24932161

  5. Food habits of young and middle-aged women living outside the capital cities of Australia.

    PubMed

    Dobson, A; Mishra, G; Brown, W; Reynolds, R

    1997-12-01

    Young (18-22 years) and middle-aged (45-49 years) women living in urban and rural areas of New South Wales completed a brief food frequency questionnaire as part of a wider health survey. Urban women in both age groups consumed meat less frequently than women in rural areas, and women in the less populated rural areas were more likely to eat green and yellow vegetables and least likely to eat dried beans. There were few other geographic differences in food habits. Middle-aged women consumed reduced-fat milk, fruit, vegetables, fish, biscuits and cakes significantly more frequently, and rice, pasta, full-cream milk, fried food and take-away food less frequently than younger women. Smokers in both age groups consumed fresh fruit, vegetables and breakfast cereals significantly less frequently than non-smokers, and women with low levels of habitual physical activity consumed fresh fruit and cereals less frequently than more active women. The findings suggest that strategies aimed at changing eating behaviours should be age-group-specific and targeted specifically to smokers and less active women. PMID:9489187

  6. Partner Age-Disparity and HIV Incidence Risk for Older Women in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-07-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV among young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question among older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women over 30 years of age. To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n = 1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a 5-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction [hazard ratio (HR) 0.63, 95 % CI 0.52-0.76] and a 10-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.35-0.67) in acquisition risk. This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women's age or socio-demographic factors. These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  7. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  8. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories

  9. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

  10. A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects womens loss of reproductive value

    PubMed Central

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Traficonte, Daniel M.; Wilson, M. Claire

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individuals overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (3550 years and 5165 years, respectively) and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: (1) that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; (2) that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and (3) that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female) middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources. PMID:24592253

  11. Perinatal outcomes and risk factors in adolescent and advanced age pregnancies: comparison with normal reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, A; Ozkan, S; Bozkurt, A I; Karahan, T; Kayan, S

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse and compare demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes of pregnancies in adolescent, advanced age and normal reproductive age women. All completed pregnancies in a 6-month period, registered by the family practitioners in Denizli province, were included into the study. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants were asked for demographic information, pregnancy outcome and obstetric history, obstetric and neonatal problems. Overall 5,882 pregnancies in different age groups: 296 (5%) adolescent (< 20-years-old); 4,957 (84.3%) normal reproductive age (20-35-years-old) and 629 (10.7%) advanced age (> 35-years-old ) (group III), were included into the study. Adolescent women had a lower educational status (p < 0.01), and family played a major role in decision of marriage (p < 0.01). Birth weight of the baby was lower in adolescents (p < 0.01). While adolescents tended to deliver vaginally (OR = 1.9, p < 0.01), elderly women were more prone to operative delivery (OR = 1.2, p < 0.05). Risk of caesarean section rate was higher in elderly nulliparous women (OR = 2.2, p 0.01). The number of spontaneous and induced abortions were increased with age (p < 0.01). Antenatal problems were seen least frequently in normal reproductive age women. Both antenatal (OR = 1.7, p < 0.01) and neonatal problems (OR = 1.5, p < 0.05), were significantly higher in advanced age pregnancy. It was concluded that with sufficient antenatal care, adolescent pregnancy is not associated with an increase in adverse pregnancy outcome, except low birth weights. Advanced maternal age is more likely to be associated with increased obstetric, maternal and neonatal complications. PMID:23654312

  12. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  13. Transformations and Self-Discovery: Mature-Age Women's Reflections on Returning to University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, S.; Stone, C.

    2011-01-01

    Research has highlighted the challenges that women face as mature-age students in higher education. The challenges are particularly acute when a woman is the first in her family to go to university. Many women begin their journey as students with considerable self-doubt and lack of confidence. They may also face an ongoing struggle to find a way

  14. Social Roles in the Lives of Middle-Aged and Older Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lerita M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored participation in and impact of social roles on psychological and physical health of middle-aged and older Black women. Found that few such women participated in the three roles of parent, spouse, and employee simultaneously. Of these three roles, only employment showed a significant relationship to well-being, having a positive impact on

  15. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

  16. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia

  17. Age-specific prevalence of human papilloma virus infection among Nigerian women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inconsistent trends in HPV prevalence by age have been described in Africa. We examined the age prevalence pattern and distribution of 37 HPV-DNA types among urban Nigerian women. Methods The study population was a sample of 278 women who presented to cervical cancer screening programs in Abuja, Nigeria, between April and August 2012. Using a nurse administered questionnaire, information on demographic characteristics and risk factors of cervical cancer was collected and samples of cervical exfoliated cells were obtained from all participants. Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test was used to characterize prevalent HPV and log-binomial regression models were used to examine the association between potential correlates and the prevalence of HPV infection. Results The mean age (SD) of the women enrolled was 38 (8) years. The overall prevalence of HPV was 37%. HPV 35 was the most prevalent HPV type in the study population. Among women age ? 30 years, 52% had HPV infection compared to 23% of those women who were older than 45 years (p = 0.006). We observed a significant linear association between age and the prevalence of HPV infections. The prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (1.17, 4.34) for any HPV infection, 3.83 (1.23, 11.94) for Group 1 HPV (definite carcinogens), and 2.19 (0.99, 4.84) for Group 2a or 2b HPV (probable or possible carcinogens) types, among women aged 1830 years, compared to women who were older than 45years. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection was highest among younger women and decreased steadily with age among this population of urban Nigerian women. PMID:24972674

  18. Do women aged over 40 need different counseling on combined hormonal contraception?

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Nicolás; Soto, Esperanza; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    There is still a risk of pregnancy during the menopause transition, for most women after the age of 40, as occasional, spontaneous ovulation can occur. Women in this age group may therefore consider using contraception and want appropriate counseling. Aging is accompanied by changes that can increase the risks associated with the use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs), but we do not have sufficient evidence to determine whether age alone increases the risks of using CHCs or whether there are additional risks if CHC use begins at an earlier age. Another issue is whether we can differentiate between initiator versus continuation influences on risk. The objective of this article is to review the risks associated with CHC to determine whether there is a need for more appropriate contraceptive counseling for women aged over 40. PMID:27013292

  19. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  20. Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over

    MedlinePLUS

    ... April 18, 2012 Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over ... and Roberto Valverde, M.P.H., Division of Health Care Statistics Abstract Objective —This report presents national estimates ...

  1. The menopausal age, related factors and climacteric symptoms in Turkish women.

    PubMed

    Neslihan Carda, S; Bilge, S A; Oztrk, T N; Oya, G; Ece, O; Hamiyet, B

    1998-09-20

    An interview based survey to reveal age at menopause and associated factors was conducted in a clinic based sample of Turkish women living mainly in an urban area. Interviews by a psychologist were obtained from 1500 women aged 41-70. The study included only women who had undergone natural menopause and had their last menstrual bleeding at least 1 year previously. The mean and median age at menopause was 47.8 +/- 4.0 and 51, respectively. Parity and BMI had a statistically significant impact on the age of menopause (P = 0.0397 and 0.0403). The most common symptoms were muscle and- or joint and- or bone pain (82.3%) and hot flushes (73.9%). Although the population was clinic based, this study is the first one of its kind in Turkish women. PMID:9819781

  2. Variations in the age-specific curves of human papillomavirus prevalence in women worldwide.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Clifford, Gary M; Snijders, Peter J F; Arslan, Annie; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Bosch, F Xavier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Matos, Elena; Molano, Monica; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajkumar, Raj; Ronco, Guglielmo; de Sanjos, Silvia; Shin, Hai-Rim; Sukvirach, Sukhon; Thomas, Jaiye O; Meijer, Chris J L M; Muoz, Nubia

    2006-12-01

    An inverse relationship between age and human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence has been reported in many developed countries, but information on this relationship is scarce in many other parts of the world. We carried out a cross-sectional study of sexually active women from the general population of 15 areas in 4 continents. Similar standardised protocols for women's enrolment, cervical specimen collection and PCR-based assays for HPV testing were used. HPV prevalence in different age groups was compared by study area. 18,498 women aged 15-74 years were included. Age-standardised HPV prevalence varied more than 10-fold between populations, as did the shape of age-specific curves. HPV prevalence peaked below age 25 or 35, and declined with age in Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Argentina, Korea and in Lampang, Thailand and Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. This was not the case in Songkla, Thailand nor Hanoi, Vietnam, where HPV prevalence was low in all age groups. In Chile, Colombia and Mexico, a second peak of HPV prevalence was detected among older women. In the poorest study areas in Asia (Shanxi, China and Dindigul, India), and in Nigeria, HPV prevalence was high across all age groups. The substantial differences observed in age-specific curves of HPV prevalence between populations may have a variety of explanations. These differences, however, underline that great caution should be used in inferring the natural history of HPV from age-specific prevalences. PMID:16991121

  3. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  4. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US

  5. Depression following fracture in women: a study of age-matched cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lana J; Berk, Michael; Henry, Margaret J; Stuart, Amanda L; Brennan, Sharon L; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives High levels of disability, functional impairment and mortality are independently associated with fracture and depression, however the relationship between fracture and depression is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fracture is associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of women. Design A study of age-matched fracture versus non-fracture cohorts of women. Setting Barwon Statistical Division, southeastern Australia. Participants Two samples of women aged ?35?years were drawn from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). The fracture cohort included women with incident fracture identified from radiology reports and the non-fracture cohort were randomly selected from the electoral roll during 19941996. Outcome measure Symptoms of depression for women with and without fracture during the 12-month period 20002001 were identified by self-report questionnaire based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Results A total of 296 women with fracture (12 hip, 48 vertebral, 91 wrist/forearm, 17 upper arm, 7 pelvis, 11 rib, 62 lower leg and 48 other fractures) and 590 women without fracture were included. Associations between fracture and depression differed between younger (?65?years) and older (>65?years) women. Age and weight-adjusted odds ratio for depression following fracture among younger women was 0.62 (0.35 to 1.11, p=0.12) and 3.33 (1.24 to 8.98, p=0.02) for older women. Further adjustment for lifestyle factors did not affect the results. Conclusions This study demonstrated that differences in mood status exist between older and younger women following fracture and that fracture is associated with increased depression in older women. Assessment of mood status in both the short and long term following fracture in the elderly seems justified, with early detection and treatment likely to result in improved outcomes. PMID:24561497

  6. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was...

  7. Contextualizing older women's body images: Time dimensions, multiple reference groups, and age codings of appearance.

    PubMed

    Krekula, Clary

    2016-01-01

    The article sheds light on older women's body images and problematizes assumptions that women's aging is more painful and shameful than men's aging since men are not expected to live up to youthful beauty norms, the so-called double standard of aging hypothesis. Based on 12 qualitative interviews with women from the age of 75 from the Swedish capital area, I argue that older women have access to a double perspective of beauty, which means that they can relate to both youthful and age-related beauty norms. The results also illustrate that women's body image is created in a context where previous body images are central and that this time perspective can contribute toward a positive body image. Further, the results show how age codings of appearance-related qualities create a narrow framework for older women's body images and point to the benefits of shifting the analytical focus toward a material-semiotic body where corporeality and discourse are seen as interwoven. PMID:26744085

  8. Life Satisfaction and Death Anxiety in Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Lenore Artie

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the life satisfaction and death anxiety of elderly women (N=60) as a function of demographic, life history, and stress variables. Through multiple regression, life satisfaction was predicted by number of friends, good health, and, surprisingly, by having fewer offspring living in the same city. (Author)

  9. How can more women of childbearing age be encouraged to follow fish consumption recommendations?

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Lauber, T Bruce; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2014-11-01

    Several studies show that most women do not consume enough fish during pregnancy (and afterward) to derive the maximum health benefits for themselves and their babies, according to the USDA guidelines. We engaged in a two-part study to better understand what might be done to encourage women of childbearing age to eat healthy fish-a mail survey of women who recently gave birth in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania, and six focus groups with women of childbearing age living in the Great Lakes region. Similar to other studies, we found that many women changed their behavior and consumed less fish during pregnancy than before. Most women reported receiving information, primarily during pregnancy, about the types of fish and how much fish to eat. As a result, increasing access to information during pregnancy likely would not result in increasing many women's fish consumption. Based on our examination of factors influencing women to try to follow the recommendations, the strongest connection with trying to follow the recommendations was receiving enough information to decide and believing that eating fish was good for the baby. Focus group participants also reported that messages about the specific health benefits of fish consumption for their children were particularly influential. These findings suggest that refining messages through testing might be a valuable approach toward increasing women's consumption of less-contaminated fish. PMID:25262080

  10. Food-addiction scale measurement in 2 cohorts of middle-aged and older women123

    PubMed Central

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Corbin, William R; Brownell, Kelly D; Field, Alison E; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excess weight is a major threat to public health. An addiction-like tendency toward certain foods may contribute to overeating. Objective: We aimed to describe the prevalence and associated characteristics in relation to a food-addiction scale in middle-aged and older women. Design: We examined the prevalence and associated characteristics of a food-addiction scale measure in a cross-sectional analysis of 134,175 women participating in 2 ongoing prospective cohort studies of US nurses. Results: Overall, 7839 (5.8%) of the women surveyed met the criteria for food addiction measured by using the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale. The prevalence of food addiction was 8.4% in the younger cohort of women aged 45–64 y and 2.7% in the older cohort of women aged 62–88 y. In the multivariate model, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) ≥35.0 (compared with 18.5–22.9) was associated with food addiction, a prevalence ratio (PR) of 15.83 (95% CI: 12.58, 19.91) in the younger cohort of women, and a PR of 18.41 (95% CI: 11.63, 29.14) in the older cohort of women. Several other demographic characteristics and other factors were associated with the food-addiction measure in both cohorts of women. Conclusions: To our knowledge, for the first time in a large, US-based population of women, we documented the prevalence of food addiction by using a novel measurement scale in middle-aged and older women. The results may provide insight into the strong association between behavioral attributes of food consumption and the development of obesity. PMID:24452236

  11. Obesity and Survival to Age 85 Years without Major Disease or Disability in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Waring, Molly E.; Kroenke, Candyce H.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Seguin, Rebecca; Bell, Christina L.; Gass, Margery; Manini, Todd M.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Context The impact of obesity on late-age survival without disease or disability in women is unknown. Objective To investigate if higher baseline body mass index and waist circumference affects womens survival to age 85 years without major chronic disease (coronary disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, or hip fracture) and mobility disability. Design, Setting, Participants Examination of 36,611 women from the Womens Health Initiative who could have reached age 85 years or older if they survived to the last outcomes evaluation on September 17, 2012. Recruitment was from 40 US Clinical Centers from October 1993December 1998. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of baseline body mass index and waist circumference with the outcomes, adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Mutually-exclusive classifications: 1) survived without major chronic disease and without mobility disability (healthy); 2) survived with ?1 major chronic disease at baseline, but without new disease or disability (prevalent diseased); 3) survived and developed ?1 major chronic disease but not disability during study follow-up (incident diseased); 4) survived and developed mobility disability with or without disease (disabled); and 5) did not survive (died). Results Mean (SD) baseline age was 72.4 (3.0) years (range: 6681). The distribution of women classified as healthy, prevalent diseased, incident diseased, disabled, and died was 19%, 15%, 23%, 18%, and 25%, respectively. Compared to normal-weight women, underweight and obese women were more likely to die before age 85 years. Overweight and obese women had higher risks of incident disease and mobility disability. Disability risks were striking. Relative to normal-weight women, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mobility disability was 1.6 (1.51.8) for overweight women and 3.2 (2.93.6), 6.6 (5.48.1), and 6.7 (4.89.2), for class I, II, and III obesity, respectively. Waist circumference >88 centimeters was also associated with higher risk of earlier death, incident disease, and mobility disability. Conclusions Overall and abdominal obesity were important and potentially modifiable factors associated with dying or developing mobility disability and major chronic disease before age 85 years in older women. PMID:24217806

  12. Fertility preservation in reproductive-age women facing gonadotoxic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Ronn, R.; Tallon, N.; Holzer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advancements in the treatments for cancer and autoimmune and other hematologic conditions continue to improve survival and cure rates. Despite those changes, various gonadotoxic agents and other treatments can still compromise the future fertility of many women. Progress in medical and surgical reproductive technologies has helped to offset the reproductive consequences of the use of gonadotoxic therapies, and allows for future fertility and normal pregnancy. Methods A review of the literature was performed to outline the pathophysiology of gonadotoxicity from various treatments. The success of fertility preservation, fertility sparing, and cryopreservation options are reviewed. Barriers and facilitators to referral and oncofertility treatment in Canada are also outlined. Results According to the quality of the evidence, recommendations are made for fertility assessment, patient referral, cryopreservation, and other assisted reproductive technologies. Conclusions To ensure ongoing fertility in women undergoing gonadotoxic treatments, assisted reproductive technologies can be combined with a multidisciplinary approach to patient assessment and referral. PMID:26300680

  13. HPV prevalence at enrollment and baseline results from the Carolina Womens Care Study, a longitudinal study of HPV persistence in women of college age

    PubMed Central

    Banister, Carolyn E; Messersmith, Amy R; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Wang, Yinding; Spiryda, Lisa B; Glover, Saundra H; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical dysplasia and cancer. The Carolina Womens Care Study (CWCS) was conducted to explore the biological, genetic, and lifestyle determinants of persistent HPV infection in college-aged European American and African American women. This paper presents the initial results of the CWCS, based upon data obtained at enrollment. Methods Freshman female students attending the University of South Carolina were enrolled in the CWCS and followed until graduation with biannual visits, including two Papanicolaou tests, cervical mucus collection, and a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors. We recruited 467 women, 293 of whom completed four or more visits for a total of 2274 visits. Results and conclusion CWCS participants were 70% European American, 24% African American, 3% Latina/Hispanic, and 3% Asian. At enrollment, 32% tested positive for any HPV. HPV16 infection was the most common (18% of infections). Together, HPV16, 66, 51, 52, and 18 accounted for 58% of all HPV infections. Sixty-four percent of all HPV-positive samples contained more than one HPV type, with an average of 2.2 HPV types per HPV-positive participant. We found differences between African American and European American women in the prevalence of HPV infection (38.1% African American, 30.7% European American) and abnormal Papanicolaou test results (9.8% African-American, 5.8% European American). While these differences did not reach statistical significance at enrollment, as the longitudinal data of this cohort are analyzed, the sample size will allow us to confirm these results and compare the natural history of HPV infection in college-aged African American and European American women. PMID:23861602

  14. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (19591962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) IIII (19711994), and NHANES 19992008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI]?=??0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 20052008 it had reversed and was ?0.33 years lower (95% CI?=??0.54, ?0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend?women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  15. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    PubMed

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study. PMID:9699190

  16. Ageism and sexism at work: the middle-aged women of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tang, K L

    2000-01-01

    Employment discrimination against middle-aged women has recently captured public attention in Hong Kong. One reason is the economic slowdown and increasing unemployment since the 1993-94 and the 1997-to date economic downturns. This paper looks at sex and age discrimination against middle-aged women in colonial Hong Kong where they faced such problems as low labor force participation, occupational and industrial segregation and wage differentials, which in turn left them vulnerable to unemployment and poverty. Rampant age and sex discrimination in the workplace is due to a number of factors: traditional values and cultural devaluation of women's work and need for education, economic restructuring and labor importation, a legal vacuum, inefficient retraining policy, and the weak position of women in the labor movement. The postcolonial government under Tung Chee Hwa is heavily influenced by business interests. Women in the age group of 30-39 and above are hardest hit. They are not targeted as special groups of trainees who require special assistance. Given the limited concern for gender development on the part of the new government, the prospect for women workers does not look good. PMID:12179949

  17. Aging public services and the position of older women: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Colley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary labor markets are characterized by both aging of the workforce and the increase in participation of women. At the intersection of these two policy agendas are older women. Governments and employers recognize the importance of attracting and retaining older workers to address skills shortages, but the aging workforce discourse remains largely gender neutral. This research considers the intersection of age and gender in the context of public services, which are large employers of both women and older workers. It focuses on the agencies in an Australian state public service. The research finds that, despite decades of equal opportunity programs, there is still evidence of subtle inequalities and cumulative disadvantage. While the case study agencies employ a large proportion of older women, these women were generally recruited at younger ages and aged within the workforce. Their advancement and development opportunities were also inferior to those of older men. Despite these lesser opportunities, older women are generally very satisfied with their employment, and the employer should explore these residual inequalities if genuinely seeking to attract and retain all older workers. PMID:24713054

  18. Basal leg blood flow in healthy women is related to age and hormone replacement therapy status

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kerrie L; Donato, Anthony J; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Jones, Pamela Parker; Gates, Phillip E; Seals, Douglas R

    2003-01-01

    Basal leg blood flow declines with age in healthy men, an effect that is mediated by augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction. However, in women the presence or absence of oestrogen and selective use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may alter these relationships with ageing. We studied 103 healthy women: 73 postmenopausal (41 HRT, mean s.e.m. 61 1 years; 32 no-HRT, 63 2 years) and 30 premenopausal (29 1 years). Compared with the premenopausal controls, absolute femoral artery blood flow (duplex ultrasound) was 23 % lower (P < 0.001) in the postmenopausal no-HRT group, but only 13 % lower in the HRT group (P < 0.01). The age and HRT group differences in leg blood flow were consistently associated with differences in leg vascular conductance, but not with femoral artery lumen diameter, leg muscle sympathetic nerve activity or cardiac output (systemic arterial blood flow). Leg fat-free mass was smaller in the postmenopausal groups (P < 0.05). Femoral blood flow normalized for leg fat-free mass was 17 % lower (P < 0.01) in the postmenopausal no-HRT compared with the premenopausal women, but was not different in the postmenopausal HRT and premenopausal groups. Femoral artery shear stress was similar in the postmenopausal HRT and premenopausal women, but was lower in the postmenopausal no-HRT group (P < 0.01). Basal whole-leg blood flow declines with age in healthy, oestrogen-deficient women, a phenomenon that is mediated primarily by reductions in leg vascular conductance. Among postmenopausal women, chronic HRT use is associated with augmented basal leg blood flow and vascular conductance. Leg blood flow normalized for leg fat-free mass is preserved with age in women taking chronic HRT. In contrast to men, differences in leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve activity do not explain group differences in leg blood flow and vascular conductance with ageing in women. PMID:12562958

  19. Social-Emotional Support, Life Satisfaction, and Mental Health on Reproductive Age Womens Health Utilization, US, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Willet, Michelle N.; Zaha, Rebecca L.; Fuddy, Loretta J.

    2015-01-01

    To examine the associations among social-emotional support, life satisfaction, and mental health with not having a routine checkup among women of reproductive age in the US, data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of health behaviors, were analyzed among reproductive aged (1844 years) women in the US. Prevalence estimates were calculated for not having a routine checkup in the past year with measures of social-emotional support, life satisfaction, and mental distress. Independent multivariable logistic regressions for each measure assessed not having a routine checkup within the past year with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, education level, and health care coverage. Among women of reproductive age, 33.7 % (95 % CI 33.034.4) did not have a routine checkup within the past year. Factors associated with not having a routine checkup included: having social-emotional support most of the time (AOR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.201.38) or sometimes or less (AOR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.341.61) compared to those who reported always having the social-emotional support they need; reporting life satisfaction as being satisfied (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.191.36) or dissatisfied (AOR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.431.91) compared to being very satisfied; and frequent mental distress (AOR = 1.19, 95 % CI 1.091.30) compared to those without. Women who report lower levels of social-emotional support, less life satisfaction, and frequent mental distress are less likely to see a doctor for a routine checkup. Targeted outreach that provides appropriate support are needed so these women can access clinical services to increase exposure to preventive health opportunities and improve overall health. PMID:22956364

  20. Twinning rates among women at the end of their reproductive span and their relation to age at menopause;.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, G

    1975-08-01

    A review of studies on twinning has shown that dizygotic (DZ) twinning rates among women from general populations characteristically peak at ages 35-39, then decline sharply. Analysis of genealogical data from the Archives of the Mormon Church indicates that women who are dizygous twins themselves or the sibs of dizygous twins have a higher twinning rate among their offspring than do women from the general population. The dizygotic twinning rates of women who are twins or the sibs of twins classified by maternal age also peak at ages 35-39 but remain high at ages 40-44, then decline. It is well known that Negro women have high DZ twinning rates; a less well knwon finding is that the DZ twinning rates of Negro women also remain high after age 39. It has been suggested that high DZ twinning rates at later maternal ages may be related to a delayed age at menopause; However, published reports on age at natural menopause and analysis of our data from contemporary white US women indicate the contrary; Women who have borne unlike-sexed (DZ) twins and Negro women have a lower age at natural menopause then do white women from general populations, and a lower age in comparison with women who have borne like-sexed twins. PMID:1155445

  1. Overweight and obesity among Jordanian women and their social determinants.

    PubMed

    Al Nsour, M; Al Kayyali, Gh; Naffa, S

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the social determinants associated with obesity among Jordanian women using the national data from the Jordan Population and Family Health Survey 2009. We found the overall prevalence of overweight was 30% and obesity was 38.8% among Jordanian women aged 15-49 years. Results of multivariate analysis showed that age; residing in the south region of Jordan, marriage at an early age, parity, wealth status and smoking were statistically significant predictors of overweight and obesity among women in Jordan. Our results show that there is an urgent need to implement health programmes to prevent and control overweight and obesity at the national level. Social determinants should be taking into consideration in designing. and implementing these programmes. PMID:24684099

  2. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  3. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and

  4. Achievement and Identity in College-Age vs. Adult Women Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freilino, Mary Kay; Hummel, Raymond

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between Fear of Success (FOS) and Identity Status. Two groups of women, regular college age (18-23) and adult (over 30) were interviewed and completed measures of FOS. The hypothesis that adult students would exhibit less FOS than their college age counterparts was confirmed. (DWH)

  5. A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age

  6. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  7. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None

  8. Current exposure of Italian women of reproductive age to PFOS and PFOA: A human biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    De Felip, Elena; Abballe, Annalisa; Albano, Fulvia Lucia; Battista, Tatiana; Carraro, Valter; Conversano, Michele; Franchini, Silva; Giambanco, Laura; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Maiorana, Antonio; Maneschi, Francesco; Marra, Valentina; Mercurio, Antonella; Nale, Roberta; Nucci, Bianca; Panella, Vincenzo; Pirola, Flavia; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Procopio, Enrico; Suma, Nicola; Valentini, Silvia; Valsenti, Luisa; Vecchi, Valerio

    2015-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations were determined in serum samples collected in 2011-2012 from 549 nulliparous Italian women of reproductive age who resided in six different Italian Regions. Assessment of exposure to perfluorinated compounds was part of a large human biomonitoring study (Project Life Plus "Womenbiopop") that aimed at examining the exposure of women of reproductive age to priority organic pollutants. The median concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 2.43, and 1.55 ng g(-1), respectively. Significant differences in the concentrations of both compounds were observed among the six Regions. Women from central Italy had the highest levels of both compounds, followed by women from northern Italy, and southern Italy. No differences in the PFOS concentrations were found between women from urban/industrial areas and women from rural areas, whereas the levels of PFOA were significantly higher in women residing in urban/industrial areas than in women residing in rural areas. Taken together, the observed concentrations confirm that the overall exposure of the Italian population is among the lowest observed in industrialized countries. A downward temporal trend in exposure was observed for both compounds when comparing the results from the present study with those assessed in a study conducted in 2008. PMID:25965289

  9. Perceptions of Benzodiazepine Dependence Among Women Age 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Sarah L.; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: 1) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to dependence to diabetes or blood pressure medications; 2) dependence is distinctive from addiction/abuse; 3) addiction/abuse is perceived as worse than dependence; and 4) concerns of addiction/abuse result in low-dose benzodiazepine use. PMID:24918963

  10. Increased hematuria following hypergravic exposure in middle-aged women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldwater, D. J.; Ohara, D. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness on orthostatic tolerance were studied in 9 women (55 to 65 years old) who underwent acceleration and lower body negative pressure before and after 10 days of horizontal bed rest. The results of this study show the first known association of microscopic hematuria with hypergravic and orthostatic stress which suggests similarities to the 'stress hematuria syndrome' previously seen with heavy exercise (Boileau et al., 1980). In addition, the sporadic occurrence of this phenomenon indicates a multifactorial etiology in predisposed individuals. Bedrest or weightlessness simulation per se does not seem to significantly alter renal function, but may decrease microscopic hematuria with an orthostatic component.

  11. Hearing loss- and hearing aid-related stigma: perceptions of women with age-normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Erler, Susan F; Garstecki, Dean C

    2002-12-01

    Impaired hearing and the use of hearing aids are often perceived negatively. Many adults deny hearing loss and reject amplification, in part due to such stigma. Women and men differ in how they age and adjust to impaired hearing, yet little is known specifically about women's perceptions of stigma related to hearing loss and hearing aid use. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of stigma associated with hearing loss and hearing aid use among women in three age groups (35-45 years, 55-65 years, and 75-85 years). Participants were 191 women with hearing within normal limits based on age-related norms. Using pairs of descriptors (i.e., semantic differentials), participants completed statements related to hearing loss and hearing aid use. Results suggest that negative perceptions associated with hearing loss and hearing aid use are affected by age. Younger women perceive greater stigma than older women. Less stigma is associated with hearing aid use than hearing loss, suggesting a positive effect of hearing loss management. Implications for clinical practice and marketing of hearing instruments are discussed. PMID:12691218

  12. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (p<0.01). Thus, the age-related increase in arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes. PMID:26602606

  13. Leukocyte telomere length dynamics in women and men: menopause vs age effects

    PubMed Central

    Dalgrd, Christine; Benetos, Athanase; Verhulst, Simon; Labat, Carlos; Kark, Jeremy D; Christensen, Kaare; Kimura, Masayuki; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Aviv, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background: A longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in women than men has been attributed to a slow rate of LTL attrition in women, perhaps due to high estrogen exposure during the premenopausal period. Methods: To test this premise we performed a longitudinal study (an average follow-up of 12 years) in a subset of the population-based Danish National Twin Registry. Participants consisted of 405 women, aged 37.5 (range 18.064.3) years, and 329 men, aged 38.8 (range 18.058.5) years, at baseline examination. Results: Women showed a longer LTL [kb??standard error(SE)] than men (baseline: 7.01??0.03 vs 6.87??0.04; follow-up: 6.79??0.03 vs 6.65??0.03; both P?=?0.005). Women displayed deceleration of LTL attrition (bp/years??SE), as they transitioned from the premenopausal period (20.6??1.0) through the perimenopausal period (16.5??1.3) to the postmenopausal period (15.1??1.7). Age was not associated with LTL attrition in women after statistical control for menopausal status. Men, in contrast, displayed a trend for age-dependent increase in the rate of LTL attrition, which differed significantly from the pattern in women (P for interaction?=?0.01). Conclusions: Results indicate that the premenopausal period is expressed in a higher rate of LTL attrition than the postmenopausal period. They further suggest that the sex gap in LTL stems from earlier agesthe period of growth and development. The higher rate of LTL attrition in premenopausal women, we propose, might relate to estrogen-mediated increased turnover of erythrocytes, menstrual bleeding or both. PMID:26385867

  14. Pregnancy and Obstetrical Outcomes in Women Over 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dietl, A.; Cupisti, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Schwab, M.; Zollner, U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed childbearing is increasing, and advanced maternal age has been associated with an increased risk of obstetrical complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with advanced maternal age (≥ 40 years). Methods: Maternal and obstetrical data were collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Wuerzburg for the period from 2006 to 2011. In this retrospective analysis we compared the outcomes for women aged ≥ 40 years (n = 405) with those of three younger subgroups (I: < 30 y; II: 30–34 y; III: 35–39 y). Results: Pregnant women older than 40 years had more chronic diseases such as hypertension, needed medical treatment more frequently and had a higher thrombosis risk. Pregnancy-induced diseases such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension occurred more often in women ≥ 40 years of age. Compared to mothers who were younger than 30 years, primiparous women ≥ 40 years had a more than four times higher overall cesarean section rate and four times higher elective cesarean section rate. Furthermore, they required longer hospital stays, both after cesarean section and after vaginal delivery. The preterm birth rate (≤ 32 weeks of gestation) was similar across the different age groups. Conclusions: The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth and for newborns born to women ≥ 40 years did not vary significantly from those of younger women if the following conditions were met: a) pre-existing chronic diseases were treated medically and dietetically; b) pregnancy-induced morbidity was monitored regularly and controlled medically; c) women attended regular prenatal check-ups; d) a healthy lifestyle was adhered to during pregnancy, and e) delivery occurred in a perinatal center. PMID:26366002

  15. To cut or not to cut: cosmetic surgery usage and women's age-related experiences.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Shelley J

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86. From these data, this study tested whether women's cosmetic surgery usage would act as a protective factor in age-related experiences related to body image, self-esteem, and aging attitudes. Cosmetic surgery recipients evidenced less body satisfaction, and more appearance investment with age increases while only non-recipients showed improvements in self-esteem ratings with advancing age. Both recipients and non-recipients showed declines in body care with age, a greater felt discrepancy between actual and perceived age, and less aging anxiety--but non-recipients more so than recipients. Thus, despite having undertaken action to improve their appearance through surgical means at some point in their adult lives, cosmetic surgery recipients did not inevitably feel younger than their years, or better about themselves, compared to those who have not pursued surgery. Study limitations and implications are outlined, and given that cosmetic surgery may become normative practice in future cohorts of aging adults, it concludes with a call for nationally-representative studies using matched-control group research designs typical of public health inquiry more generally. PMID:22696841

  16. Age and distress of women--results of a representative population-based study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lindert J; Müller-Nordhorn J; Soares JF

    2009-06-01

    Little research has been carried out on prevalence rates of distress (e.g. depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), hopelessness, and burnout) of women in different age groups. The aims of this study were to measure the prevalence rate of depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, hopelessness, and burnout among women and to clarify the associations between age groups and distress. Cross sectional epidemiological study on women in Sweden (n = 6,000, aged 18-64 years, response rate 64.1%). Measures were questionnaires on socio-economic and work-related characteristics and on depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, hopelessness, and burnout. Depression was measured with the "General Health Questionnaire" (GHQ), PTSS with the "Posttraumatic Symptom Scale", hopelessness with the "Hopelessness Scale" and burnout with the "Shiron-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire" (SMBQ). The prevalence rate of depression varied from 12.5% to 14.1%; of posttraumatic stress symptoms from 23.5% to 33.3%; of hopelessness from 11.5% to 16%; and of burnout from 22.9% to 17.1%. Depression was not associated with age group. Hopelessness was associated with age group in univariate analysis bur not in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-1.0). PTSS and burnout were associated with age group. Both symptoms were higher in the youngest age group, compared to the eldest age group (posttraumatic stress symptoms: OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.1; burnout: OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1). Younger women show higher prevalence rates of PTSS and burnout compared to elder women. The higher prevalence rates of PTSS and burnout among younger women may be associated with job strain and/or with violent life events.

  17. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. PMID:26859607

  18. Childbearing, reproductive control, aging women, and health care: the projected ethical debates.

    PubMed

    Freda, M C

    1994-02-01

    Of the many social trends that will have an impact on the ethical debates surrounding women's health in the 21st century, three are discussed: the shifting demographics of age and race in the United States; the fundamental change in the health care system to a community-based, preventive model; and the equal voice of women in the government. Using these trends as a framework, this article hypothesizes the ethical debates that will occur in the 21st century concerning such issues as fetal viability, abortion, contraception, infertility, genetic engineering, aggressive versus nonaggressive treatment of aging women, scarce resources, menopause, organ transplants, sexism in biomedical research, fertility in postmenopausal women, birthing centers, fetal surgery, and fetal therapy. PMID:8201457

  19. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763

  20. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Jlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  1. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 10?8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  2. Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020

  3. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R; Smith, Erin N; Chen, Christina T L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Arnold, Alice M; Bandera, Elisa V; Berenson, Gerald S; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L; Elks, Cathy E; Evans, Michelle K; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C; Musani, Solomon K; Nock, Nora L; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Schork, Nicholas J; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Woods, Nancy F; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-08-15

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  4. Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

  5. The paradox of impossible beauty: body changes and beauty practices in aging women.

    PubMed

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Chev, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe and understand the experience of aesthetic body changes in women between 65 and 75years old. To approach the issue, 29 in-depth interviews were conducted in Marseille in 2011. Following a brief review of contemporary Western aesthetics, we will examine the marks of time women perceive as stigmatizing and analyze beauty practices that aim to conceal or repair them. The last part of this article will be devoted to the experience of the aesthetic body and in particular show how aging can paradoxically have a beneficial effect on some women. PMID:25607587

  6. How does HIV affect the reproductive choices of women of childbearing age?

    PubMed

    Haberl, Annette; Reitter, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The majority of women living with HIV are of childbearing age and many of these women wish to have a family. As a result of advances in the treatment and management of HIV, more reproductive opportunities are now available to this group. However, women living with HIV may still require education and guidance in a range of reproductive situations, including avoiding pregnancy, seeking fertility treatment or having a child. HIV physicians should be aware of recent data and guidance on these situations--including areas where more data are required--and consider them when deciding on appropriate management for their patients. PMID:23784712

  7. Fish consumption, advisory awareness, and hair mercury levels among women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Anderson, Henry A; Imm, Pamela; Peters, Debi; Smith, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    The Wisconsin Division of Public Health and the State of Maine Bureau of Health collaborated on a 12 state mercury awareness project. The primary goals of this initiative were to evaluate mercury sport fishing advisory awareness among women of childbearing age and assess the methylmercury exposure among this subpopulation. The project, which was conducted between December 1998 and December 1999, involved a randomized telephone survey of 3015 women of childbearing age and hair mercury analyses for a subset of 414 women. While 92% of these women had consumed fish or shellfish during the past year, less than one third (29%) of them had eaten any sport-caught fish. More than two thirds of the women who consumed sportfish were not aware that their state had issued fish consumption guidelines to protect against methylmercury exposure. Hair mercury levels ranged from 0.005 to 4.62 ppm and were positively correlated with recent fish consumption rates (P<0.0001). Women who ate sport-caught fish did not have significantly higher hair mercury levels than others (mean 0.51 vs. 0.48 ppm). Among women who ate sportfish, advisory awareness had no effect on their mercury exposure. Demographic indicators associated with higher hair mercury levels included residence in northeastern USA, marital status of married, college education, annual household income greater than $75,000, and Asian race. PMID:15533338

  8. Poor sleep in middle-aged women is not associated with menopause per se

    PubMed Central

    Tao, M.F.; Sun, D.M.; Shao, H.F.; Li, C.B.; Teng, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Whether sleep problems of menopausal women are associated with vasomotor symptoms and/or changes in estrogen levels associated with menopause or age-related changes in sleep architecture is unclear. This study aimed to determine if poor sleep in middle-aged women is correlated with menopause. This study recruited women seeking care for the first time at the menopause outpatient department of our hospital. Inclusion criteria were an age ?40 years, not taking any medications for menopausal symptoms, and no sleeping problems or depression. Patients were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), modified Kupperman Index (KI), and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). A PSQI score of <7 indicated no sleep disorder and ?7 indicated a sleep disorder. Blood specimens were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. A total of 244 women were included in the study; 103 (42.2%) were identified as having a sleep disorder and 141 as not having one. In addition, 156 (64%) women were postmenopausal and 88 (36%) were not menopausal. Follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were similar between the groups. Patients with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher total modified KI score and total MRS score (both, P<0.001) compared with those without a sleep disorder. Correlations of the PSQI total score with the KI and MRS were similar in menopausal and non-menopausal women. These results do not support that menopause per se specifically contributes to sleep problems. PMID:26577848

  9. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women123

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. Objective: We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. Design: We included 13,818 women from the Nurses’ Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984–1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984–1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Results: Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Conclusion: Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. PMID:25411284

  10. Association between delivery at an advanced maternal age and osteoporosis in elderly Korean women.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eunju; Lee, Jungkwon; Park, Yong Soon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Kim, Bo Ha

    2015-11-01

    Although several reproductive factors have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women, few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of delivery at a high-risk maternal age on BMD. Using nationally representative survey data collected from 736 women aged 65 years or older, we evaluated the relationship between delivery during adolescence or at an age of 35 years or older and osteoporosis in elderly women. Data regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle risk factors, reproductive history, and history of osteoporosis and fracture were collected by administration of self-report questionnaires. Anthropometric data and BMD were measured in accordance with standardized guidelines. Independent determinants of BMD were identified by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, and the resulting model was used to evaluate the risk of osteoporosis according to delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age. Of the 736 subjects, 426 (60.1 %) were found to have osteoporosis (T score ≤ -2.5), and 19.2 and 38.9 % reported delivery during adolescence and at an advanced age, respectively. The incidence of delivery during adolescence or at an advanced age was significantly higher in subjects with osteoporosis than in those without osteoporosis. After adjustment for covariates, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that elderly women with a history of delivery at an advanced maternal age are at an increased (2.164-fold greater) risk of osteoporosis (95 % confidence interval 1.109-4.223) compared with elderly women without a history of delivery at an advanced age. However, a history of delivery during adolescence did not affect the risk. PMID:25304003

  11. Laterality and age-level differences between young women and elderly women in controlled force exertion (CFE).

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Demura, Shinichi; Kawabata, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine laterality and age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE using women as subjects. The subjects were 50 young women (mean age 20.91.9 years) and 50 elderly women (mean age 72.96.6 years). The maximal handgrip strength was measured twice with a 1-min interval, and the larger value was used in this study. In the CFE test, the subjects matched their submaximal grip strengths to the demand values changing at a constant frequency (range=5-25% of the maximal grip strength). The CFE test was performed twice after one practice trial (one trial was 40s). The sum of the percent of differences between the demand value and the grip exertion value was used as an estimate of CFE. CFE was estimated using a mean from two trials, excluding the first 15s of each trial. The elderly were significantly inferior in maximal handgrip strength of the dominant and non-dominant hands to young adults (about 70%), and the non-dominant hand was significantly inferior to the dominant hand. The elderly were significantly inferior in CFE of both hands to young adults (about 50%), and the non-dominant hand was significantly inferior. In conclusion, the age-level differences in maximal handgrip strength and CFE are found in the dominant and non-dominant hands, and laterality is also found in both young adults and the elderly. The CFE relating closely to nerve function may have a larger age-level difference than maximal handgrip strength. PMID:21930309

  12. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

  13. Socioeconomic factors, immigration status, and cancer screening among Mexican American women aged 75 and older

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the association between socioeconomic factors and acculturation with cancer screening methods, we analyzed data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, on 1,272 women aged 75 and older residing in the United States in 2004-2005. We found that lower Pap smear or mammography uses were associated with older age, lower education, and having public health insurance compared to private. Other factors associated with mammography use were depressive symptoms, cognition and functional limitations. In sum, socioeconomic factors and health insurance coverage determine cancer screening utilization in very old Mexican American women but not acculturation. PMID:21058091

  14. Age-Based differences in Treatment Outcome among Alcohol Dependent Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaiba, Zayed; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara; Cook, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The literature suggests that women are at higher risk for negative consequences from alcohol use than men and that these risks are compounded by age. The current study investigated how alcohol dependent women from different age groups might differ in terms of baseline functioning and treatment response. The sample consisted of 181 participants drawn from 2 randomized clinical trials of cognitive behavioral treatments for alcohol dependent women. Demographic and psychopathology data were obtained at baseline using the SCID (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders) I for Axis I disorders and the SCID II or Personality Disorders Questionnaire for Axis II disorders. Social networks data were collected using the Important People and Activities Interview. Drinking data were collected at baseline and follow-up using the Timeline Follow Back Interview. Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) revealed that older women had better psychosocial functioning in terms of being better educated and reporting fewer Axis I disorders. Also, older women had more supportive social networks in terms of more people, a smaller percentage of heavy drinkers, and a non-drinking spouse. Older women reported a less severe lifetime substance use history with a later age of first drink, later onset of alcohol use disorders, fewer lifetime abuse/dependence items, and less drug use. However, they reported drinking more frequently and more heavily over the 90 days prior to treatment. Finally, older women were more compliant with treatment and responded better by reducing drinking frequency and percentage of heavy drinking days. Suggestions to enhance treatment efficacy for younger women are made as well as suggestions for future research. PMID:22369224

  15. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  16. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ?30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ?CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ?CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ?CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ?50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  17. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  18. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women. PMID:23275909

  19. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  20. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. PMID:26880600

  1. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41-1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44-2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33-2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women. PMID:26607032

  2. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41–1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44–2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33–2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women. PMID:26607032

  3. Opioid prescription claims among women of reproductive age--United States, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Dawson, April L; Lind, Jennifer N; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Frey, Meghan T; Broussard, Cheryl S; Honein, Margaret A

    2015-01-23

    Prescription opioid use in the United States has become widespread, and studies of opioid exposure in pregnancy suggest increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome and birth defects (e.g., neural tube defects, gastroschisis, and congenital heart defects). The development of birth defects often results from exposures during the first few weeks of pregnancy, which is a critical period for organ formation. Given that many pregnancies are not recognized until well after the first few weeks and half of all U.S. pregnancies are unplanned, all women who might become pregnant are at risk. Therefore, it is important to assess opioid medication use among all women of reproductive age. CDC used Truven Health's MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicaid data to estimate the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed by outpatient pharmacies to women aged 15-44 years. During 2008-2012, opioid prescription claims were consistently higher among Medicaid-enrolled women when compared with privately insured women (39.4% compared with 27.7%, p<0.001). The most frequently prescribed opioids among women in both groups were hydrocodone, codeine, and oxycodone. Efforts are needed to promote interventions to reduce opioid prescriptions among this population when safer alternative treatments are available. PMID:25611168

  4. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mead, Paul S; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M; Ellington, Sascha R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Powers, Ann M; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R; Dieke, Ada; Muñoz, Jorge L; Honein, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection. PMID:26866840

  5. Beliefs about menopause of general practitioners and mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    Liao, K; Hunter, M S; White, P

    1994-12-01

    Recent general population studies suggest that experience of the normal menopause transition is relatively unremarkable for the majority of women, but negative stereotyped beliefs about menopause remain pervasive. This study explored GPs' beliefs and opinions about menopause in general, and compared the GPs' beliefs with those of their mid-aged female patients. All GPs at five general practices (n = 24) and 101 45-year-old women registered at the same practices took part. Large proportions of both groups believed that most women experience somatic and psychological difficulties during menopause. GPs expressed more negative beliefs than patients but were also more likely to express positive/neutral beliefs. Some causal attributions of menopausal problems were shared by the two groups, but they differed on others. When both GPs and patients hold negative social stereotypes about menopause, problems of mid-aged women may be misattributed to menopause. Health information on menopause may be biased towards negative images of menopause and of aging women. PMID:7895969

  6. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  7. Differences in hypertension prevalence among U.S. black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T; Andersen, H F; Bound, J

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension and its sequelae complicate pregnancy and can result in poor perinatal outcomes. Overall, U.S. blacks are more likely to be hypertensive than whites, but the degree to which this is true among women of childbearing age (including teenagers) is unknown. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), the authors describe hypertension prevalence rates for 422 black and 2,700 white reproductive-age women. The authors present observed data and also predicted prevalence rates derived by modeling the odds of hypertension using logistic regression statistical techniques. They find that black-white differences in hypertension prevalence are negligible among teenagers, but they are pronounced in the older reproductive ages. They estimate that twice the proportion of black women relative to white are hypertensive during pregnancy. Their results suggest that differential rates of hypertension between black and white women may contribute to the persistent excess infant mortality among blacks, but conclusive results cannot be determined from these data. These data are also valuable for the design and evaluation of screening, intervention, and followup programs for hypertensive disease among young women. PMID:1908590

  8. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  9. Age related histomorphometric changes in bone in normal British men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, M T; Hoyland, J A; Denton, J; Freemont, A J

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To define the iliac crest histomorphometry of static variables in 234 individuals aged 16-100 years (91 men, 143 women) and of dynamic variables in 84 individuals aged 19-94 years (33 men, 51 women) from the North West of England. METHODS--Iliac crest biopsy specimens were sectioned, undecalcified, and examined using image analysis. RESULTS--The decrease in the quantity of cortical and trabecular bone and the connectivity of trabecular bone was more pronounced in women than men. This was associated with a reduction in bone formation and increased bone resorption which was greater in women at both the tissue and cellular level. Some of these histomorphometric differences first became evident at the natural menopause, and therefore provide clues as to the cause of the high prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS--These results show an age and sex dependent variation both in static and dynamic parameters, which differ, in some respects, from other studies and confirm the need for large regional studies to provide a database of normal morphometric results for a specific population. PMID:8063935

  10. [Body density assessment utilizing skinfold thickness and age in Japanese women].

    PubMed

    Tahara, Y; Yukawa, K; Tsunawake, N; Saeki, S; Nishiyama, K; Urata, H; Katsuno, K; Fukuyama, Y; Michimukou, R; Moji, K

    1995-02-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the validity of skinfold-based prediction equations for body density (g/ml) by Nagamine and Suzuki (1964), and to formulate more convenient and more useful equations for predicting body density from skinfold and age in women. Subjects of the study were 512 healthy women aged 18-66 years in or near Nagasaki City. The dependent variable in the multiple regression equation, body density, was determined by hydrostatic weighing. Independent variables included eight skinfolds, the sum of two skinfolds (triceps, subscapular), the sum of three skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, and abdominal), age, and body surface area. Skinfolds were measured with an Eiken-model skinfold caliper. Age (mean 30.1, range 18-66 yrs.), weight (mean 52.6, range 38.0-83.3 kg), height (mean 157.0, range 142.0-172.0 cm), and body density, (mean 1.04125, range 0.98806-1.08650 g/ml) were also recorded. Percent body fat was calculated using the formula by Brozek et al. and ranged from 6.4% to 48.3%. Multiple correlation coefficients (MR) and standard error (SE) of 10 regression equations (A-J) for predicting body density in women were compared. The best-fitting and the most convenient prediction equation for body density was equation-E. The regression equation developed for predicting body density was: body density = 1.07931-0.00059 x sum of three skinfolds(mm)-0.00015 x age (MR = 0.77 and SE = 0.0089). The equation was cross-validated on a different sample of 46 women. The correlation coefficient between predicted and hydrostatically determined body density was 0.813 (p < 0.001). Equation-E (Tahara's equation) appears to be useful in body density analysis particularly when the subjects are Japanese women, aged 18-50 yrs, with percent body fat 17 to 34%. PMID:7718912

  11. Health care utilization patterns of Russian-speaking immigrant women across age groups.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, L Louise; Buck, K

    2002-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 substantially increased the numbers of refugees and immigrants to the United States from the former Soviet Union. Little research has been conducted with this population although studies found that immigrant's access to health care services are based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of immigrant women from three former Soviet Republics (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine) with women's health care services. Three focus groups of women were formed; ages 20-30, 37-46, and 60 and above. A focus-group guide was used to learn about their health care experiences. These immigrant women did access health care services based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. Greater understanding of immigrant populations' cultural patterns of health care utilization is needed to improve access and delivery of health care services to these populations. PMID:16228751

  12. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-02-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. PMID:1739168

  13. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women's sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women's health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women's sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea's P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband's health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband's healths and sexual knowledge explained women's sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women's sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women's sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups' sexual function. PMID:25931738

  14. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  15. Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 4045 years

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 4045 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years. PMID:24083275

  16. Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheryl H; Denny, Clark H; Cheal, Nancy E; Sniezek, Joseph E; Kanny, Dafna

    2015-09-25

    Excessive alcohol use is risk factor for a wide range of health and social problems including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, depression, motor vehicle crashes, and violence. Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and other adverse birth outcomes . Community studies estimate that as many as 2% to 5% of first grade students in the United States might have an FASD, which include physical, behavioral, or learning impairments. In 2005, the Surgeon General reissued an advisory urging women who are or might be pregnant to abstain from alcohol consumption to eliminate the risk for FASDs or other negative birth outcomes. To estimate current prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on an occasion) among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years in the United States, CDC analyzed 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Among pregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Among nonpregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 53.6% and 18.2%, respectively. Among binge drinkers, pregnant women reported a significantly higher frequency of binge drinking than nonpregnant women (4.6 and 3.1 episodes, respectively); the largest amount consumed during binge drinking was also higher among pregnant women than nonpregnant women (7.5 versus 6.0 drinks), although this difference was not statistically significant. Implementation of evidence-based clinical and community-level strategies would be expected to reduce binge drinking among pregnant women and women of childbearing age, and any alcohol consumption among women who are or might be pregnant. Healthcare professionals can support these efforts by implementing alcohol screening and brief interventions in their primary care practices, and informing women that there is no known safe level of alcohol consumption when they are pregnant or might be pregnant. PMID:26401713

  17. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  18. Competing Demands from Aging Parents and Adult Children in Two Cohorts of American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wiemers, Emily E.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    In late middle age, individuals may face competing demands on their time and financial resources from elderly parents and young adult children. This study uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine changes over time in the probability of having children and living parents for women age 45 to 64. We compare two cohorts: those born in the 1920s and 1930s and those born in the 1940s and 1950s. We find that there has been a dramatic increase in the probability of having children and living parents and that this increase has been driven mainly by changes in life expectancy of the parent generation. We further examine transfers of money and co-residence for women in the later cohort. We find that while women may not give to parents and children concurrently, approximately thirty percent of them have provided support to both parents and children at some point in the past. PMID:26594071

  19. Effects of Age and Causal Attribution to Aging on Health-Related Behaviors Associated With Urinary Incontinence in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Julie L.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Roth, David L.; Rodriguez, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of age and patients attribution of incontinence to aging on health-related behaviors associated with incontinence. Design and Methods Participants in this study were 74 women who either sought treatment for urinary incontinence at a multidisciplinary continence program or volunteered for a randomized clinical trial of behavioral and drug therapy for incontinence. As part of their clinical evaluation, women were interviewed about how they managed their incontinence and their perceptions of what had caused the condition. Self-management of incontinence was defined as behaviors used to cope with incontinence, rather than treat or cure incontinence. Self-treatment was defined as self-implementation of Kegel exercises, and formal treatment was defined as interaction with a health care provider. Results Over half of the respondents attributed their incontinence to aging. In multivariate analyses, age was associated with self-management of incontinence, but not self-treatment or formal treatment. In contrast, attribution of incontinence to aging was associated with self-management and self-treatment of incontinence. There was also a trend for attribution of incontinence to aging to be associated with formal treatment for incontinence. Women who attributed their incontinence to aging were less likely to have engaged in self-management strategies and to have received a previous evaluation or treatment; but, they were more likely to have engaged in self-treatment for incontinence. When other relevant variables were added to the regression models, perception that incontinence restricted ones activities became the most significant predictor of performing self-management strategies and performing Kegel exercises. Implications Attribution to aging may be an impediment to seeking treatment. Education to promote understanding of the actual causes and treatment of urinary incontinence may encourage people to seek appropriate intervention. Additionally, whereas attribution to aging is an important factor contributing to health-related behaviors, other factors, such as perception that ones activities are restricted, may play an important role. PMID:12145379

  20. The effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle: Focusing on middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipour, Nosaybeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle affects people's health and life length, however, no sufficient studies have been done on the effect of lifestyle on middle-ageing, as the transitional period from adulthood to old-ageing, this study has been conducted to study the effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged women in Lenjan city of Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 88 middle-aged women were selected through randomized sampling from two health centers in Lenjan, and then were categorized into experimental and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-made demographic and life style questionnaire was used. The educational intervention was performed in five sessions. Data were collected from both groups in two stages: Before the intervention and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20 and P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that educational program had a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores in the intervention group, considering the physical activity, mental health, and interpersonal relationship, P < 0.001. However, regarding the nutrition, the mean increase was not significant (P = 0.113). Conclusion: According to the findings, it is evident that educational intervention is beneficial for various aspects of middle-aged women's lifestyle. Therefore, applying a healthy lifestyle seems essential for having a healthy aging period, and educational intervention can be effective. PMID:26430678

  1. Prevalence of osteoporosis risk factors and treatment among women aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J K; Spangler, J G; Celestino, F S

    2000-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective review to evaluate screening, diagnosis, and treatment of 389 women aged 50 years or older at risk for osteoporosis in a large primary care practice. Records randomly selected from a computerized database were reviewed for drug history, age, height, weight, and osteoporosis-related diagnoses, symptoms, and risk factors. Among the 389 women, 255 (65.5%) were receiving bone-preserving treatment (247 estrogen replacement exclusively). Most (70.4%) were white, with an average age of 61 years, and an average of 3.3 risk factors for osteoporosis. Risk factors were postmenopausal status 94%, age 65 years or older 53%, hysterectomy 39%, cigarette smoking 33%, and physical inactivity 30%. By logistic regression, the only positive predictor of antiresorptive therapy was hysterectomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-4.14). Negative predictors were physical inactivity (AOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.71), rheumatoid arthritis (AOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.79), and age 65 years and older (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86). Controlling for age, women with four or more risk factors were 62% less likely to be receiving antiresorptive treatment (AOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.64) than those with fewer risk factors. PMID:10772371

  2. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  3. Keeping up with the caravan of life: Successful aging strategies for Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of improving life expectancy in the world in recent times, the focus has shifted to the issue of the quality and nature of life and how to assist successful aging (SA) rather than increasing physical survival and lifespan. SA is a multidimensional, relative, and context-dependent concept with different paths and outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore older women's strategies for SA in a specific context. Methods Following a grounded theory design approach, we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 21 women between the ages of 28 and 96 years. We analyzed the data from interviews, written narratives, and field notes using the grounded theory approach. Results We identified four categories: prevention of threats, internal self-control against threats, coping with threats, and optimizing the passage of time according to opportunity. These described the strategies for SA when encountering with age-related changes. Utilizing these strategies, the women accompanied the caravan of life in the context of threats and opportunities. Conclusions The findings suggest that SA is a continuous process in confronting changes related to age. The identified strategies can help to promote SA by familiarizing older women with the threats and opportunities of life and training them in how to use these strategies. PMID:26610117

  4. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.

  5. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  6. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-aged African American women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanyka K

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-aged African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-aged urban African American women's experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56 years, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-aged, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  7. Women and HIV/AIDS Epidemic: The Issue of College Age Girls' Awareness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Solomon O.; Moses, Ailemen I.; Ugiomoh, Maria M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine women and HIV/AIDS epidemic: the issue of school age girls' awareness in Nigeria information was elicited from 1,222 randomly selected regular under-graduate female students from the 11 faculties of the university of Lagos, Nigeria, with the use of a standardized structured questionnaire. Results of the major

  8. Is There a Double Standard of Aging?: Older Men and Women and Ageism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Chetna

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine current young adults' attitudes toward older adults and to explore, more specifically, whether they hold different attitudes towards older men and women. An additional objective was to examine the association between knowledge of aging processes and attitudes towards older adults. A total of 405 (210 males, 195…

  9. A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age…

  10. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  11. Human parvovirus B19 infections in women of childbearing age and within families.

    PubMed

    Koch, W C; Adler, S P

    1989-02-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) crosses the placenta causing fetal death. We used an indirect capture enzyme immunoassay to measure IgG to B19 in sera of 845 subjects from 2 groups. The first group included 405 women (mean age, 30 years) composed of 85 pediatric nurses and 130 other female hospital employees, 122 women employed caring for preschool children and 68 mothers of preschool children enrolled in day care. Twenty-eight percent of all these women were seropositive. Seropositivity was unrelated to occupational group. Four of 235 women observed between 1983 and 1987 for a mean of 435 days/woman acquired B19 infections (an annual seroconversion rate of 1.5%). We investigated intrafamilial associations of B19 infection in a second group of 440 subjects from 111 families. Seropositivity of parents was not associated with seropositivity of their children. Seropositivity of one spouse was not associated with seropositivity of the cospouse. However, of 47 seropositive older siblings, 32 (68%) of their younger siblings were seropositive, compared to 20 (18%) seropositive younger siblings of 112 seronegative older siblings (P less than 0.001). B19 infections increased with age from 19% for those younger than 10 years to 67% for those older than 49 years. For all ages females had a higher rate (51%) of B19 infection than males (38%). These data suggest that children may be more susceptible to B19 than adults and B19 infections occur infrequently among women younger than 40 years of age. However, during local outbreaks the B19 infection rate for susceptible pregnant women remains unknown. PMID:2539583

  12. Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988–1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (P<0.001 for trend) and marginally among Mexican American women (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12–19, 20–29, and 30–49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission. PMID:26990759

  13. Depression and anxiety among middle-aged women: A community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Priya; Chaudhary, Anurag; Soni, R. K.; Sharma, Sarit; Gupta, Vikram Kumar; Kaushal, Pushapindra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety and depressive disorders constitute a substantial proportion of the global burden of disease and are projected to form the second most common cause of disability by 2020. Objective: To assess the level of depression and anxiety among middle age women and the possible factors behind it. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 women aged 40–60 years were selected by proportionate sampling technique. Age, education, marital status, socioeconomic status, age at marriage, age at menopause, weight and height were noted. Zung-self-rating scales were used for calculating levels of depression and anxiety in these women. The data were analyzed by using statistical software SPSS. Results: The level of syndromal depression and anxiety was found to be 86.7% and 88.9%, respectively. Most of the subjects had the moderate type of depression (49.5%) followed by mild (29.4%) and severe depression (7.8%). While in case of anxiety, most of the subjects (69.4%) had a mild form of anxiety and 17.8% had moderate anxiety level. A significant difference was observed in the level of depression with respect to marital status (P = 0.009) and in the level of anxiety with respect to age (P = 0.021) in the study subjects. On applying logistic regression, none of the factors studied were found to be significant variables for anxiety or depression in the study population. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are prevalent among the middle-aged women in rural Punjab. Provision of mental health services in this group is essential. PMID:26985419

  14. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Kutima, H L; Ouma, J; Churcher, T S; Changoma, J M; Mwalisetso, M A; French, M D; Mwandawiro, C S

    2015-01-01

    Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five villages (known for their high prevalence of infection of S. haematobium) in Kwale County. Serum samples were analysed to determine levels of urea and creatinine as proxy indicators of kidney function. Data revealed that pregnant women did not, on average, have a higher prevalence or intensity of infection of urinary schistosomiasis than non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, the level of prevalence and intensity of infection of S. haematobium was highest in the first trimester (0-13 weeks), dropped in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) and rose again in the third trimester (27-40 weeks). In addition, 24.8% of women were infected with hookworm, while none were diagnosed with malaria parasites. Of 250 samples analysed for serum urea and creatinine, none had significant levels of pathology, either in pregnant or non-pregnant women. Despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that pregnant women should be treated with praziquantel after the first trimester, in practice this has not been the case in many countries, including Kenya. In view of this, healthcare providers should be informed to consider treatment of pregnant women infected with schistosomiasis during antenatal visits and whenever there is mass drug administration as recommended by the WHO. PMID:24103656

  15. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20–65 Years of Age (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145–150; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306707 PMID:24280566

  16. Differential expression of cathepsins K, S and V between young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Sage, Juliette; De Qural, Delphine; Leblanc-Noblesse, Emmanuelle; Kurfurst, Robin; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Nizard, Carine; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lecaille, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous aging translates drastic structural and functional alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Multiple mechanisms are involved, including changes in protease levels. We investigated the age-related protein expression and activity of cysteine cathepsins and the expression of two endogenous protein inhibitors in young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that the expression of cathepsins K, S and V, as well as cystatins A and M/E within keratinocytes is reduced in photoprotected skin of aged women. Furthermore, the overall endopeptidase activity of cysteine cathepsins in epidermis lysates decreased with age. Albeit dermal elastic fiber and laminin expression is reduced in aged skin, staining of nidogen-1, a key protein in BM assembly that is sensitive to proteolysis by cysteine, metallo- and serine proteases, has a similar pattern in both young and aged skin. Since cathepsins contribute to the hydrolysis and turnover of ECM/basement membrane components, the abnormal protein degradation and deposition during aging process may be related in part to a decline of lysosomal/endosomal cathepsin K, S and V activity. PMID:23871919

  17. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  18. Association Between Reduced Heart Rate Variability and Cognitive Impairment in Older Disabled Women in the Community: Womens Health and Aging Study I

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Varadhan, Ravi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Fleisher, Lee A.; Fried, Linda P.; Chaves, Paulo H. M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the independent association between heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic function, and cognitive impairment. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Womens Health and Aging Study I. SETTING Urban community in Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS A subset of 311 physically disabled, community-dwelling women aged 65 and older whose HRV data were obtained. MEASUREMENTS Reduced HRV was defined as the lowest quartile of each of several HRV measures exploring time and frequency domains and compared with the remaining three quartiles. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 24. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the independent relationship between reduced HRV and prevalent cognitive impairment. RESULTS The age-, education-, and race-adjusted prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in those with reduced HRV than in those with nonreduced HRV. After adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics, participants with reduced HRV were significantly more likely than those with nonreduced HRV to have cognitive impairment; these findings were consistent across different HRV indices. In particular, reduced high-frequency power, indicative of decreased parasympathetic activity, was associated with 6.7 times greater odds of cognitive impairment (95% confidence interval = 2.2720.0). CONCLUSION Cardiac autonomic dysfunction, particularly decreased parasympathetic activity, was independently associated with cognitive impairment in older disabled women in the community. This finding may improve understanding of the pathophysiological basis of cognitive impairment. The potential role of HRV as a cause or consequence of cognitive impairment needs to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:17087704

  19. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

  20. Spatial patterns of breast cancer incidence and uninsured women of mammography screening age.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer mortality in women in the United States. Women who lack insurance have mammography screening rates that are suboptimal. Our objective was to spatially correlate incidence rates of breast cancer and uninsured women aged 40-64 years and identify outliers-areas where women may be underscreened due to poor access. The eight-county consolidated metropolitan statistical area centered on Harris County, Texas was selected as the study region. Breast cancer incidence data from 1995 to 2004 were acquired from the State of Texas Cancer Registry as individual case data geocoded at the census tract level. A bivariate local indicator of spatial autocorrelation was used to evaluate the spatial pattern of breast cancer incidence and uninsured. Statistically significant negative spatial autocorrelation was observed between breast cancer incidence and uninsured status in women aged 40-64 (Moran's I -0.2065, p < 0.001), indicating that as breast cancer incidence increased, uninsured rates decreased globally. Statistically significant local clusters of low breast cancer incidence and high incidence of uninsured were found. Future research is needed to assess mammography screening behaviors and barriers to screening at the local level. PMID:23521583

  1. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  2. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed. PMID:26337662

  3. Learning and Social Process of Aging among Korean Older Married Women: The Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    The aging population has rapidly increased in South Korea. From an economic perspective, older people are too often seen in negative terms. Specifically, older women, who are traditionally at greater risk of poverty, are referred to as a social problem or as passive recipients, and the quality of life of older women in an aging society is often

  4. Who gets a mammogram amongst European women aged 50-69 years?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE), we analyse the determinants of who engages in mammography screening focusing on European women aged 50-69 years. A special emphasis is put on the measurement error of subjective life expectancy and on the measurement and impact of physician quality. Our main findings are that physician quality, better education, having a partner, younger age and better health are associated with higher rates of receipt. The impact of subjective life expectancy on screening decision substantially increases after taking measurement error into account. JEL Classification C 36, I 11, I 18 PMID:22828268

  5. Bayesian Mapping of HIV Infection among Women of Reproductive Age in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N. O.; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda. PMID:25811462

  6. Estimated acceptance of HPV vaccination among Italian women aged 18-26 years.

    PubMed

    Giambi, Cristina; Donati, Serena; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Scherillo, Isabella; Bella, Antonino

    2011-10-26

    In Italy vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national immunization programme in 2007; the primary target for this vaccination is 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. This project was carried out in the period 2007-2009 to estimate the acceptance rate among 18-26-year-old, to whom free-of-charge vaccination was actively offered. Socio-demographic factors associated with acceptance were also investigated. A sample of 1159 women was randomly selected from resident population lists of 10 Local Health Units in 6 of Italy's 21 Regions; 1032 women were deemed eligible for the study. Of the eligible women, 580 received at least one vaccine dose for an acceptance rate of 56.2% and 542 received all three vaccine doses (52.6%). The acceptance rate was significantly higher for: residents of northern and central Italy (OR(adj)=2.22, 95%CI 1.64-3.01 and OR(adj)=1.77, 95%CI, 1.20-2.61 respectively), compared to southern Italy; women with a high educational level (OR(adj)=1.41; 95%CI: 1.02-1.93); and students (OR(adj)=1.64; 95%CI: 1.13-2.37). The low immunization rate highlights the difficulties of reaching young adult women, although the current coverage rates observed in the primary target population of HPV vaccination campaign (64%) emphasize that achieving high coverage rates is challenging also in younger age groups. Our results suggest that it would be premature to extend the active free-of-charge offer of HPV vaccination to older women and that efforts should be focused on the priority target, considering that the objective of 95% coverage established for this age group is still far from being attained. PMID:21872630

  7. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Beltadze, Ketevan; Barbakadze, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection). At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence. PMID:26220826

  8. Tools for improving clinical preventive services receipt among women with disabilities of childbearing ages and beyond.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Lisa B; Taft, Kate E; Sloan, Michelle L; Stevens, Alissa C; Krahn, Gloria L

    2015-06-01

    Efforts to improve clinical preventive services (CPS) receipt among women with disabilities are poorly understood and not widely disseminated. The reported results represent a 2-year, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs partnership to develop a central resource for existing tools that are of potential use to maternal and child health practitioners who work with women with disabilities. Steps included contacting experts in the fields of disability and women's health, searching the Internet to locate examples of existing tools that may facilitate CPS receipt, convening key stakeholders from state and community-based programs to determine their potential use of the tools, and developing an online Toolbox. Nine examples of existing tools were located. The tools focused on facilitating use of the CPS guidelines, monitoring CPS receipt among women with disabilities, improving the accessibility of communities and local transportation, and training clinicians and women with disabilities. Stakeholders affirmed the relevance of these tools to their work and encouraged developing a Toolbox. The Toolbox, launched in May 2013, provides information and links to existing tools and accepts feedback and proposals for additional tools. This Toolbox offers central access to existing tools. Maternal and child health stakeholders and other service providers can better locate, adopt and implement existing tools to facilitate CPS receipt among adolescent girls with disabilities who are transitioning into adult care as well as women with disabilities of childbearing ages and beyond. PMID:25359095

  9. Seroprevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, N U; Hossain, M A; Nahar, K; Mahmud, C; Paul, S K; Ahmed, S; Haque, N; Kalam, A; Parveen, U S

    2011-04-01

    The genital chlamydial infection is the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and major cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy for millions of women in the world particularly in developing countries. This study was performed to find out the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genital infection in women of reproductive age attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 through a cross sectional study. A total of 108 serum samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant and non-pregnant women were tested for CT specific IgG antibody by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A total of 31(28.7%) patients were found to have antibody of which 44% (26/59) were from pregnant group and 10.2% (5/49) from non-pregnant group. The seropositivity was 21.6% (16/74) in symptomatic cases and 44.1% (15/34) in asymptomatic cases. The study shows high prevalence of Chlamydial antibody which is common in pregnant and non-pregnant, symptomatic and asymptomatic adult women in Bangladesh. So, screening for chlamydial infection should be done routinely by suitable tests in sexually active symptomatic and asymptomatic women including pregnant women to prevent serious complications. PMID:21522085

  10. [A study on menopausal symptoms and health needs among middle aged women].

    PubMed

    Chan, Y N; Kim, K J; Lim, H K; Jang, H S; Han, H S; Chung, Y H

    1995-01-01

    During the middle age of a woman's life cycle, several health changes and problems occur. Therefore, middle aged women must manage their health and maintain quality life by coping with bodily changes. However, today there is not enough research and health programs for middle aged women. Data from the study will be used for health promotion program development of middle aged women. Data was collected from January 21 to 24, 1995 by telephone interview. Four hundred middle aged women between 40 and 59 years old and living in Chon Ju City were interviewed. The results of this study were as follow: 1. Frequency rate of menopausal symptoms was 38.4%. The most serious menopausal symptom was psychosomatic symptom. Mean score orders of experienced symptoms were back pain, joint pain (1.80), nervousness (1.80), general weakness (1.67). 2. The most important problems as perceived by the clients were children (45.8%), health (24.0%) and economics (7.8%). The most serious health problems were concerning the muscle-skeletal system (45%) such as arthritis, spinal disk problems and osteoporosis. Adult diseases (14.5%) such as hypertension and diabetes were also health concerns. Health management activities reported were exercise (22.5%), social activity (12%) and inactivity (53%). 33% of clients were interested in health groups and they wanted a program of health education, exercise and social activity to be provided. 3. General characteristic variables were significantly related to the level of menopausal symptoms as follows: age (t = -2.06, p = 0.040), status of marriage (t = -3.56, p = 0.000), educational level (F = 4.35, p = 0.05) and menopausal status (t = 4.37, p = 0.000). PMID:8551727

  11. Risk factors for urinary incontinence in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shao-Tung; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2007-11-01

    To determine risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over, face-to-face interviews with 1,517 women, selected by a multistage random method, were completed. The prevalence of UI in this age group was 29.8%. Factors and their prevalence associated with UI were age [odds ratio (OR)=1.04 per year], diabetes mellitus (39.8%, p = 0.002), hypertension (39.5%, p = 0.001), abdominal gynecological surgery (41.4%, p = 0.001), hysterectomy (42.4%, p = 0.003), history of drug allergy (41.3%, p = 0.001), smoking (45.5%, p = 0.010), hormone replacement therapy (41.5%, p = 0.026), and high body mass index (OR = 1.05 per unit). Alcohol consumption and marriage did not increase the risk of UI. UI is a common and costly problem in elderly women. It diminishes the quality of life of the affected women. Of the associated factors that are preventable, modifiable, or controllable, smoking, prior hysterectomy, and obesity may have the greatest impact on the prevalence of UI. PMID:17912573

  12. Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women

    PubMed Central

    Wjcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. Aim To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. Material and methods The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. Results We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Conclusions Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women. PMID:24278065

  13. Understanding women's attitudes towards wife beating in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Hindin, Michelle J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with attitudes towards wife beating among women in partnerships in Zimbabwe in order to assist public health practitioners in preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: A nationally representative survey of 5907 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was conducted in Zimbabwe. Women were asked about their attitudes towards wife beating in five situations. The survey included sociodemographic characteristics, partnership characteristics, and household decision-making. FINDINGS: Over half of all women in Zimbabwe (53%) believed that wife beating was justified in at least one of the five situations. Respondents were most likely to find wife beating justified if a wife argued with her spouse (36%), neglected her children (33%), or went out without telling her spouse (30%). Among women in partnerships (n=3077), younger age, living in rural areas, lower household wealth, schooling at a lower level than secondary, and lower occupational status were associated with women reporting that wife beating is justified. Women who reported that they make household decisions jointly with their partners were less likely to say that wife beating is justified. CONCLUSIONS: Zimbabwe has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly because the younger generation of women is significantly more likely to believe that wife beating is justified compared with older women. Given the current social and political climate in Zimbabwe, finding means to negotiate rather than settle conflict through violence is essential from the household level to the national level. PMID:12973642

  14. Patterns of contraception in UK women with Type 1 diabetes mellitus: a GP database study.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, R A; Leydon, G M; Williams, T J; Newson, R B; Feher, M D

    1999-05-01

    This cross-sectional study using a UK primary care database establishes the patterns of contraceptive prescribing for women aged 15-49 with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and compares them with the patterns in women without DM. A total of 938 Type 1 DM women were identified and a comparison group of women without diabetes (n = 10,000) were randomly selected from the database. Statistical analysis showed that 25% of the Type 1 DM women and 32% of those without diabetes were prescribed a hormonal contraceptive in 1994. Type 1 DM women were more likely to be prescribed a combined oral contraceptive than a progestogen-only pill (POP). However, they were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.65-2.72) times more likely to be prescribed a POP and less likely to be prescribed a combined pill (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 1.65-0.64) compared to women without diabetes. In addition, the pregnancy rates in Type 1 DM women over the age of 25 years were lower than in women without diabetes. This finding suggests that Type 1 DM women under age 25 appear more likely to record a pregnancy. In conclusion, differences between Type 1 DM women and those without diabetes highlight the variation in the way that general practitioners and patients evaluate the risks and benefits when deciding on contraception. PMID:10342339

  15. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  16. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  17. Hip fracture types in men and women change differently with age

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hip fractures are expensive and a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In most studies hip fractures have been viewed as a unitary fracture but recently the two main types of fracture (intertrochanteric and subcapital) have been viewed as two fractures with a different etiology and requiring a different approach to prevention. The relative proportion of intertrochanteric fractures increases with age in women. In previous studies no particular pattern in men has been noted. In this study, we explored changes in the relative proportion of the two fracture types with age in the two genders. Methods Patients of 50 years and older, with a diagnosis of hip fracture, discharged from two local acute care hospitals over a 5 year period (n = 2150) were analyzed as a function of age and gender to explore the relative proportions of intertrochanteric and subcapital fractures, and the change in relative proportion in the two genders with age. Results Overall, for the genders combined, the proportion of intertrochanteric fractures increases with age (p = .007). In women this increase is significant (p < .001), but in men the opposite pattern is observed, with the proportion of intertrochanteric fractures falling significantly with age (p = .025). Conclusions The pattern of hip fractures is different in men and women with aging. It is likely that the pattern difference reflects differences in type and rate of bone loss in the genders, but it is conjectured that the changing rate and pattern of falling with increasing age may also be important. The two main hip fracture types should be considered distinct and different and be studied separately in studies of cause and prevention. PMID:20214771

  18. Correlates of 15-Year Maintenance of Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of the correlates of sustained physical activity in midlife women, we used longitudinal epidemiologic data to investigate links between sustained physical activity and constructs advocated by three basic behavioral and social science theories: 1) self-determination; 2) social cognitive; and 3) social networks. Methods A random sample of 90 mid-life women, stratified by level of physical activity over 15 years, was selected from the Chicago cohort of the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Using data on self-reported physical activity collected over 15 years, women were categorized into consistently active, spoardically active, and sedentary. New data were collected on theory-relevant constructs, i.e. autonomous motivation (assessed by the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)) and self-efficacy (assessed by the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey). Every SWAN woman identified a close female friend who also completed the physical activity questionnaire. Results SWAN women with higher autonomous motivation (p=0.002) and higher self-efficacy (p<0.001) were more likely to be consistently physically active in analyses adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Sixty one percent of SWAN women with a history of consistent physical activity had a friend who is currently highly active, versus 34% and 23% for sporadically active and sedentary women, respectively (test for trend p=0.008). Conclusions In midlife women, constructs advocated by basic behavioral and social science theories were consistent with long-term patterns of physical activity behavior. Special focus should be given to these basic theories in the design of interventions to promote sustained physical activity in midlife women. PMID:23813123

  19. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-03-01

    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing. PMID:26103691

  20. Bone mineral density is not associated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, In Hyeok; Jung, Ki Jin; Park, Jin Woo; Moon, Sang Young; Park, Moon Seok

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies reported improvement of back pain after osteoporosis treatment, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether osteoporosis is painful. We investigated whether bone mineral density correlated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years. Data for postmenopausal women aged ?50 years were obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Demographics, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, and numeric rating scale for pain in the hip and knee joints, presence of back pain, and activity level were analyzed. Only subjects with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and hip and knee radiographs were included. Those with malignancy, pain medication use, or a history of fragility fractures were excluded. After univariate analysis, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the significant factors correlated with the degree of hip and knee pain. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors significantly associated with the presence of back pain. In total, 387 women were included in the data analysis. Age (p?=?0.005) was the only significant factor correlated with the intensity of hip pain, while Kellgren-Lawrence grade (p?age (p?=?0.002) was the only significant factor associated with the presence of back pain. Musculoskeletal pain was not affected by or associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) of the affected body part in postmenopausal Korean women aged ?50 years after adjusting for the degree of osteoarthritis. PMID:25288023

  1. Regulation of protein metabolism in middle-aged, premenopausal women: roles of adiposity and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Toth, M J; Tchernof, A; Rosen, C J; Matthews, D E; Poehlman, E T

    2000-04-01

    The age-related loss of fat-free mass (FFM) is accelerated in women during the middle-age years and continues at an increased rate throughout the postmenopausal period. Because protein is the primary structural component of fat-free tissue, changes in FFM are largely due to alterations in protein metabolism. Knowledge of the hormonal and physiological correlates of protein metabolism in middle-aged women, therefore, has important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying changes in FFM. We measured leucine kinetics (expressed relative to FFM: micromol/kg FFM/h) in 46 middle-aged, premenopausal women (mean +/- SD, 47 +/- 3 yr) after an overnight fast (i.e. basal) and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (40 mU/m2/min) using a 5.5-h infusion of [1-13C]leucine. Additionally, we measured insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat distribution by computed tomography, and hormone levels by RIA as possible correlates of protein metabolism. Under basal conditions, stepwise regression analysis showed that leucine appearance (i.e. protein breakdown) was related to percent body fat and serum estradiol (r2 = 40%; P < 0.01), and leucine oxidation was related to serum estradiol and percent body fat (r2 = 26%; P < 0.05). Under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic conditions, no variables correlated with the percent change in leucine appearance. The percent change in leucine oxidation was related to intraabdominal adipose tissue area and glucose disposal rate (r2 = 48%; P < 0.01). Correlates and r2 values for nonoxidative leucine disposal (i.e. protein synthesis) under basal and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic conditions were similar to those observed for leucine appearance. From these results, we conclude that adiposity and/or serum estradiol may contribute to the regulation of protein metabolism and FFM in middle-aged, premenopausal women. PMID:10770170

  2. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-11-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2015; 8(6):265-272.]. PMID:26020580

  3. Changes in the muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    PubMed Central

    Mousavikhatir, Roghayeh

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR), timed get up and go (TGUG), single leg stance (SLS), and stairs walking (SW) tests. Results Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier. PMID:23482911

  4. The impact of eliminating age inequalities in stage at diagnosis on breast cancer survival for older women

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, M J; Abel, G A; Greenberg, D C; Lambert, P C; Lyratzopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older women with breast cancer have poorer relative survival outcomes, but whether achieving earlier stage at diagnosis would translate to substantial reductions in mortality is uncertain. Methods: We analysed data on East of England women with breast cancer (20062010) aged 70+ years. We estimated survival for different stage-deprivation-age group strata using both the observed and a hypothetical stage distribution (assuming that all women aged 75+ years acquired the stage distribution of those aged 7074 years). We subsequently estimated deaths that could be postponed beyond 5 years from diagnosis if women aged 75+ years had the hypothetical stage distribution. We projected findings to the English population using appropriate age and socioeconomic group weights. Results: For a typically sized annual cohort in the East of England, 27 deaths in women with breast cancer aged 75+ years can be postponed within 5 years from diagnosis if their stage distribution matched that of the women aged 7074 years (4.8% of all 566 deaths within 5 years post diagnosis in this population). Under assumptions, we estimate that the respective number for England would be 280 deaths (5.0% of all deaths within 5 years post diagnosis in this population). Conclusions: The findings support ongoing development of targeted campaigns aimed at encouraging prompt presentation in older women. PMID:25734394

  5. Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina

    2014-12-01

    The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 g/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ?1 g/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ?$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ?1 g/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406

  6. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  7. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.151.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR?=?1.43, 95% CI?=?1.071.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR?=?1.48, 95% CI?=?1.141.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  8. Knowledge and use of folic acid among women of reproductive age--Michigan, 1998.

    PubMed

    2001-03-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), which include spina bifida and anencephaly, are serious malformations that occur in the developing fetus during the first 17-30 days after conception. Consumption of supplements containing folic acid can reduce NTDs 50%-70%. In the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies are affected by NTDs each year, including approximately 140 infants in Michigan. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age consume at least 400 microg of folic acid daily. In 1998, the Institute of Medicine reaffirmed that recommendation and added that women capable of becoming pregnant take 400 microg of synthetic folic acid daily from fortified foods and/or supplements and consume a balanced, healthy diet of folate-rich foods. This report summarizes findings from the 1998 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) about multivitamin use and folic acid knowledge among women of reproductive age in Michigan. The findings suggest that public health campaigns that promote the consumption of folic acid should target women who are young, unmarried, obese, smoke, eat few fruits and vegetables, and have a low level of education. PMID:11280455

  9. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 women of reproductive age. Data were collected using questionnaires on sociodemographic factors and perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2). The relationship between the dependent variable (perceived social support) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Results The mean score of social support was 134.3??17.9. Women scored highest in the worth dimension and lowest in the social integration dimension. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that the variables of education, spouses occupation, Sufficiency of income for expenses and primary support source were significantly related to the perceived social support. Conclusion Sociodemographic factors affect social support and could be considered in planning interventions to improve social support for Iranian women. PMID:22988834

  10. Childbearing May Increase the Risk of Nondiabetic Cataract in Chinese Women's Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Manqiong; Han, Yaofeng; Fang, Ya; Chu, Cheng-I

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. Ocular changes may arise during pregnancy and after childbirth, but very few studies have reported the association between childbearing and cataract among older adults. Methods. 14,292 individuals aged 60+ years were recruited in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Physician-diagnosed cataract and diabetes status were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Childbearing status was measured by number of children (NOC). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted to examine the relationships among NOC, diabetes, and cataract. Gender-specific logistic models regressing nondiabetic cataract on NOC were performed by adjusting some covariates. Results. 14,119 participants had complete data, of whom 5.01% suffered from cataract, with higher prevalence in women than men (6.41% versus 3.51%). Estimates of SEM models for women suggested that both NOC and diabetes were risk factors for cataract and that no correlation existed between NOC and diabetes. Women who had one or more children faced roughly 24 times higher risk of nondiabetic cataract than their childless counterparts (OR [95% CI] = 3.88 [1.24, 17.71], 3.21 [1.04, 14.52], 4.32 [1.42, 19.44], 4.41 [1.46, 19.74], and 3.98 [1.28, 18.10] for having 1, 2, 3, 4-5, and 6 or more children, resp.). Conclusions. Childbearing may increase the risk of nondiabetic cataract in Chinese women's older age. PMID:26351572

  11. The relationship between self-report and biomarkers of stress in low-income, reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Ann E.B; Grobman, William A.; Amsden, Laura B.; McDade, Thomas W.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if there is an association between self-reported and biologic measures of stress in low-income, reproductive age women. STUDY DESIGN Between 1999 and 2005, randomly selected reproductive age women from the 1998 welfare rolls in Chicago were interviewed yearly to assess psychosocial, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. The association of two stress sensitive biomarkers (Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer (EBV) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level) with self-reported stress was assessed. RESULTS Of the 206 women interviewed, 205 (99%) agreed to provide a blood sample. There was no difference in mean EBV or CRP levels based on age, race, parity, employment, marital status, or education. Women who reported a higher degree of perceived stress or reported experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of EBV (p < .05). CONCLUSION Measures of self-reported psychosocial stress are associated with elevated levels EBV antibody in a low-income population of reproductive age women. PMID:20870203

  12. Targeting of Mammography Screening by Life Expectancy Among Women Aged 75 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Breslau, Erica S.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine receipt of mammography screening by life expectancy (LE) among women ?75 years. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional survey of community dwelling US women ?75 years that participated in the 2008 or 2010 National Health Interview Survey. MEASUREMENTS Using an index we previously developed and validated, we categorized women according to life expectancy (>9-years, 59 years, <5-years). We examined receipt of mammography screening in the past 2 years by life expectancy adjusting for sociodemographics, access to care, preventive orientation (e.g., receipt of flu vaccination), and receipt of a clinician recommendation for screening. RESULTS Of 2,266 respondents, 27.1% had >9-years LE, 53.4% had 59 years LE, and 19.5% had <5-years LE. Overall, 55.7% reported receiving mammography screening in the past 2 years. Life expectancy was strongly associated with receipt of screening (p<0.001); yet, 36.1% of women with <5-years LE were screened while 29.2% of women with >9-years LE were not screened. A clinician recommendation for screening was the strongest predictor of screening independent of life expectancy. Higher educational attainment, age, receipt of flu vaccination, and history of benign breast biopsy, were also independently associated with being screened. CONCLUSION Despite uncertainty of benefit, many women >75 years are screened with mammography. Life expectancy is strongly associated with receipt of screening which may reflect clinicians and patients appropriately considering LE in screening decisions. However, 36% of women with short LEs are still screened suggesting new interventions are needed to further improve targeting of screening by LE. Patient decision aids and guidelines encouraging clinicians to consider patient LE in screening decisions may improve care. PMID:23414437

  13. A hidden reason for menopausal symptoms in premenopausal aged women: depression

    PubMed Central

    Cekmez, Yasemin; Torun, Fuat; Gmen, Ahmet; ?anl?kan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between depression and reproductive hormone changes in menopausal women is well konown but recent animal studies showed that depression can also cause changes in reproductive hormone levels. According to this, we aimed to eveluate the impact of depression on circulating follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels in premenopausal women in terms of menopausal symptoms. Material-method: A total of 120 premenoupausal women (age ranges 41-45) were divided into two groups as: study group consisted of patients (n = 60) with depression and the control group (n = 60) involved healthy women. Psychometric assessment of study group was done by the Turkish version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnosis.The presence of menopausal symptoms of all subjects was assessed by the Turkish version of Menopause Rating Scale and hormonal activity by estimating estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Results: Study group had significantly lower mean concentration of estradiol and higher intensity of menopausal symptoms than control group. Presence and severity of menopausal symptoms were not associated with follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm the connection between menopausal symptoms and depression both on clinical and physiological level.The current study is unique in its ability to assess the effects of depression on menopausal symptoms in women as they are still reproductive. PMID:26131239

  14. Knowledge and use of folic acid by women of childbearing age--United States, 1995.

    PubMed

    1995-09-29

    Each year in the United States approximately 2500 infants are born with spina bifida and anencephaly (1), and an estimated 1500 fetuses affected by these birth defects are aborted. Recent studies indicate that the B vitamin folic acid can reduce the risk for spina bifida and anencephaly by at least 50% when consumed daily before conception and during early pregnancy. In September 1992, the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily (1). Folic acid can be obtained from multivitamins or other supplements containing folic acid and some breakfast cereals. This report summarizes the results of a survey conducted during January-February 1995 regarding knowledge and practices of women of childbearing age in the United States about consumption of folic acid from supplements and breakfast cereals. PMID:7675019

  15. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  16. Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices. PMID:25500343

  17. Changes in aerobic power of women, ages 20-64 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Beard, E. F.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak) of women. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 409 healthy women, ages 20-64 yr. The 43 women of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 3.7 (+/-2.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill test. The zero-order correlation of -0.742 between VO2peak and %fat was significantly (P < 0.05) higher then the SR-PA (r = 0.626) and age correlations (r = -0.633). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.537 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.851) showed that adding %fat and SR-PA and their interaction to the regression model reduced the age regression weight of -0.537, to -0.265 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results. These findings are consistent with men's data from the same lab showing that about 50% of the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak was due to %fat and SR-PA.

  18. Facial rejuvenation for middle-aged women: a combined approach with minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation is a significant process involved in restoring youthfulness. The introduction of less invasive procedures has increased acceptance of such procedures. Often a combination of different techniques allows individualized treatment with optimal outcomes. Furthermore, this leads to a natural look without a significant downtime. We report herein the use of such a combined approach in middle-aged women with particular emphasis on botulinum toxin type A, dermal fillers, and chemical peels. PMID:20924438

  19. [Effectiveness of medical rehabilitation of women of reproductive age with fatigue syndrome].

    PubMed

    Udovika, N O; Romanenko, I Iu; Lieonov, O O

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy Erbisol in combination with Lymphomyosot and Echinacea compositum C in medical rehabilitation of women of reproductive age with fatigue syndrome and chronic gynecological pathology was studied. It was found that this complex of medications promotes faster and more effective reduction of the level of circulating immune complexes in the serum, achievement of persistent clinical remission of disease and liquidation of fatigue syndrome manifestations, what improves the quality of life of patients. PMID:25286603

  20. Ageing and the pursuit of slimness: dietary restraint and weight satisfaction in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, M M; Burnett, L

    1994-09-01

    Dieting and body dissatisfaction are highly prevalent amongst young women. In this study, dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, eating attitudes and body satisfaction were compared in elderly (ES) and young (YS) normal weight women. Dietary restraint and eating attitudes were similar across age groups. Differences between current body weight and desired body weight were equivalent for both age groups (ES, M = 10.8, SEM = 1.8 lb; YS, M = 11.3, SEM = 1.2 lb), although young women (Body Shape Questionnaire, BSQ, M = 78.5, SEM = 5.8) reported significantly greater dissatisfaction with their bodies than the elderly (BSQ, M = 61.7, SEM = 2.9). Of the elderly who had dieted, the majority had dieted five times or less, had started dieting between the ages of 40 and 50 years, and very few had dieted in their teens or twenties (< 8 per cent). Despite normal weight status, desire to lose weight and attempts to achieve this are experienced by young and old alike. PMID:7994225

  1. Knowledge and Acceptability about Adult Pertussis Immunization in Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Wie, Jeong Ha; Cheon, Juyoung; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been introduced in order to provide individual protection and reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis to infants. We assessed the knowledge and acceptability of the Tdap vaccine around pregnancy. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women of childbearing age (20-45 years) who visited obstetrics and gynecologic units of primary, secondary, or tertiary hospitals. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of Tdap. Results The questionnaire was completed by 308 women; 293 (95.1%) had not received information from doctors about Tdap, and 250 (81.2%) did not know about the need for vaccination. A significantly important factor related to subjects' intention to be vaccinated, identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression, was the knowledge (OR 13.5, CI 3.92-46.33) that adult Tdap is effective in preventing pertussis for infants aged 0-6 months. Additionally, 276 (89.6%) considered the recommendation of obstetric doctors as the most influencing factor about Tdap vaccination. Conclusion In Korea, most women of childbearing age seem to be neither recommended nor adequately informed about the vaccination, although our population was not a nationwide representative sample. Information given by healthcare workers may be critical for improving awareness and preventing pertussis. PMID:26069132

  2. Nutrition and Depression: Implications for Improving Mental Health Among Childbearing-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is needed for countless aspects of brain functioning. Poor diet quality, ubiquitous in the United States, may be a modifiable risk factor for depression. The objective was to review and synthesize the current knowledge of the role of nutrition in depression, and address implications for childbearing-aged women. Poor omega-3 fatty acid status increases the risk of depression. Fish oil and folic acid supplements each have been used to treat depression successfully. Folate deficiency reduces the response to antidepressants. Deficiencies of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, and selenium tend to be more common among depressed than nondepressed persons. Dietary antioxidants have not been studied rigorously in relation to depression. Childbearing-aged women are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of poor nutrition on mood because pregnancy and lactation are major nutritional stressors to the body. The depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and a lack of recovery postpartum may increase a woman’s risk of depression. Prospective research studies are needed to clarify the role of nutrition in the pathophysiology of depression among childbearing-aged women. Greater attention to nutritional factors in mental health is warranted given that nutrition interventions can be inexpensive, safe, easy to administer, and generally acceptable to patients. PMID:16040007

  3. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Menstrual Irregularity in Middle-Aged Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Su; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Kim, Young Eun; Lee, Sung Ho; Han, Kyung Do; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Menstrual irregularity is a common major complaint in women of reproductive age. It is also a known marker for underlying insulin resistance. We investigated the association between menstrual irregularity and metabolic syndrome in the general population of middle-aged women in Korea. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. A total of 2,742 subjects were included in the analysis. Participants were divided into two categories based on their menstrual cycle regularity and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its variables was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Adjusted analyses revealed significantly higher odds ratios for metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with the presence of menstrual irregularity. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome and its components (high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) were significantly associated with menstrual irregularity in women of reproductive age. PMID:26885320

  4. [APPLICATION OF LASER TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE].

    PubMed

    Leshunov, E V; Martov, A G

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a significant health problem with considerable social impact. Prospective study was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of erbium laser (Er:Yag 2940 nm) for treatment urinary stress incontinence in women of reproductive age and its influence on quality of life in the area of sexuality. 37 women (mean age 36,2 years) with mild and moderate urinary stress incontinence were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 20 women of similar age. Treatment was delivered in outpatient settings without anesthesia and sedation. Laser system Dermablate MCL 31 (Asclepion Laser Technologies, Germany) with a set of vaginal heads V-Asclepion was employed. All patients underwent examination including Q-tip test and Valsalva maneuver and completed ICIQ-SF H FSFI forms. Within 1 month postoperatively all 37 patients noted significant reduction ofurinarystress incontinence symptoms and favorable changes in quality of sexual life. Positive trend was found in urethrovesical junction angle changes. No postoperative complications were registered. The findings from this prospective study confirmed high efficacy and an acceptable safety profile of the new treatment of urinary stress incontinence. PMID:26094384

  5. Psychosocial Stress at Work Doubles the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Heraclides, Alexandros; Chandola, Tarani; Witte, Daniel R.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of psychosocial stress at work on risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for conventional risk factors, among a sample of British, white-collar, middle-aged men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective analysis (1991–2004) from the Whitehall II cohort study. The current sample consists of 5,895 Caucasian middle-aged civil servants free from diabetes at baseline. Type 2 diabetes was ascertained by an oral glucose tolerance test supplemented by self-reports at baseline and four consecutive waves of data collection including two screening phases. The job strain and iso-strain models were used to assess psychosocial work stress. RESULTS Iso-strain in the workplace was associated with a twofold higher risk of type 2 diabetes in age-adjusted analysis in women but not in men (hazard ratio 1.94 [95% CI 1.17–3.21). This effect remained robust to adjustment for socioeconomic position and outside work stressors and was only attenuated by 20% after adjustment for health behaviors, obesity, and other type 2 diabetes risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial work stress was an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes among women after a 15-year follow-up. This association was not explained by potential confounding and mediating factors. More evidence from prospective studies using the same work stress models is needed to support the current findings and provide further information on sex differences. PMID:19720842

  6. Achievement and identity in college-age vs. adult women students.

    PubMed

    Freilino, M K; Hummel, R

    1985-02-01

    This study tested a developmental hypothesis with respect to Fear of Success (FOS), Identity Status, and the relationship between the two. Forty college students, equally divided between regular college-age women (18-23) and adult college women (over age 30), were given a multiple-choice and a projective measure of FOS; they were then interviewed regarding exploration and commitment in five content areas: vocation, family vs. career priority, politics, religion, and sex roles. The hypothesis that the adult students would exhibit less FOS than their college-age counterparts was confirmed with both measures of FOS. Chi-square analysis also revealed that a significantly higher proportion of the adult students was classified as identity-achieved and a lower proportion as identity-diffuse than the college-age students. The influence of life experience on the relationship between FOS and each identity status could not be tested due to an insufficient number of identity achievers in the college-age subsample; when the relationship of FOS to identity status was examined for the total sample, however, foreclosures and achievers manifested significantly less FOS than diffusions and moratoriums. PMID:24301039

  7. Aging and the Skeletal Muscle Angiogenic Response to Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P; Kraus, Raymond M; Carrithers, John A; Garry, Joseph P; Hickner, Robert C

    2015-10-01

    Whether aging lowers skeletal muscle basal capillarization and angiogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the effects of aging on skeletal muscle capillarization, eight young (YW) and eight aged (AW) women completed 8 weeks of exercise training. The response and relationships of muscle capillarization, interstitial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvascular blood flow to aerobic exercise training were investigated. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained before and after exercise training for the measurement of capillarization. Muscle interstitial VEGF protein and microvascular blood flow were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at PRE, 1-WK, and 8-WKS by microdialysis. Exercise training increased (20%-25%) capillary contacts of type I, IIA, and IIB fibers in YW and AW. Interstitial VEGF protein was higher in AW than YW at rest and was higher in YW than AW during exercise independent of training status. Differences in muscle capillarization were not explained by secreted VEGF nor were differences in VEGF explained by microvascular blood flow. These results confirm that aging (57-76 years age range) does not impair the muscle angiogenic response to exercise training, although sex differences may exist in similarly trained women and men. PMID:25182597

  8. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ() software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth of the superficial reticular dermis. PMID:26066511

  9. Screening Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Cheryl L.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Morrow, John; Majette, Nadya; Sisneros, Jessica A.; Ronay, Ashley; Farr, Sherry L.; Urrutia, Rachel Peragallo; Dietz, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying and treating chronic diseases, their precursors, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during family planning visits may improve long-term health and reproductive outcomes among low-income women. A cross-sectional study design was used to describe the prevalence of chronic diseases (hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes), their precursors (pre-hypertension, borderline high cholesterol, and pre-diabetes), and related CVD risk factors (such as obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity) among low-income women of reproductive age. Methods Prevalence of chronic diseases, their precursors, and related CVD risk factors were assessed for 462 out of 859 (53.8%) female family planning patients, ages 18–44 years, who attended a Title X clinic in eastern North Carolina during 2011 and 2012 and consented to participate. Data were obtained from clinical measurements, blood test results, and questionnaire. Differences in distribution of demographic and health care characteristics and CVD risk factors by presence of prehypertension and pre-diabetes were assessed by Pearson chi-square tests. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 12%, high cholesterol 16%, and diabetes 3%. Nearly two-thirds of women with hypertension were newly diagnosed (62%) as were 75% of women with diabetes. The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 35%, pre-diabetes 31%, obesity 41%, smoking 32%, and physical inactivity 42%. The majority of participants (87%) had one or more chronic disease or related cardiovascular disease risk factor. Conclusions CVD screening during family planning visits can identify significant numbers of women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes and future chronic disease and can provide prevention opportunities if effective interventions are available and acceptable to this population. PMID:23531099

  10. Genetic and Environmental Causes of Variation in the Difference Between Biological Age Based on DNA Methylation and Chronological Age for Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wong, Ee Ming; Joo, JiHoon E; Jung, Chol-Hee; Chung, Jessica; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Dite, Gillian S; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L

    2015-12-01

    The disease- and mortality-related difference between biological age based on DNA methylation and chronological age (?age) has been found to have approximately 40% heritability by assuming that the familial correlation is only explained by additive genetic factors. We calculated two different ?age measures for 132 middle-aged female twin pairs (66 monozygotic and 66 dizygotic twin pairs) and their 215 sisters using DNA methylation data measured by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. For each ?age measure, and their combined measure, we estimated the familial correlation for MZ, DZ and sibling pairs using the multivariate normal model for pedigree analysis. We also pooled our estimates with those from a former study to estimate weighted average correlations. For both ?age measures, there was familial correlation that varied across different types of relatives. No evidence of a difference was found between the MZ and DZ pair correlations, or between the DZ and sibling pair correlations. The only difference was between the MZ and sibling pair correlations (p < .01), and there was marginal evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). For weighted average correlation, there was evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than the DZ pair correlation (p < .03), and marginally greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). The varied familial correlation of ?age is not explained by additive genetic factors alone, implying the existence of shared non-genetic factors explaining variation in ?age for middle-aged women. PMID:26527295

  11. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives. PMID:12314886

  12. Women's work, worry and fear: the portrayal of sexuality and sexual health in US magazines for teenage and middle-aged women, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on an exploratory content analysis of the portrayal of sexuality, sexual health and disease in select magazines designed for two groups of women: teenagers and women in the 40-50-year-old age category in the USA. The analysis found that magazine portrayal was both similar for the two groups of women and distinctly different. Neither group of magazines focused on women's sexual desire. Both kinds of magazines emphasized that it was women's work and worry to control sexual expression. Teenagers were described as responsible for avoiding sex in order to prevent pregnancy, fearsomely described STIs and untrustworthy male sexual partners. Abstinence was presented as the only viable option for young women. Women in the 40-50-year-old age group were portrayed as responsible for the emotion work and sexual relations linked to their responsibility for maintaining their marriages and fulfilling their tasks of motherhood, especially through the monitoring of the sexuality of their female children. Sex was characterized in terms akin to women's work within the home. Possible explanations for, and consequences of, these presentations of sexuality are discussed. PMID:19337889

  13. Accuracy of BMI to detect percent fat obesity in men and women, ages 17 to 39: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A BMI of 30 kg/m2 is used to define obesity of men and women of all ages. Using variable samples, investigators have shown that age and gender account for percent fat (%Fat) variance independent of BMI. This age and gender bias can be traced to the inability of BMI to distinguish between the body's ...

  14. A photographic scale for the evaluation of facial skin aging in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Bernois, Armand; Huber, Alexia; Derome, Caroline; Drouault, Yorik; de Qural, Delphine; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Heusle, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The process of facial skin aging differs between different ethnic populations. Standardized tools to objectively evaluate facial skin aging in clinical and epidemiological studies in different ethnic populations are needed. We designed and validated a photonumeric scale for assessment of facial aging in the Indian population. A total of 149 subjects were selected from an electronic photographic database of 300 women from the Mumbai region. An expert consensus panel selected nine subjects representing a spectrum of skin damage from none to severe, on the basis of wrinkling and tissue slackening. The nine-point scale, composed of one face-on and one oblique photo of the same subject per grade, was validated by nine independent judges in 99 subjects with a repetition two weeks later. Inter-observer reliability and intra-observer reproducibility were calculated using Kappa coefficients. Validation of the scale showed a high level of inter-observer reliability between the consensus and independent panels, and intra-observer reproducibility between the two evaluations performed by the independent judges. In conclusion, this nine-point facial aging scale is a reliable tool for clinical evaluations of skin damage in Indian women, suitable for use in clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:21719407

  15. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Labial Salivary Glands Reveals Age-Related Differences in Women.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jan Krzysztof; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2015-12-01

    The labial minor salivary glands (LSGs) play a role in medical research and practice due to their superficial location and involvement in both systemic and localized diseases. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive modality that enables in vivo, micrometer resolution, wide-field three-dimensional imaging in seconds. A purpose-built swept-source OCT instrument was employed to acquire three-dimensional datasets covering the area of 2.43cm(2) of the mucosa of the lower lip to the depth of 3.4 mm in young (n = 14; mean age SD: 27 3years; body mass index [BMI] 20.4 2.3kg/m(2) ) and middle-aged women (n = 11; 54 6years; 25.5 3.2kg/m(2) ). Glandular tissue reflectivity mode (range 0-255; 86 17 vs. 68 12, p = 0.005), average single LSG area in tissue sample (5.26 2.62 mm(2) vs. 2.87 1.26 mm(2) , p = 0.011), and LSG surface filling factor (0.23 0.13 vs. 0.11 0.10, p = 0.027) had higher values in younger than in middle-aged women. A correlation between BMI and glandular tissue reflectivity mode (Spearman's ? = -0.60) was found (p = 0.002). The results highlight the potential value of LSGs' OCT morphometry in research regarding ageing. PMID:26530049

  16. Occupational mortality of women aged 15-59 years at death in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, K A; Goldblatt, P O

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to analyse occupational mortality differences among women using follow up data from a large nationally representative sample. DESIGN--Occupational information was obtained from the 1971 census records of women in the Longitudinal Study carried out by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) and related to their subsequent mortality in the period between the 1971 and 1981 censuses. SETTING--In the Longitudinal Study, census, vital statistics, and other OPCS records are linked for a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. The women studied in this paper were drawn from the 513,071 persons in the 1971 census who were included in the Longitudinal Study and whose entries were traced at the National Health Service Central Register by 1977. PARTICIPANTS--The analysis was based on 77,081 women aged 15-59 years in the Longitudinal Study for whom occupational information was collected in the 1971 census (99% of whom were in paid employment in the week before the census). There were 1553 deaths among these women in the follow up period analysed here. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Numbers of deaths in each occupational group at census were compared to those expected on the basis of age specific death rates among all women in the study. "Professional, technical workers, and artists" had significantly low mortality while "Engineering and allied trades workers nec" had significantly high mortality. Among the latter, cancer mortality of electrical production process workers was extremely high. A number of other cause specific associations (which appear to confirm proportionate Decennial Supplement analyses) were suggested by the data; examples include high levels of mortality from ischaemic heart disease among cooks, lung cancer and respiratory disease among charwomen and cleaners, and accidents, poisonings, and violence among several groups of professional and technical workers. CONCLUSIONS--By using prospective follow up from the census, occupational differences in mortality can be identified among women in paid employment. As follow up of this study continues, numbers of deaths available for analysis will increase, allowing increasingly comprehensive analyses to be undertaken. PMID:2072070

  17. ACTN3 genotype is associated with muscle phenotypes in women across the adult age span

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Sean; Liu, Dongmei; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi; Roth, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    The R577X polymorphism in the ?-actinin-3 encoding gene (ACTN3) has been associated with elite athletic performance, and recently with differences in isometric and dynamic muscle strength and power in the general population. In this study we sought to determine the association of ACTN3 R577X genotype with muscle strength and mass phenotypes in men and women across the adult age span. Eight hundred forty-eight (n = 848) adult volunteers (454 men and 394 women) aged 2290 yr were genotyped for ACTN3 R577X. Knee extensor (KE) shortening and lengthening peak torque values were determined using isokinetic dynamometry and fat-free mass (FFM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Women deficient in ?-actinin-3 (X/X; n = 53) displayed lower KE shortening peak torque (30/s: 89.5 3.5 vs. 99.3 1.4 Nm, P = 0.011; 180/s: 60.3 2.6 vs. 67.0 1.0 Nm, P = 0.019) and KE lengthening peak torque (30/s: 122.8 5.7 vs. 137.0 2.2 Nm, P = 0.022; 180/s: 121.8 5.8 vs. 138.5 2.2 Nm, P = 0.008) compared with R/X + R/R women (n = 341). Women X/X homozygotes also displayed lower levels of both total body FFM (38.9 0.5 vs. 40.1 0.2 kg, P = 0.040) and lower limb FFM (11.9 0.2 vs. 12.5 0.1 kg, P = 0.044) compared with R/X + R/R women. No genotype-related differences were observed in men. In conclusion, our results indicate that the absence of ?-actinin-3 protein (i.e., ACTN3 X/X genotype) influences KE peak torque and FFM in women but not men. PMID:18756004

  18. The Prevalence of Using Iodine-Containing Supplements Is Low among Reproductive-Age Women, NHANES 1999200612

    PubMed Central

    Gahche, Jaime J.; Bailey, Regan L.; Mirel, Lisa B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy, the iodine requirement rises to meet demands for neurological development and fetal growth. If these requirements are not met, irreversible pathological cognitive and behavioral changes to the fetus may ensue. This study estimated the prevalence of iodine-containing dietary supplement (DS) use and intakes of iodine from DSs among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (1539 y) who were interviewed and examined in NHANES 19992006 (n = 6404). Although 77.5% of pregnant women reported taking one or more DSs in the past 30 d, only 22.3% consumed an iodine-containing supplement. Most pregnant women reported using one DS and reported taking this product daily. The vast majority of iodine-containing DSs reported by pregnant women claimed an iodine content of 150 ?g iodine/serving on the label. Pregnant women using at least one DS containing iodine had a mean daily iodine intake of 122 ?g/d from supplements; the median value was 144 ?g/d. Median urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant women in the population aged 1539 y. The median UIC was 148 ?g/L for pregnant women and 133 ?g/L for nonpregnant women. The WHO has established a cutoff for insufficient iodine intake at <150 ?g/L for pregnant women and <100 mg/L for those who are not pregnant. This suggests that as a population, we may not be meeting adequate intakes of iodine for pregnant women. More research is needed on the iodine intakes of pregnant women and women of reproductive age on their total iodine intake from all sources, not just DSs. PMID:23616501

  19. Pregnancy-specific Stress, Preterm Birth, and Gestational Age Among High-risk Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Ann Yonkers, Kimberly; Lin, Haiqun; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence that pregnancy-specific stress is associated with preterm birth. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between change in pregnancy-specific stress over the course of pregnancy and birth outcomes (i.e., preterm birth and gestational age) in an understudied, but vulnerable group using a theoretically-derived model. Methods Multivariate linear and logistic regression techniques were used to examine the association between pregnancy-specific stress (measured in second and third trimester) and length of gestation (i.e. preterm birth and gestational age) among a sample of 920 Black and/or Latina adolescent and young women. Results Second trimester pregnancy-specific stress was not associated with preterm birth or gestational age. Third trimester pregnancy-specific stress was associated with preterm birth, but not with gestational age. Change in pregnancy-specific stress between second and third trimester was significantly associated with increased likelihood of preterm delivery and shortened gestational age, even after controlling for important biological, behavioral, psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural risk factors. Conclusions Findings emphasize the importance of measuring pregnancy-specific stress across pregnancy, as the longitudinal change from second to third trimester was significantly associated with length of gestation measured both as a dichotomous variable (preterm birth) and a continuous variable (gestational age). Furthermore, this is the first study to observe the association of pregnancy-specific stress with length of gestation in this understudied population–unique in age, race, and ethnicity. PMID:24447189

  20. DNA methylation age of blood predicts future onset of lung cancer in the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Brian; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Horvath, Steve

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer is considered an age-associated disease, whose progression is in part due to accumulation of genomic instability as well as age-related decline in system integrity and function. Thus even among individuals exposed to high levels of genotoxic carcinogens, such as those found in cigarette smoke, lung cancer susceptibility may vary as a function of individual differences in the rate of biological aging. We recently developed a highly accurate candidate biomarker of aging based on DNA methylation (DNAm) levels, which may prove useful in assessing risk of aging-related diseases, such as lung cancer. Using data on 2,029 females from the Women's Health Initiative, we examined whether baseline measures of "intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration" (IEAA) predicted subsequent lung cancer incidence. We observed 43 lung cancer cases over the nearly twenty years of follow-up. Results showed that standardized measures of IEAA were significantly associated with lung cancer incidence (HR: 1.50, P=3.4x10-3). Furthermore, stratified Cox proportional hazard models suggested that the association may be even stronger among older individuals (70 years or above) or those who are current smokers. Overall, our results suggest that IEAA may be a useful biomarker for evaluating lung cancer susceptibility from a biological aging perspective. PMID:26411804

  1. Age-related changes in platelet function are more profound in women than in men.

    PubMed

    Cowman, Jonathan; Dunne, Eimear; Oglesby, Irene; Byrne, Barry; Ralph, Adam; Voisin, Bruno; Mllers, Sieglinde; Ricco, Antonio J; Kenny, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Age is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), however the effect of age on platelet function remains unclear. Ideally, platelet function should be assayed under flow and shear conditions that occur in vivo. Our study aimed to characterise the effect of age on platelet translocation behaviour using a novel flow-based assay that measures platelet function in less than 200??l of blood under conditions of arterial shear. Blood from males (n?=?53) and females (n?=?56), ranging in age from 19-82 and 21-70 respectively were perfused through custom-made parallel plate flow chambers coated with immobilised human von Willebrand Factor (VWF) under arterial shear (1,500 s(-1)). Platelet translocation behaviour on VWF was recorded by digital-image microscopy and analysed. The study showed that aging resulted in a significant decrease in the number of platelet tracks, translocating platelets and unstable platelet interactions with VWF. These age related changes in platelet function were more profound in women than in men indicating that age and gender significantly impacts on platelet interactions with VWF. PMID:26179119

  2. Age-related changes in platelet function are more profound in women than in men

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, Jonathan; Dunne, Eimear; Oglesby, Irene; Byrne, Barry; Ralph, Adam; Voisin, Bruno; Mllers, Sieglinde; Ricco, Antonio J.; Kenny, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Age is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), however the effect of age on platelet function remains unclear. Ideally, platelet function should be assayed under flow and shear conditions that occur in vivo. Our study aimed to characterise the effect of age on platelet translocation behaviour using a novel flow-based assay that measures platelet function in less than 200??l of blood under conditions of arterial shear. Blood from males (n?=?53) and females (n?=?56), ranging in age from 1982 and 2170 respectively were perfused through custom-made parallel plate flow chambers coated with immobilised human von Willebrand Factor (VWF) under arterial shear (1,500s?1). Platelet translocation behaviour on VWF was recorded by digital-image microscopy and analysed. The study showed that aging resulted in a significant decrease in the number of platelet tracks, translocating platelets and unstable platelet interactions with VWF. These age related changes in platelet function were more profound in women than in men indicating that age and gender significantly impacts on platelet interactions with VWF. PMID:26179119

  3. Decline in muscle mass with age in women: a longitudinal study using an indirect measure.

    PubMed

    Davies, K Michael; Heaney, Robert P; Rafferty, Karen

    2002-07-01

    Muscle mass is known to decline with age, but only limited longitudinal data exist to quantify the rate of loss. Using 24-hour urine creatinine, corrected for the contribution of dietary meat intake, we assessed the change with age prospectively in 107 women who provided a minimum of 3 sets of measurements spanning an average interval of 11.9 years, centered around age 55 years. The rate of change in 24-hour urine creatinine at that age averaged -0.94%/yr (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.24% to -0.64%/yr; P <.001). Change in creatinine excretion was directly correlated with change in weight (P <.01), with those gaining weight tending to gain both lean and fat mass. The rate of change in creatinine excretion with age in our subjects is similar to that described in published cross-sectional studies on age-related change in total body potassium and in longitudinal studies using (40)K and dual-energy xray absorptiometry. Our study is the largest longitudinal study reported to date and provides, perhaps, a more secure basis for estimating muscle mass change with age than has been available heretofore. PMID:12077745

  4. In the Margins: The Impact of Sexualised Images on the Mental Health of Ageing Women.

    PubMed

    Hine, Rochelle

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes key findings of a study exploring how a cohort of 16 rural Australian women aged over 60 years think, feel and respond to the prevalence of sexualised imagery in the media. The qualitative research framework was informed by Feminist Standpoint Theory. Participants in three focus groups responded to semi-structured questions and prompts, interspersed with viewing examples of sexualised images. Five strong thematic categories emerged: concern for the harmful impacts of sexualised images on the vulnerable, the media's portrayal of sexual content with a focus on physical appearance and youth, descriptions of the impact of viewing sexualised images, moderators of the impact of sexualised images on well-being, and marginalisation of women in the media. Findings from this research indicate that sexualised images in the media do have an impact on older women's self image and mental health in numerous ways and in a range of situations. Emotional impacts included sadness, anger, concern, envy, desensitisation, marginalisation, and discomfort that their appearance was being judged by others. A strong sense of self apart from appearance, feeling valued by family and community, ignoring or overlooking media content, and being aware that media images are not real and attainable helped buffer the link between sexualised images and well-being. Another important finding is that the impact is variable: women may experience different responses to similar sexualised content depending on a range of social, health and lifestyle factors affecting them at any given time. PMID:22003264

  5. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. PMID:24934272

  6. Characteristics of middle-aged women in inpatient treatment for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Forman, Maryelizabeth; Davis, William N

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined descriptive characteristics of women 35 years and older seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder. A second purpose was to compare characteristics and treatment experiences of midlife patients to young adult patients. Participants were 193 women admitted for treatment to a residential eating disorders facility. All of the women received the standard inpatient treatment package offered by the treatment facility. Participants completed measures of eating attitudes, depression, anxiety, body image, and media influence at admission and discharge and a program assessment measure at discharge. Results revealed comparable scores on measures of eating attitudes, anxiety, and depression at admission, although younger patients scored significantly higher on measures of body image and media influence at admission. With regard to treatment experience, midlife patients experienced greater change with regard to depression and body image dissatisfaction and described family therapy and grief and loss group therapy as being significantly more helpful than young adult patients. There appears to be a number of similarities across age cohorts in terms of clinical presentation, but underlying causal factors may differ between age groups. In general, midlife patients and young patients describe the standard treatment package as equally helpful, although midlife patients might also benefit from groups addressing grief and loss. PMID:16864530

  7. Valproic acid use in psychiatry: issues in treating women of reproductive age.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, D; Koren, G

    1998-01-01

    Valproic acid, a well known anticonvulsant, is being used by psychiatrists increasingly to manage bipolar and other affective disorders. Because of the demographics of the population affected by such psychiatric conditions, more women of childbearing age are likely to be exposed to this teratogenic drug. Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common of the major anomalies associated with in utero valproic acid exposure, and are estimated to occur in 1% to 2% of exposed fetuses. Other teratogenic effects include facial dysmorphism, congenital cardiac defects, limb reduction defects and other skeletal anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis, in particular maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening and targeted ultrasonography, should be offered to all pregnant women exposed to valproic acid and couples need to be aware of the prenatal diagnostic options available to them. Periconceptual prophylaxis with high doses of folic acid is recommended for all women on valproic acid and counselling should also emphasize planning pregnancy to optimize folic acid supplementation. Psychiatrists should be aware of the teratogenic potential of valproic acid and know how to counsel their patients of reproductive age. PMID:9785701

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Recent and Repeat Mammography Among California Women Ages 5579

    PubMed Central

    Rakowski, William; Wyn, Roberta; Breen, Nancy; Meissner, Helen; Clark, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Data on repeat mammography rates are less available than for recent screening. Two large, population-based state surveys provide the opportunity to investigate repeat and recent mammography prevalence and correlates among Californias diverse population. Methods Data were from women aged 5579, using the 2001 and 2005 California Health Interview Surveys. The study assessed the prevalence and correlates of recent mammography (within the past two years) and repeat mammography (mammogram within the past two years and 311 mammograms within the past 6 years). Results Prevalence was 82.4% (recent) and 73.8% (repeat) in 2001, and 87.1% (recent) and 77.5% (repeat) in 2005. Correlates of lower rates were insurance status, no usual source of care, being a smoker, age 6579, being Asian with no English proficiency, being never married, and lower absolute risk for breast cancer. Especially low ratios of repeat-to-recent mammography existed for the uninsured, and those using the emergency room or with no source of care. Unexpected findings in which unadjusted results were inconsistent with multivariable adjusted results occurred for Latinas with no English proficiency and women at 200299% of poverty level. Conclusions Several groups of women in California remain at-risk of lower mammography utilization. However, investigators should also be alert for instances where multivariable analyses seem particularly discrepant with crude rates. PMID:20303844

  9. Bone density parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women.

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, K. T.; Sneyd, M. J.; Compston, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between bone density and indices of calcium metabolism including parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women. DESIGN--A cross sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--138 women volunteers aged 45-65 with no known osteoporosis and unselected for disease status recruited for a dietary assessment study from the community using general practice registers. Volunteer rate was 20%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Bone mineral density measured with dual energy x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--Bone density at the lumbar spine and neck and trochanteric regions of the femur was inversely related to serum intact parathyroid hormone concentrations and positively related to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. These associations were independent of possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index, cigarette smoking habit, menopausal status, and use of diuretics and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. These associations were apparent throughout the whole distribution of bone density and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations within the normal range, suggesting a physiological relation. CONCLUSIONS--The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations influence bone density in middle aged women. Findings from this study together with other work suggest that the role of vitamin D in osteoporosis should not be neglected. The associations with parathyroid hormone also indicate plausible biological mechanisms. The roughly 5-10% difference in bone density between top and bottom tertiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, though not large in magnitude, may have considerable public health implications in terms of prevention of osteoporosis and its sequelae, fractures. PMID:1392857

  10. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral

  11. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  12. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  13. USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age
    *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    In the United States, sampling women o...

  14. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  15. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus

  16. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study

  17. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  18. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid thickness in postmenopausal women and reproductive-age women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ata?, Mustafa; Aksoy, Hseyin; Demircan, Sleyman; Gkta?, Altan; Arifo?lu, Hasan Basri; Zarars?z, Gkmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Menopause is a physiological life period that potentially affects various organs and systems. Therefore, a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms of eyes may be clinically observed in the postmenopausal period. Aim of the study To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in postmenopausal women and compare with healthy reproductive-age women controls. Material and methods The study population included a healthy reproductive-age control group (n = 72) and postmenopausal study group (n = 72). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. Peripapillary RNFL thickness parameters, macular thickness and choroidal thickness were evaluated. Results Superior inner macula, temporal inner macula, inferior inner macula, nasal inner macula, inferior outer macula and choroid thickness were significantly thinner in the postmenopausal study group than the healthy reproductive-age control group (p = 0.007, p = 0.037, p = 0.027, p = 0.006, p = 0.016, p < 0.001, respectively). After adjusting for age, only choroid thickness was significantly thinner in the postmenopausal study group than controls (p = 0.005). Conclusions This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured by SD-OCT was significantly thinner in postmenopausal women than healthy reproductive-age women. We can speculate that the decrease in choroidal thickness in postmenopausal women may indicate a reduced estrogen-dependent vasodilatory effect in ophthalmic artery secondary to menopausal estrogen deficiency. PMID:26327827

  19. ALTERATION OF OXIDATIVE METABOLISM AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF UVA RADIATION IN WOMEN OF DIFFERENT AGES.

    PubMed

    Berianidze, K; Katsitadze, A; Sanikidze, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of study was to investigate the alteration of oxidative and immunological metabolism in blood of reproductive and menopausal age women after UVA irradiation. Women of two groups (1 - menopausal, 2 - reproductive age) were exposed to radiation with wave length 320-400 nm for 5-10 minutes per session in the solarium for the period of 3 months (6 days per month).. Parameters of oxidative metabolism - activity of red blood cells (RBC), antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxiddismutase (SOD) were studied by spectrophotometric method; reactive oxygen (O2-) and lipid (LOO/) free radicals content in whole blood were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) methods with use of specific spin-traps - 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline-N-Oxide (DMPO) and α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) (SIGMA). Parameters of immunological metabolism - IFN-α, IL-2, IL-10 cytokines content in blood were studied by immunoenzymatic assay ELISA. The study protocol has been approved by the Ethical Committee of the Tbilisi State Medical University. After the course of UVA irradiation in menopausal women CAT activity increased by 20%, SOD - by 24%, and EPR signal of spin trapped lipoperoxide radicals was detected. No alterations in blood redox-balance were detected in women of reproductive age. Values of blood immunological parameters in menopausal women were not changed under the influence of UV radiation; in women of reproductive age IL-10 content increase by 93% (within a normal value range) was revealed. Research results have shown that UVA rays cause a particularly significant influence on the oxidative metabolism in the women of menopausal age. Increase of IL-10 blood levels in women of reproductive age (considering its imunosupressing activity) represents an additional risk of cancerogenesis. Based on the study results, we recommend avoiding UV (including UVA) radiation procedures to women of both reproductive and menopausal ages. PMID:26870984

  20. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  1. Health Disparities Among Mexican American Women Aged 15–44 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Wingo, Phyllis A.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Borrud, Lori G.; McDonald, Jill A.; Villalobos, Susie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the health of Mexican American women aged 15 to 44 years, by generation and language preference, to guide planning for reproductive health services in this growing population. Methods. We used personal interview and medical examination data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We used SUDAAN for calculating age-adjusted prevalence estimates of demographic and health characteristics. The Satterthwaite adjusted F test and Student t test were used for subgroup comparisons. Results. The women had different health profiles (P < .05) by generation and language preference. Second- and later-generation women and women who used more English were more likely to be sexually active, to have been younger at first intercourse, and to have had more male sexual partners than were first-generation women and women who used more Spanish. Compared with their first-generation counterparts, second- and later-generation women drank more alcohol, were better educated, had higher incomes, and were more likely to have health insurance. Third-generation women were more likely to have delivered a low-birthweight baby than were first-generation women. Conclusions. Differences by generation and language preference suggest that acculturation should be considered when planning interventions to promote healthy reproductive behaviors among Mexican American women. PMID:19443827

  2. Hereditary angioedema: special consideration in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, James L; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    This review on hereditary angioedema (HAE) focused on special topics regarding HAE in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly. HAE is a rare autosomal dominant bradykinin-mediated disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal swelling that usually affects the face, upper airway, extremities, gastrointestinal tract, or genitalia. These recurrent attacks cause significant morbidity and can be life threatening, especially when the swelling affects the airway. Our objective was to summarize the published data available on the disease epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, on demand and prophylactic therapy, and focus on management considerations for these special patient populations. Unique aspects of HAE in women with regard to contraception, hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause were also reviewed. PMID:26534748

  3. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  4. High-resolution computed tomographic appearance of the intrasellar contents in women of childbearing age

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, J.D.; Russell, K.B.; Basile, B.A.; O'Donnell, P.C.; Popky, G.L.

    1983-04-01

    Our experience with high-resolution computed tomography has indicated that the accepted norms for appearance and size of the pituitary gland may not be entirely valid for women of childbearing age. Fifty women with normal menstrual histories and who were not taking oral contraceptives were studied. The study consisted of overlapping 1.5-mm sections through the pituitary fossa in the coronal position only, using a bolus of contrast material followed by a continuous drip during the study. The results indicate that the top of the normal range of gland height is well over the accepted 7 mm and that focal defects within the gland are common. Other variables such as gland shape, width, and overall density were also evaluated.

  5. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity. PMID:26429780

  6. Dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Duraisamy, G; Loh, Su Peng; Green, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The protective role of folic acid taken during the periconceptual period in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been well documented by epidemiological evidence, randomized controlled trials and intervention studies. Much of the evidence is derived from western populations while similar data on Asian subjects is relatively nascent. Baseline data on folate status of Malaysian women is lacking, while NTD prevalence is estimated as 10 per 10,000 births. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age. A total of 399 women comprising 140 Malay, 131 Chinese and 128 Indian subjects were recruited from universities and worksites in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were not pregnant or breastfeeding, not taking folic acid supplements, not habitual drinkers or smokers. Based on a 24-hour recall, the median intake level for folate was 66 microg (15.7-207.8 microg), which amounts to 16.5% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes level. The median (5-95th percentiles) values for plasma and red cell folate (RBC) concentrations were 11 (4-33) nmol/L and 633 (303-1209) nmol/L respectively. Overall, nearly 15.1% showed plasma folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L), with Indian subjects having the highest prevalence (21.5%). Overall prevalence of RBC folate deficiency (<363 nmol/L) was 9.3%, and an almost similar level prevailed for each ethnic group. Only 15.2% had RBC concentration exceeding 906 nmol/L, which is associated with a very low risk of NTD. The result of this study point to the need for intervention strategies to improve the blood folate status of women of childbearing age, so that they have adequate protection against the occurrence of NTD at birth. PMID:16837426

  7. Exploring weathering: effects of lifelong economic environment and maternal age on low birth weight, small for gestational age, and preterm birth in African-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Love, Catherine; David, Richard J; Rankin, Kristin M; Collins, James W

    2010-07-15

    White women experience their lowest rate of low birth weight (LBW) in their late 20s; the nadir LBW for African-American women is under 20 years with rates rising monotonically thereafter, hypothesized as due to "weathering" or deteriorating health with cumulative disadvantage. Current residential environment affects birth outcomes for all women, but little is known about the impact of early life environment. The authors linked neighborhood income to a transgenerational birth file containing infant and maternal birth data, allowing assessment of economic effects over a woman's life course. African-American women who were born in poorer neighborhoods and were still poor as mothers showed significant weathering with regard to LBW and small for gestational age (SGA) but not preterm birth (PTB). However, African-American women in upper-income areas at both time points had a steady fall in LBW and SGA rate with age, similar to the pattern seen in white women. No group of white women, even those always living in poorer neighborhoods, exhibited weathering with regard to LBW, SGA, or PTB. In contrast, the degree of weathering among African-American women is related to duration of exposure to low-income areas and disappears for those with a life residence in non-poor neighborhoods. PMID:20576757

  8. The influence of age at menarche on the fertility of Chinese women.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Sherry L; Poston, Dudley L

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of age at menarche on children ever born (CEB). We use data from the 1997 Sample Survey of Population and Reproductive Health conducted by the China Population Information and Research Center and the State Family Planning Commission. Poisson regression models are estimated for 10,919 ever married Chinese Han women. The influence of a woman's age at menarche on her CEB is examined while controlling for the social effects of rural/urban residency, education, her number of fecund years, whether her first birth occurred before or after the initiation of China's one child policy, and her age at first marriage. The results support our hypothesized positive association between age at menarche and CEB. That is, the later a woman's age at menarche, the greater her number of children ever born. Holding the other five independent variables constant, we show that for every additional month in age at menarche, a Chinese Han woman's mean number of children ever born increases by 0.5 percent. Some of the implications of these results are explored. PMID:16382813

  9. Lifecourse Adversity and Physical Performance across Countries among Men and Women Aged 65-74

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Thanh Tu, Mai; Phillips, Susan P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. Methods We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia) and Tirana (Albania). The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. Results A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. Conclusions We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life. PMID:25101981

  10. Relationship between obesity and falls by middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Grabiner, Mark D

    2012-04-01

    It has been suggested that obesity increases fall risk, based on diminished static balance and increased fall-related injury risk. However, these findings only indirectly relate obesity and falls. The purpose of this study was to use existing data to directly explore the relationship between obesity and falls by community-dwelling women aged 55 years and older. Eighty-six subjects (42 obese) reported falls occurring during the previous year (retrospective falls), and over the following year responded to biweekly communications inquiring whether they fell or stumbled (prospective falls/stumbles). Because trips represent the largest fall cause by community-dwelling adults, we also analyzed outcomes and recovery strategies of 25 women (13 obese) after laboratory-induced trips. Obese and healthy weight women retrospectively reported similar fall rates (40.9% vs 40.5%; P=.97). Similar percentages of healthy weight and obese women prospectively fell (64.7% vs 64.3%; P=.98) and stumbled (38.9% vs 14.3%; P=.24). After laboratory-induced trips, 46.2% of obese verse 25.0% of healthy weight women fell (P=.44). Unlike healthy weight fallers, most obese fallers failed to initiate or complete the recovery step before full-body harness support. Obesity does not appear to increase overall fall risk; although, fall rates after laboratory-induced trips were notably higher, potentially due to altered recovery responses. An incomplete recovery step could increase impact force with the ground, predisposing obese individuals to injury. The fact that there is concurrence between 4 independent outcomes strengthens the findings, suggesting that further, large-scale studies are warranted to inform future clinical practice regarding fall-risk assessment for obese older adults. PMID:22218136

  11. Anemia among Muslim Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni; Biderman, Aya

    2015-11-01

    There are inequalities in health indicators among different ethnic groups living in the same region and receiving the same medical services. Anemia is a global problem. Although the prevalence of anemia is not high in Israel, differences among ethnic groups have not been studied. Our objective was to assess anemia among Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in southern Israel. A retrospective observational study was conducted based on data from computerized medical records. Seven thousand eight hundred seventy-one women in the study clinics underwent complete blood counts and had blood hemoglobin levels of 11g/dl or below. The Jewish patients were older (31.7 vs. 29.7years, P?women had more children (3.7 vs. 1.9, P?women were pregnant during the study period (49.3 vs. 35.0%, P?women, anemia of chronic disease (18.1 vs. 9.7%, P??0.001). The adherence rates for treatment were very low. Three factors associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin below 8g/dl) were being Bedouin (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.295, P?

  12. Age-related change in handgrip strength in men and women: is muscle quality a contributing factor?

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2016-02-01

    Age-related changes in muscle quality and muscle mass in the forearm, which relate to decline in handgrip strength (HGS), have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between age-related declines in HGS and loss of muscle thickness and/or muscle quality in the forearm of 613 adults (306 men and 307 women) aged 20-89. Anterior forearm muscle thickness (MT-ulna) and HGS were measured using an ultrasound and a hand dynamometer, respectively, in the dominant hand. Muscle quality (fMQ) was defined as a ratio of HGS to MT-ulna. HGS was similar among younger (ages 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49) groups and was progressively lower with increasing age in both sexes. MT-ulna was similar between ages 20-29 and 60-69 in men and between ages 20-29 and 70-79 in women. In men, MT-ulna was lower in ages 70-79 and 80-89 compared with other age groups. In women, MT-ulna was lower in ages 80-89 compared with ages 20-29 and 40-49. In both men and women, fMQ was identical among younger (ages 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49) groups. After that fMQ was progressively lower with age in both men and women. The results indicated that age-related decline in HGS is associated with fMQ, but it appears to be accelerated after the seventh decade due to muscle loss. PMID:26874950

  13. Attitudes towards embryo donation in Swedish women and men of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Prag, Frida; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    Background When performing in-vitro fertilization (IVF), more embryos than needed are often derived. These embryos are usually frozen and stored, but as ruled by Swedish law they have to be discarded after 5 years. In other countries it is legal to donate the excess embryos to other infertile couples who for different reasons cannot undergo the procedure of IVF. The aim of the present study was to investigate public opinion in Sweden regarding different aspects of embryo donation. Methods A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards aspects of embryo donation was sent to a randomized sample of 1,000 Swedish women and men of reproductive age. Results A total of 34% responded to the questionnaires. A majority of the respondents (73%) were positive towards embryo donation. Seventy-five per cent agreed that it should be possible to donate embryos to infertile couples. Approximately half of the participants (49%) supported embryo donation to single women. A majority of the participants emphasized that demands should be imposed on the recipient's age (63%), alcohol addiction (79%), drug addiction (85%), and criminal record (67%). Forty-seven per cent of the respondents agreed that the recipient should be anonymous to the donor, and 38% thought that the donor should remain anonymous to the child. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate support for embryo donation among a subset of the Swedish population of reproductive age. If embryo donation were to be allowed in Sweden, strategies for treatment and counselling need to be developed. PMID:23786323

  14. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles. PMID:23627346

  15. Assessment of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M A

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover was evaluated in 249 healthy premenopausal women. Risk factors were assessed by standardized questionnaires and included reproductive history and lifestyle factors (intake of calcium and vitamin D supplements, consumption of caffeine, smoking habits and physical activity). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were obtained in the distal forearm, the lumbar spine and the proximal femur. Bone turnover were assessed by plasma bone Gla proteins (pBGP) and fasting urinary hydroxyproline corrected for creatinine (fUHPr/Cr). Peak bone density seems to be achieved before the age of 30 years, whereafter we found no appreciable bone loss at any skeletal site. Accordingly, the levels of pBGP and fUHPr/Cr were increased before the age of 30, whereafter the values stabilized at a lower level. A dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day significantly increased BMD in the spine and proximal femur by 3%-5%. Physical activity alone had no influence on BMD, but in combination with calcium intake an additive effect was observed. Women who had an active lifestyle (corresponding to at least 1 h of daily walking) and a dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day had a 3%-7% increase in BMD compared with more sedentary women with a calcium intake below this limit. Vitamin D supplements, caffeine, smoking and reproductive history did not consistently influence BMD or bone turnover. Only pBGP was selectively reduced by smoking and current use of oral contraceptives, respectively. We conclude that there is no appreciable change in BMD before the menopause once skeletal maturity has been reached.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8069050

  16. A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Emily R.; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 4069 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of childrens socioeconomic circumstancesparticularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher educationin maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views. PMID:22962507

  17. A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Emily R; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

    2012-10-01

    Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 40-69 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of children's socioeconomic circumstances-particularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher education-in maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views. PMID:22962507

  18. Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among women in zone 3 of Dhaka city: the challenge of reaching all women of reproductive age in urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, H.; Weierbach, R.; Hossain, I.; Islam, R.

    1998-01-01

    Neonatal tetanus is still an important public health problem in both urban and rural Bangladesh, with an estimated 41,000 cases occurring annually. This article analyses the coverage of tetanus toxoid (TT) immunizations among women of reproductive age in Zone 3 of Dhaka City in 1995. Although 85% of women with a child under 1 year of age had received two TT immunizations, only 11% of women of reproductive age had obtained the complete series of five TT immunizations and only 52% of women of reproductive age had received one or more TT immunizations. Access to TT immunization, as defined by having had at least one such immunization, was lower among women aged over 30 years and also among those aged under 20 years, especially those who were not yet married or who had not yet become pregnant. Characteristics associated with TT immunization status included the following: educational level of the woman, distance from the nearest immunization centre, and level of contact with family planning field workers. Additional characteristics that influenced women's TT immunization status included age, marital and working status, recency of migration from rural to urban area, and number of children. The relationships were complex and varied depending on the number of TT immunizations received (one or two) and on the type of analysis being carried out (bivariate or multivariate). The findings point to the need for a broad-based campaign to promote access to TT immunization as well as to promote the completion of all five TT doses in Bangladesh. Reducing missed opportunities for promotion of immunization as well as targeting home visitation of women in need of additional immunizations constitute further approaches to improving coverage. Although TT coverage rates were only marginally lower among women in slum households, such women were more likely than those in non-slum households to be pregnant and hence more likely to bear a baby at risk of neonatal tetanus. Furthermore, the environment of slum households, where deliveries normally take place, is more conducive to the development of neonatal tetanus among unprotected neonates; a strategy of focusing on slum households is therefore also needed. PMID:9868835

  19. Reported burning mouth symptoms among middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hakeberg, M; Berggren, U; Hgglin, C; Ahlqwist, M

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this investigation were to assess the prevalence of burning mouth symptoms (BM) in a representative population of Swedish middle-aged and elderly women (n=1017) and its relation to general and oral health status. BM was reported by 4.6% (n=47), and 85% of the BM subjects had experienced BM for more than 6 months. A stepwise multiple logistic regression with BM/non-BM as dependent variable showed that 7 covariates were found to be predictive of BM. These variables were medication with antihypertensives, sedatives and female sex hormones. Moreover, headache, tinnitus, dry mouth, and reduced chewing ability were included in the final model. PMID:9469602

  20. Health behavior and urinary tract infection in college-aged women.

    PubMed

    Foxman, B; Chi, J W

    1990-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to examine the associations between various behavioral risk factors and urinary tract infection among college-aged women. Cases were collected from a University Health Service, and were compared to Health Service controls and to a population-based control group. Sexual intercourse, diaphragm use, and urinating after sexual intercourse were each associated with urinary tract infection (UTI). The magnitude of the association of diaphragm use with UTI was reduced when urination habits around sexual intercourse were considered. PMID:2324774

  1. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery workforce assessments conducted in collaboration with the respective Ministries of Health and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to identify disparities between population needs, health infrastructure and workforce supply. The datasets are available to the respective Ministries as part of the UNFPA programme to inform midwifery workforce planning and also publicly available through the WorldPop population mapping project. PMID:24387010

  2. Alcohol Use Trajectories in Two Cohorts of U.S. Women Ages 50 to 65 at Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Bobo, Janet Kay; Greek, April A.; Klepinger, Daniel H.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine drinking trajectories followed by two cohorts of older women during 810 years of follow-up. DESIGN Longitudinal analyses of two nationally-representative cohorts using semi-parametric group-based models weighted and adjusted for baseline age. PARTICIPANTS One cohort included 5,231 women in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) ages 5065 in 1996; the other included 1,658 National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) women ages 5065 in 1995. MEASUREMENTS Both cohorts reported any recent drinking and their average number of drinks per drinking day using similar, but not identical questions. HRS women provided biannual data from 1996 2006. NLS women provided biannual data from 1995 2003. RESULTS All trajectory models yielded similar results. Among HRS women, four trajectory groups were observed in the model based on drinks per day: Increasing Drinkers (4.9% of cohort), Infrequent and Nondrinkers (61.8%), Consistent Drinkers (25.9%) and Decreasing Drinkers (7.4%). Corresponding NLS values from the drinks per day model were 8.8%, 61.4%, 21.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. In 2006, the average number of drinks per day among HRS women in Increasing Drinkers and Consistent Drinkers trajectories was 1.31 and 1.59, respectively. In 2003, these values for NLS women were 0.99 and 1.38, respectively. CONCLUSION Most women do not markedly change their drinking behavior after age 50, but some increase their alcohol use substantially, while others continue to exceed current recommendations. These findings underscore the importance of periodically asking older women about their drinking to assess, advise, and assist those who may be at risk for developing alcohol-related problems. PMID:21087226

  3. Age at Menarche, the Leg Length to Sitting Height Ratio, and Risk of Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Baqiyyah N.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Xianglan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the associations of age at menarche and the leg length-to-sitting-height ratio, markers of adolescent growth, with risk of diabetes in later life. Materials and Methods Information from 69,385 women and 55,311 men, aged 4074 years from the Shanghai Women's Health Study and Shanghai Men's Health Study, were included in the current analyses. Diabetes status was ascertained through biennial in person follow-up. Cox models, with age as the time scale, were used. Results There were 2369 cases of diabetes (1831 women; 538 men) during an average of 7.3 and 3.6 years of follow-up of the women and men, respectively. In females, menarche age was inversely associated with diabetes risk after adjustment for birth cohort, education, and income (HR?=?0.95, 0.920.98). In both genders, leg length-to-sitting-height ratio was inversely related to diabetes (HR?=?0.88, 0.800.97 for men; HR?=?0.91, 0.860.96 for women) after adjustment for birth cohort, education, and income. Further adjustment for adult BMI at study enrollment completely eliminated the associations of age at menarche (HR?=?0.99, 0.961.02) and the leg length-to-sitting-height ratio (HR?=?1.00, 0.911.10 for men; HR?=?1.01, 0.961.07 for women) with diabetes risk. Conclusions Our study suggests that markers of an early age at peak height velocity, i.e. early menarche age and low leg-length-to-sitting height ratio, may be associated with diabetes risk later in life and this association is likely to be mediated through obesity. PMID:22448212

  4. RTI/STI prevalence among urban and rural women of Surat: A community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kosambiya, J. K.; Desai, Vikas K.; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Chakraborty, Tanuja

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RTI/STI among women in urban and rural areas of Surat and analyze the influence of socioeconomic, socio-demographic and other determinants possibly related to RTI/STI. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study. Women aged 15-49 years (n = 102) were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination. Specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis. Results: Out of 51 women in rural areas, 27 (53%) and among 51 women in urban areas, 35 (69%) were identified having RTI/STI. In total, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was found to be 41% by culture, 22% by wet mount, and 16% by Gram staining among urban women, while trichomoniasis among rural women was found to be 27% by culture, 18% by wet mount, and 14% by Gram staining. The prevalence of candidiasis was found to be 14% among urban women and 12% among rural women. By using Gram staining Nugent's criteria, the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was found to be 24% among urban women and 25% among rural women. The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by VDRL both among urban as well rural women. PMID:21938127

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening in Women over Age 30 in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jane J.; Ortendahl, Jesse; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Women over the age of 30 are the main beneficiaries of improved cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing. The role of vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18, recommended routinely in pre-adolescent girls, is unclear in this age group. Objective To assess the health and economic outcomes of HPV vaccination in older women participating in the U.S. screening program. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis with an empirically-calibrated model. Data Sources Published literature. Target Population U.S. women, ages 3545. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Societal. Interventions HPV vaccination added to screening strategies that differ by test (cytology, HPV DNA testing), frequency, and start age, versus screening alone. Outcome Measures Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (2006 U.S. dollars per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained). Results of Base-Case Analysis In the context of annual or biennial screening, HPV vaccination of women ages 3545 ranged from $116,950 to $272,350 per QALY using cytology with HPV DNA testing for triage of equivocal results, and from $193,690 to $381,590 per QALY using combination cytology and HPV DNA testing, depending on age and screening frequency. Results of Sensitivity Analysis Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that the probability of HPV vaccination being cost-effective for women ages 3545 was 0% when screening occurred annually or biennially, and <5% when screening occurred triennially, at thresholds considered good value for money. Limitations Uncertainty in the natural history of disease and vaccine efficacy in older women. Conclusions Given currently available information, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination of screened women over age 30 appears, on average, to be small. Compared with current screening that uses sensitive HPV DNA testing, HPV vaccination in this older population is associated with cost-effectiveness ratios that are less attractive than well-accepted interventions in the U.S. PMID:19841455

  6. Partner age differences and concurrency in South Africa: Implications for HIV-infection risk among young women.

    PubMed

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Kenyon, Chris; Lurie, Mark N

    2014-12-01

    Partner-age difference is an HIV-risk factor among young women in Africa, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We used nationally representative data among black South Africans (men: 3,530; women: 3,946) to examine the proportion of women in partnerships involving male partner concurrency by age of female partners and by age-disparate (?5 years) partnerships. Of all partners reported by men, 35 % of young (16-24) women were in partnerships involving male partner concurrency of 4 weeks or longer during the past 12 months. Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to be in partnerships with men who had other concurrent partners (9 %; OR 1.88 p < 0.01) and more likely to be connected to an older sexual network. Our results suggest that the relationship between male concurrency and age-disparate relationships may increase HIV risk for young women by connecting them to larger and older sexual networks. PMID:25047687

  7. [Safety of bariatric surgery in women of childbearing age and its future impact on their offspring].

    PubMed

    Chronowska, Justyna; Labuzek, Krzysztof; Kukla, Urszula; Madej, Pawe?; Okopie?, Bogus?aw

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is the greatest epidemic of the 21st century. Unfortunately, it is more and more common among young people, including women in reproductive age who may suffer from difficulties with conceiving, pregnancy complications and increased maternal-fetal risk in the perinatal period. As a result of poor effectiveness of conservative treatment of obesity, a new trend has emerged to use surgical methods, which show positive effects on patients'fertility. It has been proved that pregnancy among women after bariatric surgery is safer than for other obese women who didn't undergo this procedure. Moreover, children of mothers who were operated were less likely to suffer from cardiovascular complications, obesity and other metabolic disorders in the future. However, it is vital to have in mind the likelihood of side effects, which include mainly serious vitamins, micro-, and macronutrient deficiencies that usually leads to constant and lifelong supplementation and the need of medical supervision of the patient and her child. PMID:26030965

  8. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (1845 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  9. Trauma exposure and the subsequent risk of coronary heart disease among mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    May-Ling, June Lee; Loxton, Deborah; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether exposure to trauma in the form of a history of physical, mental, emotional or sexual abuse or violence predicted new onset of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. In addition, this study aimed to examine the mediation effects of psychological, lifestyle and health related factors in the abuse-CHD relationship. Data from 6 surveys over 15 years, from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a large prospective cohort study, were used. Participants from the 1946-1951 cohort who did not self-report heart disease at surveys 1 (1996) and 2 (1998) and who had provided information on other variables were included (n = 9,276). After adjusting for age, women who reported trauma exposure at baseline were 1.54 times more likely (95% confidence interval 1.29-1.83) to report new onset of CHD than those who did not report trauma exposure. The association between trauma and CHD was largely explained by psychological factors, suggesting a direct pathway between exposure to trauma and risk of CHD. PMID:24923258

  10. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  11. Obesity affects short-term folate pharmacokinetics in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    da Silva, V R; Hausman, D B; Kauwell, G P A; Sokolow, A; Tackett, R L; Rathbun, S L; Bailey, L B

    2013-12-01

    Maternal folate status and body mass index (BMI) are independent risk factors for neural tube defects (NTD). Population-based studies have identified an inverse association between serum folate and BMI, after adjusting for intake. The objective of this intervention study was to compare the relationship between BMI and the short-term pharmacokinetic response to an oral dose of folic acid. Healthy obese (BMI ?30.0?kg?m(-2); n=16) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9?kg?m(-2); n=16) women of childbearing age (18-35 years) were administered a single oral dose of folic acid (400??g). Blood samples were collected over a 10-h period to evaluate the serum folate response. Fasting baseline serum folate was lower in the obese group (P=0.005); in contrast, red blood cell folate was higher (P=0.05). Area-under-the-curve for the absorption phase (0-3?h) and peak serum folate concentrations were lower in obese versus normal-weight women (P<0.005). Overall serum folate response (0-10?h) was lower in obese versus normal-weight women (repeated-measures ANOVA, P=0.001). Data suggest body distribution of folate is significantly affected by obesity, and, should pregnancy occur, may reduce the amount of folate available to the developing embryo. These findings provide additional support for a BMI-adjusted folic acid intake recommendation for NTD risk reduction. PMID:23567925

  12. Bariatric surgery in women of reproductive age: special concerns for pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Shekelle, Paul G; Newberry, Sydne; Maglione, Margaret; Li, Zhaoping; Yermilov, Irina; Hilton, Lara; Suttorp, Marika; Maggard, Melinda; Carter, Jason; Tringale, Carlo; Chen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT The use of bariatric surgery for treating severe obesity has increased dramatically over the past 10 years; about half of patients who undergo these procedures are women of reproductive age. This report was commissioned to measure the incidence of bariatric surgery in this population and review the evidence on the impact of bariatric surgery on fertility and subsequent pregnancy. OBJECTIVES To measure the incidence of contemporary bariatric surgery procedures in women age 18-45 and to assess its impact on fertility, contraception, prepregnancy risk factors, and pregnancy outcomes, including those of neonates. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a national sample of over 1,000 hospitals, to measure the trend in the number of women of reproductive age who underwent bariatric procedures from 1998-2005. We searched numerous electronic databases, including MEDLINE and Embase, for potentially relevant studies involving bariatric surgery (gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric band, vertical-banded gastroplasty, biliopancreatic diversion), and consequent fertility, contraception, pregnancy, weight management, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and nutritional deficiencies. We scanned reference lists for additional relevant articles and contacted experts in the fields of bariatric surgery and obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN). Of 223 screened articles, we accepted 57 that reported on fertility following surgery (19 articles), contraception use/recommendations (11), maternal weight or nutrition management (28), maternal outcomes including morbidity and mortality (48), cesarean-section rates (16), and neonatal outcomes (44). These articles included reports on gastric bypass, both open and laparoscopic (27 articles), laparoscopic adjustable band (15), biliopancreatic diversion (16), and vertical-banded gastroplasty (6). Studies could contribute to one or more analyses. We found one case-control study and the observational data accepted included 12 cohort studies, 21 case series, and 23 individual case reports. DATA EXTRACTION We abstracted information about study design, fertility history, fertility outcomes, prepregnancy weight loss, nutritional management, outcomes following pregnancy, and adverse events (during pregnancy) related to surgery. DATA SYNTHESIS Nationally representative data showed a six-fold increase in bariatric surgery inpatient procedures from 1998 to 2005. Women age 18-45 accounted for about half of the patients undergoing bariatric surgery; over 50,000 have these procedures as inpatients annually. An unknown number have outpatient bariatric procedures. We identified one case-control study that directly addressed some of the key questions, but no randomized controlled trials or prospective cohort studies, which would be the strongest study designs to answer questions about effectiveness, risk and prognosis. Consequently, all of our conclusions are limited by the available data, and are cautious.The evidence suggests that bariatric surgery results in improved fertility; the strongest evidence is in women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome, where biochemical studies showing normalization of hormones after surgery support case series data. Observational studies (retrospective cohorts and case series) suggest that fertility improves following bariatric procedures and weight loss; similar to that seen when obese women lose weight through nonsurgical means. There is almost no evidence on post-surgical contraceptive efficacy or use. Research is needed to determine whether differences in absorption, particularly for oral contraceptives, affect contraceptive efficacy. Nutrient deficiencies were reported in infants born to women who underwent procedures that resulted in malabsorption, as well as women who did not take prenatal vitamins or had difficulty with their own nutrition (i.e., from chronic vomiting). Literature suggests that gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable band procedures confer only minimal, if any, increased risk of nutritional or congenital problems if supplemental vitamins are taken and maternal nutrition is otherwise adequate. Biliopancreatic diversion has an appreciable risk for nutritional problems in some patients. Women who have undergone bariatric surgery may have less risk than obese women for certain pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and pregnancy induced hypertension. There is no evidence that cesarean section rates and delivery complications are higher in the post-surgery group, but data are limited. CONCLUSIONS Weight loss procedures are being performed more frequently to treat morbid obesity, with a six-fold increase over a recent 7-year time span; almost half of all patients are women of reproductive age. The level of evidence on fertility, contraception, and pregnancy outcomes is limited to observational studies. Data suggest that fertility improves after bariatric surgical procedures, nutritional deficiencies for mother and child are minimal, and maternal and neonatal outcomes are acceptable with laparoscopic adjustable band and gastric bypass as long as adequate maternal nutrition and vitamin supplementation are maintained. There is no evidence that delivery complications are higher in post-surgery pregnancies. PMID:20731480

  13. Psychological wellbeing and incident frailty in men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2013-01-01

    Background Observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological wellbeing may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological wellbeing was associated with incidence of physical frailty. Methods We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relation between psychological wellbeing, assessed using the CASP-19 questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria, in 2557 men and women aged 60 to over 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results Men and women with higher levels of psychological wellbeing were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological wellbeing at baseline, the relative risk ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 (0.40, 0.54). There was a significant association between psychological wellbeing and risk of pre-frailty: 0.69 (0.63, 0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) wellbeing showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in wellbeing, suggesting that the relationship is bi-directional. Conclusions Maintaining a stronger sense of psychological wellbeing in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. PMID:23822897

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Decision Aid on Mammography Screening for Women Aged 75 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Beth Hamel, Mary; Davis, Roger B.; Griggs, Cecilia M.; Wee, Christina C.; Fagerlin, Angela; Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Guidelines recommend women ?75 years be informed of benefits and risks of mammography before being screened; however, few are adequately informed. Objective To develop and evaluate a mammography screening decision aid (DA) for women ?75 years. Design We designed the DA using international standards. From July 2010 to April 2012, participants completed a pretest survey and read the DA prior to an appointment with their primary care physician (PCP); they completed a posttest survey after their appointment. Medical records were reviewed for follow-up information. Setting Boston academic primary care practice. Participants Eligible women were 7589 years, English-speaking, had not had a mammogram in 9 months but were screened within the past 3 years, and did not have a history of dementia or invasive or non-invasive breast cancer. Of 84 women approached, 27 declined to participate, 12 were unable to complete the study for logistical reasons, and 45 participated. Intervention The DA includes information on breast cancer risk, life expectancy, competing mortality risks, possible outcomes of screening, and a values clarification exercise. Outcomes Knowledge of benefits and risks of screening, decisional conflict, and screening intentions; documentation in medical record of discussion of risks and benefits of mammography with PCP within 6 months; and receipt of screening within 15 months. We used the signed rank test and McNemars test to compare pretest/posttest information. Results Participant median age was 79 years; 69% were Non-Hispanic white; and 60% had attended some college. Comparison of posttest to pretest results found: 1) knowledge improved, p<0.001; and 2) fewer participants intended to be screened (56% after compared with 82% before, p=0.03). Decision conflict declined but not significantly (p=0.10). In the following 6 months, 53% of participants had a PCP note documenting discussion of risks and benefits of screening compared with 11% in the previous 5 years, p<0.001. While 84% had been screened within 2 years of participating; 60% were screened within 15 months after participating (at least 2 years since their last mammogram, p=0.01). Overall, 93% found the DA helpful. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a decision aid may improve older womens decision-making around mammography screening. PMID:24378846

  15. Utilization of postnatal care among Nepalese women.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Subas; Doku, David

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated risk factors associated with the type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care among a nationally representative sample of Nepalese women. The 2006 Nepalese Demographic and Health Survey on women age 15-49 years old who had delivered within 3 years prior to the survey (N = 4,136) was used. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the association between socio-demographic variables and type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care. Only 23 % deliveries were assisted by skilled attendants. A majority of Nepalese women did not have postnatal check-ups. Education (OR = 1.46, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.92), wealth (OR = 2.57, 95 % CI = 1.59-4.15) and sufficiency of advice during pregnancy (OR = 3.09, 95 % CI = 2.16-4.41), were all independently associated with having postnatal check-ups. Similarly, maternal age, education, parity, wealth, sufficiency of advice and place of delivery were associated with having delivery assisted by a skilled attendant. The utilization of postnatal services is still very low in Nepal. Public health interventions are needed to increase the utilization of postnatal care as well as delivery assisted by skilled attendants. Such interventions should target poor women, the less educated and those in rural areas in Nepal. PMID:23292803

  16. HPV vaccination in women aged 27 to 45years: what do general practitioners think?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is registered in Australia for females aged 9 to 45years, females aged 27 to 45years have shown limited vaccine uptake. Our study explored general practitioners (GPs) views concerning HPV vaccination of females in this age group, with particular focus on the barriers and the facilitators to the delivery of the HPV vaccine. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 randomly selected general practitioners from metropolitan Melbourne. Questions were based on a theoretical framework that explained the barriers and facilitators to professional behaviour change. Results According to the GPs, the major barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine included the cost of the vaccine, time constraints, and the three-dose schedule. Other barriers that were identified included GPs and patients beliefs that females in this age group were at low risk of contracting HPV, lack of awareness about the vaccine, and uncertainty about the benefits of this vaccine for females in this age group. In contrast, the facilitators that were identified included the availability of the vaccine on site, the availability of vaccine clinics or nurses for administering the vaccine, the availability of information related to the vaccine either on site or online, and positive opinions from experts in the field. Conclusions Our study has identified some of the barriers and facilitators to the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine in females aged 27 to 45years, as perceived by GPs. Further studies should be conducted to determine which of these should be targeted or prioritised for intervention. The views of women in this age group should also be considered as these would also be influential in designing effective intervention strategies for improving the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25074404

  17. What is the optimal gestational age for women with gestational diabetes type A1 to deliver?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ms. Brenda; Lee, Ms. Vanessa R.; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Frias, Antonio E.; Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Gestational diabetes type A1 (A1GDM), also known as diet-controlled gestational diabetes, is associated with an increase in adverse perinatal outcomes such as macrosomia and Erbs palsy. However, it remains unclear when to deliver these women because optimal timing of delivery requires balancing neonatal morbidities from early term delivery against the risk of IUFD. We sought to determine the optimal gestational age (GA) for women with A1GDM to deliver. STUDY DESIGN A decision-analytic model was built to compare the outcomes of delivery at 37 through 41 weeks in a theoretical cohort of 100,000 women with A1GDM. Strategies involving expectant management until a later GA accounted for probabilities of spontaneous delivery, indicated delivery, and IUFD during each week. GA associated risks of neonatal complications included cerebral palsy, infant death, and Erbs palsy. Probabilities were derived from the literature, and total quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated. Sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the robustness of the baseline assumptions. RESULTS Our model showed that induction at 38 weeks maximized QALYs. Within our cohort, delivery at 38 weeks would prevent 48 stillbirths but lead to 12 more infant deaths compared to 39 weeks. Sensitivity analysis revealed that 38 weeks remains the optimal timing of delivery until IUFD rates fall below 0.3-fold of our baseline assumption at which expectant management until 39 weeks is optimal. CONCLUSION By weighing the risks of IUFD against infant deaths and neonatal morbidities from early term delivery, the ideal GA for women with A1GDM to deliver is 38 weeks. PMID:24912097

  18. Knowledge and use of folic acid by women of childbearing age--United States, 1997.

    PubMed

    1997-08-01

    Each year in the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies are affected by spina bifida and anencephaly. Babies born with spina bifida usually survive, often with serious disability, but anencephaly is invariably fatal. The B vitamin folic acid can reduce the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly by at least 50% when consumed daily before conception and during early pregnancy. In 1992, the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. Folic acid can be obtained from multivitamins or certain other supplements and from some fortified breakfast cereals. It is found naturally in orange juice, green leafy vegetables, and beans; however, it is difficult to obtain the recommended 400 microg daily through diet alone. This report summarizes findings from a survey conducted during January and February 1997 that indicate modest increases since 1995 in knowledge about and consumption of folic acid among U.S. women aged 18-45 years and highlights the need for additional public health efforts to take full advantage of this prevention opportunity. PMID:9262072

  19. The hemodynamic patterns in hypertensive men and women of different age.

    PubMed

    Krzesiński, P; Stańczyk, A; Gielerak, G; Piotrowicz, K

    2016-03-01

    Aging is associated with cardiovascular remodeling, which can be accelerated in arterial hypertension (AH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between hemodynamic profile and age, as well as to identify the role of sex in hemodynamic patterns of aging in AH. The study comprised 326 patients with AH (mean age: 44.3 years). Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed to evaluate, that is, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and ejection fraction (LVEF), and ICG to evaluate, that is, acceleration time index (ACI), velocity index (VI), total arterial compliance (TAC), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and thoracic fluid content (TFC). The statistical analysis included interquartile comparison in subgroups of age <19-37 years (Q1), 38-44 years (Q2), 45-51 years (Q3) and 52-68 years (Q4). Aging was associated with: (1) higher prevalence of LVDD (Q1 vs Q4: 11.0% vs 24.7%, P=0.023); (2) altered LV systolic performance-ACI (81.4 vs 64.0 1/100 Ω s(-2), P=0.0001), VI (50.5 vs 42.8 1/1000 Ω s(-1), P=0.006), LVEF (65.4% vs 67.0%, NS); and (3) increased afterload-TAC (2.25 vs 1.87 ml mm Hg(-1), P=0.0001), SVRI (2182 vs 2407 dyn s m(2) cm(-)(5); P=0.045). The 'U-shaped' relation to age was observed for TFC. The above-mentioned hemodynamic trends were more pronounced in men, whereas females presented the 'middle-aged delay'. The influence of aging on cardiovascular system shows in progressive arterial stiffness and impaired left ventricular function. Thoracic fluid reduction may be compensatory to vasoconstriction but its efficiency declines with age. The patterns of cardiovascular aging are different in men and women. PMID:26134620

  20. Age specific serum anti-Mllerian hormone levels in 1,298 Korean women with regular menstruation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Hee; Cha, Sun Wha; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the age specific serum anti-Mllerian hormone (AMH) reference values in Korean women with regular menstruation. Methods Between May, 2010 and January, 2011, the serum AMH levels were evaluated in a total of 1,298 women who have regular menstrual cycles aged between 20 and 50 years. Women were classified into 6 categories by age: 20-31 years, 32-34 years, 35-37 years, 38-40 years, 41-43 years, above 43 years. Measurement of serum AMH was measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results The serum AMH levels correlated negatively with age. The median AMH level of each age group was 4.20 ng/mL, 3.70 ng/mL, 2.60 ng/mL, 1.50 ng/mL, 1.30 ng/mL, and 0.60 ng/mL, respectively. The AMH values in the lower 5th percentile of each age group were 1.19 ng/mL, 0.60 ng/mL, 0.42 ng/mL, 0.27 ng/mL, 0.14 ng/mL, and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusion This study determined reference values of serum AMH in Korean women with regular menstruation. These values can be applied to clinical evaluation and treatment of infertile women. PMID:22384425

  1. Women, Work and Age: Policy Challenges. Proceedings of the Conference (Lansing, Michigan, April 11-12, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Gerontology, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Proceedings of a conference on women, work, and age are presented. The introduction by Carol Hollenstead give background on the topic, identifies the conference's goals and objectives, and describes the rationale behind the published proceedings. The keynote address, "Age Discrimination: The Invisible Barriers" (Sandra V. Porter), discusses

  2. Obesity and Survival Among Black Women and White Women 35 to 64 Years of Age at Diagnosis With Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yani; Ma, Huiyan; Malone, Kathleen E.; Norman, Sandra A.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Strom, Brian L.; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Spirtas, Robert; Burkman, Ronald T.; Deapen, Dennis; Folger, Suzanne G.; Simon, Michael S.; Press, Michael F.; McDonald, Jill A.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of obesity on survival among black women and white women with invasive breast cancer and to determine whether obesity explains the poorer survival of black women relative to white women. Patients and Methods We observed 4,538 (1,604 black, 2,934 white) women who were 35 to 64 years of age when diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer between 1994 and 1998. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to examine the effect of body mass index (BMI, in kilograms per square meter) 5 years before diagnosis on risk of death from any cause and from breast cancer. Results During a median of 8.6 years of follow-up, 1,053 women died (519 black, 534 white), 828 as a result of breast cancer (412 black, 416 white). Black women were more likely to die than white women (multivariate-adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.53). Compared with women with BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2, those who were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) had a greater risk of all-cause mortality (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.47) and breast cancer–specific mortality (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.46). These associations were observed among white women (all-cause RR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.96; breast cancer RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.92), but not among black women (all-cause RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.29; breast cancer RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.33). Conclusion Obesity may play an important role in mortality among white but not black patients with breast cancer. It is unlikely that differences in obesity distributions between black women and white women account for the poorer survival of black women. PMID:21788570

  3. Experience of LateMiddle-Aged Women who Reside in Small and Medium-Sized Cities in Becoming Psychologically Mature Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Euna; Kim, Haeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to search the inner world of postmenopausal women in late-middle age who are facing senescence and live in small and medium-sized cities. Methods The methods of the study were the investigation and classification of answers to questions according to a declarative ethnography analysis. The questions asked to latemiddle-aged women living in small and medium-sized cities were How do you interpret and recognize the changes in the body after menopause? and Which methods do you choose and practice to maintain your health in relation to aging during middle age?. Results Four positive topics and two negative topics were drawn from the study. The four positive themes were: ambition; completion of a great mission; life with a sense of affection; and gratitude for maintaining health. The negative themes were: undulating emotion; and filling the emptiness. Conclusion The recognition of changes in the body after menopause in latemiddle-aged women in small and medium-sized cities can affect their preparation processes towards senescence. It is critical to find the means to manage emergency health cases from early adulthood to middle age, based on the outcomes of the study. The study also emphasizes the importance of the woman's family's alternative strategies and supportive systems, which can fit into the cultural context of the community. PMID:26430612

  4. Understanding Women's Breast Screening Behaviour: A Study Carried out in South East London, with Women Aged 50-64 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter-Godfrey, Sarah; Taket, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand low uptake of breast cancer screening through exploring the personal reasoning underlying women's attendance or non-attendance, and identifying differences between those who attend and those who decline. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community and home environments of women eligible for breast screening aged…

  5. Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ≥1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors. PMID:24639709

  6. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n = 28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n = 26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led intervention will achieve better weight control in pre-menopausal women than a self-directed intervention. The results will add to the scant body of literature on obesity prevention methods at an under-researched high-risk life stage, and inform the development of population-based interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000064909 PMID:24156558

  7. Women sleep objectively better than men and the sleep of young women is more resilient to external stressors: effects of age and menopause

    PubMed Central

    BIXLER, EDWARD O.; PAPALIAGA, MARIA N.; VGONTZAS, ALEXANDROS N.; LIN, HUNG-MO; PEJOVIC, SLOBODANKA; KARATARAKI, MARIA; VELA-BUENO, ANTONIO; CHROUSOS, GEORGE P.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aims of this study were to: (i) assess gender differences of objective sleep patterns in a general population sample; (ii) evaluate the effects of menopause and hormone treatment (HT) on the sleep of the same cohort; and (iii) examine gender differences in sleep resilience towards external stressors. The participants were (i) 1324 subjects without sleep complaints, recruited from the general population of Central Pennsylvania that spent one night in the sleep laboratory and (ii) 66 young, healthy volunteers whose sleep was disturbed during night four by an external stressor, i.e. 24-h blood drawing (average of nights 2 and 3 versus night 4). Women compared with men in the general population sample had significantly higher percentage of sleep time, lower percentage of stage 1, and higher percentage of slow wave sleep. Also, menopause, in the absence of HT, was associated with prolonged sleep latency and decreased deep sleep. Finally, young, healthy women compared with men experienced less sleep disturbance because of blood draws as indicated by a significantly smaller change in per cent sleep time, and percentage of stage 1 sleep. These findings suggest that women without sleep complaints sleep objectively better across age than men and the sleep of young women is more resistant to external stressors. Also, gonadal hormones exert a beneficial effect on womens sleep. This gender dimorphism in sleep regulation may have been to protect women from the demands of infant and child care, and in part, might contribute to womens lower cardiovascular risks and greater longevity. PMID:19302341

  8. Survival and potential years of life lost after hip fracture in men and age-matched women.

    PubMed

    Trombetti, A; Herrmann, F; Hoffmeyer, P; Schurch, M A; Bonjour, J P; Rizzoli, R

    2002-09-01

    Hip fracture is associated with a higher mortality rate in men than in women. However, mean age of men and women with hip fracture differs markedly. Thus, some of the differences in the clinical pattern and outcome between genders could be related to different ages. To avoid the influence of age on gender-specific outcome, we analyzed prefracture conditions and hip fracture outcome in a cohort of men and of age-matched women. Risk factors for low bone mass were recorded in 106 men (mean age +/- SD, 80.3 +/- 9.3 years) and 264 age-matched women (mean age 81.4 +/- 8.0) with hip fracture. We compared mortality rate, survival, years of potential life lost and modification of housing conditions. These outcomes were prospectively assessed during an average 3.6 years follow-up (up to 7 years). Men with hip fracture differed from age-matched hip-fractured women by a higher alcohol and tobacco consumption, a greater frequency of living in couple, and by less prevalent fractures. Mortality rate after hip fracture was significantly higher in men (RR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.34-2.24). Since mortality is higher in the general male population, we compared reduction in life expectancy taking into account the gender-specific mortality rate. The excess mortality in each age-group of hip-fractured patients, which was measured during the whole follow-up period, and is an estimate of death attributable to fracture, did not differ between genders. Reduction in life expectancy due to hip fracture was similar in both genders (5.9 +/- 4.5 and 5.8 +/- 4.8 years, in men and women, respectively; NS), but the proportion of the years of life lost was higher in men (70 +/- 33%) than in women (59 +/- 42%, p < 0.01). It was concluded that for the same age, mortality rate after hip fracture was higher in men than in women. Although the reduction in life expectancy was similar in both genders, the proportion of the years of life lost was higher in men, suggesting a worse impact of hip fracture on survival in men, even after consideration of the higher mortality rate in the general male population. PMID:12195537

  9. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes. PMID:19875639

  10. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ≥3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week. PMID:24959115

  11. Treatment strategies in assisted reproduction for women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Howles, Colin M; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Elder, Kay

    2006-01-01

    In a spontaneous menstrual cycle, during the follicular phase, only one follicle out of a cohort of 10-20 usually completes maturation and ovulates to release a mature oocyte. The aim of ovarian stimulation in assisted reproductive technology (ART) protocols is to overcome the selection of a dominant follicle and to allow the growth of a cohort of follicles. This strategy leads to an increase in the number of oocytes and hence embryos available for transfer, thereby increasing the chance of transferring up to three viable embryos. However, the chance of pregnancy and also live birth begins to dramatically decline after the age of 35, and successful treatment for these patients continues to be a major challenge in ART programs. Preimplantation genetic screening studies over the last decade have identified a dramatic increase in the rate of aneuploidy as a major contributor to the reduction in embryo viability in older patients. It has also been demonstrated that women of advanced maternal age may have oocytes that are compromised by a significant reduction in the amount of mitochondrial DNA in their cytoplasm. The strategies outlined in this review may provide a means of augmenting follicular recruitment and cytoplasmic integrity by utilizing pharmacogenomics and manipulating endocrinology to improve the prognosis for these women. Recent studies indicate that androgen supplementation may be one area to explore further. The availability of recombinant human leutinizing hormone (rhLH) has made it possible to investigate the role of LH in the endocrinology of follicular recruitment: it appears that a defect in the balance of LH/ follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) might be involved in the subtle age-related decline in follicular recruitment, and patients of older reproductive age undergoing ART might benefit from the addition of LH and/or hGH. Further studies are required to investigate the physiological mechanisms behind this observation and to assess the possible effect of LH and/or hGH supplementation on the age-related decline in pregnancy rate. PMID:17436604

  12. Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the Bent-Knee Push-Up for College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Heather M.; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    The revised push-up test has been found to have good validity but it produces many zero scores for women. Maybe there should be an alternative to the revised push-up test for college-age women. The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity, reliability, and validity for the bent-knee push-up test (executed on hands and knees) for

  13. Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the Bent-Knee Push-Up for College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Heather M.; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    The revised push-up test has been found to have good validity but it produces many zero scores for women. Maybe there should be an alternative to the revised push-up test for college-age women. The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity, reliability, and validity for the bent-knee push-up test (executed on hands and knees) for…

  14. Age-Related Normogram for Ovarian Antral Follicle Count in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Comparison with Age Matched Controls Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Karpagam, Bulabai; Vadanika, V.; Chidambaram, Prem Kumar; Vinayagam, S.; Saravanan, K.C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antral Follicle count (AFC) is a reliable marker for ovarian reserve. Previous studies have used transvaginal ultrasound for estimation of AFC, however we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimation of AFC and for creating an age-related normogram in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compared it with normal patients. Aim The aim of this study is to create an age related normogram for AFC in women with PCOS and to compare that with women without polycystic ovarian syndrome using MRI. Materials and Methods A total of 1500 women were examined, out of which 400 fitted the criteria for PCOS. They all underwent MRI study and similar age matched women without PCOS also underwent MRI examination. Normogram for AFC were obtained using LMS software and a percentile chart was obtained. Results Normogram for AFC in PCOS women showed decline in number of AFC as the age progresses and the decline was linear. The normogram for AFC was compared with equal number of patients without PCOS and they also showed decline in AFC as the age progresses, however the decline was exponential and faster. Conclusion Age related normogram for AFC is widely used and considered as best clinical predictor for ovarian response in assisted reproductive technology. Knowledge of ovarian reserve is important in PCOS and non-PCOS females as PCOS patients are at risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome during gonadotrophin theraphy. MRI is an equally effective and in some times better alternative to transvaginal ultrasound as it has got its own advantages. PMID:26894142

  15. Clinical determinants of biomechanics platform measures of balance in aged women.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, M J; Shields, S L; Shiavi, R G; Burger, M C

    1988-11-01

    The cross-sectional associations between clinical variables and biomechanics platform measures of balance (sway) were determined in a random sample of 50 aged single women living in high rise apartment buildings. A history of falling in the previous year was associated with increased areas of sway. Increased body mass was associated with decreased velocity of sway. Poor near, but not far, visual acuity was associated with increased areas of sway. A postural drop of 10 mmHg or more in diastolic pressure was associated with increased velocity of sway. The associations between these variables and the balance measures persisted after adjustment for age and each other to adjust for potential confounding. Slower hand reaction times and poor hearing were associated with increased areas of sway, but these associations were removed after adjustment for age and near visual acuity. There were no associations between any of the balance measures and postural changes in systolic pressure and heart rate. There were no associations between balance measures and base of support. The observed associations, if causal, can aid in development and testing of effective interventions to improve balance and prevent falls in the elderly. PMID:3171052

  16. Women's intentions to use fertility preservation to prevent age-related fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Ter Keurst, Anne; Boivin, Jacky; Gameiro, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    The optimal age to cryopreserve oocytes for later use is before 36 years. Current users are on average 38 years old. In this cross-sectional study an online survey was constructed about the factors associated with the intentions of childless women aged 28-35 years to use fertility preservation (FP). Questions were derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (attitudes and subjective norms regarding FP and perceived behaviour control to do FP) and the Health Belief Model (perceived susceptibility of infertility, perceived severity of childlessness, barriers and benefits of FP and cue to use FP). Also addressed were parenthood goals, fertility knowledge and intentions to use FP within 2 years. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The Health Belief Model showed a good fit to the data (χ(2) [14, n = 257] = 13.63, P = 0.477; CFI = 1.000: RMSEA = 00, 90% CI [0.00-0.06]). Higher intentions to use FP were associated with feeling susceptible to infertility, considering FP useful to achieve parenthood, perceiving the implications of infertility as severe, expecting to have children at a later age and having fewer ethical concerns. This suggests an increase of fertility awareness is necessary for the optimal use of FP. PMID:26611498

  17. Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age Estonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspllu, Anu; Vin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  18. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women.

    PubMed

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G G; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  19. Assessment of menopausal symptoms using modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) among middle age women in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Objectives To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). Methods By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain) commonly associated with menopause. Results The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years). The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%); physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%); and sleeping problems (52.2%). Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%); irritability (37.9%); dryness of vagina (37.9%); anxiety (36.5%); depressive mood (32.6%). Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%); bladder problem (13.8%) and heart discomfort (18.3%). Perimenopausal women (n = 141) experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82) and postmenopausal (n = 133) women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women. Conclusions The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women. PMID:20175928

  20. Perspectives of middle-aged African-American women in the Deep South on antiretroviral therapy adherence.

    PubMed

    DeMoss, Margaret; Bonney, Loida; Grant, Jennifer; Klein, Robin; del Rio, Carlos; Barker, Judith C

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence of stabilization in some areas of the USA, HIV infection in black women is not declining in the Deep South. Using a phenomenological approach to qualitative inquiry, we investigated women's experiences influencing their adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in an urban setting. Inclusion criteria specified black women who had been aware of their HIV status for at least two years and were engaged in HIV outpatient care. Twelve single face-to-face confidential in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted from a sample of predominantly middle-aged women retained in care at an HIV clinic in Atlanta, Georgia. Data were analyzed by two independent reviewers and three themes emerged from the group of women's accounts of their experiences. First, sentinel events led to changes in perspective and motivated women to adhere to HAART. Second, recognition that one had the personal strength necessary to cope with HIV fostered adherence. Finally, relationships with healthcare providers especially trust issues surrounding this relationship, impacted adherence both positively and negatively. These findings suggest that HAART adherence is a complex issue among middle-aged urban black women with HIV in the Deep South. Providers caring for this patient population should recognize that sentinel events, personal strength, and positive healthcare relationships are opportunities to improve adherence. PMID:24099510

  1. Lycopene intake by Canadian women is variable, similar among different ages, but greater than that reported for women in other countries.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, E S; Rao, A V; Rao, L G

    2009-08-01

    Lycopene is an antioxidant associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases common in women such as osteoporosis and cancer; however, no official recommendation for lycopene consumption exists, and intake data from Canadian women are limited. This study was designed to generate information about average lycopene intake in Canadian women of different ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. One hundred one women, between the ages of 25 and 70 years, who were not on any medications, were recruited to record their diet for 7 days. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the types of lycopene-containing foods consumed, associations between intake of lycopene and macro/micronutrients, and whether participant characteristics, such as body mass index, could predict lycopene intake. Average lycopene intake was 6.14 +/- 5.35 mg/day, which is higher than reported in other countries. Intake was similar among age groups but was highly variable. Raw tomatoes were the most frequently consumed source of lycopene, while participants with the highest lycopene intake consumed more cooked/processed tomato products than those with lower intake (P < .005). Participants 25-49 years old consumed more dried/powdered tomatoes (P < .05), pizza (P < .002), and ketchup (P < .10) than 50-70 year olds. Lycopene intake could not be predicted by any participant characteristics. In older participants, lycopene intake was positively correlated with intake of calcium, niacin, and vitamins A, D, and K (P < or = .05). These findings are significant to women's health and may contribute to the establishment of nutritional and health recommendations regarding consumption of lycopene by Canadian women to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:19735184

  2. Are Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Midlife Women due to Chronological Aging or to the Menopausal Transition?

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Karen A.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Chae, Claudia U.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Sowers, Mary Fran; Sternfeld, Barbara; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This prospective study examined if changes in traditional and novel coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors are greater within a year of the final menstrual period (FMP), relative to changes that occur before or after that interval, in a multi-ethnic cohort. BACKGROUND Understanding the influence of the menopause on CHD risk remains elusive and has been evaluated primarily in Caucasian samples. METHODS The Study of Womens Health across the Nation (SWAN) is a prospective study of the menopausal transition in 3302 minority (African American, Hispanic, Japanese, or Chinese) and Caucasian women. After 10 annual exams, 1054 women had achieved a FMP not due to surgery and without HT use prior to FMP. Measured CHD risk factors included lipids and lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, blood pressure, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein. We compared which of two models provided a better fit to the observed risk factor changes over time in relation to FMP: a linear model, consistent with chronological aging, or a piece-wise linear model, consistent with ovarian aging. RESULTS Only total cholesterol, LDL-C, and apolipoprotein-B demonstrated substantial increases within the 1 year interval before and after FMP, consistent with menopause-induced changes. This pattern was similar across ethnic groups. The other risk factors were consistent with a linear model, indicative of chronological aging. CONCLUSIONS Women experience a unique rise in lipids at the time of FMP. Monitoring lipids in perimenopausal women should enhance primary prevention of CHD. PMID:20082925

  3. Observer age and the social transmission of attractiveness in humans: Younger women are more influenced by the choices of popular others than older women.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Caldwell, Christine A; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    Being paired with an attractive partner increases perceptual judgements of attractiveness in humans. We tested experimentally for prestige bias, whereby individuals follow the choices of prestigious others. Women rated the attractiveness of photographs of target males which were paired with either popular or less popular model female partners. We found that pairing a photo of a man with a woman presented as his partner positively influenced the attractiveness of the man when the woman was presented as more popular (Experiment 1). Further, this effect was stronger in younger participants compared to older participants (Experiment 1). Reversing the target and model such that women were asked to rate women paired with popular and less popular men revealed no effect of model popularity and this effect was unrelated to participant age (Experiment 2). An additional experiment confirmed that participant age and not stimulus age primarily influenced the tendency to follow others' preferences in Experiment 1 (Experiment 3). We also confirmed that our manipulations of popularity lead to variation in rated prestige (Experiment 4). These results suggest a sophisticated model-based bias in social learning whereby individuals are most influenced by the choices of those who have high popularity/prestige. Furthermore, older individuals moderate their use of such social information and so this form of social learning appears strongest in younger women. PMID:25314951

  4. Multiple sclerosis; a disease of reproductive-aged women and the dilemma involving contraceptive methods

    PubMed Central

    Trky?lmaz, Esengl; Y?ld?r?m, Melahat; Av?ar, Ay?e Filiz Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nerves system. Because the disease predominantly affects women of reproductive ages, having knowledge about contraception options for MS patients can make clinicians provide better counseling. Although most contraceptive methods are generally accepted as safe and effective in MS patients, recent studies have raised questions about their potential adverse effects on the disease. The use of contraceptive methods to avoid unintended pregnancies is crucial in MS patients, particularly during the relapse phase of the disease or the time when the disease is not completely under control. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. Providing appropriate contraception options to multiple sclerosis patients will be one of the most challenging issues for clinicians to deal with. Recent studies have raised questions that the use of hormonal contraceptives may at least partly contribute to the rise in incidence of MS in women. This review investigates the contraception options and their effects on female MS patients. PMID:25788851

  5. Evaluation of corneal thickness alterations during menstrual cycle in productive age women

    PubMed Central

    Ghahfarokhi, Negar Amiri; Vaseghi, Ali; Ghahfarokhi, Negin Amiri; Ghoreishi, Mohammad; Peyman, Alireza; Dehghani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the change in corneal thickness through different phases of menstrual cycle in women who are in their productive age. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy women with normal past medical history were enrolled in this prospective study. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter three times during a menstrual cycle: Beginning of the cycle (days 1-3), ovulation time, and at the end of cycle (days 27-32). We confirmed ovulation time with determining a peak in luteinizing hormone in urine. To avoid the diurnal variation of the corneal thickness which is well recognized, we checked all our subjects at 10 in the morning. Results: In days 1 to 3 of menstruation, mean corneal thickness was 541.4011.36 and 540.8211.70 microns for left and right eyes respectively. At ovulation time the mean thickness changed to 556.507.11 and 555.987.26 microns for left and right eyes respectively, and at the end of the cycle, the corneal thickness turned in to 536.3812.83 and 535.4813.08 microns for left and right eyes respectively. The difference of corneal thickness was statistically significant relating to the different stages of menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The thickest cornea during the menstruation cycle is achieved at the ovulation time and the thinnest at the end of the cycle and this should be taken in to account whilst plan to do a corneal refractive surgery. PMID:25686059

  6. Older Homebound Women: Sharing the Risk with Age-Peers of Being Unable to Reach Help Quickly

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Eileen J.; Lasiter, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this facet of a longitudinal descriptive phenomenological study of the experience of reaching help quickly for older homebound women was to explore the personal-social context (life-world) of situations when age-peers had needed to reach help quickly (RHQ). Twenty-five women aged 85–95 (13 subscribers to a personal emergency response system and 12 non-subscribers) reported 80 peer situations. Life-world was characterized by sharing with peers the risk of being unable to RHQ. Knowledge of peer situations had varying degrees of influence on participants’ decisions to adopt and use RHQ devices. Findings support the need for healthcare professionals to explore the influences of age-peer RHQ situations upon adoption and use of devices to RHQ by older homebound women. PMID:23070958

  7. Skewing of X-inactivation ratios in blood cells of aging women is confirmed by independent methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Yves; Provost, Sylvie; Roy, Denis-Claude; Levine, Ross L.; Mollica, Luigina; Gary Gilliland, D.

    2009-01-01

    Nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), also known as skewing, has been documented in the blood cells of a significant proportion of normal aging women by the use of methylation-based assays at the polymorphic human androgen receptor locus (HUMARA). Recent data obtained with a new transcription-based XCI determination method, termed suppressive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has shed controversy over the validity of XCI ratio results obtained with HUMARA. To resolve this disparity, we analyzed XCI in polymorphonuclear leukocytes of a large cohort of women aged 43 to 100 years with the use of HUMARA (n = 100), a TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay (n = 90), and the suppressive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (n = 67). The 3 methods yielded similar skewing incidences (42%, 38%, and 40%, respectively), and highly concordant XCI ratios. This confirms that the skewing of XCI ratio seen in blood cells of aging women is a bona fide and robust biologic phenomenon. PMID:19202126

  8. [Efficacy of general magnetotherapy in conservative therapy of uterine myoma in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Kulishova, T V; Tabashnikova, N A; Akker, L V

    2005-01-01

    Sixty women of the reproductive age with uterine myoma were divided into two groups. Thirty patients of the study group received combined therapy plus general magnetotherapy (GMT). Patients of the control group received only combined treatment. Ultrasound investigation registered a reduction in the size of myoma nodes by 16.7% in the study group, while in the controls myoma size did not change (p < 0.05). 1-year follow-up data for the study group demonstrated no cases of the myoma growth while 16.6% of the controls showed growth of myoma nodes, in 6.6% of them supravaginal myoma amputation was made for rapidly growing myoma. PMID:15759473

  9. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body

  10. Dietary and lifestyle predictors of age at natural menopause and reproductive span in the Shanghai Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Kallianpur, Asha; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Modifiable factors predicting the onset of menopause, a transition with important implications for women's health, have not been fully characterized. We evaluated the impact of dietary, lifestyle and reproductive factors on age at natural menopause and reproductive span in Chinese women. Design: Study participants were Chinese women aged 4070 who experienced natural menopause and participated in a population-based, prospective study, the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n=33,054). Dietary intakes at the baseline survey were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. Regression (?) coefficients, calculated by multivariable linear regression, were used to estimate the effects of dietary, lifestyle, and reproductive patterns on age at menopause and the number of reproductive years, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: Early menarche, younger age at first-live birth, older age at last live-birth, longer duration of breastfeeding, and higher parity were associated with longer reproductive years (Ptrend<0.01 for all). Higher body-mass index at age 20, mid-life weight gain, and leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and adulthood predicted later menopause and longer reproductive span (Ptrend<0.01 for all). Total intakes of calories, fruits, protein, and possibly carbohydrates were positively associated with later menopause (Ptrend <0.05 for all) and longer reproductive span [Ptrend <0.05, except for carbohydrates (Ptrend =0.06)], and long-term tea consumption predicted longer reproductive span (Ptrend =0.03). Vegetable, fat, soy, and fiber intakes did not significantly affect reproductive span or age at menopause. Smoking was inversely related to both age at menopause and reproductive span (Ptrend <0.01). Conclusions: In addition to reproductive factors, intakes of fruit, protein, smoking, and tea consumption, lifetime patterns of physical activity, and weight gain influenced the onset of menopause and/or reproductive span in Chinese women. PMID:18600186

  11. Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Lisa M.; Dalal, Parchayi

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To assess the most effective recruitment strategies for an acupuncture clinical trial of reproductive age women. Design The underlying study is an acupuncture randomized clinical trial for an ovulatory disorder that affects approximately 6.5% of reproductive age women (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). Study participation involved 2 months of intervention and 3 months of follow-up with US$170 compensation. Success of each recruitment method used during the first 37 study months was analyzed. Setting Clinical trial in the Dept. of OB/GYN at the University of Virginia, US. The original geographic residency target was an 80 mile radius around a college town in Virginia (population 155,000), and was expanded to the state capital (population 850,000) in recruitment year 2. Main outcome measures Number of study inquiries (phone calls or emails) over time and by recruitment source. Results In the first 37 months of recruitment (Jan 2006 Jan 2009), there were 800 study inquiries (582 by phone, 218 by email), of which 749 were screened via telephone questionnaire. The most successful recruitment methods were flyers (28% of inquiries and 26 % of participants) and direct mailing to targeted zip codes (26% and 27%, respectively). The direct mailing cost US$110/inquiry, while the flyers cost less than US$300 in total. Study inquiries were least likely in May and November. Almost all prospective participants (94%) were acupuncture-nave. Conclusions Posters/flyers and direct mailings proved to be the most successful recruitment methods for this CAM study. Active recruitment with multiple methods was needed for continual enrollment. PMID:19632551

  12. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on inflammatory markers in middle-aged overweight women

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Nazanin; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas; Golestan, Banafsheh

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate whether magnesium supplementation might affect serum magnesium, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasma fibrinogen, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in healthy middle-aged overweight women. The relationships, if any, between serum magnesium and the inflammatory markers were also examined cross-sectionally in the entire participants at the beginning of the study. Materials and Methods: This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial included 74 middle-aged overweight women. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg magnesium as magnesium oxide or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Serum magnesium, hs-CRP, fibrinogen and IL-6 concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Serum magnesium was found to be inversely correlated with hs-CRP (rs =?0.22, P=0.05) in the entire participants at baseline. Serum hs-CRP declined significantly in both groups as compared with baseline values (median change=0.8 mg/L; PMagnesium= 0.03, PPlacebo < 0.001). Plasma fibrinogen decreased significantly, by 9%, in the magnesium group at the end of week 8 compared to baseline (P=0.001). Mean concentration of IL-6 was significantly increased in the magnesium group comparing the baseline value(P=0.001). However hs-CRP, fibrinogen and IL-6 levels at week 8 or any changes during the study were not statistically different between the two groups. Serum magnesium showed no significant changes in any groups. Conclusions: Serum magnesium had a significant inverse correlation with hs-CRP. In the present study, magnesium as magnesium oxide, 250 mg/day, for 8 weeks did not significantly attenuate inflammatory markers in the magnesium group as compared to the placebo. PMID:23798918

  13. Acoustic and long-term average spectrum measures to detect vocal aging in women.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Paula Torres; Master, Suely; Andreoni, Solange; Pontes, Paulo; Ramos, Luiz R

    2011-07-01

    Along the normal aging process, voice tends to become weak, breathy, and loses projection, which may interfere in the communication process. One reliable way to evaluate voice quality is through acoustical analysis using, for instance, the long-term average spectrum (LTAS). The aim of this study was to identify acoustic measures, particularly LTAS's, which characterize vocal aging in women without vocal complaints. For this purpose, 30 elderly and 30 young women were included in this study. All spoke standard Portuguese and none had a history of vocal and laryngeal alterations or respiratory diseases. On the basis of the reading task, in habitual and loud levels, the following parameters were assessed: the equivalent sound level (L(eq)), the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and, at the LTAS window, the difference between the levels of the regions of the first formant and fundamental frequency F(0) (L(1) - L(0)), alpha ratio, and the amplitude levels obtained at equal intervals of 160 Hz, ranging from 0 to 8 kHz. There were significant differences between young and old voices for SFF and L(eq) in both levels. In the LTAS window, amplitude levels were higher for young voices, comprising all frequencies except those in the regions between 4.6-6.7 and 4.8-6.5 kHz, in habitual and loud levels, respectively. There were also significant differences regarding L(1) - L(0) and alpha ratio between groups, in both levels.The observed differences in LTAS's slopes, L(1) - L(0) measures, and even L(eq) and SFF measures, may be attributed, to some extent, to lower subglottal pressure or a glottal setting providing a slower glottal closing speed for the elderly group. PMID:20817474

  14. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth.

    PubMed

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E

    2016-04-19

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has-their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. PMID:27022074

  15. Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 20032006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

  16. Urinary Paraben Concentrations and Ovarian Aging among Women from a Fertility Center

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kristen W.; Souter, Irene; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parabens are preservatives commonly used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. There is documented widespread human exposure to parabens, and some experimental data suggest that they act as estrogenic endocrine disruptors. As far as we are aware, no epidemiologic studies have assessed female reproductive health effects in relation to paraben exposure. Objective: We examined the association of urinary paraben concentrations with markers of ovarian reserve in a prospective cohort study of women seeking fertility treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: Measures of ovarian reserve were day-3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and ovarian volume. Paraben concentrations [methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP)] were measured in spot urine samples collected prior to the assessment of outcome measures. We used linear and Poisson regression models to estimate associations of urinary paraben concentrations (in tertiles) with ovarian reserve measures. Results: Of the women enrolled in 20042010, 192 had at least one ovarian reserve outcome measured (mean age SD, 36.1 4.5 years; range, 21.046.7 years). MP and PP were detected in > 99% of urine samples and BP in > 75%. We found a suggestive trend of lower AFC with increasing urinary PP tertiles [mean percent change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1, respectively, were 5.0% (23.7, 18.4) and 16.3% (30.8, 1.3); trend p-value (ptrend) = 0.07] as well as higher day-3 FSH with higher urinary PP tertiles [mean change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3 compared with tertile 1 were 1.16 IU/L (0.26, 2.57) and 1.02 IU/L (0.40, 2.43); ptrend = 0.16]. We found no consistent evidence of associations between urinary MP or BP and day-3 FSH or AFC, or between urinary MP, PP, or BP and ovarian volume. Conclusions: PP may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve. However, our results require confirmation in further studies. Citation: Smith KW, Souter I, Dimitriadis I, Ehrlich S, Williams PL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2013. Urinary paraben concentrations and ovarian aging among women from a fertility center. Environ Health Perspect 121:12991305;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205350 PMID:23912598

  17. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to determine the rate of uptake. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine variables influencing the uptake at 5% significance level. Participants A total of 33 223 sexually active women of reproductive age. Outcome measure Time of uptake of a modern contraceptive after first sexual intercourse. Results The median modern contraceptive uptake time was 4 years in never-married and 14 years among ever-married women. Significant differences in modern contraceptive uptake existed in respondents’ age, location, education and wealth status. Never-married women were about three times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than ever-married women (aHR=3.24 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.65)). Women with higher education were six times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than those without education (aHR=6.18 (95% CI 5.15 to 7.42)). Conclusions The rate of modern contraceptive uptake is low, and timing of contraceptive uptake during or after first sexual intercourse differed according to marital status. Age and number of children ever born influenced modern contraceptive uptake among the never-married women, but religion and place of residence were associated with the probability of modern contraceptive uptake among ever-married women. PMID:26671948

  18. Weight loss readiness in middle-aged women: psychosocial predictors of success for behavioral weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda B; Cussler, Ellen C; Martin, Catherine J; Metcalfe, Lauve L; Finkenthal, Nuris R; Blew, Rob M; Sardinha, Luis B; Lohman, Timothy G

    2002-12-01

    Accurate prediction of weight loss success and failure has eluded researchers for many years. Thus, we administered a comprehensive psychometric battery before a 4-month lifestyle behavioral weight reduction program and analyzed weight changes during that period to identify baseline characteristics of successful and unsuccessful participants, among 112 overweight and obese middle-aged women (age, 47.8 +/- 4.4 years; BMI, 31.4 +/- 3.9 kg/m2). Mean weight and percentage fat losses among the 89 completers were -5.4 kg and -3.4%, respectively (p < .001). A higher number of recent dieting attempts and recent weight loss, more stringent weight outcome evaluations, a higher perceived negative impact of weight on quality of life, lower self-motivation, higher body size dissatisfaction, and lower self-esteem were associated with less weight loss and significantly distinguished responders from nonresponders among all participants. These findings are discussed as to their usefulness (i) to screen individuals before treatment, (ii) to provide a better match between interventions to participants, and (iii) to build a weight loss readiness questionnaire. PMID:12462956

  19. Acute right lower abdominal pain in women of reproductive age: Clinical clues

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study possible gynecological organ pathologies in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower abdominal pain in patients of reproductive age. METHODS: Following Clinical Trials Ethical Committee approval, the retrospective data consisting of physical examination and laboratory findings in 290 patients with sudden onset right lower abdominal pain who used the emergency surgery service between April 2009 and September 2013, and underwent surgery and general anesthesia with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were collated. RESULTS: Total data on 290 patients were obtained. Two hundred and twenty-four (77.2%) patients had acute appendicitis, whereas 29 (10%) had perforated appendicitis and 37 (12.8%) had gynecological organ pathologies. Of the latter, 21 (7.2%) had ovarian cyst rupture, 12 (4.2%) had corpus hemorrhagicum cyst rupture and 4 (1.4%) had adnexal torsion. Defense, Rovsings sign, increased body temperature and increased leukocyte count were found to be statistically significant in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and gynecological organ pathologies. CONCLUSION: Gynecological pathologies in women of reproductive age are misleading in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PMID:24744594

  20. Biomarkers of vascular function in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women of similar age: effect of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Seidelin, Kaare; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Overby, Nickie Neumann; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function; however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched premenopausal and postmenopausal women before and after 12 wk of exercise training. Thirteen premenopausal and 10 recently postmenopausal [1.6 0.3 (means SE) years after final menstrual period] women only separated by 3 yr (48 1 vs. 51 1 yr) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the postmenopausal women compared with the premenopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), as well as plasma and skeletal muscle endothelin-1. The vasodilator prostacyclin tended (P = 0.061) to be higher in plasma with training in the postmenopausal women only. These findings demonstrate that already within the first years after menopause, several biomarkers of vascular function are adversely altered, indicating that these biomarker changes are more related to hormonal changes than aging. Exercise training appears to have a positive impact on vascular function, as indicated by a marked improvement in the biomarker profile, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:24477543

  1. Antidepressant Prescription Claims Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Private Employer-Sponsored Insurance - United States 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Dawson, April L; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Simeone, Regina M; Lind, Jennifer N; Farr, Sherry L; Broussard, Cheryl S; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carrino, Gerrard; Biermann, Janis; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Antidepressant medication use during pregnancy has been increasing in the United States (1). Many women require antidepressants on an ongoing basis, and a clear consensus on the safest medication options for both the mother and her fetus does not exist (2). Given that half of all U.S. pregnancies are unplanned (3), antidepressant use will occur during the first weeks of pregnancy, a critical period for fetal development. To understand trends among women of reproductive age, CDC used Truven Health's MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data* to estimate the number of antidepressant prescriptions filled by women aged 15-44 years with private employer-sponsored insurance. During 2008-2013, an average of 15.4% of women aged 15-44 years filled at least one prescription for an antidepressant in a single year. The most frequently filled antidepressants included sertraline, bupropion, and citalopram. Prescribing of antidepressants is common, and research on antidepressant safety during pregnancy needs to be accelerated to provide evidence-based information to health care providers and women about the potential risks for antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy and between pregnancies. PMID:26821271

  2. The relations between physical ability and bone mass in women aged over 65 years.

    PubMed

    Vico, L; Pouget, J F; Calmels, P; Chatard, J C; Rehailia, M; Minaire, P; Geyssant, A; Alexandre, C

    1995-03-01

    In this cross-sectional study of 55 women (mean age 73.54 +/- 5.87), the magnitude of the relation between different indices of physical ability and confounding factors to bone density were determined. Physical fitness was assessed by direct measurement of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), isokinetic muscle strength, and quadriceps and psoas muscle surfaces and densities using computed tomography. Anthropometry, chronological and gynecological ages, and dietary calcium intake were also recorded. The bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated at the axial level (lumbar spine and proximal femur) and at the peripheral level (radius and tibia, cancellous and cortical compartments). Parameters related to physical ability proved to be the best predictors of BMD in radial and tibial cancellous compartments, spine, femoral neck, and trochanter, accounting for 15-27.5% of the total variance. The VO2 max was a major determinant of the femoral mineral density and one of the predictors of radial and tibial cancellous compartments. Psoas parameters were strongly related to spine mineral density and also constituted a predictor of radius (cancellous) and tibia mineral densities. The arm muscle strength could predict, though weakly, the BMD of axial skeleton, whereas thigh muscle strength only predicted the BMD of inferior limbs. No correlation was observed between current dietary calcium intake and BMD. Age-postmenopause and fertile life remained predictive of BMD at mostly cancellous sites, whereas anthropometry exerted important effects on radial and tibial cortices. The study suggests distinct sets of relations between physical ability and the BMD variables. Subjects with greater and denser psoas muscles had greater spine BMD, and those with higher VO2 max had greater proximal femur BMD. PMID:7785458

  3. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed

    Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

  4. Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernndez-vila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was ?0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having ?4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747

  5. Age stereotypes in younger and older women: analyses of accommodative shifts with a sentence-priming task.

    PubMed

    Wentura, Dirk; Brandtstdter, Jochen

    2003-01-01

    A sentence-priming technique was used to examine whether older women (N = 39) share a more positive view of aging than younger women (N = 35). Situationally specified statements about older and younger persons were presented, followed either by a semantically related word, an unrelated word of the same valence, or a nonword. The accessibility of target words was measured by reaction times in a lexical decision task. Whereas a semantic priming effect for negatively connoted materials emerged for both groups, a priming effect for positively connoted materials was found for older women only. Furthermore, an affective priming effect was found for the older group, i.e., older women tended to respond relatively faster (slower) to semantically unrelated positive (negative) words following a sentence about an older person. The results are discussed within a coping-theoretical framework. PMID:12629957

  6. Comprehensive chromosome screening of trophectoderm with vitrification facilitates elective single-embryo transfer for infertile women with advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Schoolcraft, William B; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G

    2013-09-01

    The universal goal of assisted reproduction technologies is a singleton delivery of a healthy full-term baby. For younger women (<35 years of age) single-embryo transfer is a viable option resulting in clinical success similar to multiple-embryo transfers. In contrast, older women have significantly lower pregnancy rates following single-embryo transfer. To provide effective single-embryo transfer options for older women, improved methods of embryo selection are required to overcome the marked differences in outcome of single- versus double-embryo transfer. With the development of comprehensive chromosome screening, blastocyst vitrification, and trophectoderm biopsy techniques, older women have the opportunity of elective single-embryo transfer with live birth rates as high as those reported for younger good-prognosis infertility patients. PMID:23993664

  7. Polysomnographic evaluation of sleep quality and quantitative variables in women as a function of mood, reproductive status, and age

    PubMed Central

    Orff, Henry J.; Meliska, Charles J.; Lopez, Ana; Martinez, Fernando; Sorenson, Diane; Parry, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    This archival cross-sectional investigation examined the impact of mood, reproductive status (RS), and age on polysomnographic (PSG) measures in women. PSG was performed on 73 normal controls (NC) and 64 depressed patients (DP), in the course of studies in menstruating, pregnant, postpartum, and peri- and postmenopausal women. A two-factor, between-subjects multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the main effects of reproductive status (RS: menstrual vs pregnant vs postpartum vs menopausal) and diagnosis (NC vs DP), and their interaction, on PSG measures. To further refine the analyses, a two-factor, between subjects MANOVA was used to test the main effects of age (19 to 27 vs 28 to 36 vs 37 to 45 vs 46+ years) and diagnosis on the PSG data. Analyses revealed that in DP women, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly elevated relative to NC across both RS and age. Significant differences in sleep efficiency, Stage 1%, and REM density were associated with RS; differences in total sleep time, Stage 2 percentage, and Stage 4 percentage were associated with differences in age. Both RS and age were related to differences in sleep latency, Stage 3 percentage, and Delta percentage. Finally, wake after sleep onset time, REM percentage, and REM latency did not vary with respect to RS or age. Overall, this investigation examined three major variables (mood, RS, and age) that are known to impact sleep in women. Of the variables, age appeared to have the greatest impact on PSG sleep measures, reflecting changes occurring across the lifespan. PMID:23393417

  8. Bioidentical hormones, menopausal women, and the lure of the "natural" in U.S. anti-aging medicine.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jennifer R; Flatt, Michael A; Settersten, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    In 2002, the Women's Health Initiative, a large-scale study of the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women conducted in the United States, released results suggesting that use of postmenopausal HRT increased women's risks of stroke and breast cancer. In the years that followed, as rates of HRT prescription fell, another hormonal therapy rose in its wake: bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Anti-aging clinicians, the primary prescribers of BHRT, tout it as a safe and effective alternative to treat menopausal symptoms and, moreover, as a preventative therapy for age-related diseases and ailments. Through in-depth interviews with 31 U.S.-based anti-aging clinicians and 25 female anti-aging patients, we analyze attitudes towards BHRT. We illustrate how these attitudes reveal broader contemporary values, discourses, and discomforts with menopause, aging, and biomedicine. The attraction to and promise of BHRT is rooted in the idea that it is a "natural" therapy. BHRT is given both biomedical and embodied legitimacy by clinicians and patients because of its purported ability to become part of the body's "natural" processes. The normative assumption that "natural" is inherently "good" not only places BHRT beyond reproach, but transforms its use into a health benefit. The clinical approach of anti-aging providers also plays a role by validating patients' embodied experiences and offering a "holistic" solution to their symptoms, which anti-aging patients see as a striking contrast to their experiences with conventional biomedical health care. The perceived virtues of BHRT shed light on the rhetoric of anti-aging medicine and a deeply complicated relationship between conventional biomedicine, hormonal technologies, and women's bodies. PMID:25795991

  9. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  10. Fertility Desires and Intentions of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R.; Hart, Trevor A.; Mohammed, Saira S.; Su, DeSheng; Ralph, Edward D.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Soje, Lena C.; Muchenje, Marvelous; Rachlis, Anita R.; Smaill, Fiona M.; Angel, Jonathan B.; Raboud, Janet M.; Silverman, Michael S.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Gough, Kevin; Yudin, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Improvements in life expectancy and quality of life for HIV-positive women coupled with reduced vertical transmission will likely lead numerous HIV-positive women to consider becoming pregnant. In order to clarify the demand, and aid with appropriate health services planning for this population, our study aims to assess the fertility desires and intentions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario, Canada. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study with recruitment stratified to match the geographic distribution of HIV-positive women of reproductive age (18–52) living in Ontario was carried out. Women were recruited from 38 sites between October 2007 and April 2009 and invited to complete a 189-item self-administered survey entitled “The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire” designed to assess fertility desires, intentions and actions. Logistic regression models were fit to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of significant predictors of fertility intentions. The median age of the 490 participating HIV-positive women was 38 (IQR, 32–43) and 61%, 52%, 47% and 74% were born outside of Canada, living in Toronto, of African ethnicity and currently on antiretroviral therapy, respectively. Of total respondents, 69% (95% CI, 64%–73%) desired to give birth and 57% (95% CI, 53%–62%) intended to give birth in the future. In the multivariable model, the significant predictors of fertility intentions were: younger age (age<40) (p<0.0001), African ethnicity (p<0.0001), living in Toronto (p = 0.002), and a lower number of lifetime births (p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance The proportions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario desiring and intending pregnancy were higher than reported in earlier North American studies. Proportions were more similar to those reported from African populations. Healthcare providers and policy makers need to consider increasing services and support for pregnancy planning for HIV-positive women. This may be particularly significant in jurisdictions with high levels of African immigration. PMID:19997556

  11. Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Granada, Alicia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2007-08-15

    The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p<0.045) and red meat (p<0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p<0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p<0.038) and poultry (p<0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p<0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p<0.001), red meat (p<0.001) and white and oily fish (p<0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p<0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health. PMID:17477954

  12. Food consumption patterns and associated factors among Vietnamese women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Adequate nutrient intakes among women of reproductive age (WRA) are important determinants of maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. However, data on dietary intake for WRA in Vietnam are lacking. This paper aimed to examine the adequacy and determinants of energy and macronutrient intakes among WRA enrolled in a study of preconceptual micronutrient supplementation (PRECONCEPT) being conducted in 20 rural communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. Methods Dietary intakes were determined for 4983 WRA who participated in the baseline survey using a previously validated 107-item (semi-quantitative) food-frequency questionnaire that was administered by trained field workers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with energy and macronutrient intakes. Results A disproportionate number of energy came from starches, primarily rice. Carbohydrate, fat and protein constituted 65.6%, 19.5% and 14.8% of total energy, respectively. Fat intake was below recommended levels in 56.5% of respondents, but carbohydrate intakes were above recommended level in 54.6%. Only 0.1% and 5.2% of WRA achieved adequate intake of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Multivariate linear regression revealed that low education, low socioeconomic status, and food insecurity were significant predictors of reduced total energy intake, reduced energy from protein and fat, and greater energy from carbohydrates. Logistic regression confirmed that inadequate macronutrient intake was more common among the poor, food insecure, and less educated. Conclusions Imbalanced dietary intakes among underprivileged women reflect lack of dietary diversity. Nutrition programs should be linked with social development, poverty reduction, education programs and behavior change counseling in order to improve the nutritional status of WRA in Vietnam. PMID:24028650

  13. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women ... you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. Bone Density Testing If you are at high risk ...

  14. Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age: United States, 2011-2013

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Community Preventive Services Task Force. TABLE 1. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of nonpregnant women ... years) was selected as the referent. TABLE 2. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of pregnant women ...

  15. Elder Care, Multiple Role Involvement, and Well-Being Among Middle-Aged Men and Women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kikuzawa, Saeko

    2015-12-01

    Japan's population is aging at an unprecedented rate. Combined with the tradition of family responsibility for elder care, this rapid population aging has resulted in middle-aged Japanese people being much more likely today than in past decades to face the responsibility of caring for their elderly parents alongside their other major roles. Using nationally representative Japanese data, this study assessed the individual and combined implications of caregiving and other role involvements for the well-being of middle-aged men and women. Some evidence was found for deleterious psychological consequences of the caregiver role. However, in contrast to expectations, the interaction between the roles of caregiver and worker was positively associated with well-being among both men and women. The results suggest the importance of middle-aged adults being able to keep working when they have to care for their aging parents. Another important finding was significant gender differences in the psychological consequences of holding multiple family- and work-related roles and in combining these with the caregiver role. Further analysis showed that the spousal role was also negatively associated with depressive symptoms and positively associated with satisfaction for men but not for women. Gender differences in the findings appear to reflect the significant gender asymmetry in role experiences in Japan. PMID:26467034

  16. The effect of menstrual cycle on platelet aggregation in reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Nir; Yogev, Yariv; Bouganim, Tal; Altman, Eran; Calatzis, Andreas; Glezerman, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the change in platelet activity along the menstrual cycle. We conducted a prospective observational study. The study group included 16 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles, which were compared to a control group of 14 healthy males. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years or >45 years, use of oral contraceptives or any other forms of hormonal therapy and medical disorders or medications that might affect platelet aggregation. Blood samples were taken from each of the women at four different phases of the menstrual cycle: day 1 +/- 1, day 7 +/- 1, day 14 +/- 1, and day 21 +/- 1. A single blood sample was taken from the males. Platelet aggregation was assessed in whole blood samples using the Multiplate analyzer with three different agonists (ADP, arachidonic acid (AA), and thrombin-receptor activating peptide (TRAP)). Platelet aggregation for each of the women at each of the phases of the menstrual cycle was expressed as the percentage change from the day 1 +/- 1 value. A total of 390 aggregation assays were performed. The mean aggregation activity was significantly higher in females compared with males, irrespective of the agonist used. For the TRAP and the ADP agonists, the relative platelet activity decreased along the menstrual cycle from day 1 towards day 21 and from day 7 towards day 21, respectively, although differences reached statistical significance only for day 21 (-12.4% +/- 3.2%, P < 0.05 for TRAP, and -9.5% +/- 3.9%, P < 0.05 for ADP). When using AA to induce platelet aggregation, the relative platelet activity was highest around the time of ovulation (11.0% +/- 4.7%) and was significantly lower on day 21 (-8.5% +/- 6.7%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, platelet aggregation activity is higher in females compared with males. The association between the phase of the menstrual cycle and platelet activity appears to vary with the type of agonist, but platelet aggregation is consistently lowest in the mid-luteal phase irrespective of the agonist used. PMID:20433309

  17. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  18. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  19. Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to

  20. USE OF COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY FOR OBTAINING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Commercial Telephone Directories to Obtain a Population-Based Sample for Mail Survey of Women of Reproductive Age

    Danelle T. Lobdella, Germaine M. Buckb, John M. Weinerc, Pauline Mendolaa

    aUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and ...

  1. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the

  2. Does Mother Know Best? An Actor-Partner Model of College-Age Women's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Janice L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Katz, Mira L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations of perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and parent-child communication with the extent to which college-age women received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Daughters and their mothers completed a survey about the HPV vaccine (N = 182 dyads). The results showed that mothers' perceived self-efficacy to…

  3. Are Men Aging as Oaks and Women as Reeds? A Behavioral Hypothesis to Explain the Gender Paradox of French Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Balard, Frédéric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as “oaks,” seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as “reeds,” seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

  4. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area

  5. Trends in screening mammograms for women 50 years of age and older - behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-14

    To assess whether the media attention to breast cancer screening and the promotional efforts in 1987 were paralleled by increases in screening of women greater than or equal to 50 years of age, CDC analyzed data from 33 states that participated in the 1987 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

  6. Are men aging as oaks and women as reeds? A behavioral hypothesis to explain the gender paradox of French centenarians.

    PubMed

    Balard, Frdric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as "oaks," seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as "reeds," seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

  7. Changes to cervical cancer prevention guidelines: Effects on screening among U.S. women ages 1529

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Saraiya, Mona; Martinez, Gladys; Harper, Cynthia C.; Sawaya, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A shift toward later initiation of cervical cancer screening for women began in 2002. We generated national estimates of screening prevalence rates and guideline-consistent screening among U.S. women ages 1529 before and after the first evidence-based recommendations for reduced cervical cancer screening. Method We used National Survey of Family Growth data to compare self-reported cervical cancer screening in 2002 and 20062008, stratified by age (1517, 1820, 2129) and sexual activity. We also assessed receipt of guideline-consistent screening by selected demographic variables. Results Among females ages 1517, the proportion screened decreased from 23% to 12%, and screening was significantly more likely to be guideline-consistent. Among females ages 1820, 24% were screened too early in 20062008, but among those not yet sexually active, screening declined to 8%, appropriately reflecting new guidelines. In multivariable analysis, private health insurance, pregnancy, and hormonal contraceptive use were associated with guideline-consistent screening among sexually-active women. Conclusion Fewer adolescents were being screened before sexual initiation, representing newer guidelines. However, sexually-active young adult women also should have later screening initiation. Factors related to health care access contribute to receipt of screening. Monitoring and provider education are needed to improve guideline-consistent screening, as newer guidelines call for less screening. PMID:23137444

  8. The Impact of a "Promotora" on Increasing Routine Chronic Disease Prevention among Women Aged 40 and Older at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jennifer B.; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Papenfuss, Mary; Fernandez, Maria Lourdes; Meister, Joel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2004-01-01

    A randomized controlled intervention tested the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program in increasing compliance with annual preventive exams among uninsured Hispanic women living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border area. During 1999-2000, household surveys were administered to women aged 40 and older. Uninsured women not receiving

  9. The Impact of a "Promotora" on Increasing Routine Chronic Disease Prevention among Women Aged 40 and Older at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jennifer B.; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Papenfuss, Mary; Fernandez, Maria Lourdes; Meister, Joel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2004-01-01

    A randomized controlled intervention tested the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program in increasing compliance with annual preventive exams among uninsured Hispanic women living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border area. During 1999-2000, household surveys were administered to women aged 40 and older. Uninsured women not receiving…

  10. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in

  11. Benefits of family planning: an assessment of women's knowledge in rural Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mutombo, Namuunda; Bakibinga, Pauline; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen an increase in literature reporting an increase in knowledge and use of contraceptives among individuals and couples in Kenya, as in the rest of Africa, but there is a dearth of information regarding knowledge about benefits of family planning (FP) in Kenya. Objectives To assess the factors associated with knowledge about the benefits of FP for women and children, among women in rural Western Kenya. Methods Data are drawn from the Packard Western Kenya Project Baseline Survey, which collected data from rural women (aged 1549 years). Ordinal regression was used on 923 women to determine levels of knowledge and associated factors regarding benefits of FP. Results Women in rural Western Kenya have low levels of knowledge about benefits of FP and are more knowledgeable about benefits for the mother rather than for the child. Only age, spousal communication and type of contraceptive method used are significant. Conclusions Women's level of knowledge about benefits of FP is quite low and may be one of the reasons why fertility is still high in Western Kenya. Therefore, FP programmes need to focus on increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of FP in this region. PMID:24643170

  12. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: An examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly-cycling women

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, Maria E.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Adler, Nancy E.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reproductive age, indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies between women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based sample. Patients Multi-ethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African-American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly-cycling pre-menopausal women, ages 25-45. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures(s) AMH level. Results A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, non-linear terms for age (age2, age3) and BMI (BMI2, BMI3), and 2-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each other predictor variable in relation to AMH. Following backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F=8.45), age (F=349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F=4.67), age2 (F=31.61), and BMI (F=10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower in the Latina vs. white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower in the African-American and Chinese women vs. white women at younger and middle ages, respectively, and AMH levels were higher in the African-American vs. Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Conclusions Although results must be considered preliminary, findings are two-fold, suggesting 1) African-American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age; and 2) Latina and Chinese women, compared to white women, may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and possible increased risk for earlier menopause. PMID:24182412

  13. Vertebral size, bone density, and strength in men and women matched for age and areal spine BMD.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Alexander G; Broe, Kerry E; Zhang, Xiaochun; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Meng, Ching-An; Manoharan, Rajaram; D'Agostino, John; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-03-01

    To explore the possible mechanisms underlying sex-specific differences in skeletal fragility that may be obscured by two-dimensional areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measures, we compared quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based vertebral bone measures among pairs of men and women from the Framingham Heart Study Multidetector Computed Tomography Study who were matched for age and spine aBMD. Measurements included vertebral body cross-sectional area (CSA, cm(2) ), trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD, g/cm(3) ), integral volumetric BMD (Int.vBMD, g/cm(3) ), estimated vertebral compressive loading and strength (Newtons) at L3 , the factor-of-risk (load-to-strength ratio), and vertebral fracture prevalence. We identified 981 male-female pairs (1:1 matching) matched on age (?1 year) and QCT-derived aBMD of L3 (?1%), with an average age of 51 years (range 34 to 81 years). Matched for aBMD and age, men had 20% larger vertebral CSA, lower Int.vBMD (-8%) and Tb.vBMD (-9%), 10% greater vertebral compressive strength, 24% greater vertebral compressive loading, and 12% greater factor-of-risk than women (p?women were attenuated but remained significant, whereas compressive strength was no longer different. In conclusion, vertebral size, morphology, and density differ significantly between men and women matched for age and spine aBMD, suggesting that men and women attain the same aBMD by different mechanisms. These results provide novel information regarding sex-specific differences in mechanisms that underlie vertebral fragility. PMID:23955966

  14. Taking it one day at a time: African American women aging with HIV and co-morbidities.

    PubMed

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-07-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies. PMID:24933093

  15. Vertebral Size, Bone Density, and Strength in Men and Women Matched for Age and Areal Spine BMD

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Alexander G; Broe, Kerry E; Zhang, Xiaochun; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Meng, Ching-An; Manoharan, Rajaram; D’Agostino, John; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    To explore the possible mechanisms underlying sex-specific differences in skeletal fragility that may be obscured by two-dimensional areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measures, we compared quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based vertebral bone measures among pairs of men and women from the Framingham Heart Study Multidetector Computed Tomography Study who were matched for age and spine aBMD. Measurements included vertebral body cross-sectional area (CSA, cm2), trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD, g/cm3), integral volumetric BMD (Int.vBMD, g/cm3), estimated vertebral compressive loading and strength (Newtons) at L3, the factor-of-risk (load-to-strength ratio), and vertebral fracture prevalence. We identified 981 male-female pairs (1:1 matching) matched on age (± 1 year) and QCT-derived aBMD of L3 (± 1%), with an average age of 51 years (range 34 to 81 years). Matched for aBMD and age, men had 20% larger vertebral CSA, lower Int.vBMD (−8%) and Tb.vBMD (−9%), 10% greater vertebral compressive strength, 24% greater vertebral compressive loading, and 12% greater factor-of-risk than women (p < 0.0001 for all), as well as higher prevalence of vertebral fracture. After adjusting for height and weight, the differences in CSA and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) between men and women were attenuated but remained significant, whereas compressive strength was no longer different. In conclusion, vertebral size, morphology, and density differ significantly between men and women matched for age and spine aBMD, suggesting that men and women attain the same aBMD by different mechanisms. These results provide novel information regarding sex-specific differences in mechanisms that underlie vertebral fragility. PMID:23955966

  16. Taking It One Day at a Time: African American Women Aging with HIV and Co-Morbidities

    PubMed Central

    Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies. PMID:24933093

  17. Body mass index of married Bangladeshi women: trends and association with socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M G; Bharati, P; Aik, Saw; Lestrel, Pete E; Abeer, Almasri; Kamarul, T

    2012-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a good indicator of nutritional status in a population. In underdeveloped countries like Bangladesh, this indicator provides a method that can assist intervention to help eradicate many preventable diseases. This study aimed to report on changes in the BMI of married Bangladeshi women who were born in the past three decades and its association with socio-demographic factors. Data for 10,115 married and currently non-pregnant Bangladeshi women were extracted from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). The age range of the sample was 15-49 years. The mean BMI was 20.85 ± 3.66 kg/m(2), and a decreasing tendency in BMI was found among birth year cohorts from 1972 to 1992. It was found that the proportion of underweight females has been increasing in those born during the last 20 years of the study period (1972 to 1992). Body mass index increased with increasing age, education level of the woman and her husband, wealth index, age at first marriage and age at first delivery, and decreased with increasing number of ever-born children. Lower BMI was especially pronounced among women who were living in rural areas, non-Muslims, employed women, women not living with their husbands (separated) or those who had delivered at home or non-Caesarean delivery. PMID:22340969

  18. Different effects of age, adiposity and physical activity on the risk of ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Miranda E G; Cairns, Benjamin J; Banks, Emily; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2012-06-01

    While increasing age, decreasing body mass index (BMI), and physical inactivity are known to increase hip fracture risk, whether these factors have similar effects on other common fractures is not well established. We used prospectively-collected data from a large cohort to examine the role of these factors on the risk of incident ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. 1,155,304 postmenopausal participants in the Million Women Study with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years, provided information about lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors at recruitment in 1996-2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service cause-specific hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions. During follow-up for an average of 8.3 years per woman, 6807 women had an incident ankle fracture, 9733 an incident wrist fracture, and 5267 an incident hip fracture. Adjusted absolute and relative risks (RRs) for incident ankle, wrist, and hip fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. Age-specific rates for wrist and hip fractures increased sharply with age, whereas rates for ankle fracture did not. Cumulative absolute risks from ages 50 to 84 years per 100 women were 2.5 (95%CI 2.2-2.8) for ankle fracture, 5.0 (95%CI 4.4-5.5) for wrist fracture, and 6.2 (95%CI 5.5-7.0) for hip fracture. Compared with lean women (BMI<20 kg/m(2)), obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m(2)) had a three-fold increased risk of ankle fracture (RR=3.07; 95%CI 2.53-3.74), but a substantially reduced risk of wrist fracture and especially of hip fracture (RR=0.57; 0.51-0.64 and 0.23; 0.21-0.27, respectively). Physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture but was not associated with ankle or wrist fracture risk. Ankle, wrist and hip fractures are extremely common in postmenopausal women, but the associations with age, adiposity, and physical activity differ substantially between the three fracture sites. PMID:22465850

  19. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  20. Young women's adolescent experiences of oral sex: relation of age of initiation to sexual motivation, sexual coercion, and psychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Fava, Nicole M; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y

    2012-10-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus and fellatio and sexual motives, experiences of sexual coercion, and indicators of psychological functioning. Age at cunnilingus initiation was unrelated to sexual coercion or psychological functioning; however it was related to engaging in sex for personal stimulation and gratification (personal drive motive) and to feel agentic, assertive, and skillful (power motive). Age at fellatio initiation was related to feelings of inferiority compared to others and a devaluing of the self (interpersonal sensitivity). Findings challenge the unilateral assumption that all adolescent sexual activity is negative and indicate the need for future research distinguishing between cunnilingus and fellatio. PMID:22546273

  1. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

  2. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to

  3. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women.

    PubMed

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans. PMID:26333609

  4. Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 3550 m oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 12 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22366948

  5. Improvement of the Vietnamese Diet for Women of Reproductive Age by Micronutrient Fortification of Staples Foods and Condiments

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Berger, Jacques; Le, Bach Mai; Pham, Van Thuy; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Cong Khan; Panagides, Dora; Rohner, Fabian; Wieringa, Frank; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Background A micronutrient survey carried out in 2010 among randomly selected Vietnamese women in reproductive age indicated that anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are still prevalent. The objective of this study was thus to analyze the dietary micronutrient intakes of these women, to select the food vehicles to be fortified and to calculate their contributions to meet the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for iron, zinc, vitamin A and folic acid. Main Findings Consumption data showed that the median intake was 38.4% of the RNI for iron, 61.1% for vitamin A and 91.8% for zinc. However, more than 50% of the women had daily zinc consumption below the RNI. Rice and vegetable oil were consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 320.4 g/capita/day and 8.6 g/capita/day respectively) by over 90% of the women, making them suitable vehicles for fortification. Based on consumption data, fortified vegetable oil could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 27.1% of the RNI and fortified rice could increase the intake of iron by 41.4% of the RNI, zinc by 15.5% and folate by 34.1%. Other food vehicles, such as fish and soy sauces and flavoring powders, consumed respectively by 63% and 90% of the population could contribute to increase micronutrient intakes if they are properly fortified and promoted. Wheat flower was consumed by 39% of the women and by less than 20% women from the lowest socioeconomic strata. Conclusion The fortification of edible vegetable oils with vitamin A and of rice with iron, zinc and folic acid are the most promising fortification strategies to increase micronutrient intakes of women in reproductive age in Vietnam. While rice fortification will be implemented, fortification of fish and soy sauces with iron, that has been proven to be effective, has to be supported and fortification of flavouring powders with micronutrients investigated. PMID:23226308

  6. Cardiovascular Disease, its Risk Factors and Treatment, and Age-related Macular Degeneration: Womens Health Initiative Sight Exam Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Deng, Yingzi; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Hyman, Leslie; Seddon, Johanna; Frank, Robert N.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hendrix, Susan L.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Langer, Robert D.; Kuller, Lewis; Brunner, Robert; Johnson, Karen C.; Thomas, Asha M.; Haan, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD risk factors, and CVD treatment with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Methods Setting The Womens Health Initiative Sight Examination (WHISE), an ancillary study to the Womens Health Initiatives (WHI) clinical trial of hormone replacement therapy. Study Population 4,288 women aged 63 years and older. Observation Procedures Information on CVD and its risk factors were obtained from a standardized questionnaire and examination. Main Outcome Measure AMD as determined by standardized grading of fundus photographs. Results Prevalence of any AMD was 21.4% (n=919). Of those with AMD, 5.8% (n=53) had signs of exudative AMD (n=39) or pure geographic atrophy (n=14), limiting the power to examine associations. Significant associations between late AMD and CVD risk factors were (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]) older age (1.19, 1.13, 1.27, p < 0.0001), more pack years smoked (1.02 per pack-year smoked, 1.003, 1.03, p = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (0.84 per 10 mmHg, 0.71, 0.995, p = 0.04), report of taking calcium channel blockers (CCB) (2.49, 1.21, 5.12, p = 0.04), self-reported history of diabetes (2.00, 1.01, 3.96, p = 0.05), and greater body mass index (1.05 per 1 kg/m2, 1.001, 1.10, p = 0.05). History of myocardial infarction, stroke, use of statins, or white blood cell were not associated with AMD. Conclusions Results suggest that smoking, use of CCBs, diabetes, and obesity are risk factors for late AMD in women. However, the association of late AMD with systolic blood pressure and the effects of other CVD risk factors on early AMD need to be further explored. PMID:17317391

  7. Reproductive and non-reproductive health status of women aged 15 years and above in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Moghli, F A; Khalaf, I A; Tokiko, S; Atsuko, I; Nabolsi, M M; Al-Sharairi, B A

    2012-05-01

    Failure to address women's health, including their reproductive health needs, increases health care costs and social inequity. This descriptive study assessed the reproductive and non-reproductive health status of women over 15 years old in poverty pockets in the southern region of Jordan. Two villages were selected using purposive sampling and all women in the villages were invited to participate in a "healthy family week": 259 responded to the invitation. Although 49.4% of the surveyed women were overweight or obese, only 8.5% had high blood pressure. Reproductive health concerns included the high proportions of women married at an early age (15-20 years) (76.8%), having 5+ children (43.1%) and with haemoglobin level < 12 g/dL, indicating anaemia (55.5%). Urinary tract infection was the most common health problem (29.0%). Health care providers should be sensitized to the health needs of Jordanian women in general and those living in disadvantaged areas in particular. PMID:22764426

  8. In Utero Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol and Blood DNA Methylation in Women Ages 4059 Years from the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    Harlid, Sophia; Xu, Zongli; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; DAloisio, Aimee A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as fertility problems and vaginal as well as breast cancer. Animal studies have linked prenatal DES exposure to lasting DNA methylation changes. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and in utero DES exposure in a sample of non-Hispanic white women aged 4059 years from the Sister Study, a large United States cohort study of women with a family history of breast cancer. Using questionnaire information from women and their mothers, we selected 100 women whose mothers reported taking DES while pregnant and 100 control women whose mothers had not taken DES. DNA methylation in blood was measured at 485,577 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Associations between CpG methylation and DES exposure status were analyzed using robust linear regression with adjustment for blood cell composition and multiple comparisons. Although four CpGs had p<105, after accounting for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate (FDR), none reached genome-wide significance. In conclusion, adult women exposed to DES in utero had no evidence of large persistent changes in blood DNA methylation. PMID:25751399

  9. Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 4979

    PubMed Central

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 4979; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p?=?0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance once a week or more often were taller than those who reported none and once to 3 times a month. Means in inches are respectively for: White women63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p?=?0.0027. p?=?0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p?=?0.0050, P?=?0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobsyes vs. no63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P?=?0.036; and given a little strength and comfort from religion compared to none and a great deal, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P?=?0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P?=?0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better healthexcellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor63.70 vs. 63.59, P?=?0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities frequent attendance clubs/lodges/groups, and with a little vs. none or great deal of strength and comfort from religion. PMID:24896649

  10. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jimnez, Arnulfo; Hernndez-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muoz-Daw, Mara DJ; Torres-Durn, Patricia V; Jurez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ? skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  11. The Expansion of the Pulmonary Rib Cage during Breath Stacking Is Influenced by Age in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Barcelar, Jacqueline de Melo; Aliverti, Andrea; Rattes, Catarina; Ximenes, Maria Eduarda; Campos, Shirley Lima; Brando, Daniella Cunha; Fregonezi, Guilherme; de Andrade, Armle Dornelas

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze in obese women the acute effects of the breath stacking technique on thoraco-abdominal expansion. Design and Methods Nineteen obese women (BMI?30 kg/m2) were evaluated by anthropometry, spirometry and maximal respiratory muscle pressures and successively analyzed by Opto-Electronic Plethysmography and a Wright respirometer during quiet breathing and breath stacking maneuvers and compared with a group of 15 normal-weighted healthy women. The acute effects of the maneuvers were assessed in terms of total and compartmental chest wall volumes at baseline, end of the breath stacking maneuver and after the maneuver. Obese subjects were successively classified into two groups, accordingly to the response during the maneuver, group 1?=?prevalent rib cage or group 2?=?abdominal expansion. Results Age was significantly lower in group 1 than group 2. When considering the two obese groups, FEV1 was lower and minute ventilation was higher only in group 2 compared to controls group. During breath stacking, inspiratory capacity was significant differences in obese subjects with a smaller expansion of the pulmonary rib cage and a greater expansion of the abdomen compared to controls and also between groups 1 and 2. A significant inverse linear relationship was found between age and inspiratory capacity of the pulmonary rib cage but not of the abdomen. Conclusions In obese women the maximal expansion of the rib cage and abdomen is influenced by age and breath stacking maneuver could be a possible therapy for preventing respiratory complications. PMID:25372469

  12. Relationship of Intimate Partner Violence, HIV Risk Behaviors, and Powerlessness in African-American Women of Childbearing Age.

    PubMed

    Manfrin-Ledet, Linda; Porche, Demetrius J; Westbrook, Sue

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and the phenomenon of powerlessness in African-American women of childbearing age, and (2) to investigate the differences between type and severity of IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and powerlessness in African-American women of childbearing age who have and have not reported IPV This study used the theory of gender and power as a conceptual framework. A purposive sample of 130 African-American women ranging from 18 to 49 years of age from southeastern Louisiana was recruited from community clinics. A correlation/comparative analysis design was used in this study. Three self-report, self-administered surveys were used: The Abuse Assessment Screen-Revised, the HIV-Risk Screening Instrument-Revised, items from the subscale of powerlessness in the Trauma-Related Belief Questionnaire, and a demographics questionnaire. Statistically significant relationships between IPV, HIV risk behaviors, and powerlessness were identified. Participants who had experienced emotional or physical abuse by their partners were identified to be at risk for HIV infection and a statistically significant relationship between IPV and powerlessness was identified. Participants who feared their partner or ex-partner reported higher degrees of powerlessness. Findings emphasized that for women who are identified as survivors of IPV, nurses need to screen for HIV infection, provide access to care and community resources, and teach skills for effective coping and risk-reduction decision-making. PMID:26371359

  13. Menopause versus aging: The predictor of obesity and metabolic aberrations among menopausal women of Karnataka, South India

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Shruti; Salman, Mohammed; Lokesh, S.; Xaviour, D.; Saheb, S. Yaseen; Prasad, B. V. Ravi; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2012-01-01

    Context: Increased incidences of cardiovascular disorder and metabolic syndrome particularly after menopause have raised curiosity for the underlying factors. However, it is still a debate whether age or menopausal transition is a greater contributor. Aims: To elucidate the inter-relationships of age, menopause, and associated obesity and to assess their independent effects on aggravation of cardio metabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women. Settings and Design: Four hundred two women aged between 30 and 75 years were recruited in a cross-sectional study from Southern India. Three hundred sixteen participants exempting exclusion criteria, comprising of 169 premenopausal and 147 postmenopausal women were finally included. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), fat percentage, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and blood pressure were taken. Fasting plasma glucose, postprandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent t-test, Analysis of covariates (ANCOVA), Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple stepwise linear regression model analysis were done. Results: A significant increase in physical and metabolic factors was observed in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women except WC and HbA1c. Contrastingly, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels and BMR were significantly decreased. After adjusting for BMI and age, the significant differences in the variables through the menopausal transition persisted, including an increase in WC. Significant correlation was observed between age and measures of general obesity such as BMI (P < 0.05) and fat percentage (P < 0.001) but not with central obesity indices. Menopausal status and WC exerted an independent effect on most of the metabolic risk factors (P < 0.001 or P < 0.01). Fat percentage was the predicting variable for CRP, HbA1c, diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), and HDL (P < 0.01). But Age showed independent effect only on HbA1c. Conclusions: Menopausal transition brings about anomalies in total body composition characterized by an increased body fat mass and central adiposity. This creates a compatible atmosphere for abnormal metabolism and aggravated cardio metabolic risk factors. Thus, menopausal status and associated obesity is the major predictor of metabolic aberrations over age in menopausal women. PMID:22923976

  14. Is Younger Really Safer? A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of Age-Disparate Relationships among Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on womens perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore womens perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive. PMID:24260585

  15. Oocyte donation is an independent risk factor for pregnancy complications: the implications for women of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Younis, Johnny S; Laufer, Neri

    2015-02-01

    Maternal age at first pregnancy and age-related infertility are steadily increasing, and the demand for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to treat age-related infertility is also on the rise. The latest registry findings from Europe and the United States show that the meager results of ART in women above 43 years of age have not improved much over the past 10 years. The latest evidence shows that the demand for oocyte donation (OD) is steadily increasing. Contrary to previous belief-attributing increased perinatal complications in OD recipients to advanced maternal age and multifetal pregnancy-accumulating evidence from the past few years suggests that OD itself is a significant and independent risk factor for pregnancy complications, mostly for pre-eclampsia. The increased rate of chronic maternal disease and medical complications in pregnancy observed in advanced maternal age, coupled with the growing demand for OD, with its independent association with pre-eclampsia, create an urgent need to adopt a clear policy taking these risks into account. We present recent evidence showing that OD is an independent risk factor for pre-eclampsia and suggest recommendations for women approaching OD treatment in advanced age. PMID:25646636

  16. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  17. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999-2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20-24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939-43, and two calendar periods 1999-2003 and 2004-2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949-1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  18. Effect of finite element model loading condition on fracture risk assessment in men and women: The AGES-Reykjavik study

    PubMed Central

    Keyak, J.H.; Sigurdsson, S.; Karlsdottir, G. S.; Oskarsdottir, D.; Sigmarsdottir, A.; Kornak, J.; Harris, T. B.; Sigurdsson, G.; Jonsson, B. Y.; Siggeirsdottir, K.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Gudnason, V.; Lang, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    Proximal femoral (hip) strength computed by subject-specific CT scan-based finite element (FE) models has been explored as an improved measure for identifying subjects at risk of hip fracture. However, to our knowledge, no published study has reported the effect of loading condition on the association between incident hip fracture and hip strength. In the present study, we performed a nested age- and sex-matched case-control study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) Reykjavik cohort. Baseline (pre-fracture) quantitative CT (QCT) scans of 5500 older male and female subjects were obtained. During 4-7 years follow-up, 51 men and 77 women sustained hip fractures. Ninety-seven men and 152 women were randomly selected as controls from a pool of age- and sex-matched subjects. From the QCT data, FE models employing nonlinear material properties computed FE-strength of the left hip of each subject in loading from a fall onto the posterolateral (FPL), posterior (FP) and lateral (FL) aspects of the greater trochanter. For comparison, FE strength in stance loading (FStance) and total femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were also computed. For all loading conditions, the reductions in strength associated with fracture in men were more than twice those in women (p?0.01). For fall loading specifically, posterolateral loading in men and posterior loading in women were most strongly associated with incident hip fracture. After adjusting for aBMD, the association between FP and fracture in women fell short of statistical significance (p=0.08), indicating that FE strength provides little advantage over aBMD for identifying female hip fracture subjects. However, in men, after controlling for aBMD, FPL was 424 N (11%) less in subjects with fractures than in controls (p=0.003). Thus, in men, FE models of posterolateral loading include information about incident hip fracture beyond that in aBMD. PMID:23907032

  19. Effect of finite element model loading condition on fracture risk assessment in men and women: the AGES-Reykjavik study.

    PubMed

    Keyak, J H; Sigurdsson, S; Karlsdottir, G S; Oskarsdottir, D; Sigmarsdottir, A; Kornak, J; Harris, T B; Sigurdsson, G; Jonsson, B Y; Siggeirsdottir, K; Eiriksdottir, G; Gudnason, V; Lang, T F

    2013-11-01

    Proximal femoral (hip) strength computed by subject-specific CT scan-based finite element (FE) models has been explored as an improved measure for identifying subjects at risk of hip fracture. However, to our knowledge, no published study has reported the effect of loading condition on the association between incident hip fracture and hip strength. In the present study, we performed a nested age- and sex-matched case-control study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) Reykjavik cohort. Baseline (pre-fracture) quantitative CT (QCT) scans of 5500 older male and female subjects were obtained. During 4-7years follow-up, 51 men and 77 women sustained hip fractures. Ninety-seven men and 152 women were randomly selected as controls from a pool of age- and sex-matched subjects. From the QCT data, FE models employing nonlinear material properties computed FE-strength of the left hip of each subject in loading from a fall onto the posterolateral (FPL), posterior (FP) and lateral (FL) aspects of the greater trochanter (patent pending). For comparison, FE strength in stance loading (FStance) and total femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were also computed. For all loading conditions, the reductions in strength associated with fracture in men were more than twice those in women (p?0.01). For fall loading specifically, posterolateral loading in men and posterior loading in women were most strongly associated with incident hip fracture. After adjusting for aBMD, the association between FP and fracture in women fell short of statistical significance (p=0.08), indicating that FE strength provides little advantage over aBMD for identifying female hip fracture subjects. However, in men, after controlling for aBMD, FPL was 424N (11%) less in subjects with fractures than in controls (p=0.003). Thus, in men, FE models of posterolateral loading include information about incident hip fracture beyond that in aBMD. PMID:23907032

  20. Effect of menopausal status on lipolysis: comparison of plasma glycerol levels in middle-aged, premenopausal and early, postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Toth, Michael J; Sites, Cynthia K; Poehlman, Eric T; Tchernof, Andre

    2002-03-01

    To determine whether menopausal status affects systemic lipolysis, we measured plasma glycerol concentrations following an overnight fast and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic conditions (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1)) in 43 middle-aged, premenopausal women (mean +/- SE; 47 +/- 0.4 years) and 26 early, postmenopausal (51 +/- 0.8 years) women. In addition, body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by computed tomography (CT). Postmenopausal women had greater amounts of whole body (fat mass, 22.8 +/- 1.4 v 17.4 +/- 1.2 kg; percent fat, 34.7 +/- 1.2 v 29.1 +/- 1.4; both P <.01) and intra-abdominal fat (89.0 +/- 6.5 v 55.9 +/- 4.4 cm2; P <.01) compared with premenopausal women. Despite greater adiposity, plasma glycerol concentrations were similar between pre- and postmenopausal women following an overnight fast (142.7 +/- 9.7 v 136.1 +/- 6.4 micromol/L) and at 30 minutes (112.7 +/- 5.5 v 108.4 +/- 4.5 micromol/L ) and 120 minutes (92.7 +/- 4.5 v 97.5 +/- 5.9 micromol/L ) into the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Plasma glycerol levels remained similar after statistical adjustment for fat mass, percent fat, and intra-abdominal fat. Moreover, no differences in plasma glycerol were observed in pre- and postmenopausal women matched (+/- 5%) for fat mass (n = 22/group) or intra-abdominal fat (n = 15/group). In premenopausal women, plasma glycerol levels at 30 and 120 minutes of hyperinsulinemia were positively related to adiposity measures (range, r =.314 to r =.493; P <.05 to P <.01), although no relationships were found in postmenopausal women. Our results suggest no effect of menopausal status on plasma glycerol levels under postabsorptive or hyperinsulinemic conditions. PMID:11887168

  1. Passive leg movement-induced vasodilation in women: the impact of age.

    PubMed

    Groot, H Jonathan; Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael; Ives, Stephen J; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    Passive leg movement (PLM), an assessment of predominantly nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation, is decreased with age and cannot be augmented by posture-induced increases in femoral perfusion pressure in older men. However, this novel method of assessing vascular function has yet to be used to evaluate alterations in nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation with age in females. PLM was performed in 10 young (20 ± 1 yr) and 10 old (73 ± 2 yr) women in both the supine and upright-seated postures, whereas central and peripheral hemodynamic measurements were acquired second by second using noninvasive techniques (finger photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound, respectively). The heart rate response to PLM was attenuated in the old compared with the young in both the supine (young, 10 ± 1; and old, 5 ± 1 beats/min; P < 0.05) and upright-seated posture (young, 10 ± 2; and old, 5 ± 1 beats/min; P < 0.05), leading to a blunted cardiac output response in the old in the upright-seated posture (young, 1.0 ± 0.2; and old, 0.3 ± 0.1 l/min; P < 0.05). The PLM-induced peak change in leg vascular conductance was lower in the old compared with the young in both postures (young supine, 5.7 ± 0.5; old supine, 2.6 ± 0.3; young upright, 9.2 ± 0.7; and old upright, 2.2 ± 0.4 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1); P < 0.05) and was significantly augmented by the upright-seated posture in the young only, revealing a vasodilatory reserve capacity in the young (3.5 ± 0.6 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.05) that was absent in the old (-0.5 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.18). These data support previous literature demonstrating attenuated PLM-induced vasodilation with age and extend these findings to include the female population, thus bolstering the utility of PLM as a novel assessment of vascular function across the life span in humans. PMID:26188023

  2. Reproductive Health Rights of Women in the Rural Areas of Meherpur District in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md Kamal; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Akter, Mst Nazniz

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the reproductive health rights, women empowerment and gender equity in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods Three hundred married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Meherpur District, Bangladesh were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and purposing sampling techniques. The logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominating factors affecting reproductive health rights. To fulfill the objectives of the study the two main factors, age at marriage and family planning acceptance of the respondents, were regarded as the determinants. Results The study results revealed that almost all the respondents were housewives (82.3%), one-third (31.0%) did not avail any modern facility, and their yearly income was very low. Moreover, about half of the women (52.7%) were very young (?30 years), most of them (79.0%) had married early (<18 years) and about half of them (53.3%) had taken contraceptives based on their husbands choice. Finally, multi-variate analysis identified the relationship between the profession of the respondents, yearly income, number of family members, and the availability of modern facilities with age at marriage (Model 1). The study also identified the relationship between the age of respondents, education, occupation, yearly income, and the total number of family members with family planning acceptance (Model 2). Conclusion Regarding the results of this study, women's reproductive health rights, marriage after the age of 18 and family planning acceptance among couples needs to be enhanced in Mehrpur District in Bangladesh. PMID:23926496

  3. 'Cancer doesn't have an age': genetic testing and cancer risk management in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women aged 18-24.

    PubMed

    Werner-Lin, Allison; Hoskins, Lindsey M; Doyle, Maya H; Greene, Mark H

    2012-11-01

    Increasingly, 18-24-year-old women from hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families are pursuing genetic testing, despite their low absolute risks of breast and ovarian cancer and the fact that evidence-based management options used with older high-risk women are not generally available. Difficult clinical decisions in older carriers take on substantially more complexity and value-laden import in very young carriers. As a result, many of the latter receive highly personal and emotionally charged cancer risk information in a life context where management strategies are not well defined. We analyzed 32 in-depth interviews with BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women aged 18-24 using techniques of grounded theory and interpretive description. Participants described feeling vulnerable to a cancer diagnosis but in a quandary regarding their care because evidence-based approaches to management have not been developed and clinical trials have not been undertaken. Our participants demonstrated a wide range of genetic and health literacy. Inconsistent recommendations, surveillance fatigue, and the unpredictability of their having health insurance coverage for surgical risk-reducing procedures led several to contemplate risk-reducing mastectomy before age 25. Parents remained a primary source of emotional and financial support, slowing age-appropriate independence and complicating patient privacy. Our findings suggest that, for 18-24-year-olds, readiness to autonomously elect genetic testing, to fully understand and act on genetic information, and to confidently make decisions with life-long implications are all evolving processes. We comment on the tensions between informed consent, privacy, and the unique developmental needs of BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women just emerging into their adult years. PMID:22547552

  4. Persistence improves the 60 days amenorrhea marker of entry to late stage menopausal transition for women aged 4044

    PubMed Central

    Taffe, John R; Cain, Kevin C; Mitchell, Ellen S; Woods, Nancy F; Crawford, Sybil L; Harlow, Siobn D

    2009-01-01

    Background The ReSTAGE collaboration evaluated four menstrual markers of entry to late stage menopausal transition Objective To assess the additional usefulness of persistence in relation to a clinically accessible menstrual marker of late menopausal transition, taking age into account Methods Secondary analysis of menstrual calendar data in two ReSTAGE-collaborating studies with comparatively low age at entry Results Sixty days of amenorrhea is as useful for predicting time to the final menstrual period as the currently accepted 90-day marker for women aged over 45. For those aged between 40 and 44 years, recurrence of the 60-day marker within the next 10 cycles is a better indicator than a single occurrence of the 60-day marker or the 90-day marker. Conclusions 60-day amenorrhea is as reliable a marker of late menopausal transition as the traditional 90-day marker for women aged over 45. For those aged 4044, keeping menstrual records to check for a recurrence of the 60-day marker will be useful. PMID:19713872

  5. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. Result The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds of women’s support of FGM continuation. FGM prevalence and geographic clustering showed variation across regions in Ethiopia. Conclusion Individual, economic, socio-demographic, religious and cultural factors played major roles in the existing practice and continuation of FGM. The significant geographic clustering of FGM was observed across regions in Ethiopia. Therefore, targeted and integrated interventions involving religious leaders in high FGM prevalence spot clusters and addressing the socio-economic and geographic inequalities are recommended to eliminate FGM. PMID:26741488

  6. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Moonga, Baljit S.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH and UCd are associated with bone loss, in US women aged 42-60 years.

  7. Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Sleeth, Michelle L.; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid-hormone production of pregnancy, women who may become pregnant should ideally consume 150 ?g iodine/day [US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)]. As few UK data exist in this population group, our aim was to assess iodine intake and status in women of childbearing age in a cross-sectional study at the University of Surrey. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24-h urine samples in 57 women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90% of ingested iodine was excreted. Average iodine intake was also estimated from 48-h food diaries that the women completed. The median urinary-iodine concentration (63.1 ?g/L) classified the group as mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24-h iodine excretion (149.8 ?g/24-h), suggested a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. Median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 ?g/day, whereas it was lower, at 123 ?g/day, when estimated from the 48-h food-diaries. Iodine intake from food diaries and 24-h iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. Our study highlights a need for revised cut-offs for iodine deficiency that are method- and age-group specific. PMID:25274294

  8. Relation between alcohol consumption and arterial stiffness: A cross-sectional study of middle-aged Japanese women and men.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kita, Toshiko; Okada, Eisaku; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological data indicate the existence of a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mobility and mortality. However, studies assessing the relationship between alcohol consumption and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness have provided inconsistent results. In addition, data regarding the effect of alcohol on arterial stiffness in women has been limited. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between alcohol consumption and PWV among female and male workers in Japan. Study participants were local government employees in Hokkaido, Japan, who underwent annual health check-ups. All data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The average daily alcohol consumption of the previous month, based on the alcohol concentration of each beverage type (g/day, ethanol equivalent), was estimated according to the frequency and amount of consumption. Data from 3893 participants (812 women and 3081 men) were analyzed. In women, non-drinkers had significantly higher PWV than women who consumed <10 g/day of alcohol. In men, compared with those who reportedly drank 20-39 g/day, non-drinkers and those who drank <20 g/day and ?60 g/day had significantly higher PWV. Alcohol consumption showed a J-shaped association with PWV in men (p for quadratic term < 0.036) and marginally in women (p < 0.056). The results of stratified analyses by age groups showed a significant J-shaped association, which was most notable for men ?45 years (p < 0.005). In middle-aged Japanese women and men, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower PWV, which in turn correlates with a reduction in vascular stiffness. PMID:24239150

  9. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-06-01

    To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16-40 year old women (n = 1,057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 2.8) (possible score 0-15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P < .001). Obese women (P = .002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P = .030), and some college hours/degree (P < .001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.18], switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  10. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. Methods we conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16–40 year old women (n=1057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Results The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0–15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P<.001). Obese women (P=.002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P=.030), and some college hours/degree (P<.001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food (odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.18), switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Conclusions Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  11. Diagnosis, treatment characteristics, and survival of women with breast cancer aged 65 and above: a hospital-based retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer incidence in women increases with age, while survival rates decrease. Studies interpret this result as meaning higher comorbidity, diagnosis at later stages of the disease, and less effective treatment in the elderly. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnosis and treatment characteristics of breast cancer and their effect on the survival of women aged 65 and above. Methods The data within the files of 1064 women with breast cancer, who were followed-up in Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital between 2000 and 2006, were reviewed retrospectively. The survival probabilities at years 1 and 5 were calculated by life table analysis. The Kaplan-Meier test was used for calculating mean survival time, and the differences between groups were evaluated by log-rank test. The backward elimination method was used for multivariate analysis, and a ?2 log-likelihood ratio was used for comparison of different models. Results Of the patients, 25.3% were aged 65 and above at the time of the diagnosis. Patients in this group had more comorbidities and were more likely to be diagnosed at advanced stages than younger patients. Additionally, they had lower rates of surgical treatment, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. One and 5-year survival probabilities among age groups were 96.1% and 84.5%, respectively, for <65 years, 93.5% and 84.8%, respectively, for 6569, 98.7% and 84.0%, respectively, for 7074, and 85.5% and 59.6%, respectively, for 75 years and above. In the multivariate model, age, clinical stage, and comorbidity were found to be negatively associated with the survival rate. Conclusions The survival of women with breast cancer aged 65 and above was affected negatively by age at diagnosis, clinical stage, and the presence of comorbidity. Early diagnosis also is very important for elderly women. Additionally, because of higher comorbidity, their evaluation and treatment should be planned by an interdisciplinary team. PMID:23984712

  12. Purpose in Life among Men and Women Aged 85 Years and Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, Pia; Gustafson, Yngve; Brulin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate purpose in life in relation to psychological well-being, social relations, and physical and psychological symptoms among very old women (n = 120) and men (n = 69). Their purpose in life was evaluated using the Purpose in Life (PIL) scale. Women scored lower on this PIL scale than men (102 vs. 108 p =

  13. Purpose in Life among Men and Women Aged 85 Years and Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, Pia; Gustafson, Yngve; Brulin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate purpose in life in relation to psychological well-being, social relations, and physical and psychological symptoms among very old women (n = 120) and men (n = 69). Their purpose in life was evaluated using the Purpose in Life (PIL) scale. Women scored lower on this PIL scale than men (102 vs. 108 p =…

  14. Using the Web To Promote Smoking Cessation and Health for College-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily

    Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…

  15. Factors Predicting Consumption of Fonio Grain ("Digitaria exilis") among Urban Malian Women of Reproductive Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; van Dam, Bianca; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain A. M.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors influencing intention to consume an indigenous nutritious grain, fonio ("Digitaria exilis"), among women in Mali. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model. Setting and Participants: One hundred and eight women (31.5 plus or minus 10.5 years),

  16. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This

  17. Attitudes toward Wife Beating among Palestinian Women of Reproductive Age from Three Cities in West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhaher, Enas A.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Maxwell, Annette E.; Kramer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A total of 450 women were interviewed in Mother and Child Health Care Centers in three cities in West Bank, Palestine, to assess attitudes toward wife beating. Overall, women perceived wife beating to be justified if a wife insults her husband (59%), if she disobeys her husband (49%), if she neglects her children (37%), if she goes out without…

  18. Assessment of Pregnancy Status, Malaria Knowledge and Malaria Fever Morbidity among Women of Reproductive Ages in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    OYEKALE, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is one the major health problem in Nigeria. During pregnancy, it poses serious threat to the survival of both unborn foetus and the mothers. This study determined the effect of adequate malaria knowledge and pregnancy status of women on use of mosquito nets and reported malaria fever morbidity. Methods The data were collected during the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) from 4632 women. Data analyses were carried out with descriptive statistics and Seemingly Unrelated Bivariate Probit regression. Results Results show that 13.19% of the women were pregnant, of which about one-third slept under mosquito nets. Also, 25.26% reported malaria associated fever in the previous two weeks to the time of interview, while 78.28% correctly answered that mosquitoes are responsible for malaria. Knowledge on malaria prevention was low with 55.70% and 14.93% indicating sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN, respectively. Probability of sleeping under mosquito nets significantly increased with knowing that sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN could prevent malaria while it decreased with having fever, age, urban residence and knowing that use of mosquito spray and coil can prevent malaria. The probability of having fever increased significantly with household size, being pregnant and age at first birth but decreased with age, knowing that sleeping under ITN, cutting grasses and closing door/windows would prevent malaria. Conclusions Use of mosquito nets among the women was low. Also, efforts to enhance their knowledge on malaria prevention and ensuring adequate access to mosquito nets especially for pregnant women would curtail the impact of malaria. PMID:26175973

  19. The relationship between age of coital debut and HIV seroprevalence among women in Durban, South Africa: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wand, Handan; Ramjee, Gita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of early sexual debut on HIV seroprevalence and incidence rates among a cohort of women. Design Prospective study. Setting KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants A total of 3492 sexually active women who consented to screen a HIV prevention trial during September 2002 to September 2005; a total of 1485 of them were followed for approximately 24 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures HIV seroprevalence among those who were screened for the trial and HIV seroconversion among those who seroconverted during the study. Results Lowest quintiles of age at sexual debut, less than high school education, a higher number of lifetime sexual partners and lack of cohabitation, being diagnosed as having herpes simplex virus 2 and other sexually transmitted infections were all significantly associated with prevalent HIV infection in multivariate analysis. During follow-up, 148 (6.8 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 5.8 to 8.0) women seroconverted. Highest seroconversion rate was observed among women who had reported to have had sex 15 years or younger (12.0 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 8.0 to 18.0). Overall, impact of risk factors considered in this study was associated with considerable potential reductions in HIV prevalence and incidence rates (population attributable risk: 85%, 95% CI 84% to 87% and population attributable risk: 77%, 95% CI 72% to 82%, respectively). Conclusions The association of HIV status with younger age at sexual debut may likely due to an increased number of lifetime partners. This increase could result from longer duration of sexual life. Prevention of HIV infection should include efforts to delay age at first sex in young women. Trial registration number NCT00121459. PMID:22223838

  20. Perceived threat predictor of calcium-rich foods in the women of premenopausal age Isfahan - Iran in 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Hoseini, Marjan; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: During women lives, frequently face the challenge of calcium reduction and absorption. Decreased calcium absorption followed by a decrease in estrogen at perimenopausal ages, low average per capita calcium intake among women, wrong nutritional behavior, household income reductions and make them more susceptible to osteoporosis and related complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the health belief model constructs and consuming calcium-rich foods in menopausal age women. Materials and Methods: This study was descriptive-correlation study. The questionnaires were completed by 210 menopausal women who had referred to health centers. The research data were analyzed using: Frequency distribution, mean score, Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate regression. Significant level of P < 0/05 were considered. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the scores for perceived susceptibility and severity of the threats of consumption and complications of inadequate intake were respectively: (62.1 and 38.9, and 60.2 and 39.9) and (59.6 and 37.9 and 56.3 and 36.5). The relationship between the number of units of calcium intake with perceived susceptibility and severity calcium intake and complications caused by the inadequate intake of calcium were (P < 0.001, r = 0.581, r = 0.651) and (P < 0.001, r = 0.634, r = 0.567). Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that perceived threat is the prognostic factor for the intake of calcium-rich foods and the increase of perceived threat in the health promotion programs may be associated with the increase in the consumption of calcium-rich foods in the women of premenopausal age. PMID:26793252

  1. Geographic distribution of HIV stigma among women of childbearing age in rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Akullian, Adam; Kohler, Pamela; Kinuthia, John; Laserson, Kayla; Mills, Lisa A.; Okanda, John; Olilo, George; Ombok, Maurice; Odhiambo, Frank; Rao, Deepa; Wakefield, Jonathan; John-Stewart, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s) HIV stigma is considered to be a major driver of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, yet there is a limited understanding of its occurrence. We describe the geographic patterns of two forms of HIV stigma in a cross-sectional sample of women of childbearing age from western Kenya: internalized stigma (associated with shame) and externalized stigma (associated with blame). Design Geographic studies of HIV stigma provide a first step in generating hypotheses regarding potential community-level causes of stigma and may lead to more effective community-level interventions. Methods Spatial regression using generalized additive models and point pattern analyses using K-functions were used to assess the spatial scale(s) at which each form of HIV stigma clusters, and to assess whether the spatial clustering of each stigma indicator was present after adjustment for individual-level characteristics. Results There was evidence that externalized stigma (blame) was geographically heterogeneous across the study area, even after controlling for individual-level factors (P=0.01). In contrast, there was less evidence (P=0.70) of spatial trend or clustering of internalized stigma (shame). Conclusion Our results may point to differences in the underlying social processes motivating each form of HIV stigma. Externalized stigma may be driven more by cultural beliefs disseminated within communities, whereas internalized stigma may be the result of individual-level characteristics outside the domain of community influence. These data may inform community-level interventions to decrease HIV-related stigma, and thus impact the HIV epidemic. PMID:24835356

  2. Effects of Ballates, Step Aerobics, and Walking on Balance in Women Aged 50–75 Years

    PubMed Central

    Clary, Sarah; Barnes, Cathleen; Bemben, Debra; Knehans, Allen; Bemben, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Ballates training (strengthening of the central core musculature by the inception of balance techniques) compared to more traditional exercise programs, such as step aerobics and walking, on balance in women aged 50- 75 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three supervised training groups (1 hour/day, 3 days/week, 13 weeks), Ballates (n = 12), step aerobics (n = 17), or walking (n =15). Balance was measured by four different methods (modified Clinical Test for the Sensory Interaction on Balance - mCTSIB; Unilateral Stance with Eyes Open - US-EO or Eyes Closed - US-EC; Tandem Walk - TW; Step Quick Turn - SQT) using the NeuroCom Balance Master. A 2-way (Group and Trial) repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni Pair-wise Comparisons were used to evaluate changes in the dependent variables used to describe stability and balance (sway velocity, turn sway, speed, and turn time). Measures of static postural stability and dynamic balance were similar for the three groups prior to training. Following the different exercise interventions, sway velocity on firm and foam surfaces (mCTSIB) with eyes closed (p < 0.05) increased for the Ballates group while the other two exercise groups either maintained or decreased their sway velocity following the training, therefore suggesting that these two groups either maintained or improved their balance. There were significant improvements in speed during the TW test (p < 0.01), and turn time (p < 0.01) and sway (p < 0.05) during the SQT test for each of the three groups. In general, all three training programs improved dynamic balance, however, step aerobics and walking programs resulted in be better improvements in postural stability or static balance when compared to the Ballates program. Key Points Exercise training can improve balance Need to consider both static and dynamic aspects of balance individually Improved balance can reduce the risk of fall PMID:24353456

  3. Quantitative risk-benefit analysis of fish consumption for women of child-bearing age in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chen, M Y Y; Wong, W W K; Chung, S W C; Tran, C H; Chan, B T P; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Maternal fish consumption is associated with both risks from methylmercury (MeHg) and beneficial effects from omega-3 fatty acids to the developing foetal brain. This paper assessed the dietary exposure to MeHg of women of child-bearing age (20-49 years) in Hong Kong, and conducted risk-benefit analysis in terms of the effects in children's intelligent quotient (IQ) based on local data and the quantitative method derived by the expert consultation of FAO/WHO. Results showed that average and high consumers consume 450 and 1500 g of fish (including seafood) per week, respectively. About 11% of women of child-bearing age had a dietary exposure to MeHg exceeding the PTWI of 1.6 g kg(-1) bw. In pregnant women MeHg intake may pose health risks to the developing foetuses. For average consumers, eating any of the 19 types of the most commonly consumed fish and seafood during pregnancy would result in 0.79-5.7 IQ points gain by their children. For high consumers, if they only ate tuna during pregnancy, it would cause 2.3 IQ points reduction in their children. The results indicated that for pregnant women the benefit outweighed the risk associated with eating fish if they consume different varieties of fish in moderation. PMID:24444393

  4. Experiences of Women Who Underwent Predictive BRCA 1/2 Mutation Testing Before the Age of 30.

    PubMed

    Brunstrom, Kate; Murray, Alexandra; McAllister, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This qualitative interview study focuses on the experiences of a sample of British female BRCA 1/2 carriers who had predictive testing before the age of 30, which is the minimum age for breast screening in the UK. Following appropriate informed consent procedures participants were recruited through the Cancer Genetics Service for Wales. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with seven participants, transcribed in full and analyzed using thematic analysis. The motives for testing and perceived advantages described by participants were similar to those identified in previous studies with older participants, such as increased awareness and knowledge and feeling more in control. However some of the perceived disadvantages were specific to younger women, including feeling pressured to make important life decisions earlier than they would have liked, such as about family planning and risk reducing surgery. Participants also reported feeling abandoned or forgotten because of lack of ongoing clinical contact, or feeling "stuck waiting" for screening to begin. However, none felt that these disadvantages were a reason to regret having testing. Findings in this small study suggest that having BRCA 1/2 predictive testing can have positive outcomes for young women even though they may be unable to access interventions such as breast screening. However it may be helpful to encourage young women during pre-test counseling to explore the decisions and choices they may face. These young women could benefit from ongoing support and follow up and increased interaction with healthcare professionals. PMID:25983051

  5. Relationship between menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction among married Turkish women in 40-65 age group.

    PubMed

    Senturk Erenel, Ayten; Golbasi, Zehra; Kavlak, Tulay; Dilbaz, Serdar

    2015-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to analyse the relationship between menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction among 229 married Turkish women in the 40-65 age group. The study was carried out at a menopause clinic of a state hospital between 1 October and 31 December 2010. Data were collected with Personal Characteristics Form, Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). The average age of the women was 52.33 (SD?=?4.80) years. The average MRS total score was 20.13(SD?=?9.20). The ASEX mean score was 19.97 (SD?=?5.44). It was determined that there is a positive meaningful relationship between ASEX mean score, MRS total mean score and the sub-score of women. From the results obtained from this study, it can be said that women have differing levels of menopausal symptoms, and as the severity of menopausal symptoms increases, there is an increase in sexual dysfunction. PMID:24754542

  6. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births). PMID:24690028

  7. It takes two: the role of partner ethnicity and age characteristics on condom negotiations of heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Amy G; Barnhart, James E

    2006-02-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women across four California universities indicated significant effects of partner ethnicity and age on condom negotiation strategies. Asian women with non-Asian partners were more likely to use nonverbal-direct strategies than those with Asian partners. Asian women with older partners were less likely to use verbal strategies (verbal-direct, verbal-indirect) than those with same-age partners. This study suggests that Asian women's safer sex communication varies by partner characteristics. Obtaining information such as partner ethnicity and age can help health educators provide more culturally appropriate sexual communication skills to clients. PMID:16539577

  8. Milking the cow: young women's construction of identity and risk in age-disparate transactional sexual relationships in Maputo, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, K; Price, N; Mussa, F

    2009-01-01

    Sexual relationships between young women and older men involving economic transactions have been offered as a likely explanation for gender differences in HIV prevalence in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This study employed peer ethnography to explore young women's construction of social identity and risk within age-disparate transactional sexual relationships in Maputo, Mozambique. Peer ethnography, a rapid approach derived from the anthropological method and based upon training members of the target group to carry out in-depth qualitative interviews with their peers, was adopted in order to gather ethnographic data within a short timeframe to produce actionable results for the design of a communications intervention. The study highlights young women's perception of agency and power in these relationships. Through a strategy of extracting financial and material resources from men based on the power of their sexuality, young women construct a positive identity and esteem linked to perceptions of modernity and consumption and their ability to access consumer goods. Current behaviour change HIV prevention messages have little meaning in relation to young women's perceived goals, in a context in which structural conditions offer few opportunities and limited hope for a secure economic future. PMID:19333807

  9. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  10. Choice of contraceptive method for birth control and attitudes toward abortion in Swedish women ages 23-29.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M; Sjdn, P O

    1995-01-01

    In Sweden, contraceptive methods for birth control are readily available, but one in four pregnancies was legally terminated during the period from 1975 to 1990. Our purpose in conducting the present study was to describe young women's choices and use of contraceptive methods and their attitudes to abortion. The participants were 305 Swedish women ages 23-29 years. Eighty-eight percent of the women were using some contraceptive method. The most common method was hormonal (43%), followed by a barrier method (22%). The women considered that abortion should not be used as a method of birth control and that the fact that a pregnancy is unintended is not a sufficient reason for terminating it. An acceptable reason, they thought, for a woman to have an abortion is the woman's present situation, in particular her social situation. The women were aware that the use of contraceptive methods gives them the chance to choose if and when they wish to have children. PMID:7706142

  11. Age-Disparate Partnerships and Risk of HIV-1 Acquisition Among South African Women Participating in the VOICE Trial.

    PubMed

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Nair, Gonasagrie; Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Mishra, Anu; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Ramjee, Gita; Panchia, Ravindre; Selepe, Pearl; Richardson, Barbra A; Chirenje, Zvavahera M; Marrazzo, Jeanne M

    2015-10-01

    A recent analysis from South Africa reported no association between age-disparate relationships and HIV-1 acquisition. We assessed the association between male partner age and HIV-1 acquisition among South African women participating in the VOICE trial. Of 4077 women enrolled, 3789 had complete data; 26% and 5% reported having a partner >5 and >10 years older at enrollment, respectively. Reporting a partner >5 years older (hazard ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval: 0.74 to 1.35) or >10 older (hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.49 to 1.74) was not associated with HIV-1 acquisition. These data corroborate recent reports and may suggest a shift in local epidemiology of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26049280

  12. Trends in long-acting reversible contraception use among U.S. women aged 15-44.

    PubMed

    Branum, Amy M; Jones, Jo

    2015-02-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), which include intrauterine devices (IUDs) and subdermal hormonal implants, are gaining popularity due to their high efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies. IUD use was more common among U.S. women in the 1970s before concerns over safety led to a decline in use (1); however, since approval of a 5-year contraceptive implant in 1990 and redesigned IUDs, there has been growing interest in the use of LARCs for unintended pregnancy prevention. Using data from the 1982, 1988, 1995, 2002, 20062010, and 20112013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this report examines trends in current LARC use among women aged 1544 and describes patterns of use by age, race and Hispanic origin, and parity. PMID:25714042

  13. Women in Radio Soap Operas: A Historical Perspective of the Image of Women's "Sphere" in the "Golden Age."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St John, Jacqueline

    Radio's "Golden Age," the 1930s and 1940s produced numerous successful and profitable daytime serials, called "soap operas" because they were most often sponsored by firms selling laundry products. Among the most popular of these series were those produced by the team of Anne and Frank Hummert. Working through the Blackett-Sample-Hummert…

  14. Women in Radio Soap Operas: A Historical Perspective of the Image of Women's "Sphere" in the "Golden Age."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St John, Jacqueline

    Radio's "Golden Age," the 1930s and 1940s produced numerous successful and profitable daytime serials, called "soap operas" because they were most often sponsored by firms selling laundry products. Among the most popular of these series were those produced by the team of Anne and Frank Hummert. Working through the Blackett-Sample-Hummert

  15. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Abdool Karim, S. S.; Harrison, A.; Lurie, M.; Colvin, M.; Connolly, C.; Sturm, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored. PMID:10063657

  16. Effects of 12 Weeks of Combined Exercise Training on Visfatin and Metabolic Syndrome Factors in Obese Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-il; So, Wi-Young; Ha, Sung; Yoo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Daeyeol; Singh, Harshvardhan; Fahs, Christopher A.; Rossow, Lindy; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Kim, Eonho

    2011-01-01

    Visfatin is a highly expressed protein with insulin-like functions located predominantly in visceral adipose tissue and has been linked to obesity and increased health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on visfatin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese middle-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. The training group exercised for 1 hour, 3 days per week during the 12 week supervised training program. The training program included 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (10RM) resistance exercise as well as aerobic exercise at an intensity of 60-70% of their heart rate reserve (HRR). The control group was asked to maintain their normal daily activities. Two-way (group X time) repeated measured analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects, but there was a significant group X time interaction for the following variables: body weight (p < 0.01), percent body fat (% fat) (p < 0.01), waist hip ratio (WHR) (p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05), fasting glucose level (p < 0.01), triglyceride levels (TG) (p < 0.01), high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C) (p < 0.05), and visfatin (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the 12 week combined resistance and aerobic training program used in this study was very effective for producing significant benefits to body composition and metabolic syndrome factors, as well as lowering visfatin levels in these obese middle-aged women. Key points Recent studies have linked visfatin to obesity and increased health risks. The study was done to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on visfatin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese middle-aged women. The exercise program used in this study was found to be very effective for lowering visfatin levels in obese middle-aged women. PMID:24149317

  17. Effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on visfatin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Il; So, Wi-Young; Ha, Sung; Yoo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Daeyeol; Singh, Harshvardhan; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G; Kim, Eonho

    2011-01-01

    Visfatin is a highly expressed protein with insulin-like functions located predominantly in visceral adipose tissue and has been linked to obesity and increased health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on visfatin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese middle-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. The training group exercised for 1 hour, 3 days per week during the 12 week supervised training program. The training program included 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (10RM) resistance exercise as well as aerobic exercise at an intensity of 60-70% of their heart rate reserve (HRR). The control group was asked to maintain their normal daily activities. Two-way (group X time) repeated measured analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects, but there was a significant group X time interaction for the following variables: body weight (p < 0.01), percent body fat (% fat) (p < 0.01), waist hip ratio (WHR) (p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05), fasting glucose level (p < 0.01), triglyceride levels (TG) (p < 0.01), high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C) (p < 0.05), and visfatin (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the 12 week combined resistance and aerobic training program used in this study was very effective for producing significant benefits to body composition and metabolic syndrome factors, as well as lowering visfatin levels in these obese middle-aged women. Key pointsRecent studies have linked visfatin to obesity and increased health risks.The study was done to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on visfatin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese middle-aged women.The exercise program used in this study was found to be very effective for lowering visfatin levels in obese middle-aged women. PMID:24149317

  18. Ovarian reserve in the women of late reproductive age after conservative treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Beltadze, K; Barbakadze, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age after the conservative treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence. A total of 67 women of late reproductive age with confirmed primary PCOS in adolescence and 70 age-matched controls were included in the study. The patients with PCOS underwent clinical investigation and conservative treatment with antiandrogens and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) between 1984 and 1990y. and at the time of original diagnosis they were 13-18 years. The patients were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the follow-up investigation of reproductive hormones was conducted. Data were compared between the study and control groups. After conservative treatment PCOS patients had higher levels of anti-Mllerian hormone and greater number of antral follicles than controls (?<0.01 and