Sample records for women aged 15-49

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Relationship in Non Menopause Women Aged 15-49 Years in Tehran, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Mohammad; B Golestan; R Majdzadeh; R Chaman; S Nedjat; M Karimloo

    2009-01-01

    Background: To investigate the association between socio-economic status and obesity in non-menopause women aged 15- 49 years in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This study was based on Iran National Health Survey conducted in 1999. Obesity is defined as a Body Mass In- dex over ?30. Constructed area (per-person), educational level and job are considered as factors indicating the socioeconomic status. The

  2. Health screening - women - ages 40 - 64

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 - 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Yearly exam - women - ages 40 - 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 - 64; Women’s health - ages 40 - 64; Preventive care - women - ages 40 - ...

  3. Health screening - women - ages 18 - 39

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 - 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Yearly exam - women - ages 18 - 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 - 39; Women's health - ages 18 - 39; Preventive care - women - ages 18 - ...

  4. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePLUS

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  5. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

  6. Race-ethnicity differences in folic acid intake in women of childbearing age in the United States after folic acid fortification: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quan-He Yang; Heather K Carter; Joseph Mulinare; RJ Berry; JM Friedman; J David Erickson

    Background: Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. Up to 70% of neural tube defects can be prevented by the consumption of folic acid by women before and early during pregnancy. Objective:Theobjectivewastoexaminefolicacidintakeinwomen of childbearing age in the United States. Design: We analyzed nutrient intake data reported by 1685 non- pregnant women aged 15-49 y

  7. Ages of Men and Women

    Cancer.gov

    Ages of Men and Women 2 bar chart with 5 items each. Chart 1: Men. Item 1: < 55 years: 12.4%. Item 2: 55-59 years: 21.8%. Item 3: 60-64 years: 28%. Item 4: 65-69 years: 33.8%. Item 5: ?70 years: 3.9%. Chart 2: Women. Item 1: < 55 years: 13.9%. Item

  8. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  9. Attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: a study of rural women in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DE Antai; JB Antai

    A B S T R A C T Predictors of rural women's attitudes in Nigeria toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using a random sample of rural women ( n = 3911) aged 15-49 years from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Findings were suggestive of social, religious, and cultural influences in the women's attitudes towards IPV.

  10. Incidence, clearance and predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Sellors; Tina L. Karwalajtys; Janusz Kaczorowski; James B. Mahony; Alice Lytwyn

    Background: Persistent infection with carcinogenic human pa- pillomavirus (HPV) is linked to high-grade lesions and cer- vical cancer. To better understand the natural history of HPV, we sought to determine the rates of incident and cleared carcinogenic HPV infection, by age, among women aged 15-49 years and to explore risk factors for in- cident infection. Methods: Women enrolled in an

  11. Older Women's Perceptions of Successful Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen K. Rossen; Kathleen A. Knafl; Meredith Flood

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which older adults view or define successful aging. This qualitative study, therefore, examined older women's perceptions of the characteristics and components of successful aging. Transitions are complex person–environment interactions that include the disruption of the individual's life and their responses to the disruption. Older adults experience many life transitions or changes in life

  12. Work related injury among aging women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  13. Aging and reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

  14. Candies in hell: women’s experiences of violence in Nicaragua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ellsberg; Rodolfo Peña; Andrés Herrera; Jerker Liljestrand; Anna Winkvist

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of domestic violence against women in León, Nicaragua. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 488 women between the ages of 15–49. The physical aggression sub-scale of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to identify women suffering abuse. In-depth interviews with formerly battered women were performed and

  15. Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43

    Cancer.gov

    Outcomes of screening mammography among women aged 40 to 43 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Toronto, Canada (2006) lawrence.paszat@ices.on.ca Selection criteria All women age 40 – 43 resident in Ontario on January 1, 1995 - OHIP (medicare)

  16. Determinants of institutional delivery among women of childbearing age in rural haiti.

    PubMed

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Khan, Maria R; Striley, Catherine W; Boldon, Ellen; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Saint-Fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Clermont, Miliane

    2015-06-01

    Institutional delivery is an important factor associated with reduced maternal mortality rate (MMR). MMR in Haiti is high (350 per 100,000) and institutional delivery is low-just over 25 % of women delivered at a health facility in 2010. There also exists substantial rural-urban disparity in delivery with more hospital deliveries in urban than in rural areas. We aimed to study the prevalence and determinants of institutional delivery in a sample of women of childbearing age in rural Haiti. The study took place in Fond des Blancs and Villa, as part of a baseline assessment undertaken prior to implementation of a maternal, child health, nutrition, and water and sanitation program. From October to November 2011, women 15-49 years old (N = 575) were selected using a cross-sectional two-stage sampling strategy. We used descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with institutional delivery. The prevalence of institutional delivery was 45.4 %; a rate higher than the national average of 25 %. In adjusted analyses, correlates of institutional delivery were younger maternal age (25 years and younger) (OR 1.82; CI 1.15, 2.90; P = 0.0112), antenatal care receipt (OR 3.70; CI 1.84, 7.43; P = 0.0003) and those who were poor according to our poverty index score classification (OR 2.04; CI 1.13, 3.69; P = 0.0187). This study shows that increased hospital delivery is likely explained by accessibility to antenatal care. Programs that improve access to antenatal care, with concurrent efforts to address structural inequalities that drive socio-economic deprivation, are likely critical to increasing institutional delivery. PMID:25418752

  17. Sexual Motivation in Women as a Function of Age

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Harte, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Women’s motivations to engage in sex are likely influenced by their past sexual experiences, the type of relationship in which they are involved in, and numerous lifestyle factors such as career and family demands. The influences of these factors undoubtedly change as women age. Aim This study aimed to examine potential differences in sexual motivation between three distinct age groups of premenopausal women. Methods Women aged 18–22 years (N = 137), 23–30 years (N = 103), and 31–45 years (N = 87) completed an online survey that assessed the proportion with which they had engaged in sexual intercourse for each of 140 distinct reasons. Main Outcome Measures The YSEX? Questionnaire by Meston and Buss [1] was used to measure sexual motivation. The items of this questionnaire were composed of four primary sexual motivation factors (physical, goal attainment, emotional, insecurity), and 13 subfactors. Results Women aged 31–45 years reported a higher proportion of engaging in sex compared with one or both of the younger age groups of women for nine of the 13 YSEX? subfactors: stress reduction, physical desirability, experience seeking, resources, social status, revenge, expression, self-esteem boost, and mate guarding. At an item level, the top 25 reasons for having sex were virtually identical across age groups. Conclusion Women aged 31–45 have more motives for engaging in sex than do women aged 18–30, but the primary reasons for engaging in sex do not differ within this age range. Women aged 18–45 have sex primarily for pleasure, and love and commitment. The implications for diagnosis and treatment of women with sexual dysfunctions were discussed. PMID:19751384

  18. The use of human faeces for fertilizer is associated with increased intensity of hookworm infection in Vietnamese women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Humphries; L. S. Stephenson; E. J. Pearce; P. H. The; H. T. Dan; L. T. Khanh

    1997-01-01

    To investigate different factors associated with hookworm infections we conducted 2 studies in a commune in northern Viet Nam. The first was part of a larger study on anaemia and covered 213 women (15–49 years of age) and their 92 children (6 months to 5 years of age) in one commune; 90% of the families reported using human faeces for

  19. Disability, physical activity, and muscle strength in older women: The women's health and aging study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taina Rantanen; Jack M. Guralnik; Ritva Sakari-Rantala; Suzanne Leveille; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Shari Ling; Linda P. Fried

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study associations of motor disability, physical activity, and muscle strength in older women, in particular to investigate whether model of spiraling decrease is expressed in the data.Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from the base-line measurements of The Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS).Setting: Participants' homes.Participants: A total of 1,002 disabled women aged 65 years and older living in

  20. Thriving Older African American Women: Aging After Jim Crow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dena Shenk; Diane Zablotsky; Mary Beth Croom

    1997-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of small group discussions with self-defined successful African American women age 60+ in Charlotte, North Carolina. These women, who lived through the Jim Crow era and thrived in spite of the obstacles, continue to seek meaning in their lives through the roles they play in their families, churches, and communities. They feel strongly

  1. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Eddy; V. Hasselblad; W. McGivney; W. Hendee

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next

  2. Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

  3. Middle-Aged and Older Women in Print Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenshead, Carol; Ingersoll, Berit

    1982-01-01

    Examined images of aging women depicted in periodical advertising over a 10-year period. Analyzed content for frequency, products involved, setting, value orientation, and change over time. Found older women in less than 1% of the advertisements, and no significant changes from 1967-1977. (Author/JAC)

  4. Sexual dysfunction among middle aged women in the community.

    PubMed

    Osborn, M; Hawton, K; Gath, D

    1988-04-01

    In a community survey of women aged 35-59 sexual functioning was studied in the 436 women with partners. One third of these women had operationally defined sexual dysfunction: impaired sexual interest was identified in 17% of women (68/406), vaginal dryness in 17% (73/434), infrequency of orgasm in 16% (60/379), and dyspareunia in 8% (30/379). Sexual dysfunctions were statistically significantly associated with increasing age and also with psychiatric disorder, neuroticism, and marital disharmony. One in 10 women regarded themselves as having a sexual problem. These women were no older than women with sexual dysfunction who did not regard themselves as having a sexual problem. Nevertheless, they differed from the rest of the sample in having more psychiatric disorder, neuroticism, marital disharmony, and (in women still menstruating) psychological symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome. In the whole sample 16 women (4%) said that they would like help for a sexual problem. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in this series of women suggests that general practitioners should increase their alertness to the problem in their patients. PMID:3129108

  5. and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIXIE L. THOMPSON; JENNIFER RAKOW; SARA M. PERDUE

    THOMPSON, D. L., J. RAKOW, and S. M. PERDUE. Relationship between Accumulated Walking and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 911-914, 2004. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between objectively determined physical activity (pedometer counted steps per day) and body composition variables in middle-aged women. Methods: Height,

  6. Age and HIV Sexual Risk among Women in Methadone Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malitta Engstrom; Tazuko Shibusawa; Nabila El-Bassel; Louisa Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between age and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a random sample of 372 women in methadone\\u000a treatment in New York City. Logistic regression results indicate that women of all ages are at risk for HIV through inconsistent\\u000a condom use. Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and HIV-negative status are associated with inconsistent\\u000a condom

  7. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G Maria; Koenig, Sara S K; McCulle, Stacey L; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O; Brotman, Rebecca M; Davis, Catherine C; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J

    2011-03-15

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?(2)(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

  8. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G. Maria; Koenig, Sara S. K.; McCulle, Stacey L.; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O.; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Davis, Catherine C.; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?2(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

  9. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  10. Impaired folliculogenesis and ovulation in older reproductive aged women.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Nanette; Isaac, Barbara; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Adel, Tovaghol; Weingart, Laura; Nussbaum, Aimee; Thakur, Shilpa; Jinnai, Hikoyoshi; Khosla, Nidhi; Barad, David

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that older reproductive aged women ovulate at a smaller follicle diameter and are more likely to produce multiple follicles during their menstrual cycle compared with midreproductive aged women. We performed a comparative study of 16 midreproductive aged women (MRA; 22-34 yr old) and 34 older reproductive aged women (ORA; > or = 45 yr old). Women underwent serial transvaginal ultrasounds to follow follicular growth over 1 menstrual cycle. A subset of women (nine MRA and 19 ORA) had daily blood sampling. Scans were initiated within 1 wk of menses and were performed at least 3 times/wk until evidence of follicular collapse was observed. If there was no evidence of follicle growth beyond 10 mm by 20 d, observations (ultrasounds and blood sampling) were ended. Follicle growth was organized backward from maximum presumed preovulatory diameter. Hormones were standardized to d 0, the day when progesterone levels exceeded 2 ng/ml. Group comparisons were performed using ANOVA with Mann-Whitney post hoc testing and Kruskal-Wallis testing for integrated hormones. The main outcome measures were peak follicle diameter, follicle growth patterns, and circulating LH, FSH estradiol, progesterone, inhibin A, and inhibin B. Six of 34 ORA women never underwent serial ultrasound. An additional 5 ORA women failed to ovulate on the basis of daily blood sampling or had no evidence of follicle growth beyond 10 mm by 20 d. Two of 16 MRA women were excluded: 1 due to severely decreased ovarian reserve at screening and 1 due to failure of follicle growth by cycle d 20. Small follicle counts in the follicular phase of the cycle (beginning of cycle through d -4) were greater in MRA women compared with ORA women (4.7 +/- 0.56 vs. 3.4 +/- 0.34; P = 0.042). Among presumed ovulatory cycles, ORA women demonstrated considerably more variable follicle growth patterns, with larger initial follicle size, but a trend toward smaller peak follicle diameters (15.22 +/- 0.95 vs. 17.85 +/- 0.71 mm; P = 0.07). ORA women were twice as likely to have multiple follicles as younger women (odds ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-4.6), but this observed difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.083). Comparisons of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone between ORA (n = 14) and MRA (n = 8) women indicated the expected increase in FSH secretion, most evident in the early follicular phase of the cycle. Estradiol and progesterone concentrations did not differ between these groups. Inhibin B was decreased in ORA women compared with MRA women (P = 0.030). Despite normal-appearing patterns of follicle growth, grossly abnormal hormonal patterns were observed in some of the ORA women's cycles. Other cycles demonstrated a failure of folliculogenesis. These patterns are not observed in MRA women's cycles. ORA women ovulated at a smaller mean follicle diameter and had larger initial follicle diameters than younger women. The overall follicle growth curves of the older women tended to be flatter than those of the younger women. Taken together, the data suggest that follicle growth begins earlier in the cycle of perimenopausal women, but growth progresses more slowly. Ovulation may occur at an earlier stage of growth in association with reproductive aging. PMID:14602797

  11. Psychological stress and reproductive aging among pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, M.E.; Adler, N.E.; Pasch, L.A.; Sternfeld, B.; Gregorich, S.E.; Rosen, M.P.; Cedars, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Life history models suggest that biological preparation for current versus longer term reproduction is favored in environments of adversity. In this context, we present a model of reproductive aging in which environmental adversity is proposed to increase the number of growing follicles at the cost of hastening the depletion of the ovarian reserve over time. We evaluated this model by examining psychological stress in relation to reproductive aging indexed by antral follicle count (AFC), a marker of total ovarian reserve. We hypothesized that stress would be related to (i) higher AFC in younger women, reflecting greater reproductive readiness as well as (ii) greater AFC loss across women, reflecting more accelerated reproductive aging. METHODS In a multi-ethnic, community sample of 979 participants [ages 25–45 (mean (standard deviation) = 35.2 (5.5)); 27.5% Caucasian] in the Ovarian Aging study, an investigation of the correlates of reproductive aging, the interaction of age-x-stress was assessed in relation to AFC to determine whether AFC and AFC loss varied across women experiencing differing levels of stress. Stress was assessed by the perceived stress scale and AFC was assessed by summing the total number of antral follicles visible by transvaginal ultrasound. RESULTS In linear regression examining AFC as the dependent variable, covariates (race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, menarcheal age, hormone-containing medication for birth control, parity, cigarette smoking, bodymass index, waist-to-hip ratio) and age were entered on step 1, stress on step 2 and the interaction term (age-x-stress) on step 3. On step 3, significant main effects showed that older age was related to lower AFC (b = ?0.882, P = 0.000) and greater stress was related to higher AFC (b = 0.545, P = 0.005). Follow-up analyses showed that the main effect of stress on AFC was present in the younger women only. A significant interaction term (b = ?0.036, P = 0.031) showed the relationship between age and AFC varied as function of stress. When the sample was divided into tertiles of stress, the average follicle loss was ?0.781, ?0.842 and ?0.994 follicles/year in the low-, mid- and high-stress groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Psychological stress was related to higher AFC among younger women and greater AFC decline across women, suggesting that greater stress may enhance reproductive readiness in the short term at the cost of accelerating reproductive aging in the long term. Findings are preliminary, however, due to the cross-sectional nature of the current study. PMID:22767452

  12. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  13. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age

  14. Management of Acne in Women Over 25 Years of Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rivera; A. Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Acne is one of the most widespread skin diseases in the general population and among adolescents in particular. However, it is becoming increasingly common in patients over 25 years of age, and particularly in women. We distinguish 2 types of postadolescent acne: persistent acne—the most frequent such acne—is an extension of acne that began in adolescence and continues into adulthood,

  15. Age of menarche and schizophrenia onset in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M Hochman; Richard R Lewine

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The “estrogen hypothesis” posits that this hormone serves as a protective factor in the development of schizophrenia. If true, then it is expected that the earlier the age of menarche, the later the onset of schizophrenia (as has been reported by some investigators). This study attempts to replicate this relationship in a sample of women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective

  16. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  17. Femoral Expansion in Aging Women: Implications for Osteoporosis and Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richmond W. Smith Jr.; Richard R. Walker

    1964-01-01

    In femoral radiographs of 2030 aging women, the diameter of the midshaft periosteum increased as cortical thickness declined. Since the cortical area enlarged, periosteal accretion exceeded endosteal resorption. Since the section modulus increased more than did cortical area, the ratio of flexural failure resistance to crush resistance increased, in apparent contrast to the changes observed in the femoral neck.

  18. Restless legs syndrome and hypertension in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Malhotra, Atul; Forman, John; Winkelman, John; Li, Yanping; Gao, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    Limited research suggests a relationship between restless legs syndrome and hypertension. We, therefore, assessed the relationship between restless legs syndrome and hypertension among middle-aged women. This is a cross-sectional study including 65 544 women (aged 41-58 years) participating in Nurses' Health Study II. The participants with diabetes mellitus and arthritis were excluded, because these conditions can mimic restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire based on the International Restless Legs Study Group criteria. Information on diagnosis of hypertension and blood pressure values were collected via questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation between restless legs syndrome and hypertension, with adjustment for age, race, body mass index, physical activity, menopausal status, smoking, use of analgesics, and intake of alcohol, caffeine, folate, and iron. Compared with women with no restless legs symptoms, the multiple adjusted odds of having hypertension were 1.20 times (95% CI: 1.10-1.30; P<0.0001) higher among women with restless legs symptoms. The adjusted odds ratios for women who reported restless legs symptoms 5 to 14 times per month and ?15 times per month were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94-1.18) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.24-1.61) respectively, compared with those without the symptoms (P trend: <0.0001). Greater frequency of restless legs symptoms was associated with higher concurrent systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P trend: <0.0001 for both). Women with restless legs syndrome have a higher prevalence of hypertension, and this prevalence increases with more frequent restless legs symptoms. PMID:21986505

  19. Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Dyslipidemia in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Delavar, MA; Lye, MS; Hassan, STBS; Khor, GL; Hanachi, P

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death throughout the world. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia, as well as dietary factors contributing to the development of dyslipidemia among middle-aged women. Methods: The research design of the present study was a population-based cross-sectional study; anthropometric measures and blood chemistry were obtained. Physical activity was measured using the original International Physical Activity Questionnaires Long Form while food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used in assessing individual’s habitual intake. Overall, 809 women, 30–50 years of age from fourteen active urban Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC) in Babol City, northern Iran, were obtained from 1,905 households across operational areas of 14 PHC using systematic random sampling method. Results: The prevalence rates of women classified as overweight/obese, with central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia were 82.8%, 75.5%, 14.6% and 63.4%, respectively. Total physical activity did not correlate with cholesterol ratio. Soybean protein was inversely associated with cholesterol ratio (rho=?0.18, P? 0.001). The adjusted OR for dyslipidemia in women with moderate protein intake was significantly higher than in women with high and low intake (OR=2.31; 95% CI= 1.61, 3.30). No significant associations were found between dyslipidemia and carbohydrate, fat intake or physical activity. Conclusion: This study showed very high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Iranian middle-aged women. A more detailed study is suggested to develop definitively recommendations for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease for the Iranian population. PMID:23113107

  20. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  1. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and ... Fitness: Overtraining Risks Pregnancy, Nursing and Bone Health Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American ...

  2. Age at menarche and its association with dysglycemia in Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Tae-Hwa; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Joungwon; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Choi, Yuni; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Recent studies have demonstrated that earlier menarche is associated with increased risks of prediabetes and diabetes in white women; however, the associations have not been fully explored in Asian populations. We investigated the associations between age at menarche and prediabetes and/or diabetes in Korean middle-aged women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 2,039 premenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 44 to 56 years who visited the health promotion center for medical checkups. Participants were divided into three groups based on age at menarche: early (<13 y), average (13-16 y), and late (>16 y). Results The mean (SD) age at menarche was 14.6 (1.6) years. Of 2,039 women, 820 and 85 women had prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or 5.7%-6.4% glycated hemoglobin) and diabetes, respectively. On logistic regression analysis, earlier menarche was significantly associated with prediabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.24-2.61; P = 0.002), diabetes (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.04-5.69; P = 0.04), and dysglycemia (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.28-2.66; P = 0.001), after adjusting for a number of confounding factors, compared with average age at menarche. On linear regression analysis, earlier age at menarche was significantly associated with increased fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, homeostatic model assessment for ?-cell function, body mass index, and waist circumference. Conclusions Age at menarche is inversely associated with various forms of dysglycemia. A history of earlier menarche may be helpful in predicting prediabetes and subsequent diabetes in Korean women. PMID:25335102

  3. [Management of acne in women over 25 years of age].

    PubMed

    Rivera, R; Guerra, A

    2009-01-01

    Acne is one of the most widespread skin diseases in the general population and among adolescents in particular. However, it is becoming increasingly common in patients over 25 years of age, and particularly in women. We distinguish 2 types of post adolescent acne: persistent acne--the most frequent such acne--is an extension of acne that began in adolescence and continues into adulthood, and late-onset acne, which first appears in those over 25 years. We review the clinical characteristics of these types of acne in women, the causes, the recommended complementary tests, and the particulars of treatment in order to adequately manage this condition. PMID:19268109

  4. Thriving older African American women: aging after Jim Crow.

    PubMed

    Shenk, D; Zablotsky, D; Croom, M B

    1998-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of small group discussions with self-defined successful African American women age 60+ in Charlotte, North Carolina. These women, who lived through the Jim Crow era and thrived in spite of the obstacles, continue to seek meaning in their lives through the roles they play in their families, churches, and communities. They feel strongly that there is a core of key values that continue to hold meaning and struggle to impart these values to those whose lives they touch. The key values identified include education, religion, work, and giving back to the community, and illustrate the integration of both traditional and nontraditional definitions of success. Mentoring is proposed as an important concept for understanding the lives of African American women in later life. PMID:9870053

  5. The women's health questionnaire: A measure of mid-aged women's perceptions of their emotional and physical health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myra Hunter

    1992-01-01

    When assessing mood and general health of mid-aged women, the effects of hormonal changes (and resulting symptoms such as hot flushes) and changes associated with age (such as in sleep patterns) can confound the results. A questionnaire was specifically developed to measure subjective reports of emotional and physical well-being of women aged 45 to 65 years. The relationships between symptoms

  6. Social relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Elliot M.; Hayney, Mary S.; Love, Gayle D.; Urry, Heather L.; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; Davidson, Richard J.; Singer, Burton H.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the interplay of social engagement, sleep quality, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a sample of aging women (n = 74, aged 61-90, M age = 73.4). Social engagement was assessed by questionnaire, sleep was assessed by using the NightCap in-home sleep monitoring system and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and blood samples were obtained for analysis of plasma levels of IL-6. Regarding subjective assessment, poorer sleep (higher scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) was associated with lower positive social relations scores. Multivariate regression analyses showed that lower levels of plasma IL-6 were predicted by greater sleep efficiency (P < 0.001), measured objectively and by more positive social relations (P < 0.05). A significant interaction showed that women with the highest IL-6 levels were those with both poor sleep efficiency and poor social relations (P < 0.05). However, those with low sleep efficiency but compensating good relationships as well as women with poor relationships but compensating high sleep efficiency had IL-6 levels comparable to those with the protective influences of both good social ties and good sleep. PMID:16339311

  7. Natural conception after age 45 in Bedouin women, a uniquely fertile population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuval Gielchinsky; Moshe Mazor; Alex Simon; Shlomo Mor-Yossef; Neri Laufer

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Women conceiving naturally and delivering after age 45 are an exceptionally fertile population that may serve as a model to identify factors associated with delayed reproductive aging. This work studies this phenomenon in Bedouin women. Methods: The study is an observational retrospective analysis of all Bedouin women who conceived spontaneously and had their latest delivery after the age of

  8. Female scarcity reduces women's marital ages and increases variance in men's marital ages.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns. PMID:22947810

  9. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-03-11

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars).

  10. Phosphatidylethanol and Alcohol Consumption in Reproductive Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Law, Tameeka L.; Randall, Patrick K.; Newman, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol disorders are preventable, but self-reported alcohol consumption can be misleading and impede effective treatment. Biomarkers represent an alternative method for assessing alcohol use, and this study evaluated the relationship between blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and alcohol use in a sample of reproductive age women. Methods Alcohol use was estimated by validated self-report methods in 80 non-pregnant women ages 18 to 35. PEth was measured by a contracted laboratory using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Regression methods appropriate for the distribution of PEth were used to define its relationship to alcohol consumption during the prior 2 weeks and explore the effects of drinking patterns on this association. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate the sensitivity of PEth for various drinking levels at 95% specific cutoffs. Results PEth had a positive linear association with grams of alcohol consumed (p<0.001), and was detectable in 93% of subjects consuming an average of 2 or more drinks per day. The relationship between total alcohol consumption and PEth may be stronger in women with recent heavy drinking days. The relationship between drinking and PEth varied considerably between individuals, and sensitivity for a certain amount of drinking was low at a highly specific cutoff concentration. Conclusions PEth is a highly sensitive indicator of moderate and heavy alcohol consumption in reproductive age women and may complement the use of self-report alcohol screens when additional objective markers of alcohol use are desirable. However, choosing a highly valid cutoff concentration for PEth to differentiate various levels of alcohol consumption may not be feasible. PMID:20028353

  11. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  12. Clothing selection behavior of the aged women for thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Jeong, W S

    1999-05-01

    Wearing behavior and thermoregulatory responses of five young women (YG; 20 +/- 1 yr) and five aged women (AG; 65 +/- 3 yr) to indoor cold in summer were investigated in this study. The subjects were exposed to 21.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and 55 +/- 5% RH while seated during a 90-minute experiment. The subjects were allowed to select and wear for thermal comfort clothing whenever they needed additional clothing during the experiment. Rectal temperature (Tre) and temperatures of 7 sites (head, chest, forearm, hand, thigh, leg, foot) of the skin of the subjects were measured every 10 minutes. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) of the subject was obtained every 10 minutes. First selection time of additional clothing was monitored and weight of selected total clothing was calculated. The results for this study were as follows: Tre and Tsk gradually decreased in YG and AG, however Tre decreased less than Tsk which decreased greater in AG than YG (p < 0.01). AG's first selection of additional clothing and thermal sensation response were slower than YG's. Furthermore, total clothing weight was less in AG than YG. It was concluded that clothing selection behavior would modify the intrinsic thermoregulatory responses of the aged women to the cold stress in the summer. PMID:10462839

  13. Sustained fertility from 22 to 41 years of age in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mellembakken, Jan R.; Berga, Sarah L.; Kilen, Mirjam; Tanbo, Tom G.; Åbyholm, Thomas; Fedorcsák, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Subfertility due to chronic anovulation is common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and is often treated with IVF. Women with PCOS have an increased ovarian follicle and oocyte count, increased ovarian reserve and/or a slower rate of follicle atresia. If so, one would expect women with PCOS to display a delayed reduction in fertility with advancing age as compared with eumenorrheic women. METHODS To test this hypothesis, we compared oocyte count and live birth rates among two groups undergoing IVF, 500 women with PCOS and 500 eumenorrheic women with infertility due to tubal factor only. RESULTS Across the age range of 22–41 years, oocyte count and live birth rates remained stable in women with PCOS. In the eumenorrheic comparison group, these parameters decreased significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS display sustained fertility with advancing age as compared with infertile eumenorrheic women. PMID:21724569

  14. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  15. Screening and recording of alcohol use among women of child-bearing age and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Moumita; Burnett, Margaret; Carrière, Sarah; Cox, Lori Vitale; Dell, Colleen Ann; Gammon, Holly; Geller, Brian; Koren, Gideon; Lee, Lily; Midmer, Deana; Mousmanis, Patricia; Schuurmans, Nan; Senikas, Vyta; Soucy, Danielle; Wood, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    A woman's alcohol use during pregnancy is one of the top preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities that are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The social and economic burden of FASD is substantial. Lifetime direct tangible costs per individual related to health care, education and social services in Canada have been estimated to be $1.4 million. Screening women of child-bearing age and pregnant women and recording their alcohol consumption is a practical process to identify and evaluate women at-risk and to identify potentially exposed infants. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes the following three levels of screenings which should be done on consenting women: Level I screening involves practice-based approaches that can be used by health care providers when talking to women about alcohol use, such as motivational interviewing and supportive dialogue. Level II screening includes a number of structured questionnaires that can be used with direct questioning (TLFB) or indirect /masked screening (AUDIT, BMAST / SMAST, CAGE, CRAFFT, T-ACE, TWEAK). Level III screening includes laboratory-based tools that can be used to confirm the presence of a drug, its level of exposure and determine the presence of multiple drugs. There are challenges and limitations in the use of the screening and assessment tools outlined. For example, the single question about alcohol use and the various questionnaires rely on a woman to provide details about her alcohol use. There is no consensus on the appropriate screening to use across Canada as each provincial / territorial jurisdiction, health care organization and healthcare provider uses a variety of formal and informal screening tool. In addition, there are inconsistent processes across Canada for the recording of the alcohol use in a woman's chart and the transfer of the information to the infant and the child's health records. The FASD Advisory Workgroup proposes eleven recommendations to improve the screening and recording processes for alcohol use in women of child-bearing age and pregnant women. PMID:19372602

  16. Women's strategic responses to violence in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.?DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.?SETTING—León, Nicaragua.?PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.?MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.?CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.???Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011

  17. Self-Care Process as Experienced by Middle-Aged Thai Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manee Arpanantikul

    2006-01-01

    My purpose in this study was to explore the process of self-care actions in promoting health among middle-aged Thai women. Data were obtained from in-depth recorded interviews with 15 middle-aged Thai women living in Bangkok. Findings showed that the process of self-care actions for achieving health among middle-aged Thai women moved through a series of five stages: (1) perceiving health

  18. Micronutrient Intakes among Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Nguyen, Hieu; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Copeland, Erika; Strizich, Garrett; Lowe, Alyssa; Pham, Hoa; Truong, Truong V.; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. Methods The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA) participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. Results Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively) with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively). The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with educational programs and social development are needed. PMID:24586831

  19. International women's movement comes of age at FWCW.

    PubMed

    O'haire, H

    1996-02-01

    This article focuses on what the women's conference achieved for women. The Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) recognized an international women's movement. Governments agreed that women were entitled to full human rights, reproductive rights, and equality in all aspects of life. Women were to become full and equal partners in the development process. Women are likely to demand action based on the paper declarations. The success of the conference is attributed to a powerful network of women's groups. A striking feature was the heading of most national delegations by women. It was recognized that women were full but neglected partners in families and societies. Governments acknowledged that women suffered discrimination within the family and society. Wording was rejected that would have given women the guaranteed right to determine the size and spacing of their families and the information and services to do so. The activity among women's groups in working together to restore this view strengthened the bonds between women's groups and created worldwide awareness and support for women's organizations. Networks that were established at Rio de Janeiro made their presence and position on reproductive health felt at the preparatory meetings to the UN Population Conference in Cairo. It was argued that a target-driven approach had the effect of treating women as reproduction machines. Women's groups also expressed strong positions on how women were to be treated in the formation of population policy and programs. 1) It was insisted that governments and population groups must stop dictating fertility regimes to women. 2) The concept of family planning must include reproductive health. 3) Women should have the freedom to exercise choice in planning their families. 4) Women should also have equal access to education and employment. Women came thus to Beijing with a clear vision of what they wanted. At Beijing domestic violence was for the first time condemned. Beijing confirmed the Cairo consensus and included some new issues such as sexual rights and confidential youth contraceptive services. PMID:12291334

  20. Designing a Community Study of Moderately to Severely Disabled Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUDITH D. KASPER; SAM SHAPIRO; JACK M. GURALNIK; KAREN J. BANDEEN-ROCHE; LINDA P. FRIED

    PURPOSE: This paper reports on the design of a community-based study focusing on the effects of prevalent and incident disease and other modifying influences, on changes in functioning among moderately and severely disabled elderly women over a 3-year period (the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS)). METHODS: An approach to conceptualizing and assessing disability which captured functional diffi- culty across

  1. Awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid among women: a study from Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeynep Baykan; Ahmet Öztürk; Serpil Poyrazo?lu; ?skender Gün

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  To investigate the awareness, knowledge, and behaviors relevant to folic acid intake in women aged 15–49 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered to 1,083 women who attended to family health care centers for\\u000a any reason, between 1 and 15 of December 2009.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Half of the women (53.7%) surveyed did not hear or read about folic acid.

  2. THE IMAGE OF MIDDLE?AGED AND OLDER WOMEN IN MAGAZINE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Bailey; Diane R. Harrell; Laura E. Anderson

    1993-01-01

    Manufacturers and retailers have discovered the potential “older” market, but do magazine ads reflect this discovery? The images of older women in advertisements in 1987 issues of Good Housekeeping, JAMA, and Time were examined on several measures. Good Housekeeping printed more ads featuring women, and a greater proportion of its “person pictorial” ads featured women. An age bias was found

  3. Mammography stages of change in middle-aged women with schizophrenia: An exploratory analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie A Lindamer; Emily Wear; Georgia Robins Sadler

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health care providers and educators who seek to create health promotion programs and individualized comprehensive care plans for women with schizophrenia are hindered by the lack of data to guide their efforts. PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that women with schizophrenia adhere to mammography screening guidelines at the same rate as other same-age women. The study also investigated

  4. Knowledge of emergency contraception among women aged 18 to 44 in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana G Foster; Cynthia C Harper; Julia J Bley; John J Mikanda; Marta Induni; Elizabeth C Saviano; Felicia H Stewart

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveThe State of California has taken several steps to make emergency contraceptives (ECs) available to women in the state. By using data from the 1999-2001 California Women's Health Survey, we estimated the knowledge of emergency contraception among adult women of reproductive age at risk of pregnancy (n=6209).

  5. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

  6. Stroke Incidence in Women under 60 Years of Age Related to Alcohol Intake and Smoking Habit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Lu; Weimin Ye; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The association between alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of stroke amongst women remains unclear, especially in young women. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 45,449 Swedish women aged 30–50 years free of stroke and heart diseases at enrolment in 1991 and 1992. Information on drinking and smoking habits at enrolment was collected using a questionnaire. Incident

  7. Biochemical and hormonal variables in black and white women matched for age and weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Aloia; Mageda Mikhail; Cathy Delerme Pagan; Annapoorna Arunachalam; James K. Yeh; Edith Flaster

    1998-01-01

    Weight and age may influence the levels of indexes of bone remodeling and the calciotropic hormones. In a study of interracial differences in these women, our black population was heavier than our white population. We therefore matched a subset of 96 black and 96 white women from our larger population for age and weight to determine whether a racial difference

  8. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women

    E-print Network

    Smith, Abbie E.; Herda, Ashley A.; Herda, Trent J.; Ryan, Eric D.; Moon, Jordan R.; Cramer, Joel T.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 days of Creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in college-aged women. Fifteen healthy college-aged women (mean ± SD = 22.3 ± 1.7 ...

  9. Transitions into and out of caregiving: Health and social characteristics of mid-age Australian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Lee; Helen Gramotnev

    2007-01-01

    Family caregiving is frequently associated with significant levels of physical, emotional and financial strain. This article examines the health effects of transitions into and out of caregiving in middle age. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) to examine changes in caregiving status among middle-aged women over a 3-year period, and

  10. Interactive Effects of Gender Ideology and Age at First Marriage on Women's Marital Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shannon N.; Greenstein, Theodore N.

    2004-01-01

    A sample of ever-married women from the NLSY79 is analyzed to examine the effects of age at first marriage and gender ideology on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption. The authors hypothesize that age at first marriage will have no effect on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption for non-traditional women, but that there…

  11. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

  12. Effects of gender, anthropometric variables, and aging on the evolution of hip strength in men and women aged over 65

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Kaptoge; Nichola Dalzell; Nigel Loveridge; Thomas J Beck; Kay-Tee Khaw; Jonathan Reeve

    2003-01-01

    Although gender differences in fall rates may partly explain the higher prevalence of fractures in elderly women than men, male bones may also be intrinsically stronger or suffer less structural degradation with age than those of women. We used hip structural analysis (HSA) to study gender differences in hip geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) as they evolved over time

  13. Obese Reproductive-Age Women Exhibit a Proatherogenic Inflammatory Response During Hyperglycemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank González; Neal S. Rote; Judi Minium; Valerie B. O’Leary; John P. Kirwan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine if physiological hyperglycemia induces a proatherogenic inflammatory response in mononuclear cells (MNCs) in obese reproductive-age women.Research Methods and Procedures: Seven obese and 6 age-matched lean women (20 to 39 years of age) underwent a 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. The release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) from MNCs cultured in the presence

  14. Attitudes and behavior towards contraception among Greek women during reproductive age: a country-wide survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannis Tountas; Christine Dimitrakaki; Anna Antoniou; Dimitris Boulamatsis; George Creatsas

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The study objectives were to explore current contraceptive behavior of Greek women during reproductive age. Study design: Data were drawn from a country-wide survey, conducted with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. The sample, numbering 797 women of ages 16–45 years, was representative of the Greek female population of reproductive age. Results: The most common contraceptive method reported was

  15. Microarray Analysis Reveals Novel Features of the Muscle Aging Process in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To develop a global view of muscle transcriptional differences between older men and women and sex-specific aging, we obtained muscle biopsies from the biceps brachii of young and older men and women and profiled the whole-genome gene expression using microarray. A logistic regression-based method in combination with an intensity-based Bayesian moderated t test was used to identify significant sex- and aging-related gene functional groups. Our analysis revealed extensive sex differences in the muscle transcriptome of older individuals and different patterns of transcriptional changes with aging in men and women. In older women, we observed a coordinated transcriptional upregulation of immune activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and lipids storage; and a downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function and muscle regeneration. The effect of aging results in sexual dimorphic alterations in the skeletal muscle transcriptome, which may modify the risk for developing musculoskeletal and metabolic diseases in men and women. PMID:23418191

  16. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  17. Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynne C Giles; Gary FV Glonek; Vivienne M Moore; Michael J Davies; Mary A Luszcz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of

  18. The Middle Ages: Change in Women's Personalities and Social Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women

  19. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily R. Rosario; Lilly Chang; Elizabeth H. Head; Frank Z. Stanczyk; Christian J. Pike

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were

  20. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

  1. Serum testosterone levels decrease in middle age in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J Winters; Evelyn Talbott; David S Guzick; Jeanne Zborowski; Kathleen P McHugh

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether testosterone levels change as women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) grow older.Design: A follow-up cross-sectional study of a cohort of women with PCOS identified up to 20–25 years ago.Setting: Women with PCOS were recruited primarily from practice records between 1970 and 1990. Voter registration tapes and household directories were used to identify age-, race-, and

  2. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Practices Among Middle-Aged and Older Women in Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Lee Smith; Brian Colwell; SangNam Ahn; Marcia G. Ory

    2012-01-01

    This study examines middle-aged and older women's smoking practices and identifies factors associated with tobacco use and cessation in this population. Data of 593 women were analyzed from a seven-county random household sample in Texas. Sequential multinomial logistic regression compared associations with having never smoked, having quit smoking, and currently smoking. Compared to smokers, never smokers and past smokers were

  3. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

  4. The Economic Legacy of Divorce and Separation for Women in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lynn; Robb, A. Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or what the nature of this poverty is. Like any other group of older Canadians,…

  5. Evidence for Association Between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Premature Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn O. Talbott; David S. Guzick; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Kathleen P. McHugh-Pemu; Jeanne V. Zborowski; Karen E. Remsberg; Lewis H. Kuller

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disorder characterized by obesity, hyperandrogenism, and insulin resistance. An adverse lipid profile has also been observed in PCOS-affected women, suggesting that these individuals may be at increased risk for coronary heart disease at a young age. The objective of the present study was to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis among women with PCOS

  6. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening. PMID:23282861

  7. Use of Emergency Contraception among Women Aged 15-44: United States, 2006-2010

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Emergency Contraception Among Women Aged 15–44: United States, 2006–2010 On This Page Key findings The ... Roughly one-half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended ( 1,2 ). The FDA first approved ...

  8. Patient–Provider Communication About Sexual Health Among Unmarried Middle-aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Melissa A.; Armstrong, Gene; McGarry, Kelly A.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although past studies have highlighted the importance of patient–provider communication about sexual health and intimate relationships (SHIR), much of the research has focused on young women’s or married women’s experiences when discussing SHIR with their providers. OBJECTIVE To describe experiences of unmarried, middle-aged and older women in communicating about SHIR with their health care providers. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 unmarried women aged 40–75 years. We compared the responses of 19 sexual minority (lesbian and bisexual) women and 21 heterosexual women. RESULTS Women varied in their definitions of intimate relationships. Not all women thought providers should ask about SHIR unless questions were directly related to a health problem, and most were not satisfied with questions about SHIR on medical intake forms. However, the themes women considered to be important in communication about SHIR were remarkably consistent across subgroups (e.g. previously married or never married; sexual minority or heterosexual). Sexual minority women were more hesitant to share information about SHIR because they had had prior negative experiences when disclosing their sexual orientation or perceived that clinicians were not informed about relevant issues. CONCLUSIONS Some women felt that providers should ask about SHIR only if questions relate to an associated health problem (e.g. sexually transmitted infection). When providers do ask questions about SHIR, they should do so in ways that can be answered by all women regardless of partnering status, and follow questions with non-judgmental discussions. PMID:19219512

  9. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  10. Health promotion self-care actions of healthy, middle-aged women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna Lee Hartweg

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the theoretical adequacy of health promotion self-care (HPSC) within Orem's general theory of nursing through describing self-care actions which healthy, middle-aged women perform to promote well-being. Utilizing a deliberate sampling model, 153 Black and White women, ages 40 to 59, with heterogeneous work and family patterns and from diverse socioeconomic conditions participated

  11. Childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged US women: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M D Gliksman; I Kawachi; D Hunter; G A Colditz; J E Manson; M J Stampfer; F E Speizer; W C Willett; C H Hennekens

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the relationship of childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged women. DESIGN--A prospective cohort of women with 14 years follow up data (1976-90). SUBJECTS--A total of 117,006 registered female nurses aged 30 to 55 years in 1976 and free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incident fatal

  12. Elevated Serum Carboxymethyl-Lysine, an Advanced Glycation End Product, Predicts Severe Walking Disability in Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Study I

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Semba, Richard D.; Fried, Linda P.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Varadhan, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. Our aim was to characterize the relationship between serum carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), a major circulating AGE, and incident severe walking disability (inability to walk or walking speed <0.4?m/sec) over 30 months of followup in 394 moderately to severely disabled women, ?65 years, living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland (the Women's Health and Aging Study I). During followup, 154 (26.4%) women developed severe walking disability, and 23 women died. Women in the highest quartile of serum CML had increased risk of developing of severe walking disability in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age and other potential confounders. Women with elevated serum CML are at an increased risk of developing severe walking disability. AGEs are a potentially modifiable risk factor. Further work is needed to establish a causal relationship between AGEs and walking disability. PMID:22973514

  13. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  14. Proximal femoral density distribution and structure in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women

    PubMed Central

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Therneau, Terry M.; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L. Joseph; Keyak, Joyce; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B.; Lang, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Hip fracture risk rises exponentially with age, but there is little knowledge about how fracture-related alterations in hip structure differ from those of aging. We employed computed tomography (CT) imaging to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip in relation to age- and incident hip fracture. We used inter-subject image registration to integrate 3D hip CT images into a statistical atlas comprising women aged 21-97 years (n=349) and a group of women with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture 4-7 years after their imaging session. Voxel-based morphometry was used to generate Student’s t-test statistical maps from the atlas, which indicated regions that were significantly associated with age or with incident hip fracture. Scaling factors derived from inter-subject image registration were employed as measures of bone size. BMD comparisons of young, middle-aged, and older American women showed preservation of load-bearing cortical and trabecular structures with aging, whereas extensive bone loss was observed in other trabecular and cortical regions. In contrast, comparisons of older Icelandic fracture women with age-matched controls showed that hip fracture was associated with a global cortical bone deficit, including both the superior cortical margin and the load-bearing inferior cortex. Bone size comparisons showed larger dimensions in older compared to younger American women and in older Icelandic fracture women compared to controls. The results indicate that older Icelandic women who sustain incident hip fracture have a structural phenotype that cannot be described as an accelerated pattern of normal age-related loss. The fracture-related cortical deficit noted in this study may provide a biomarker of increased hip fracture risk that may be translatable to DXA and other clinical images. PMID:23109068

  15. Contraceptive methods and use by women aged 35 and over: A qualitative study of perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily M Godfrey; Nancy P Chin; Stephen L Fielding; Kevin Fiscella; Ann Dozier

    2011-01-01

    Background  More than 30% of the pregnancies in women aged 35 and over are unintended. This paper compares perceptions about contraceptive\\u000a methods and use among women with and without an unintended pregnancy after turning age 35.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women. They were all 35 to 49 years old, regularly menstruating,\\u000a sexually active, not sterilized, not desiring a

  16. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and prevalence of age-related nuclear cataract in older women. Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study participants aged 50 y+, at 3 sites, who reported high (above the 78th percentile...

  17. Aesthetic anti-ageing surgery and technology: women's friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Abigail T

    2010-02-01

    This study investigates women's attitudes about, and experiences of, aesthetic anti-ageing surgeries and technologies against the contextual backdrop of the growing commercialisation of medicine in the United States. Drawing from 44 intensive interviews with a spectrum of women between the ages of 47 and 76 who use, refuse, and are currently undecided about whether or not they will have or use aesthetic anti-ageing surgeries and technologies in the future, this study asks the following question: in what ways does the increasing availability, accessibility, advertising, and use of aesthetic anti-ageing surgeries and technologies interact with and inform women's perceptions and attitudes about growing older? Data analysis occurs in dialogue with the paradigms of successful ageing and agelessness and draws from, and contributes new readings of, contemporary cultural constructions of femininity. PMID:20149147

  18. Does women’s age influence zona pellucida birefringence of metaphase ?? oocytes in in-vitro maturation program?

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Marjan; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Nahangi, Hossein; Ashourzadeh, Sareh; Rahimipour, Marzieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) is a promising treatment option for certain infertile women. Nowadays, with the aid of PolScope, it has become possible to evaluate zona pellucida (ZP) characteristics as a parameter of oocyte quality. Moreover, quality of oocytes can be influenced by many factors, such as patient’s age. The PolScope system is a non-invasive technique to assess birefringent structures such as the meiotic spindle and ZP in living oocytes. Objective: The aim was to determine the influence of the woman's age on ZP birefringence, a sign of oocyte quality, and morphology of in-vitro matured human oocytes using non-invasive polarized light (PolScope) microscopy. Materials and Methods: ZP birefringence and morphology were determined in 105 retrieved oocytes from 58 women undergoing ICSI in two age groups (?30 years and <30 years). The immature oocytes were selected and after IVM, the quality of metaphase ?? (MII) oocytes was assessed. The oocytes abnormalities were classified as intracytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic abnormalities. Results: Oocyte maturation rates were significantly reduced in ?30 year’s women (56%) in comparison with other age group (80.7%). In addition, the ZP birefringence was significantly higher in MII oocytes in the younger group compared with the older group (76.2% vs. 38.1%; p=0.00). Following morphologic assessment, the rates of oocytes with extracytoplasmic (p=0.02) and both abnormalities (extra- and intracytoplasmic) (p=0.01) were higher in aged versus the younger women. Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between advanced maternal age with decreased ZP birefringence and oocyte morphological quality in in-vitro matured human oocytes. PMID:24639703

  19. Obesity and Survival to Age 85 Years without Major Disease or Disability in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Waring, Molly E.; Kroenke, Candyce H.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Seguin, Rebecca; Bell, Christina L.; Gass, Margery; Manini, Todd M.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Context The impact of obesity on late-age survival without disease or disability in women is unknown. Objective To investigate if higher baseline body mass index and waist circumference affects women’s survival to age 85 years without major chronic disease (coronary disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, or hip fracture) and mobility disability. Design, Setting, Participants Examination of 36,611 women from the Women’s Health Initiative who could have reached age 85 years or older if they survived to the last outcomes evaluation on September 17, 2012. Recruitment was from 40 US Clinical Centers from October 1993–December 1998. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of baseline body mass index and waist circumference with the outcomes, adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Mutually-exclusive classifications: 1) survived without major chronic disease and without mobility disability (“healthy”); 2) survived with ?1 major chronic disease at baseline, but without new disease or disability (“prevalent diseased”); 3) survived and developed ?1 major chronic disease but not disability during study follow-up (“incident diseased”); 4) survived and developed mobility disability with or without disease (“disabled”); and 5) did not survive (“died”). Results Mean (SD) baseline age was 72.4 (3.0) years (range: 66–81). The distribution of women classified as healthy, prevalent diseased, incident diseased, disabled, and died was 19%, 15%, 23%, 18%, and 25%, respectively. Compared to normal-weight women, underweight and obese women were more likely to die before age 85 years. Overweight and obese women had higher risks of incident disease and mobility disability. Disability risks were striking. Relative to normal-weight women, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of mobility disability was 1.6 (1.5–1.8) for overweight women and 3.2 (2.9–3.6), 6.6 (5.4–8.1), and 6.7 (4.8–9.2), for class I, II, and III obesity, respectively. Waist circumference >88 centimeters was also associated with higher risk of earlier death, incident disease, and mobility disability. Conclusions Overall and abdominal obesity were important and potentially modifiable factors associated with dying or developing mobility disability and major chronic disease before age 85 years in older women. PMID:24217806

  20. Ageism and sexism at work: the middle-aged women of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tang, K L

    2000-01-01

    Employment discrimination against middle-aged women has recently captured public attention in Hong Kong. One reason is the economic slowdown and increasing unemployment since the 1993-94 and the 1997-to date economic downturns. This paper looks at sex and age discrimination against middle-aged women in colonial Hong Kong where they faced such problems as low labor force participation, occupational and industrial segregation and wage differentials, which in turn left them vulnerable to unemployment and poverty. Rampant age and sex discrimination in the workplace is due to a number of factors: traditional values and cultural devaluation of women's work and need for education, economic restructuring and labor importation, a legal vacuum, inefficient retraining policy, and the weak position of women in the labor movement. The postcolonial government under Tung Chee Hwa is heavily influenced by business interests. Women in the age group of 30-39 and above are hardest hit. They are not targeted as special groups of trainees who require special assistance. Given the limited concern for gender development on the part of the new government, the prospect for women workers does not look good. PMID:12179949

  1. Aging public services and the position of older women: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Colley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary labor markets are characterized by both aging of the workforce and the increase in participation of women. At the intersection of these two policy agendas are older women. Governments and employers recognize the importance of attracting and retaining older workers to address skills shortages, but the aging workforce discourse remains largely gender neutral. This research considers the intersection of age and gender in the context of public services, which are large employers of both women and older workers. It focuses on the agencies in an Australian state public service. The research finds that, despite decades of equal opportunity programs, there is still evidence of subtle inequalities and cumulative disadvantage. While the case study agencies employ a large proportion of older women, these women were generally recruited at younger ages and aged within the workforce. Their advancement and development opportunities were also inferior to those of older men. Despite these lesser opportunities, older women are generally very satisfied with their employment, and the employer should explore these residual inequalities if genuinely seeking to attract and retain all older workers. PMID:24713054

  2. Thyroid function: comparison of women in late pregnancy with control women of reproductive age in regions of dietary iodine excess.

    PubMed

    Du, Quxiao; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Li

    2013-07-01

    Three hundred pregnant women and 300 women of reproductive age (controls) were selected from regions with a dietary iodine excess to evaluate thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions. Fasting morning urine and venous blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration, serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) levels were determined. Iodine levels were excessive in 83.7% of pregnant women and 80.7% of the control women. The former showed lower rates of total thyroid disease and subclinical hypothyroidism than the latter (21.7% vs 29.7%, P < 0.05; 19.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.05). The FT3 level, FT4 level, and TGAb positive rate of pregnant women were lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Thus, both excessive iodine intake and pregnancy can influence the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions of women. PMID:23858522

  3. Mentoring College-Age Women: A Relational Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belle Liang; Allison J. Tracy; Catherine A. Taylor; Linda M. Williams

    2002-01-01

    Despite the popularity of mentoring programs, the relational dimension of mentoring has not been elucidated. Traditional conceptions of mentoring may exclude factors that are particularly important for women and girls, thus limiting the efficacy of mentoring programs for female adolescents. We suggest that the presence of relational qualities in the mentoring relationship (e.g., empathy, engagement, authenticity, and empowerment) strongly influences

  4. Autonomy and Parental Attachment in Traditional-Age Undergraduate Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Deborah J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates whether autonomy and parental attachment in a diverse group of undergraduate women (N=325) varied by class year, as suggested by the Chickering model. Results revealed a pattern of autonomy development that differed from the model's. Although student autonomy increased with class year, students displayed no decreased attachment to…

  5. A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age

  6. Phenotype of Frailty: Characterization in the Women's Health and Aging Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Bandeen-Roche; Qian-Li Xue; Luigi Ferrucci; Jeremy Walston; Jack M. Guralnik; Paulo Chaves; Scott L. Zeger; Linda P. Fried

    2006-01-01

    Background. ''Frailty'' is an adverse, primarily gerontologic, health condition regarded as frequent with aging and having severe consequences. Although clinicians claim that the extremes of frailty can be easily recognized, a standardized definition of frailty has proved elusive until recently. This article evaluates the cross-validity, criterion validity, and internal validity in the Women's Health and Aging Studies (WHAS) of a

  7. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  8. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  9. HIV status and age at first marriage among women in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Adair, Timothy

    2008-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted the risk of HIV infection for married teenage women compared with their unmarried counterparts (Clark, 2004). This study assesses whether a relationship exists, for women who have completed their adolescence (age 20-29 years), between HIV status with age at first marriage and the length of time between first sex and first marriage. Multivariate analysis utilizing the nationally representative 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey shows that late-marrying women and those with a longer period of pre-marital sex have the highest risk of HIV. Although women in urban areas overall marry later than their rural counterparts, the positive relationship between age at marriage and HIV risk is stronger in rural areas. The higher wealth status and greater number of lifetime sexual partners of late-marrying women contribute to their higher HIV risk. Given that the age at first marriage and the gap between first marriage and first sex have increased in recent years, focusing preventive efforts on late-marrying women will be of much importance in reducing HIV prevalence among females. PMID:17988430

  10. Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Deborah R; Mielke, Michelle M; Tien, Phyllis C; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. One thousand six hundred ninety participants (1,196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Among HIV+ women, BMI?women, an obese BMI was related to worse performance on the Stroop color naming test. Few and inconsistent associations were observed between WC, WHR, and cognition. Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection, common anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV-infected women. PMID:24338243

  11. Age shock: misperceptions of the impact of age on fertility before and after IVF in women who conceived after age 40

    PubMed Central

    Mac Dougall, K.; Beyene, Y.; Nachtigall, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What do older women understand of the relationship between age and fertility prior and subsequent to delivering their first child? SUMMARY ANSWER Women who were first-time parents over the age of 40 did not accurately perceive the relationship between age and fertility prior to conceiving with IVF. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY While increases in women's age at their first birth have been most pronounced in relatively older women, the rapidity of fertility decline is not appreciated by most non-infertility specialist physicians, the general public or men and women who are delaying childbearing. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted from 2009 to 2011 with 61 self-selected women who were patients in one of two fertility clinics in the USA. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All participants had delivered their first child following IVF when the woman was 40 years or older. The data include women's responses to the semi-structured and open-ended interview questions ‘What information did you have about fertility and age before you started trying to get pregnant?’ and ‘What did you learn once you proceeded with fertility treatment?’ MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Of the women, 30% expected their fertility to decline gradually until menopause at around 50 years and 31% reported that they expected to get pregnant without difficulty at the age of 40. Reasons for a mistaken belief in robust fertility included recollections of persistent and ongoing messaging about pregnancy prevention starting in adolescence (23%), healthy lifestyle and family history of fertility (26%), and incorrect information from friends, physicians or misleading media reports of pregnancies in older celebrity women (28%). Participants had not anticipated the possibility that they would need IVF to conceive with 44% reporting being ‘shocked’ and ‘alarmed’ to discover that their understanding of the rapidity of age-related reproductive decline was inaccurate’. In retrospect, their belated recognition of the effect of age on fertility led 72% of the women to state that they felt ‘lucky’ or had ‘beaten the odds’ in successfully conceiving after IVF. Of the women, 28% advocated better fertility education earlier in life and 23% indicated that with more information about declining fertility, they might have attempted conception at an earlier age. Yet 46% of women acknowledged that even if they had possessed better information, their life circumstances would not have permitted them to begin childbearing earlier. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Both the self-selected nature of recruitment and the retrospective design can result in biases due to memory limitations or participant assimilation and/or contrast of past events with current moods. The cohort did not reflect broad homogeneity in that the participants were much more likely to be highly educated, Caucasian and better able to pay for treatment than national population norms. As attitudes of older women who were unsuccessful after attempting IVF in their late 30s or early 40s are not represented, it is possible (if not likely) that the recollections of women who did not conceive after IVF would have been more strongly influenced by feelings of regret or efforts to deflect blame for their inability to conceive. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS While the failure to appreciate the true biological relationship between aging and fertility may be common and may reflect inaccessibility or misinterpretation of information, it is not sufficient to explain the decades-long socio-demographic phenomenon of delayed childbearing. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by the US National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD, RO1-HD056202). PMID:23203214

  12. Season of Birth and the Risk of Hip Fracture in Danish Men and Women Aged 65+

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Heitmann, Berit L.; Eiken, Pia A.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D status in pregnant women has been linked to childhood bone mineral density in their offspring but it is unclear if effects extend to fracture risk in adulthood or even old age. As vitamin D levels in the population show pronounced seasonal variation in Denmark, we performed an epidemiological analysis of hip fracture rates as a function of season of birth, age, and sex. We retrieved information on all hip fractures in the 9-year period between 1997 and 2005 in all men and women aged 65–95, excluded hip fractures that occurred in current and recent prednisolone users, and subsequently calculated fracture rates and relative risks. The analysis covered 541,109 men and 691,522 women. In women, we observed a small but statistically significant difference between fracture rates by season of birth for all age intervals expect the youngest (age 65–69). A similar pattern was seen in men, but this was only statistically significant in the two oldest age groups (age 85–89 and 90–95). These findings suggest that vitamin D availability in the first and second trimester of intrauterine life could have a small but lasting impact on bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Further studies are needed. PMID:22645516

  13. Regulation of Protein Metabolism in Middle-Aged, Premenopausal Women: Roles of Adiposity and Estradiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL J. TOTH; CLIFFORD J. ROSEN; DWIGHT E. MATTHEWS; ERIC T. POEHLMAN

    The age-related loss of fat-free mass (FFM) is accelerated in women during the middle-age years and continues at an increased rate throughout the postmenopausal period. Because protein is the pri- mary structural component of fat-free tissue, changes in FFM are largely due to alterations in protein metabolism. Knowledge of the hormonal and physiological correlates of protein metabolism in mid- dle-aged

  14. Ear and hearing problems in 44 middle-aged women with Turner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hultcrantz, M; Sylvén, L; Borg, E

    1994-06-01

    The present study has investigated ear and hearing problems in 44 women with Turner's syndrome (median age 45.5 years). Social hearing problems were common after the age of 40 and 27% were fitted with hearing aids. Audiograms revealed a hearing loss > 20 dB hearing level (HL) in 91% leading to clinically significant hearing problems in 60%. A distinct dip in the 1.5 kHz frequency range, with a mean value of 46 dB was found in 30 women. The occurrence of the dip was correlated to the karyotype. All women with the karyotype 45,X and 45,X/46,X,i(Xq) demonstrated this dip while in the 45,X/46,XX group it was found in 31%. No dips were found among 45,X/46,XY and 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX women. With increasing age a progressive high frequency hearing loss was added to the dip leading to severe hearing problems earlier in the Turner women than age-matched controls. This might be due to a genetic defect leading to premature ageing of their hearing organ. These data emphasize the importance of providing early information to Turner girls of their predisposition to hearing impairment. Patient awareness of importance of audiological evaluations and the benefit of hearing aids should be stressed. PMID:7928705

  15. Does the conservation of resources motivate middle-aged women to perform physical activity?

    PubMed

    Rotem, Mina; Epstein, Leon; Ehrenfeld, Mally

    2009-12-01

    This article aims to examine the factors that motivate middle-aged women to engage in leisure physical activity (LPA) and to explore the relationship between resources loss and gains and engaging in LPA. It is a cross-sectional study based on a self-reported questionnaire (n = 949), using variables of the conservation of resources theory and the theory of planned behavior. Results show that women who engage in physical activity experience lower resources loss than inactive women. The longer they engage in physical activity, the less they experience losses such as youth, attractiveness, optimism, health, and beauty. Conservation of resources, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, and normative beliefs predict 41% (p < .0001) of the variance in the engagement in leisure physical activity. Findings suggest that constructing effective strategies to promote LPA requires also addressing these factors, which are valued by middle-aged women. PMID:19605888

  16. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-07-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40-49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan. PMID:25914223

  17. Effect of aging on carotid baroreflex control of blood pressure and leg vascular conductance in women

    PubMed Central

    Credeur, Daniel P.; Holwerda, Seth W.; Boyle, Leryn J.; Vianna, Lauro C.; Jensen, Areum K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that ?-adrenergic vasodilation offsets ?-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, but this effect is lost after menopause. Given these age-related vascular changes, we tested the hypothesis that older women would exhibit a greater change in vascular conductance following baroreflex perturbation compared with young women. In 10 young (21 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (62 ± 2 yr) women, mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO; Modelflow), total vascular conductance (TVC), and leg vascular conductance (LVC, duplex-Doppler ultrasound) were continuously measured in response to 5-s pulses of neck suction (NS; ?60 Torr) and neck pressure (NP; +40 Torr) to simulate carotid hypertension and hypotension, respectively. Following NS, decreases in MAP were similar between groups; however, MAP peak response latency was slower in older women (P < 0.05). Moreover, at the time of peak MAP, increases in LVC (young, ?11.5 ± 3.9%LVC vs. older, +19.1 ± 7.0%LVC; P < 0.05) and TVC were greater in older women, whereas young women exhibited larger decreases in HR and CO (young, ?10 ± 3% CO vs. older, +0.8 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05). Following NP, increases in MAP were blunted (young, +14 ± 1 mmHg vs. older, +8 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05) in older women, whereas MAP response latencies were similar. Interestingly, decreases in LVC and TVC were similar between groups, but HR and CO (young, +7.0 ± 2% CO vs. older, ?4.0 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05) responses were attenuated in older women. These findings suggest that older women have greater reliance on vascular conductance to modulate MAP via carotid baroreflex, whereas young women rely more on cardiac responsiveness. Furthermore, older women demonstrate a blunted ability to increase MAP to hypotensive stimuli. PMID:24682393

  18. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R; Smith, Erin N; Chen, Christina T L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Arnold, Alice M; Bandera, Elisa V; Berenson, Gerald S; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L; Elks, Cathy E; Evans, Michelle K; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C; Musani, Solomon K; Nock, Nora L; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Schork, Nicholas J; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Woods, Nancy F; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-08-15

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  19. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10?8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriane Fugh-Berman; Fredi Kronenberg

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are widely used in the general population. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials of CAM therapies for obstetrical and gynecologic conditions and presents therapies that are likely to be used by women of reproductive age and by pregnant women.Data Sources: Sources included English-language papers in MEDLINE 1966–2002 and AMED (1985–2000) and the authors’

  1. Age-related loss of trabecular bone in premenopausal women: A biopsy study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Marcus; Jon Kosek; Adolf Pfefferbaum; Sandra Horning

    1983-01-01

    Summary  We measured the trabecular bone volume (TBV) of 62 iliac crest biopsies taken from women admitted to lymphoma protocols at\\u000a Stanford University between 1970–1981. All subjects were active, cycling premenopausal women, with bone marrows that were\\u000a negative for tumor. Disease status was stage III or less in 90% of the subjects. Trabecular bone volume was negatively correlated\\u000a with age, and

  2. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy can result in abortion or congenital defects. Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia are unknown. The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to September 2011. Sera of 425 women were analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. Results The study revealed that anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 81.4% of the samples of which 78.4% were positive for only IgG and 3.06% positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.14, 5.86) was suggestive of recent infections. Of the 213 pregnant women 9 (4.2 %) were IgM reactive. Out of 17 potential risk factors investigated, univariate logistic regression showed significant association of T. gondii infection with study area, age, pregnancy status, raw vegetable consumption, source of water, presence of cats at home, contact with cats, HIV status and precaution during cats’ feces cleaning (P???0.05). The final logistic regression model revealed that: the probability of acquiring T. gondii infection by women of Debre-Zeit was 4.46 times (95% CI of adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.67, 11.89; P =0.003) higher compared to women of Ambo, pregnant women were twice (95% CI aOR: 1.13, 3.59; P?=?0.018) more likely to be seropositive than non-pregnant women and women who consume raw vegetable were at increased risk of infection (aOR?=?2.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.78; P?=?0.043) than women who didn’t consume. Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia is high. Study area, pregnancy and raw vegetable consumption are risk factors to acquire T. gondii infection. Educational program, antenatal screening of pregnant women and further epidemiological studies to uncover the economic and health impact of toxoplasmosis are suggested. PMID:23442946

  3. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    PubMed

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. PMID:25618536

  4. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet with low iron and calcium intakes. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated to healthier lifestyle practices and lower TC. A comparable nutrient intake and lifestyle between pre and postmenopausal women suggested that health changes associated with menopause was largely independent of diet. PMID:16837432

  5. Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Perceived Facial Age in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Andrew E.; Murray, Peter G.; Gunn, David A.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Catt, Sharon D.; Wen, Yi B.; Zhou, Li P.; Wang, Hong Q.; Catt, Michael; Granger, Stewart P.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with ‘looking young for one’s age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25–70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age) identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001), fewer household members (p?=?0.027), menopausal status (p?=?0.020), frequency of visiting one's doctor (p?=?0.013), working indoors (p<0.001), spending less time in the sun (p?=?0.015), moderate levels of physical activity (p?=?0.004), higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001) and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001); moisturiser (p?=?0.016) or night cream (p?=?0.016). Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations. PMID:21179450

  6. Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

  7. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

  8. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  9. Neonatal outcome of IVF singletons versus naturally conceived in women aged 35 years and over

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vlatka Tomic; Jozo Tomic

    Purpose  To compare the delivery and neonatal outcome of IVF singleton pregnancies with those conceived spontaneously in primiparous\\u000a women ?35 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were collected by the hospital’s obstetrics and pediatric staff at the time of examination, hospitalization, delivery\\u000a and discharge. A total of 283 women with in vitro fertilization (IVF) singleton deliveries were matched according to ethnicity,\\u000a age, gravidity, smoking

  10. Socioeconomic factors, immigration status, and cancer screening among Mexican American women aged 75 and older.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2010-12-01

    To explore the association between socioeconomic factors and acculturation with cancer screening methods, we analyzed data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, on 1,272 women aged 75 and older residing in the United States in 2004-2005. We found that lower Pap smear or mammography uses were associated with older age, lower education, and having public health insurance compared with private. Other factors associated with mammography use were depressive symptoms, cognition, and functional limitations. In sum, socioeconomic factors and health insurance coverage, but not acculturation, determine cancer screening utilization in very old Mexican American women. PMID:21058091

  11. Age-Based differences in Treatment Outcome among Alcohol Dependent Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaiba, Zayed; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara; Cook, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The literature suggests that women are at higher risk for negative consequences from alcohol use than men and that these risks are compounded by age. The current study investigated how alcohol dependent women from different age groups might differ in terms of baseline functioning and treatment response. The sample consisted of 181 participants drawn from 2 randomized clinical trials of cognitive behavioral treatments for alcohol dependent women. Demographic and psychopathology data were obtained at baseline using the SCID (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders) I for Axis I disorders and the SCID II or Personality Disorders Questionnaire for Axis II disorders. Social networks data were collected using the Important People and Activities Interview. Drinking data were collected at baseline and follow-up using the Timeline Follow Back Interview. Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) revealed that older women had better psychosocial functioning in terms of being better educated and reporting fewer Axis I disorders. Also, older women had more supportive social networks in terms of more people, a smaller percentage of heavy drinkers, and a non-drinking spouse. Older women reported a less severe lifetime substance use history with a later age of first drink, later onset of alcohol use disorders, fewer lifetime abuse/dependence items, and less drug use. However, they reported drinking more frequently and more heavily over the 90 days prior to treatment. Finally, older women were more compliant with treatment and responded better by reducing drinking frequency and percentage of heavy drinking days. Suggestions to enhance treatment efficacy for younger women are made as well as suggestions for future research. PMID:22369224

  12. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  13. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society. PMID:25813865

  14. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  15. Evaluation of GWAS-identified genetic variants for age at menarche among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Delahanty, R.J.; Beeghly-Fadiel, A.; Long, J.R.; Gao, Y.T.; Lu, W.; Xiang, Y.B.; Zheng, Y.; Ji, B.T.; Wen, W.Q.; Cai, Q.Y.; Zheng, W.; Shu, X.O.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do genetic polymorphisms which influence age at menarche in women of European ancestry also influence women of Chinese ancestry? SUMMARY ANSWER Many genetic variants influencing age at menarche in European populations appear to impact Chinese populations in a similar manner. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS Prior genome-wide association studies have uncovered 42 SNPs associated with age at menarche in European populations. This study is the first to demonstrate that many of the genetic determinants of age at menarche are shared between European and Chinese women. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING We evaluated 37 of 42 SNPs identified as associated with age at menarche from a recent, large meta-analysis, consisting primarily of women of European ancestry, in a population of 6929 Chinese women from Shanghai, China. We also constructed weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) combining the number of effect variants for all 37 SNPs, or only the SNPs associated with age at menarche among our study population, to evaluate their joint influence on age at menarche. MAIN RESULTS For 32 of the 37 evaluated variants, the direction of the allele associations were the same between women of European ancestry and women of Chinese ancestry (P = 3.71 × 10?6, binomial sign test); 9 of these were statistically significant. Subjects in the highest quintile of GRSs began menarche ?5 months later than those in the lowest quintile. BIAS, LIMITATIONS AND GENERALIZABILITY TO OTHER POPULATIONS Age at menarche was obtained by self-report, which can be subject to recall errors. The current analysis was restricted to loci which met or approached GWAS significance thresholds and did not evaluate loci which may act predominantly or exclusively in the Chinese population. The smaller sample size for our meta-analysis compared with meta-analyses conducted in European populations reduced the power to detect significant results. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This study was supported, in part, by grants from US National Institutes of Health (grants R01CA124558, R01CA090899, R01CA070867; R01CA064277 and R01CA092585 and UL1 RR024975), Ingram professorship funds and Allen Foundation funds. There are no competing interests to declare. PMID:23406970

  16. Correlates of 15-Year Maintenance of Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of the correlates of sustained physical activity in midlife women, we used longitudinal epidemiologic data to investigate links between sustained physical activity and constructs advocated by three basic behavioral and social science theories: 1) self-determination; 2) social cognitive; and 3) social networks. Methods A random sample of 90 mid-life women, stratified by level of physical activity over 15 years, was selected from the Chicago cohort of the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Using data on self-reported physical activity collected over 15 years, women were categorized into consistently active, spoardically active, and sedentary. New data were collected on theory-relevant constructs, i.e. autonomous motivation (assessed by the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)) and self-efficacy (assessed by the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey). Every SWAN woman identified a close female friend who also completed the physical activity questionnaire. Results SWAN women with higher autonomous motivation (p=0.002) and higher self-efficacy (p<0.001) were more likely to be consistently physically active in analyses adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Sixty one percent of SWAN women with a history of consistent physical activity had a friend who is currently highly active, versus 34% and 23% for sporadically active and sedentary women, respectively (test for trend p=0.008). Conclusions In midlife women, constructs advocated by basic behavioral and social science theories were consistent with long-term patterns of physical activity behavior. Special focus should be given to these basic theories in the design of interventions to promote sustained physical activity in midlife women. PMID:23813123

  17. Age-related trends in hip geometry in Sri Lankan women: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarath Lekamwasam; Janaka Lenora

    2007-01-01

    Indices of hip geometry are known to be predictive of hip fractures while sex and ethnic differences in hip geometry have\\u000a been previously demonstrated. Age-related trends in hip geometry among Asians, however, have not been studied sufficiently.\\u000a A total of 280 healthy, perimenopausal women, aged between 32 and 97 years, were selected from the Community Study Area of\\u000a the Faculty

  18. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arline T. Geronimus; Margaret T. Hicken; Jay A. Pearson; Sarah J. Seashols; Kelly L. Brown; Tracey Dawson Cruz

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to\\u000a subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature,\\u000a we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing\\u000a on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that

  19. Variation in the Incidence of Uterine Leiomyoma Among Premenopausal Women by Age and Race

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn M Marshall; Donna Spiegelman; Robert L Barbieri; Marlene B Goldman; JoAnn E Manson; Graham A Colditz; Walter C Willett; David J Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the incidence of uterine leiomyoma confirmed by hysterectomy, ultrasound, or pelvic examination according to age and race among premenopausal women.Methods: From September 1989 through May 1993, 95,061 premenopausal nurses age 25–44 with intact uteri and no history of uterine leiomyoma were followed to determine incidence rates of uterine leiomyoma. The self-reported diagnosis was confirmed in 93% of

  20. AGE AT NATURAL MENOPAUSE AND EXPOSURE TO ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN HISPANIC WOMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy E. Akkina; John S. Reif; Thomas J. Keefe; Annette M. Bachand

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between exposure to selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) (p,p?-DDT, p?,p?-DDE, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane [beta-HCH], oxychlordane, trans? nonachlor) and age at natural menopause in a sample of 219 menopausal women participating in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1982–1984. Information on age at menopause, reproductive history, demographic variables, and potential confounding

  1. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  2. A pilot seroepidemiological study of cytomegalovirus infection in women of child bearing age.

    PubMed

    Sheevani; Jindal, N; Aggarwal, A

    2005-01-01

    Three hundred and forty serum samples collected from women of child bearing age, without any clinical evidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against CMV by ELISA test. The IgG antibodies were detected in 297 which gave prevalence rate of 87.4%. Significantly higher prevalence rates (p < 0.001) were observed with increasing age and with increase in parity. There was significant difference in the antibody prevalence in different socioeconomic groups. Seroprevalence rate was also found to be more in women from rural area than those from urban area, although the difference was statistically not significant (p > 0.05). Marital status showed no impact upon the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in women. PMID:15928419

  3. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  4. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  5. Prevalence and correlates of recent and repeat mammography among California women ages 55–79

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Rakowski; Roberta Wyn; Nancy Breen; Helen Meissner; Melissa A. Clark

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Data on repeat mammography rates are less available than for recent screening. Two large, population-based state surveys provide the opportunity to investigate repeat and recent mammography prevalence and correlates among California's diverse population. Methods: Data were from women aged 55–79, using the 2001 and 2005 California Health Interview Surveys. The study assessed the prevalence and correlates of recent mammography

  6. Efficacy of Flour Fortification with Folic Acid in Women of Childbearing Age in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Abdollahi; I. Elmadfa; A. Djazayery; M. J. Golalipour; J. Sadighi; F. Salehi; S. Sadeghian Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Background: Flour fortification with folic acid is one of the main strategies for improving folate status in women of childbearing age. No interventional trial on the efficacy of folic acid fortification has been conducted so far in Iran. Objectives: To study the effects of flour fortification with folic acid on any reduction in neural tube defects (NTDs) and folate status

  7. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  8. Age-related complaints in women and their determinants based on a representative community study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Beutel; K. Weidner; R. Schwarz; E. Brähler

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (a) the relationship between physical and somatoform complaints, distress, life satisfaction and ageing in the female community and (b) to identify their psychosocial determinants. Methods: Two stratified random samples of the German female population (total of 2771 women) were investigated by standardised questionnaires of complaints (MFI-20, GBB), distress (HADS) and life satisfaction (LSQ). Results: When participants were

  9. Age before beauty: an exploration of body image in African-American and Caucasian adult women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine J. Reel; Sonya SooHoo; Julia Franklin Summerhays; Diane L. Gill

    2008-01-01

    Research on body image emphasizes risks for eating disorders and typically involves young, Caucasian women. Few studies examine body image beyond the college years and there appears to be a disregard for the mature woman, as if self-acceptance of one's body is part of the aging process. Historically, it has been assumed that race is a protective factor against body

  10. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Souza Santos Machado, Vanessa; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking. PMID:25790469

  11. EFFECT OF AGING ON STORAGE AND VOIDING FUNCTION IN WOMEN WITH STRESS?PREDOMINANT URINARY INCONTINENCE

    PubMed Central

    Zimmern, Philippe; Litman, Heather J.; Nager, Charles W.; Lemack, Gary E.; Richter, Holly E.; Sirls, Larry; Kraus, Stephen R.; Sutkin, Gary; Mueller, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate age related changes in urodynamic parameters in two large cohorts of women planning stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS Using a standardized protocol, urodynamic parameters were obtained from participants in the SISTEr and TOMUS trials undergoing baseline non-invasive flow (NIF), followed by filling cystometrogram (CMG) and pressure flow study (PFS). Bladder Contractility Index (BCI=PdetQmax+5Qmax) and detrusor hypocontractility (defined as detrusor pressure @ maximum flow (Pdet@Qmax) <10 cm H2O) were also characterized. Excluded patients had prior SUI surgery or prolapse stage >2. Propensity score analysis controlled for potential bias of combining participants from 2 clinical trials. Regression analysis (linear and logistic) adjusting for propensity score quintile assessed the association of age and an age cutoff value(<65 vs >65 years) with urodynamic parameters. RESULTS 945 women (SISTER 468, TOMUS 477) were included. Mean age was 50 in SISTEr (27-75 years) and 51 in TOMUS (24-82 years). NIF Qmax significantly decreased with age (26.2 ml/sec vs. 22 ml/sec, p=0.002); NIF voiding time increased 2.7 seconds for every 10 year age increment and Pdet@Qmax decreased 2.1 cm H20 for each 10 year increase in age (p =0.003 for both). Hypocontractility was more likely in women ? 65 years (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.59, 5.27). BCI and age were inversely related with BCI decreasing by 7.68 (1.96) cm H2O for every 10 year age increase (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS In these two cohorts, the changes in voiding parameters observed suggest that detrusor contractility and efficiency decrease with age. PMID:24518790

  12. Is the difference in outcome between men and women treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention age dependent? Gender difference in STEMI stratified on age

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Angela HEM; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Kloosterman, Anita; van ’t Hof, Arnoud WJ; Dambrink, Jan Henk E; Gosselink, AT Marcel; Hoorntje, Jan CA; Suryapranata, Harry; de Boer, Menko Jan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Poorer outcomes in women with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are often attributed to gender differences in baseline characteristics. However, these may be age dependent. We examined the importance of gender in separate age groups of patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Methods and results: Data of 6746 consecutive patients with STEMI admitted for PPCI between 1998 and 2008 in our hospital were evaluated. Age was stratified into two groups, <65 years (young group) and ?65 years (elderly). Endpoints were enzymic infarct size as well as 30-day and 1 year mortality. We studied a total of 4991 (74.0%) men and 1755 (26.0%) women; 40% of women were <65 years and 60% of men were <65 years of age. In the elderly group (?65 years), women had more frequently diabetes and hypertension while they smoked less frequently than men. Younger women smoked more often than similarly aged men and had more hypertension. At angiography, single-vessel disease and TIMI 3 flow before PPCI was more present in younger women than men, whereas these differences were not found in the older age group. Patient delay before admission was shorter in men at all ages, while women had lower creatine kinase levels. Younger women had a higher mortality after 30 days (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3?3.4) and at 1 year (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2?2.6), whereas in the older age group women mortality rates were higher at 30 days (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1?2.0) but not at 1 year (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9?1.5). After multivariate analysis, 1-year mortality remained significantly higher in women at younger age (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1?2.5). Patient delay before admission was shorter in men in both age groups. Creatine kinase levels were in both age groups higher in men. Conclusions: Differences in mortality between men and women with STEMI treated with PPCI are age dependent. Although young women have less obstructive coronary artery disease and more often TIMI 3 flow before PCI (suggesting a lower risk), survival was worse compared to similarly aged men. Women had a longer patient delay compared to men, but this was not related to gender-specific mortality. PMID:24338292

  13. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives. PMID:12314886

  14. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A.; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Results: Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2–6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0–8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9–8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI ?9–38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P?>?0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15–24 years while increasing significantly among women 35–49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Conclusion: As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility. PMID:25406753

  15. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  16. Implications of college-age narcissism for psychosocial functioning at midlife: Findings from a longitudinal study of women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Wink; Karen Donahue I

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative implications of two types of college-age narcissism on psychosocial functioning at midlife were studied in a longitudinal sample of women. Both types were scored with self-report measures when the women were, on the average, age 21. Throughout the first half of their adult life, high scorers on covert narcissism presented themselves as lacking in confidence and having

  17. Association of age, race, and obstetric history with urinary symptoms among women in the Nurses' Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine Grodstein; Ruth Fretts; Karen Lifford; Neil Resnick; Gary Curhan

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to better understand associations among age, race, obstetric history, and urinary incontinence in women.STUDY DESIGN: Race and obstetric history were assessed through the use of biennial mailed questionnaires from 1976 to 1996 among participants of the Nurses' Health Study. In 1996, 83,168 women aged 50 to 75 years reported their frequency of leaking

  18. Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Methods Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Results Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR?=?11.53, p?=?0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR?=?12.00, p?=?0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR?=?3.19, p?=?0.010). Conclusions Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. PMID:24593240

  19. Consumption of Folic Acid-Fortified Flour and Folate-Rich Foods among Women at Reproductive Age in South Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Flávia S. Ferreira; Roberto Giugliani

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the consumption of flour derivatives and folate-rich food in a sample of women at childbearing age from Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methods: Four-hundred women at childbearing age (15–45 years) were interviewed, and their socioeconomic status and folate intake were investigated. All women signed an informed consent form. Based on their dietary habits, an estimated calculation of the amount

  20. Assessment of unhealthy days among Iranian reproductive age women in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jarahi, Lida; Ziaee, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy days are defined as the number of days during the past 30 days that a woman has not had a feeling of wellbeing. Wellbeing includes the woman’s judgments about the level of satisfaction and quality in her life. Assessment of a woman’s perception of unhealthy days can be used to help her determine the extent of the burdens associated with mental and physical feelings that things are not going well in her life, job and relationship. This study was conducted to measure unhealthy days and the general health status in Iranian women of reproductive age based on their own perceptions. Methods: The participants of this study were women of reproductive age who were referred to health centers in Mashhad, Iran, in 2012. With the stratified random sampling method, 220 women were included in the study. The health-related quality of life-4 (HRQOL-4) questionnaire was used to assess the women’s self-perceived unhealthy days. The data that were collected were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, Pearson correlation, and logistic linear regression tests with SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.6 years, and the median number of the self-perceived unhealthy days was 7.1 days (per month). In the domains of physical, mental, and disability unhealthy days, the data indicated 2 days, 2.1 days, and 0.1 day in a month, respectively. Also, nearly half of the participants reported that their general health status was poor to fair. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference between unhealthy days in the different age groups (p=0.01) as well as for the physical (p=0.02) and mental domains (p=0.4). The results of the regression analysis showed that the number of physical unhealthy days increased with age, number of children, and education. The number of mental unhealthy days increased with age, and the number of disability days increased as the age at which they were married decreased (p<0.05). A significant inverse relationship was observed between physical unhealthy days and education, with the number of physical unhealthy days decreasing as the years of education increased (r=?0.19, p=0.005). Conclusion: Women with less education who were older than 40, who married at an early age, and had more children reported more unhealthy days. These results emphasize the importance of preventive and educational health interventions in these vulnerable groups based on their physical and mental needs.

  1. Women's work, worry and fear: the portrayal of sexuality and sexual health in US magazines for teenage and middle?aged women, 2000–2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juanne Clarke

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on an exploratory content analysis of the portrayal of sexuality, sexual health and disease in select magazines designed for two groups of women: teenagers and women in the 40–50?year?old age category in the USA. The analysis found that magazine portrayal was both similar for the two groups of women and distinctly different.

  2. Residential environmental risks for reproductive age women in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dyjack, David; Soret, Samuel; Chen, Lie; Hwang, Rhonda; Nazari, Nahid; Gaede, Donn

    2005-01-01

    Published research suggests there is an association between maternal inhalation of common ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including an increased risk for preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, small head circumference, low birth weight, and increased rate of malformations. The air pollutants produced by indoor combustion of biomass fuels, used by 50% of households worldwide, have been linked to acute lower respiratory infections, the single most important cause of mortality in children under the age of 5. This report describes a hypothesis-generating study in West Wollega, Ethiopia, conducted to assess airborne particulate matter concentrations in homes that combust biomass fuels (biomass homes). Respirable suspended particulate matter was measured in biomass homes and nonbiomass homes using NIOSH method 0600. Measured airborne particulate concentrations in biomass homes were up to 130 times higher than air quality standards. These findings, in part, confirm that exposure to indoor air pollutants are a major source of concern for mother/child health. Midwives are encouraged to raise awareness, contribute to research efforts, and assist in interventions. PMID:15973268

  3. Midlife women's generativity and authoritarianism: marriage, motherhood, and 10 years of aging.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bill E; Duncan, Lauren E

    2007-09-01

    Generativity and authoritarianism assessed at age 52 were correlated with criterion variables assessed at age 62 in a sample of well-educated women (N = 81). Results indicated that generativity predicted positive personality characteristics, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging. By contrast, although authoritarianism is linked in the literature to endorsing traditional gender roles, authoritarianism was uncorrelated in the current study with happiness about marriage and was negatively related to perceptions of motherhood. Furthermore, authoritarianism was correlated with neuroticism later in life. These data suggest that midlife authoritarianism may be problematic as women transition from their 50s to their 60s. Midlife generativity, in contrast, seems to offer one path to life satisfaction. PMID:17874943

  4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women.

    PubMed

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  6. Osteoprotegerin serum levels in women: correlation with age, bone mass, bone turnover and fracture status.

    PubMed

    Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Dobnig, Harald; Piswanger-Soelkner, Claudia; Bonelli, Christine; Dimai, Hans-Peter; Leb, Georg; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2003-05-15

    Pre-clinical data have shown that osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibits osteoclast function and therefore plays an important role in bone remodelling. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of serum OPG. Do higher OPG serum levels reflect decreased bone resorption and perhaps higher bone mass in women? Serum OPG levels were measured in 177 healthy women (aged 17-85 years) and in 48 untreated patients (mean age 71 +/- 5) with established osteoporosis, and related to age, bone mass, markers of bone turnover and, in the case of patients with osteoporosis, to pre-existing vertebral fractures. In healthy women OPG levels showed a positive correlation with age (r = 0.25, p < 0.001) but not to bone mass or markers of bone turnover. In women with osteoporosis, however, there was a strong relationship between serum OPG and markers of bone turnover (serum c-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of thpe I collagen (sCTX): r = +0.82, p < 0.0001; osteocalcin (OC): r = +0.69, p < 0.0001), with patients who had higher levels of bone-turnover markers showing higher serum levels of OPG. After adjustment for bone mass and bone markers, patients with pre-existing vertebral fractures had significantly lower serum OPG levels than patients without fractures (57 +/- 8 vs. 97 +/- 10 pg/ml, [mean +/- SE], p < 0.01). The age-dependent increase of OPG as an antiresorptive factor may reflect an insufficient paracrine mechanism of bone cells to compensate for bone loss in older age. In patients with osteoporosis, however, OPG correlated strongly with markers of bone turnover; this may point toward a higher level of RANKL/OPG expression in these patients. Finally, low OPG serum levels seem to be associated with vertebral fractures. We hypothesise that low OPG levels in preset conditions of bone turnover may indicate a higher risk of fracture in patients with osteoporosis. PMID:12793029

  7. Total cholesterol concentration and mortality at a relatively young age: do men and women differ?

    PubMed Central

    Monique Verschuren, W. M.; Kromhout, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between total cholesterol concentration and mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, non-cardiovascular causes, and all causes. DESIGN--Population based cohort study. SUBJECTS--23,000 men and 26,000 women aged 30-54 years examined between 1974 and 1980. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mortality for the above mentioned end points for fifths of cholesterol distribution, and relative risks estimated by using Cox's proportional hazard (survival) analysis. Adjustment was made for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. RESULTS--Mortality from coronary heart disease in men was five times higher than that in women. A strong positive association between total cholesterol concentration and mortality from coronary heart disease and cardiovascular diseases was observed in both men and women. The relative risk for the highest compared with the lowest fifth of the cholesterol distribution was for mortality from coronary heart disease (3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 5.1) in men and 3.8 (1.1 to 13.1) in women) and for mortality from cardiovascular disease (2.8 (1.8 to 4.2) in men and 2.9 (1.4 to 6.0) in women). No increase of non-cardiovascular mortality at low cholesterol concentration was observed. All cause mortality was significantly higher in the highest compared with the lowest fifth of the cholesterol distribution: relative risk 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) in men and 1.5 (1.1 to 1.9) in women. CONCLUSION--Total cholesterol concentration is a strong predictor of mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, and all causes in women as well as in men. Low cholesterol concentrations are not associated with increased mortality from non-cardiovascular causes. PMID:7580439

  8. Bayesian Mapping of HIV Infection among Women of Reproductive Age in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N. O.; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda. PMID:25811462

  9. Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. Aim To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. Material and methods The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. Results We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Conclusions Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women. PMID:24278065

  10. Tools for improving clinical preventive services receipt among women with disabilities of childbearing ages and beyond.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Lisa B; Taft, Kate E; Sloan, Michelle L; Stevens, Alissa C; Krahn, Gloria L

    2015-06-01

    Efforts to improve clinical preventive services (CPS) receipt among women with disabilities are poorly understood and not widely disseminated. The reported results represent a 2-year, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs partnership to develop a central resource for existing tools that are of potential use to maternal and child health practitioners who work with women with disabilities. Steps included contacting experts in the fields of disability and women's health, searching the Internet to locate examples of existing tools that may facilitate CPS receipt, convening key stakeholders from state and community-based programs to determine their potential use of the tools, and developing an online Toolbox. Nine examples of existing tools were located. The tools focused on facilitating use of the CPS guidelines, monitoring CPS receipt among women with disabilities, improving the accessibility of communities and local transportation, and training clinicians and women with disabilities. Stakeholders affirmed the relevance of these tools to their work and encouraged developing a Toolbox. The Toolbox, launched in May 2013, provides information and links to existing tools and accepts feedback and proposals for additional tools. This Toolbox offers central access to existing tools. Maternal and child health stakeholders and other service providers can better locate, adopt and implement existing tools to facilitate CPS receipt among adolescent girls with disabilities who are transitioning into adult care as well as women with disabilities of childbearing ages and beyond. PMID:25359095

  11. Environmental and Genetic Factors Influence Age at Menarche in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jessica; Saxena, Richa; Welt, Corrine K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that BMI and DNA variants would predict age at menarche in PCOS. Subjects: Subjects with PCOS defined by the NIH criteria (n=522) and controls with regular menstrual cycles and no hyperandrogenism (n=472); aged 18 to 45 years were studied. Methods Age at menarche was compared between PCOS cases and controls, and examined as a function of multiple parameters. Results There was a strong inverse relationship between BMI and age at menarche in PCOS (r=?0.32; p=5×10?11). The chromosome 6 rs7759938-T variant was associated with earlier age at menarche in women with PCOS (12.60±0.09 vs. 13.41±0.23 years; genotype TT vs. CC; p=0.006). Age at menarche was predicted by PCOS status (?=0.512; p<0.001), reported weight group at 10 to 14 years (?= ?0.432; p<0.001), current BMI (?= ?0.0202; p=0.01) and genotype (?=0.169; p=0.02). Conclusions Age at menarche in women with PCOS is influenced by BMI and genetic variants near LIN28B. Trial Registration NCT00166569 PMID:22876539

  12. Relationship between dietary habits, age, lifestyle, and socio-economic status among adult Norwegian women. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Hjartåker; E Lund

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine how dietary intake varies with age in a nation-wide sample of adult Norwegian women, and to evaluate the impact of lifestyle and socio-economic status on important dietary aspects.Design: Cross-section study.Setting and subjects: A food frequency questionnaire was mailed to a random, nation-wide sample of 20 000 women aged 45–69 y, and 9885 questionnaires were accepted for nutritional

  13. The correlation between self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI in reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lauren W; Allshouse, Amanda A; Lesh, Jennifer; Polotsky, Alex J; Santoro, Nanette

    2013-10-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study of 60 women compares self-reported height, weight, and BMI with measured values. Self-reported BMI (29.0±8.37 kg/m(2)) was slightly lower than measured BMI (29.1±8.38 kg/m(2)) (p=0.4). Eighty percent of participants reported a BMI in the same category in which their BMI was measured. Pearson's correlation coefficient for height (0.96, p<0.001), weight (0.99, p<0.001), and BMI (0.99, p<0.001) were high. Reproductive age women accurately reported their height and weight. PMID:23958434

  14. The Correlation Between Self-Reported and Measured Height, Weight, and BMI in Reproductive Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Lauren W.; Allshouse, Amanda A.; Lesh, Jennifer; Polotsky, Alex J.; Santoro, Nanette

    2013-01-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study of 60 women compares self- reported height, weight, and BMI with measured values. Self-reported BMI (29.0 ± 8.37kg/m2) was slightly lower than measured BMI (29.1 ± 8.38kg/m2) (p=0.4). Eighty percent of participants reported a BMI in the same category in which their BMI was measured. Pearson's correlation coefficient for height (0.96, p<0.001), weight (0.99, p<0.001), and BMI (0.99, p<0.001) were high. Reproductive age women accurately reported their height and weight. PMID:23958434

  15. Blood Cadmium Levels in Women of Childbearing Age Vary by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Mijal, Renée S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long -lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half -life of the metal, reproductive age-exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20–44 who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n =1734–3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06–2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96–4.47) times those of non -Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non -Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

  16. Anemia, iron deficiency, meat consumption, and hookworm infection in women of reproductive age in northwest Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Caruana, Sonia R; Phuc, Tran Q; Casey, Gerard J; Jolley, Damien; Kingsland, Sally; Tien, Nong T; MacGregor, Lachlan; Montresor, Antonio; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2008-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia poses an important public health problem for women of reproductive age living in developing countries. We assessed the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia and associated risk factors in a community-based sample of women living in a rural province of northwest Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey, comprised of written questionnaires and laboratory analysis of hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, transferrin receptor, and stool hookworm egg count, was undertaken, and the soluble transferrin receptor/log ferritin index was calculated. Of 349 non-pregnant women, 37.53% were anemic (Hb < 12 g/dL), and 23.10% were iron deficient (ferritin < 15 ng/L). Hookworm infection was present in 78.15% of women, although heavy infection was uncommon (6.29%). Iron deficiency was more prevalent in anemic than non-anemic women (38.21% versus 14.08%, P < 0.001). Consumption of meat at least three times a week was more common in non-anemic women (51.15% versus 66.67%, P = 0.042). Mean ferritin was lower in anemic women (18.99 versus 35.66 ng/mL, P < 0.001). There was no evidence of a difference in prevalence (15.20% versus 17.23%, P = 0.629) or intensity (171.07 versus 129.93 eggs/g, P = 0.412) of hookworm infection between anemic and non-anemic women. Although intensity of hookworm infection and meat consumption were associated with indices of iron deficiency in a multiple regression model, their relationship with hemoglobin was not significant. Anemia, iron deficiency, and hookworm infection were prevalent in this population. Intake of meat was more clearly associated with hemoglobin and iron indices than hookworm. An approach to addressing iron deficiency in this population should emphasize both iron supplementation and deworming. PMID:18337329

  17. Dietary soybeans intake and bone mineral density among 995 middle-aged women in Yokohama.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, K; Mizushima, S; Toba, M; Soda, K

    1999-02-01

    To investigate relationship of dietary factors, especially source of calcium intake, to bone mineral density (BMD) among Japanese middle-aged women, a total of 995 healthy women age of 40 to 49 (mean +/- SD, 45 +/- 3), who lives in Yokohama-city, were recruited through convenience sampling by the municipal information paper and health announcement at each 18 public health center in 18 wards for the three-day course on prevention of osteoporosis from October 1996 to March 1998. The BMD of the 2nd metacarpal bone was measured using Computed X-ray Densitometry (CXD) method, by a trained radiologist. Dietary intake of calcium was assessed by self-reporting food frequency questionnaire on calcium dietary sources such as milk, dairy products, small fish, vegetables, and soybeans and carefully checked by trained dietician. An independent gradient of non-adjusted and adjusted BMD for age and weekly calcium intake, through soybeans intake frequency (p = 0.03) was noted. This study suggest soybeans, through possible beneficial effects of vitamin-K, soyprotein, and isoflavonoid, may affect BMD of middle aged women. PMID:10098348

  18. Urinary tract infection among women aged 40 to 65: behavioral and sexual risk factors.

    PubMed

    Foxman, B; Somsel, P; Tallman, P; Gillespie, B; Raz, R; Colodner, R; Kandula, D; Sobel, J D

    2001-07-01

    We conducted a case-control study to explore the role of health behavior and sexual and medical history on urinary tract infection (UTI) risk among otherwise healthy women aged 40-65. Cases and controls were recruited from nine practices and clinics in Michigan and a single clinic in Israel. In both countries, several factors were reported significantly more frequently among UTI cases than controls: a previous UTI within 12 months, incontinence symptoms, a recent episode of 30-plus minutes of cold hands, feet, back or buttocks, and recent antibiotic use. Cases were less likely than controls to report recent estrogen use, but the results were only statistically significant in Michigan. Sexual activity during the previous 2 weeks and having ceased menses were modestly, but not statistically significantly, protective at both study sites. Risk factors for UTI among women 40-65 differ from those for younger women and these differences cannot be attributed solely to changes in menopausal status. PMID:11438412

  19. Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background The age of peak swim performance has been investigated for freestyle swimmers for distances ranging from 50 m to 1500 m among swimmers aged 19 to 99 years. However, studies have yet to investigate the 10 to 19 year-old age group. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the age range of peak freestyle swim speed, and (2) to find differences in age range and peak freestyle swim speed between male and female freestyle swimmers from 50 m to 1500 m at a national level. Methods The changes in age range and peak freestyle swim speed among Swiss elite freestyle swimmers aged 0–9 years and 70–79 years who were ranked on the Swiss high score list between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. Results Men were fastest at ages 22–23 years for 100 m and 200 m; at ages 24–25 years for 400 m and 800 m; and at 26–27 years for 50 m and 1500 m. Women achieved peak freestyle swim speed at ages 20–21 years for all distances with the exception of 800 m. In the 800 m, women were fastest at ages 26–27 years. The difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m (ie, 13.1% ± 1.3% in 50 m; 13.2% ± 0.9% in 100 m; 10.8% ± 0.9% in 200 m; 7.9% ± 1.3% in 400 m; and 4.2% ± 2.0% in 800 m). For 1500 m, however, the gender difference increased to 6.4% ± 2.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that peak freestyle swim speed is achieved at lower age ranges in women when compared to men at 50 m to 1500 m, but not at 800 m. The gender difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m, but not for 1500 m. These data should be confirmed with swimmers at an international level. PMID:24198602

  20. Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers. PMID:24693364

  1. Prevalence of Prescription Medication Use Among Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing Age and Pregnant Women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy. PMID:25287251

  2. Seroprevalence of TORCH infections in women of childbearing age in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Ban, Mirela; Kolaric, Branko; Sviben, Mario; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana

    2011-02-01

    During 2005-2009, a seroepidemiological study was carried out in Croatia to define the population susceptible to common TORCH agents among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The IgG seroprevalence was 29.1% forT. gondii, 94.6% for rubella, 75.3% for cytomegalovirus (CMV), 78.7% for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and 6.8% for HSV-2. Acute toxoplasmosis and CMV infection (positive IgM antibodies with low IgG avidity) were documented in 0.25% and 0.09% women, respectively. IgM prevalence was 1.2% for both HSV-1 and HSV-2. None of the participants showed acute rubella infection. Seropositivity to T. gondii and HSV-2 varied significantly between age groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.036, respectively). Women residing in rural regions showed a significantly higher seroprevalence rate for T. gondii, CMV, and HSV-1 than urban women (T. gondii: 44.0% vs. 25.4%, p < 0.001; CMV: 85.0% vs. 73.1%, p = 0.018; HSV-1: 86.0% vs. 76.4%, p = 0.041). PMID:20476874

  3. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 women of reproductive age. Data were collected using questionnaires on sociodemographic factors and perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2). The relationship between the dependent variable (perceived social support) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Results The mean score of social support was 134.3?±?17.9. Women scored highest in the “worth” dimension and lowest in the “social integration” dimension. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that the variables of education, spouse’s occupation, Sufficiency of income for expenses and primary support source were significantly related to the perceived social support. Conclusion Sociodemographic factors affect social support and could be considered in planning interventions to improve social support for Iranian women. PMID:22988834

  4. Changes in aerobic power of women, ages 20-64 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Beard, E. F.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak) of women. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 409 healthy women, ages 20-64 yr. The 43 women of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 3.7 (+/-2.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill test. The zero-order correlation of -0.742 between VO2peak and %fat was significantly (P < 0.05) higher then the SR-PA (r = 0.626) and age correlations (r = -0.633). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.537 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.851) showed that adding %fat and SR-PA and their interaction to the regression model reduced the age regression weight of -0.537, to -0.265 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results. These findings are consistent with men's data from the same lab showing that about 50% of the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak was due to %fat and SR-PA.

  5. Fish Consumption and Mercury Body Burden in Women of Reproductive Age From Urban Area in Croatia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Holcer; K. Vitale; A. S. Mari?; V. Brumen; J. Mustajbegovi?; D. Andabaka

    \\u000a Mercury entering aquatic environment can be transformed by microorganisms into toxic methyl-mercury that biomagnifies in aquatic\\u000a organisms. Seafood consumption is primary exposure route to mercury for humans. The most vulnerable groups are unborn and\\u000a young children. The aim of this article is to investigate if there possible connection of fish consumption and mercury body\\u000a burden in women of reproductive age

  6. [Effectiveness of medical rehabilitation of women of reproductive age with fatigue syndrome].

    PubMed

    Udovika, N O; Romanenko, I Iu; Lieonov, O O

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy Erbisol in combination with Lymphomyosot and Echinacea compositum C in medical rehabilitation of women of reproductive age with fatigue syndrome and chronic gynecological pathology was studied. It was found that this complex of medications promotes faster and more effective reduction of the level of circulating immune complexes in the serum, achievement of persistent clinical remission of disease and liquidation of fatigue syndrome manifestations, what improves the quality of life of patients. PMID:25286603

  7. Induction of hyperandrogenism in lean reproductive-age women stimulates proatherogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    González, F; Sreekumaran Nair, K; Basal, E; Bearson, D M; Schimke, J M; Blair, H E

    2015-06-01

    We determined the effect of hyperandrogenemia as observed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on fasting and glucose-stimulated proatherogenic inflammation markers in lean healthy reproductive-age women. Sixteen lean healthy ovulatory reproductive-age women were treated with 130?mg of DHEA or placebo (n=8 each) for 5 days. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA and IL-6 release from mononuclear cells (MNC), plasma IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), and MNC-derived (matrix metalloproteinase-2) MMP-2 protein were quantified in the fasting state and 2?h after glucose ingestion, before and after treatment. Before treatment, subjects receiving dehydroepinadrosterone (DHEA) or placebo exhibited no differences in androgens, or any proatherogenic inflammation markers while fasting and after glucose ingestion. Compared with placebo, DHEA administration raised levels of testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), and increased the percent change from baseline in fasting IL-6 mRNA, IL-6 release, plasma IL-6, and CRP and MMP-2 protein. However, there were no differences in any of the proatherogenic inflammation markers following glucose ingestion after DHEA administration. We conclude that in lean reproductive-age women, proatherogenic inflammation in the fasting state increases after raising circulating androgens to levels observed in PCOS. However, this hyperandrogenemia-induced MNC activation does not provoke a similar response to subsequent glucose ingestion. PMID:25230323

  8. Knowledge and Acceptability about Adult Pertussis Immunization in Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Wie, Jeong Ha; Cheon, Juyoung; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been introduced in order to provide individual protection and reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis to infants. We assessed the knowledge and acceptability of the Tdap vaccine around pregnancy. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women of childbearing age (20-45 years) who visited obstetrics and gynecologic units of primary, secondary, or tertiary hospitals. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of Tdap. Results The questionnaire was completed by 308 women; 293 (95.1%) had not received information from doctors about Tdap, and 250 (81.2%) did not know about the need for vaccination. A significantly important factor related to subjects' intention to be vaccinated, identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression, was the knowledge (OR 13.5, CI 3.92-46.33) that adult Tdap is effective in preventing pertussis for infants aged 0-6 months. Additionally, 276 (89.6%) considered the recommendation of obstetric doctors as the most influencing factor about Tdap vaccination. Conclusion In Korea, most women of childbearing age seem to be neither recommended nor adequately informed about the vaccination, although our population was not a nationwide representative sample. Information given by healthcare workers may be critical for improving awareness and preventing pertussis. PMID:26069132

  9. Aging and the Skeletal Muscle Angiogenic Response to Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P; Kraus, Raymond M; Carrithers, John A; Garry, Joseph P; Hickner, Robert C

    2014-09-01

    Whether aging lowers skeletal muscle basal capillarization and angiogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the effects of aging on skeletal muscle capillarization, eight young (YW) and eight aged (AW) women completed 8 weeks of exercise training. The response and relationships of muscle capillarization, interstitial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvascular blood flow to aerobic exercise training were investigated. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained before and after exercise training for the measurement of capillarization. Muscle interstitial VEGF protein and microvascular blood flow were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at PRE, 1-WK, and 8-WKS by microdialysis. Exercise training increased (20%-25%) capillary contacts of type I, IIA, and IIB fibers in YW and AW. Interstitial VEGF protein was higher in AW than YW at rest and was higher in YW than AW during exercise independent of training status. Differences in muscle capillarization were not explained by secreted VEGF nor were differences in VEGF explained by microvascular blood flow. These results confirm that aging (57-76 years age range) does not impair the muscle angiogenic response to exercise training, although sex differences may exist in similarly trained women and men. PMID:25182597

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of childbearing age of Isfahan, Iran: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Nasser; Ataei, Behrooz; Nokhodian, Zari; Monfared, Leila J; Yaran, Majid; Ataie, Mehdi; Babak, Anahita

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted an epidemiological survey on seroprevalence of toxoplasma infection in women of childbearing age in Isfahan Province. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 2010, 217 women in the age range of 10–50 years were randomly selected. The blood samples examined for the presence of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody by a commercial ELISA kit (Dia-Pro, Milan, Italy). Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were employed to examine the antibody status in different age, marriage, education, and residence groups. Results: The overall prevalence was 47.5% (103/217). The peak age of infection acquisition was in the range 30–40 years in rural areas and 20–30 years in urban districts. There was no significant association between residence, education, and marriage groups on the one hand and chance of T. gondii infection on the other hand. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest a moderate prevalence of T. gondii infection, but a high prevalence in ages of high reproductive activities. PMID:23326791

  11. Changes in Obesity Prevalence Among Women Aged 50 Years and Older: Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1990-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Zablotsky; Karin A. Mack

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is an important public health issue facing Americans of all ages. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data are used to illustrate the change in body mass index distribution in just one decade (1990-2000) in women aged ? 50. The sample size ranged from 18,474 women ? 50 in 1990 to 45,820 in 2000. For women aged ? 50, there

  12. Duration and magnitude of the postoperative risk of venous thromboembolism in middle aged women: prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siân Sweetland; Jane Green; Bette Liu; Amy Berrington de González; Marianne Canonico; Gillian Reeves; Valerie Beral

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the duration and magnitude of increased risk of venous thromboembolism after different types of surgery.Design Prospective cohort study (Million Women Study).Setting Questionnaire data from the Million Women Study linked with hospital admission and death records.Participants 947 454 middle aged women in the United Kingdom recruited in 1996-2001 and followed by record linkage to routinely collected NHS data

  13. Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women

    PubMed Central

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Therneau, Terry M.; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L. Joseph; Keyak, Joyce; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B.; Lang, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur are the most devastating outcome of osteoporosis. It is generally understood that age-related changes in hip structure confer increased risk, but there have been few explicit comparisons of such changes in healthy subjects to those with hip fracture. In this study, we used quantitative computed tomography and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to identify three-dimensional internal structural patterns of the proximal femur associated with age and with incident hip fracture. A population-based cohort of 349 women representing a broad age range (21–97 years) were included in this study, along with a cohort of 222 older women (mean age 79±7 years) with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture. Images were spatially normalized to a standardized space, and age- and fracture-specific morphometric features were identified based on statistical maps of shape features described as local changes of bone volume. Morphometric features were visualized as maps of local contractions and expansions, and significance was displayed as Student’s t-test statistical maps. Significant age-related changes included local expansions of regions low in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and local contractions of regions high in vBMD. Some significant fracture-related features resembled an accentuated aging process, including local expansion of the superior aspect of the trabecular bone compartment in the femoral neck, with contraction of the adjoining cortical bone. However, other features were observed only in the comparison of hip fracture subjects with age-matched controls including focal contractions of the cortical bone at the superior aspect of the femoral neck, the lateral cortical bone just inferior to the greater trochanter, and the anterior intertrochanteric region. Results of this study support the idea that the spatial distribution of morphometric features is relevant to age-related changes in bone and independently to fracture risk. In women, the identification by TBM of fracture-specific morphometric alterations of the proximal femur, in conjunction with vBMD and clinical risk factors, may improve hip fracture prediction. PMID:23981658

  14. Age-related changes in the diagnostic assessment of women with severe cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Giannella, L; Fodero, C; Boselli, F; Mfuta, K; Rubino, T; Prandi, S

    2015-08-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of age on the diagnostic assessment of women with severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods This retrospective observational study included 338 consecutive women with a diagnosis of CIN3 on cone specimen. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: < 35 years (Group A), 35-49 years (Group B), and ? 50 years (Group C). Clinical and colposcopic variables were compared, and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution was measured. Results The most common HPV genotype was HPV-16 (63.65%), followed by HPV-33 (7%), HPV-18 (6.2%), and HPV-31 (5.4%). The rate of the following high-grade lesion predictors was lower in Group C than in Groups A and B: HPV-16 infections (55.9% vs. 75% vs. 70.9%, respectively, p = 0.022); high-grade colposcopic impression (29.4% vs. 51.8% vs. 51.7%, respectively, p < 0.0001); and high-grade cytological changes (30.9% vs. 56.2% vs. 45.4%, respectively, p = 0.025). An endocervical lesion location was more frequent in Group C than in Groups A and B (55.6% vs. 6.8% vs. 11.8%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Women aged 50 years and older with CIN3 showed a significant reduction of high-grade lesion predictors along with physiological confounding cervical changes (transformation zone type 3 and endocervical lesion location). The diagnostic work-up of cervical lesions in older women should provide their potential consideration as a special population. PMID:25603323

  15. Circum-menopausal changes in women's preferences for sexually dimorphic shape cues in peer-aged faces.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benedict C; Vukovic, Jovana; Little, Anthony C; Roberts, S Craig; Debruine, Lisa M

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that post-menopausal women demonstrate stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in male and female faces than do pre-menopausal women, potentially reflecting stronger preferences for healthy men and greater derogation of attractive women among more fertile women. A limitation of this work was that it assessed circum-menopausal women's face preferences using images of young adults only. Here, we found that post-menopausal women demonstrated stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in male and female peer-aged faces that did pre-menopausal women. These data present novel evidence for circum-menopausal variation in face perception and confirm that the circum-menopausal variation in face preferences observed previously was not an artefact of the young faces employed as stimuli. PMID:21540073

  16. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  17. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  18. USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711) In the United States, sampling women o...

  19. Spinal and forearm bone mass in relation to ageing and menopause in healthy Italian women.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, S; Trevisan, C; Bianchi, M L; Caraceni, M P; Ulivieri, F M; Gandolini, G; Montesano, A; Polli, E E

    1991-02-01

    Most studies concerning bone status have been performed in Nordic and Anglo-Saxon countries and few data are available on southern European populations. We performed a cross-sectional study on spine and forearm bone mass in 234 healthy Italian women and related the results to age and time since menopause. Forearm bone mass does not decline in premenopausal age, whereas, as far as the spine is concerned, a significant reduction appears 3 years before the mean age of menopause; in both cases, the occurrence of menopause accounted for an accelerated phase of bone loss. In postmenopausal women both spine and forearm bone mass show a stronger correlation with years since menopause than with age. According to a linear exponential model, the rate of spinal bone loss per year since menopause is around 4% in the first 3 years which slows down to around 2% in the 5th year; the corresponding rates of forearm bone loss are 2% and 1.3%, respectively. PMID:1907553

  20. Age-related changes in platelet function are more profound in women than in men

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, Jonathan; Dunne, Eimear; Oglesby, Irene; Byrne, Barry; Ralph, Adam; Voisin, Bruno; Müllers, Sieglinde; Ricco, Antonio J.; Kenny, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Age is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), however the effect of age on platelet function remains unclear. Ideally, platelet function should be assayed under flow and shear conditions that occur in vivo. Our study aimed to characterise the effect of age on platelet translocation behaviour using a novel flow-based assay that measures platelet function in less than 200??l of blood under conditions of arterial shear. Blood from males (n?=?53) and females (n?=?56), ranging in age from 19–82 and 21–70 respectively were perfused through custom-made parallel plate flow chambers coated with immobilised human von Willebrand Factor (VWF) under arterial shear (1,500s?1). Platelet translocation behaviour on VWF was recorded by digital-image microscopy and analysed. The study showed that aging resulted in a significant decrease in the number of platelet tracks, translocating platelets and unstable platelet interactions with VWF. These age related changes in platelet function were more profound in women than in men indicating that age and gender significantly impacts on platelet interactions with VWF. PMID:26179119

  1. Costs of medicines and health care: a concern for Australian women across the ages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from Australia and other countries suggests that some individuals struggle to meet the costs of their health care, including medicines, despite the presence of Government subsidies for low-income earners. The aim of our study was to elucidate women’s experiences with the day to day expenses that relate to medicines and their health care. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) conducts regular surveys of women in three age cohorts (born 1973–78, 1946–51, and 1921–26). Our data were obtained from free text comments included in surveys 1 to 5 for each cohort. All comments were scanned for mentions of attitudes, beliefs and behaviours around the costs of medicines and health care. Relevant comments were coded by category and themes identified. Results Over 150,000 responses were received to the surveys, and 42,305 (27%) of these responses included free-text comments; 379 were relevant to medicines and health care costs (from 319 individuals). Three broad themes were identified: costs of medicines (33% of relevant comments), doctor visits (49%), and complementary medicines (13%). Age-specific issues with medicine costs included contraceptive medicines (1973–78 cohort), hormone replacement therapy (1946–51 cohort) and osteoporosis medications (1921–26 cohort). Concerns about doctor visits mostly related to reduced (or no) access to bulk-billed medical services, where there are no out-of-pocket costs to the patient, and costs of specialist services. Some women in the 1973–78 and 1946–51 cohorts reported ‘too much income’ to qualify for government health benefits, but not enough to pay for visits to the doctor. In some cases, care and medicines were avoided because of the costs. Personal feelings of embarrassment over financial positions and judgments about bulk-billing practices (‘good ones don’t bulk-bill’) were barriers to service use, as were travel expenses for rural women. Conclusions For some individuals, difficulty in accessing bulk-billing services and increasing out-of-pocket costs in Australia limit affordability of health services, including medications. At greatest risk may be those falling below thresholds for subsidised care such as self-funded retirees and those on low-middle incomes, in addition to those on very low incomes, who may find even small co-payments difficult to manage. PMID:24252248

  2. Distribution and Major Sources of Flavonoid Intakes in the Middle-Aged Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Naoto; Kimira, Mitsuru; Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Uehara, Mariko; Watanabe, Shaw; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2009-01-01

    We estimated the intake of individual flavonoids in a cross sectional study and clarified the major sources contributing to the flavonoid levels in the middle-aged Japanese women by a 24-h weighed dietary record study. The subjects included in the study were 516 free-living women. Each subject completed a 24-h weighed dietary record and received a health check-up. We used the Functional Food Factor database for estimating the intake of 5 major flavonoid intakes, i.e. flavan-3-ols, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavones. The mean intake of flavan-3-ols, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavones was 1277, 216, 58, 31 and 15 µmol/d, respectively. The richest source of flavan-3-ols was green tea. The 3 major food sources of isoflavone were the processed soy foods and those of flavonol were the onion, moroheiya (nalta jute) and Japanese radish leaves. Grapefruit and citrus fruit juices were the major sources of flavanones, and tsurumurasaki (malabar spinach), green pepper and grapefruit were the main sources of flavone. Furthermore, analysis of sub-samples from middle-aged Japanese women indicated that there may be an association between flavonoid intake and the levels of oxidized LDL, which might be related to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19430611

  3. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  4. Distribution and major sources of flavonoid intakes in the middle-aged Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Otaki, Naoto; Kimira, Mitsuru; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Uehara, Mariko; Watanabe, Shaw; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2009-05-01

    We estimated the intake of individual flavonoids in a cross sectional study and clarified the major sources contributing to the flavonoid levels in the middle-aged Japanese women by a 24-h weighed dietary record study. The subjects included in the study were 516 free-living women. Each subject completed a 24-h weighed dietary record and received a health check-up. We used the Functional Food Factor database for estimating the intake of 5 major flavonoid intakes, i.e. flavan-3-ols, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavones. The mean intake of flavan-3-ols, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavones was 1277, 216, 58, 31 and 15 micromol/d, respectively. The richest source of flavan-3-ols was green tea. The 3 major food sources of isoflavone were the processed soy foods and those of flavonol were the onion, moroheiya (nalta jute) and Japanese radish leaves. Grapefruit and citrus fruit juices were the major sources of flavanones, and tsurumurasaki (malabar spinach), green pepper and grapefruit were the main sources of flavone. Furthermore, analysis of sub-samples from middle-aged Japanese women indicated that there may be an association between flavonoid intake and the levels of oxidized LDL, which might be related to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19430611

  5. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young reproductive age women in India: implications for treatment and prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Purnima MadhivananA; Melissa T. BartmanC; Karl KruppA; Anjali ArunA; Arthur L. ReingoldC; Jeffrey D. KlausnerB

    Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most common curable sexually transmissible infection (STI) worldwide. The presentstudy describes theburdenandcorrelates ofT. vaginalisinfectionamong youngreproductive age women in Mysore, India. Methods: Between November 2005 and March 2006, sexually active women aged 15-30 years were recruited from low-income peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods of Mysore, India. Participants were interviewed and offered a physical examination and testing

  6. The Social Determinants of Health in Association with Women’s Health Status of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    BAHEIRAEI, Azam; BAKOUEI, Fatemeh; MOHAMMADI, Eesa; MONTAZERI, Ali; HOSSENI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Prioritizing women’s health helps achievement of the 4th and 5th goals of Millennium Development Program. This study aimed to investigate association between social determinants of health and women’s health of reproductive age. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling procedure was conducted on 770, 15 to 49-year-old women residing in any one of the 22 municipality zones across Tehran, Iran. Eligible women were interviewed at home with SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and socio-demographic questionnaires. Social determinants of health contains; ethnicity, education, job, income, and crowding index. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression using SPSS-16. The threshold of P.V was considered 0.05. Results Overall, 770 women with mean age 33.9±9.3 years were interviewed. Majority of them were married (72.27%), housewives (62.2%), of Persian ethnicity (64.3%), and educated to high school level (43.8%). Age with dimensions of health except role emotional, mental health, and social functioning had significant association with B from -0.65 to -0.16.educational level with dimensions of health except role emotional andsocial functioning had significant association with B from 3.61 to 6.43 (P<0.05). Income with dimensions of health except role physical had significant association with B from -9.97 to -4.42. Conclusion Reflection of unfavorable economic conditions and low education level on negative women’ health experiences are alarming. Interaction between social determinants of health and health status must be considered in policymaking, and there is a need for policies that would enhance health of women in the low education and income brackets.

  7. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  8. Culture, country of residence and subjective well-being: a comparison of South Asian mid-aged women living in the UK, UK Caucasian women and women living in Delhi, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myra S. Hunter; Pratima Gupta; Andrea Papitsch-Clark; Dinesh Bhugra; David Sturdee

    2008-01-01

    South Asian populations represent the largest minority ethnic group in the UK. Subjective well-being (depressed mood and life satisfaction) in first generation mid-aged Asian immigrants originating from the Indian subcontinents (UKA) is examined and compared to that of UK Caucasian (UKC) and Indian (resident in Delhi) (DEL) women. Asian women (UKA and DEL) reported higher levels of depressed mood than

  9. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Xiong Donghai [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Wang Wei [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Shen Hui [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Xiao Peng [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Yang Fang [Laboratory of Molecular and Statistical Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Recker, Robert R. [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Deng Hongwen [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China) and Laboratory of Molecular and Statistical Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China) and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)]. E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  10. The influence of age at menarche on the fertility of Chinese women.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Sherry L; Poston, Dudley L

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of age at menarche on children ever born (CEB). We use data from the 1997 Sample Survey of Population and Reproductive Health conducted by the China Population Information and Research Center and the State Family Planning Commission. Poisson regression models are estimated for 10,919 ever married Chinese Han women. The influence of a woman's age at menarche on her CEB is examined while controlling for the social effects of rural/urban residency, education, her number of fecund years, whether her first birth occurred before or after the initiation of China's one child policy, and her age at first marriage. The results support our hypothesized positive association between age at menarche and CEB. That is, the later a woman's age at menarche, the greater her number of children ever born. Holding the other five independent variables constant, we show that for every additional month in age at menarche, a Chinese Han woman's mean number of children ever born increases by 0.5 percent. Some of the implications of these results are explored. PMID:16382813

  11. Dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Duraisamy, G; Loh, Su Peng; Green, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The protective role of folic acid taken during the periconceptual period in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been well documented by epidemiological evidence, randomized controlled trials and intervention studies. Much of the evidence is derived from western populations while similar data on Asian subjects is relatively nascent. Baseline data on folate status of Malaysian women is lacking, while NTD prevalence is estimated as 10 per 10,000 births. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age. A total of 399 women comprising 140 Malay, 131 Chinese and 128 Indian subjects were recruited from universities and worksites in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were not pregnant or breastfeeding, not taking folic acid supplements, not habitual drinkers or smokers. Based on a 24-hour recall, the median intake level for folate was 66 microg (15.7-207.8 microg), which amounts to 16.5% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes level. The median (5-95th percentiles) values for plasma and red cell folate (RBC) concentrations were 11 (4-33) nmol/L and 633 (303-1209) nmol/L respectively. Overall, nearly 15.1% showed plasma folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L), with Indian subjects having the highest prevalence (21.5%). Overall prevalence of RBC folate deficiency (<363 nmol/L) was 9.3%, and an almost similar level prevailed for each ethnic group. Only 15.2% had RBC concentration exceeding 906 nmol/L, which is associated with a very low risk of NTD. The result of this study point to the need for intervention strategies to improve the blood folate status of women of childbearing age, so that they have adequate protection against the occurrence of NTD at birth. PMID:16837426

  12. Rubella Immunity in Women of Childbearing Age, Eight Years After the Immunization Program in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Barari Sawadkohi, Rahim; Zarghami, Amin; Izadpana, Fatemeh; Pournasrollah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rubella is a viral disease with a worldwide distribution. Mass vaccination campaigns have increased the vaccine coverage in the world with substantial impact on reduction of rubella infections. In Iran, the national measles-rubella campaign, targeting individuals 5-25 years old, was initiated in 2003 and mass childhood vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps has continued ever since. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of routine vaccination on rubella immunity among women of childbearing age in Babol, north of Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 women of childbearing age living in Babol, north of Iran, in 2011. Twelve samples were excluded from the study because of inadequate sera amounts. Serum samples were examined for presence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies by means of quantitative ELISA. Results: From a total of 800 samples in this study, rubella IgG seropositivity was seen in 786 (98.3% [95% CI = %97.5-%99.1]) cases. The maximum IgG seropositivity (99.2%) was seen in the age group of 21-25 years old and the lowest immunity (87.7%) was in the group of above 30 years old. Conclusions: Our data indicated that the rate of seropositivity to rubella virus in our population was high, suggesting that vaccination has been successful in Babol, reducing the likelihood of congenital rubella infection. PMID:25237562

  13. A Reappraisal of Women's Health Initiative Estrogen-Alone Trial: Long-Term Outcomes in Women 50–59 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Estrogen-Alone Trial randomized postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, with prior hysterectomy, to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo with a 5.9-year median duration of CEE use. In 2013, the WHI published outcomes for additional extended follow-up. Reported here for the first time is an analysis of the number needed to treat with CEE rather than placebo for younger women (50–59 years) to prevent an adverse long-term outcome. For every 76 women randomized to CEE at 50–59 years, one less myocardial infarction occurred during the 13-year cumulative long-term follow-up. For every 37 women randomized to CEE at 50–59 years, one less woman experienced a global index endpoint (including coronary heart disease, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, and death) during the 13-year follow-up. Younger women (50–59 years), compared to older women, had more favorable cumulative long-term outcomes for MI and global index. Though a subgroup analysis is not an adequate basis for making primary prevention guideline recommendations, the WHI Estrogen-Alone Trial outcomes strongly suggest that a similar course of estrogen initiated at 50–59 years in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy results in significant long-term health benefit. PMID:25685151

  14. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    PubMed Central

    Milanovi?, Zoran; Panteli?, Saša; Trajkovi?, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kosti?, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

  15. Iron deficiency, cognition, mental health and fatigue in women of childbearing age: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Greig, Alecia J; Patterson, Amanda J; Collins, Clare E; Chalmers, Kerry A

    2013-01-01

    It is known that Fe deficiency has a negative impact on cognitive function in children by altering brain energy metabolism and neurotransmitter function. It is unclear whether Fe deficiency has detrimental effects on cognition, mental health and fatigue in women of childbearing age. Our aim was to systematically review the literature to determine whether Fe deficiency in women of childbearing age affects cognition, mental health and fatigue, and whether a change in Fe status results in improvements in cognition, mental health and fatigue. Studies using Fe supplement interventions were reviewed to examine the effect of Fe deficiency in women of childbearing age (13-45 years) on their cognition, mental health and fatigue. English-language articles ranging from the earliest record to the year 2011 were sourced. The quality of retrieved articles was assessed and the Fe pathology, cognitive, mental health and fatigue data were extracted. Means and standard deviations from cognitive test data were included in meta-analyses of combined effects. Of the 1348 studies identified, ten were included in the review. Three studies showed poorer cognition and mental health scores and increased fatigue with Fe deficiency at baseline. Seven studies reported an improvement in cognitive test scores after Fe treatment. Results of three of these studies were included in meta-analyses of the effect of Fe supplement intervention on cognition. The results of the meta-analyses showed a significant improvement in Arithmetic scores after treatment (P < 0·01), but no effect on Digit Symbol, Digit Span or Block Design. While an improvement in cognition after Fe treatment was seen in seven out of ten studies, the evidence base is limited by poor study quality and heterogeneity across studies. Additional high-quality studies using consistent measures are warranted. PMID:25191562

  16. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery workforce assessments conducted in collaboration with the respective Ministries of Health and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to identify disparities between population needs, health infrastructure and workforce supply. The datasets are available to the respective Ministries as part of the UNFPA programme to inform midwifery workforce planning and also publicly available through the WorldPop population mapping project. PMID:24387010

  17. Modeling mid-aged women's sexual functioning: a prospective, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Dennerstein, Lorraine; Lehert, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    This article uses a prospectively, annually collected sexuality questionnaire from an 8-year study of 340 mid-aged Melbourne women. We modeled the interactions of sexuality domains, the effect of prior level of sexual functioning, and the effects of change in partner-related factors. We found that we were unable to separate items denoting sexual interest from those denoting responsiveness. Using the statistical technique of auto-correlation, we determined that the most important predictor of female sexual functioning is prior level of sexual functioning. Partner-related factors (change in partner status and feelings for partner) also had significant effects. PMID:15205073

  18. Women, Work and Age: Policy Challenges. Proceedings of the Conference (Lansing, Michigan, April 11-12, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Gerontology, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Proceedings of a conference on women, work, and age are presented. The introduction by Carol Hollenstead give background on the topic, identifies the conference's goals and objectives, and describes the rationale behind the published proceedings. The keynote address, "Age Discrimination: The Invisible Barriers" (Sandra V. Porter), discusses…

  19. Trends in age at menarche, sexual debut, and oral contraceptive use among Swedish and Swedish Symi women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meghan Gillette

    2010-01-01

    The average age of a girl at menarche (onset of first menstrual period) is decreasing worldwide; women now reach sexual maturity at a significantly younger age than their grandmothers. Determining the factors related to this trend is critical, as it is occurring globally and may be markedly different between industrialized and non-industrialized populations. In addition, addressing the consequences of an

  20. A relative age effect in men's but not women's professional baseball: 1943-1954.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael M; Pandya, Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Birthdates of professional female and male baseball players active from 1943 to 1954 (the beginning and final years for professional female leagues) were matched for year of birth and league years and then compared by birth quarters, with a cutoff date beginning August 1. A relative age effect was noted for males, as there was a significantly different distribution of players across birth quarter, but there was no such effect for female professionals. Since players were matched for birth year and league play, the difference was unlikely to be due to seasonality differences in birth. Instead, the absence of a "relative age" effect for female players can be attributed to the absence of organized adolescent baseball for girls prior to the establishment of professional baseball leagues for women. PMID:22049668

  1. Obesity affects short-term folate pharmacokinetics in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    da Silva, V R; Hausman, D B; Kauwell, G P A; Sokolow, A; Tackett, R L; Rathbun, S L; Bailey, L B

    2013-12-01

    Maternal folate status and body mass index (BMI) are independent risk factors for neural tube defects (NTD). Population-based studies have identified an inverse association between serum folate and BMI, after adjusting for intake. The objective of this intervention study was to compare the relationship between BMI and the short-term pharmacokinetic response to an oral dose of folic acid. Healthy obese (BMI ?30.0?kg?m(-2); n=16) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9?kg?m(-2); n=16) women of childbearing age (18-35 years) were administered a single oral dose of folic acid (400??g). Blood samples were collected over a 10-h period to evaluate the serum folate response. Fasting baseline serum folate was lower in the obese group (P=0.005); in contrast, red blood cell folate was higher (P=0.05). Area-under-the-curve for the absorption phase (0-3?h) and peak serum folate concentrations were lower in obese versus normal-weight women (P<0.005). Overall serum folate response (0-10?h) was lower in obese versus normal-weight women (repeated-measures ANOVA, P=0.001). Data suggest body distribution of folate is significantly affected by obesity, and, should pregnancy occur, may reduce the amount of folate available to the developing embryo. These findings provide additional support for a BMI-adjusted folic acid intake recommendation for NTD risk reduction. PMID:23567925

  2. RLS in middle aged women and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in their offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Lyall, Kristen; Palacios, Natalia; Walters, Arthur S.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) could share some common genetic backgrounds, but the effect of these genetic components could be modest. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a large-scaled cross-sectional study to examine whether women with a child with ADHD had a higher risk of having RLS than women of unaffected children. Methods We included 65,554 women free of diabetes, arthritis, and pregnancy in the current analyses. Information on RLS was assessed using a set of standardized questions. Participants were considered to have RLS if they met four RLS diagnostic criteria recommended by the International RLS Study Group and had restless legs ?5 times/month. Information on ADHD in offspring was collected via questionnaire. Results We observed a significant association between presence of ADHD in the offspring and risk of having RLS; the multivariate-adjusted OR for RLS was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.41; P<0.0001), after adjusting for age, body mass index, number of deliveries during life time and other covariates. Conclusion We found that mothers of children with ADHD had an increased risk of having RLS. Further studies are warranted to explore biological mechanisms underling this association. PMID:20810309

  3. Trauma exposure and the subsequent risk of coronary heart disease among mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    May-Ling, June Lee; Loxton, Deborah; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether exposure to trauma in the form of a history of physical, mental, emotional or sexual abuse or violence predicted new onset of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. In addition, this study aimed to examine the mediation effects of psychological, lifestyle and health related factors in the abuse-CHD relationship. Data from 6 surveys over 15 years, from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a large prospective cohort study, were used. Participants from the 1946-1951 cohort who did not self-report heart disease at surveys 1 (1996) and 2 (1998) and who had provided information on other variables were included (n = 9,276). After adjusting for age, women who reported trauma exposure at baseline were 1.54 times more likely (95% confidence interval 1.29-1.83) to report new onset of CHD than those who did not report trauma exposure. The association between trauma and CHD was largely explained by psychological factors, suggesting a direct pathway between exposure to trauma and risk of CHD. PMID:24923258

  4. HIV infection and its impact on fetal outcomes among women of advanced maternal age: a propensity score weighted matching approach.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Mogos, Mulubrhan F; August, Euna M; Dejoy, Sharon; de la Cruz, Cara; Alio, Amina P; Marty, Phillip J

    2013-03-01

    Advanced maternal age (AMA) and HIV status have been investigated separately for their influence on infant outcomes. Both are associated with adverse fetal growth outcomes, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB). However, the impact of the cooccurrence of these factors in relation to birth outcomes remains relatively understudied. We analyzed Florida hospital discharge data linked to vital records. The study population consisted of women who had a singleton live birth between 1998 and 2007 (N=1,687,176). The exposure variables were HIV infection and maternal age, while the outcomes of interest were LBW, PTB, and small for gestational age (SGA). We matched HIV-positive women to HIV-negative women on selected variables using propensity scores. To approximate relative risks, we computed adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) generated from logistic regression models and accounted for the matched design using the generalized estimating equations framework. After adjusting for demographic variables, clinical conditions, and route of birth, the risks of LBW, PTB, and SGA remained significant for HIV-positive women, regardless of age. HIV-positive women of AMA (?35 years) were more likely to have infants of LBW (AOR=1.73, 95% CI=1.37-2.18), PTB (AOR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.06-1.71), and SGA (AOR=1.52, 95% CI=1.22-1.89), compared to uninfected mothers of younger age (<35 years). For women of advanced age, HIV positivity elevates their risk for LBW and PTB. The interplay of HIV status and age should be considered by healthcare providers when determining appropriate interconception strategies for women and their families. PMID:23074988

  5. Psychological wellbeing and incident frailty in men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2013-01-01

    Background Observations that older people who enjoy life more tend to live longer suggest that psychological wellbeing may be a potential resource for healthier ageing. We investigated whether psychological wellbeing was associated with incidence of physical frailty. Methods We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the prospective relation between psychological wellbeing, assessed using the CASP-19 questionnaire that assesses perceptions of control, autonomy, self-realization and pleasure, and incidence of physical frailty or pre-frailty, defined according to the Fried criteria, in 2557 men and women aged 60 to over 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results Men and women with higher levels of psychological wellbeing were less likely to become frail over the 4-year follow-up period. For a standard deviation higher score in psychological wellbeing at baseline, the relative risk ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident frailty, adjusted for age, sex and baseline frailty status, was 0.46 (0.40, 0.54). There was a significant association between psychological wellbeing and risk of pre-frailty: 0.69 (0.63, 0.77). Examination of scores for hedonic (pleasure) and eudaimonic (control, autonomy and self-realization) wellbeing showed that higher scores on both were associated with decreased risk. Associations were partially attenuated by further adjustment for other potential confounding factors but persisted. Incidence of pre-frailty or frailty was associated with a decline in wellbeing, suggesting that the relationship is bi-directional. Conclusions Maintaining a stronger sense of psychological wellbeing in later life may protect against the development of physical frailty. Future research needs to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings. PMID:23822897

  6. HPV vaccination in women aged 27 to 45 years: what do general practitioners think?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is registered in Australia for females aged 9 to 45 years, females aged 27 to 45 years have shown limited vaccine uptake. Our study explored general practitioners’ (GPs) views concerning HPV vaccination of females in this age group, with particular focus on the barriers and the facilitators to the delivery of the HPV vaccine. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 randomly selected general practitioners from metropolitan Melbourne. Questions were based on a theoretical framework that explained the barriers and facilitators to professional behaviour change. Results According to the GPs, the major barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine included the cost of the vaccine, time constraints, and the three-dose schedule. Other barriers that were identified included GPs’ and patients’ beliefs that females in this age group were at low risk of contracting HPV, lack of awareness about the vaccine, and uncertainty about the benefits of this vaccine for females in this age group. In contrast, the facilitators that were identified included the availability of the vaccine on site, the availability of vaccine clinics or nurses for administering the vaccine, the availability of information related to the vaccine either on site or online, and positive opinions from experts in the field. Conclusions Our study has identified some of the barriers and facilitators to the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine in females aged 27 to 45 years, as perceived by GPs. Further studies should be conducted to determine which of these should be targeted or prioritised for intervention. The views of women in this age group should also be considered as these would also be influential in designing effective intervention strategies for improving the delivery and uptake of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25074404

  7. Women sleep objectively better than men and the sleep of young women is more resilient to external stressors: effects of age and menopause.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Edward O; Papaliaga, Maria N; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Lin, Hung-Mo; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Chrousos, George P

    2009-06-01

    The aims of this study were to: (i) assess gender differences of objective sleep patterns in a general population sample; (ii) evaluate the effects of menopause and hormone treatment (HT) on the sleep of the same cohort; and (iii) examine gender differences in sleep resilience towards external stressors. The participants were (i) 1324 subjects without sleep complaints, recruited from the general population of Central Pennsylvania that spent one night in the sleep laboratory and (ii) 66 young, healthy volunteers whose sleep was disturbed during night four by an external stressor, i.e. 24-h blood drawing (average of nights 2 and 3 versus night 4). Women compared with men in the general population sample had significantly higher percentage of sleep time, lower percentage of stage 1, and higher percentage of slow wave sleep. Also, menopause, in the absence of HT, was associated with prolonged sleep latency and decreased deep sleep. Finally, young, healthy women compared with men experienced less sleep disturbance because of blood draws as indicated by a significantly smaller change in per cent sleep time, and percentage of stage 1 sleep. These findings suggest that women without sleep complaints sleep objectively better across age than men and the sleep of young women is more resistant to external stressors. Also, gonadal hormones exert a beneficial effect on women's sleep. This gender dimorphism in sleep regulation may have been to protect women from the demands of infant and child care, and in part, might contribute to women's lower cardiovascular risks and greater longevity. PMID:19302341

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Decision Aid on Mammography Screening for Women Aged 75 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Beth Hamel, Mary; Davis, Roger B.; Griggs, Cecilia M.; Wee, Christina C.; Fagerlin, Angela; Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Guidelines recommend women ?75 years be informed of benefits and risks of mammography before being screened; however, few are adequately informed. Objective To develop and evaluate a mammography screening decision aid (DA) for women ?75 years. Design We designed the DA using international standards. From July 2010 to April 2012, participants completed a pretest survey and read the DA prior to an appointment with their primary care physician (PCP); they completed a posttest survey after their appointment. Medical records were reviewed for follow-up information. Setting Boston academic primary care practice. Participants Eligible women were 75–89 years, English-speaking, had not had a mammogram in 9 months but were screened within the past 3 years, and did not have a history of dementia or invasive or non-invasive breast cancer. Of 84 women approached, 27 declined to participate, 12 were unable to complete the study for logistical reasons, and 45 participated. Intervention The DA includes information on breast cancer risk, life expectancy, competing mortality risks, possible outcomes of screening, and a values clarification exercise. Outcomes Knowledge of benefits and risks of screening, decisional conflict, and screening intentions; documentation in medical record of discussion of risks and benefits of mammography with PCP within 6 months; and receipt of screening within 15 months. We used the signed rank test and McNemar’s test to compare pretest/posttest information. Results Participant median age was 79 years; 69% were Non-Hispanic white; and 60% had attended some college. Comparison of “posttest” to “pretest” results found: 1) knowledge improved, p<0.001; and 2) fewer participants intended to be screened (56% after compared with 82% before, p=0.03). Decision conflict declined but not significantly (p=0.10). In the following 6 months, 53% of participants had a PCP note documenting discussion of risks and benefits of screening compared with 11% in the previous 5 years, p<0.001. While 84% had been screened within 2 years of participating; 60% were screened within 15 months after participating (at least 2 years since their last mammogram, p=0.01). Overall, 93% found the DA helpful. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a decision aid may improve older women’s decision-making around mammography screening. PMID:24378846

  9. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Methods Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. Results In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09–1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Conclusion Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course. PMID:26062026

  10. Evaluating GWAS-Identified SNPs for Age at Natural Menopause among Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chong; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Lu, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Ying; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Long, Jirong

    2013-01-01

    Background Age at natural menopause (ANM) is a complex trait with high heritability and is associated with several major hormonal-related diseases. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS), conducted exclusively among women of European ancestry, have discovered dozens of genetic loci influencing ANM. No study has been conducted to evaluate whether these findings can be generalized to Chinese women. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the index single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 GWAS-identified genetic susceptibility loci for ANM among 3,533 Chinese women who had natural menopause. We also investigated 3 additional SNPs which were in LD with the index SNP in European-ancestry but not in Asian-ancestry populations. Two genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated to summarize SNPs across multiple loci one for all SNPs tested (GRSall), and one for SNPs which showed association in our study (GRSsel). All 22 SNPs showed the same association direction as previously reported. Eight SNPs were nominally statistically significant with P?0.05: rs4246511 (RHBDL2), rs12461110 (NLRP11), rs2307449 (POLG), rs12611091 (BRSK1), rs1172822 (BRSK1), rs365132 (UIMC1), rs2720044 (ASH2L), and rs7246479 (TMEM150B). Especially, SNPs rs4246511, rs365132, rs1172822, and rs7246479 remained significant even after Bonferroni correction. Significant associations were observed for GRS. Women in the highest quartile began menopause 0.7 years (P?=?3.24×10?9) and 0.9 years (P?=?4.61×10?11) later than those in the lowest quartile for GRSsel and GRSall, respectively. Conclusions Among the 22 investigated SNPs, eight showed associations with ANM (P<0.05) in our Chinese population. Results from this study extend some recent GWAS findings to the Asian-ancestry population and may guide future efforts to identify genetic determination of menopause. PMID:23536822

  11. Occupational Training for Mature Women: A Survey of the Enrollment of Women Over Age 35 in Proprietary Institutions in Cuyahoga County, Spring 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Janice B.

    The basic objective of the study was to investigate the participation of mature adult women, over age 35, in the proprietary business, trade, and technical schools in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Data were collected by telephone on the 29 registered resident-study schools of Cuyahoga County and two Cleveland-based home study schools pertaining to…

  12. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. Results: At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as ‘positive’ for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). Conclusion: These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further. PMID:22878591

  13. Macrophage subsets in the adipose tissue could be modified by sex and the reproductive age of women.

    PubMed

    Králová Lesná, Ivana; Poledne, Rudolf; Fronek, Jiri; Králová, Anna; Sekerková, Alena; Thieme, Filip; Pitha, Jan

    2015-07-01

    The presence of proinflammatory monocytes/macrophages (CD14+CD16+) has been documented in conditions of inflammation, such as atherosclerosis. We analysed the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes/macrophages in perirenal and perivascular fat in healthy living kidney donors with regard to sex and age reflecting reproductive status in women; therefore, women were further divided to younger and older group (younger and older than 51 years) reflecting potential age of menopause. Monocyte/macrophages were identified as CD14+ mononuclear cells and divided into subpopulations based on the co-expression of CD16. We found no differences in the monocyte/macrophage content between men (n = 15) and women (n = 28). Conversely, we observed a higher proportion of double positive CD14+CD16+ monocytes/macrophages in older women (n = 14) compared to younger women (n = 14). In addition, a strong correlation was found between the monocyte/macrophage content in fat and age only in older women. Therefore, proinflammatory monocytes/macrophages (CD14+CD16+) should be evaluated according to the sex and age. PMID:25795161

  14. Benefits of family planning: an assessment of women's knowledge in rural Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mutombo, Namuunda; Bakibinga, Pauline; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen an increase in literature reporting an increase in knowledge and use of contraceptives among individuals and couples in Kenya, as in the rest of Africa, but there is a dearth of information regarding knowledge about benefits of family planning (FP) in Kenya. Objectives To assess the factors associated with knowledge about the benefits of FP for women and children, among women in rural Western Kenya. Methods Data are drawn from the Packard Western Kenya Project Baseline Survey, which collected data from rural women (aged 15–49 years). Ordinal regression was used on 923 women to determine levels of knowledge and associated factors regarding benefits of FP. Results Women in rural Western Kenya have low levels of knowledge about benefits of FP and are more knowledgeable about benefits for the mother rather than for the child. Only age, spousal communication and type of contraceptive method used are significant. Conclusions Women's level of knowledge about benefits of FP is quite low and may be one of the reasons why fertility is still high in Western Kenya. Therefore, FP programmes need to focus on increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of FP in this region. PMID:24643170

  15. Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borna, Sedigheh; Shariat, Mamak; Fallahi, Mohaddese; Janani, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly. Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages. Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. We selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ?1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women. Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; and using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); and using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7). Conclusion: In Iran, screening of toxoplasma is not routinely performed yet, while the incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors. PMID:24639709

  16. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  17. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes. PMID:19875639

  18. The Association of Life Events to Gestational Age at Delivery Among Low-income, Urban, African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail A Barbosa

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of life events stress to gestational age at delivery for a cohort of low income, African-American women.STUDY DESIGN: Four hundred seventy-two African-American women from three public prenatal clinics were interviewed about life events, emotional support, and health habits. Pregnancy and birth data were collected from a clinical data base. The contribution of life events stress

  19. Association between leisure time physical activity and 10-year body mass change among working-aged men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Haapanen; S Miilunpalo; M Pasanen; P Oja; I Vuori

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether habitual leisure time physical activity and body mass change of working-aged men and women are associated. DESIGN: Prospective 10 y follow-up study. SUBJECTS: A regionally representative cohort of 19–63 y old men (n=2564) and women (n=2695) in three municipalities in Finland. MEASUREMENTS: The main outcome measures were average body mass change during the 10 y of

  20. Awareness and Intake of Folic Acid for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects Among Lebanese Women of Childbearing Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudine Nasr Hage; Maya Jalloul; Mohamad Sabbah; Salim M. Adib

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period\\u000a as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient.\\u000a To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18–45 years, a cross-sectional study\\u000a was conducted among 600 women selected from all

  1. Body mass index of married Bangladeshi women: trends and association with socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M G; Bharati, P; Aik, Saw; Lestrel, Pete E; Abeer, Almasri; Kamarul, T

    2012-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a good indicator of nutritional status in a population. In underdeveloped countries like Bangladesh, this indicator provides a method that can assist intervention to help eradicate many preventable diseases. This study aimed to report on changes in the BMI of married Bangladeshi women who were born in the past three decades and its association with socio-demographic factors. Data for 10,115 married and currently non-pregnant Bangladeshi women were extracted from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). The age range of the sample was 15-49 years. The mean BMI was 20.85 ± 3.66 kg/m(2), and a decreasing tendency in BMI was found among birth year cohorts from 1972 to 1992. It was found that the proportion of underweight females has been increasing in those born during the last 20 years of the study period (1972 to 1992). Body mass index increased with increasing age, education level of the woman and her husband, wealth index, age at first marriage and age at first delivery, and decreased with increasing number of ever-born children. Lower BMI was especially pronounced among women who were living in rural areas, non-Muslims, employed women, women not living with their husbands (separated) or those who had delivered at home or non-Caesarean delivery. PMID:22340969

  2. Observer age and the social transmission of attractiveness in humans: Younger women are more influenced by the choices of popular others than older women.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Caldwell, Christine A; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2014-10-15

    Being paired with an attractive partner increases perceptual judgements of attractiveness in humans. We tested experimentally for prestige bias, whereby individuals follow the choices of prestigious others. Women rated the attractiveness of photographs of target males which were paired with either popular or less popular model female partners. We found that pairing a photo of a man with a woman presented as his partner positively influenced the attractiveness of the man when the woman was presented as more popular (Experiment 1). Further, this effect was stronger in younger participants compared to older participants (Experiment 1). Reversing the target and model such that women were asked to rate women paired with popular and less popular men revealed no effect of model popularity and this effect was unrelated to participant age (Experiment 2). An additional experiment confirmed that participant age and not stimulus age primarily influenced the tendency to follow others' preferences in Experiment 1 (Experiment 3). We also confirmed that our manipulations of popularity lead to variation in rated prestige (Experiment 4). These results suggest a sophisticated model-based bias in social learning whereby individuals are most influenced by the choices of those who have high popularity/prestige. Furthermore, older individuals moderate their use of such social information and so this form of social learning appears strongest in younger women. PMID:25314951

  3. Older Homebound Women: Sharing the Risk with Age-Peers of Being Unable to Reach Help Quickly

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Eileen J.; Lasiter, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this facet of a longitudinal descriptive phenomenological study of the experience of reaching help quickly for older homebound women was to explore the personal-social context (life-world) of situations when age-peers had needed to reach help quickly (RHQ). Twenty-five women aged 85–95 (13 subscribers to a personal emergency response system and 12 non-subscribers) reported 80 peer situations. Life-world was characterized by sharing with peers the risk of being unable to RHQ. Knowledge of peer situations had varying degrees of influence on participants’ decisions to adopt and use RHQ devices. Findings support the need for healthcare professionals to explore the influences of age-peer RHQ situations upon adoption and use of devices to RHQ by older homebound women. PMID:23070958

  4. Self-silencing and age as risk factors for sexually acquired HIV in midlife and older women.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robin J; Thomlison, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study explores the contribution of psychosocial factors on sex behaviors of midlife and older women. Methods. A community-based sample of ethnically diverse women (N = 572) between the ages of 50 and 93 completed standardized measures of self-silencing, self-esteem, sensation seeking behavior, HIV-related stigma behavior, sexual assertiveness, and safer sex behaviors. Results. Results from the regression analysis indicated the model significantly predicted safer sex behaviors (p < .001), with self silencing(â = -.115, p < .05) and age (â = .173, p < .001) as significant predictors.Bivariate correlation analysis indicated an inverse correlation between HIV stigma (p < .05) and safer sex behaviors. Discussion. Implications for further study and practice are discussed to include considerations for development of age- and gender-appropriate prevention interventions assisting women with interpersonal processes combined with skills for active involvement in addressing high-risk sex behaviors. PMID:19144971

  5. Alterations in gait speed and age do not fully explain the changes in gait mechanics associated with healthy older women.

    PubMed

    Alcock, L; Vanicek, N; O'Brien, T D

    2013-04-01

    Older adults exhibit modified gait patterns compared to the young, adopting movement strategies in response to changes in musculoskeletal function. Investigating the functional mobility of older women is particularly important because of their increased life expectancy and greater falls risk compared to men. We explored the relationships between gait parameters and age in healthy older women whilst accounting for declining gait speeds. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-nine women (60-83 years) whilst walking at a comfortable cadence. Regression analysis assessed the capacity of gait speed and age to explain the variance in gait associated with older age. Speed explained the majority of variance in many gait parameters. By including age in the regression, the total explained variance (R2) for foot clearance (70%), ankle plantarflexion angle (30%), peak ankle plantarflexor moment (58%), and hip power generation (56%) were significantly (p<0.05) greater than for speed alone. Nonetheless, changes in speed and age did not fully explain the variance in gait mechanics associated with older age and other contributing factors must exist. Losses of 1.2%/year in gait speed were predicted by age, exceeding previous predictions of -0.7%/year. Furthermore, the accumulation of apparently small decreases of 0.2 cm/year in peak foot-to-ground clearance has clinical implications and offers insight into the mechanisms by which gait becomes hazardous in older age. PMID:23122897

  6. Factors associated with the age of the onset of diabetes in women aged 50?years or more: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Machado, Vanessa S S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia S; de Sousa, Maria H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors associated with the onset of diabetes in women aged more than 49?years. Design and methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using self-reports with 622 women. The dependent variable was the age of occurrence of diabetes using the life table method. Cox multiple regression models were adjusted to analyse the onset of diabetes according to predictor variables. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors were evaluated. Results Of the 622 women interviewed, 22.7% had diabetes. The mean age at onset was 56?years. The factors associated with the age of occurrence of diabetes were self-rated health (very good, good) (coefficient=?0.792; SE of the coefficient=0.215; p=0.0001), more than two individuals living in the household (coefficient=0.656, SE of the coefficient=0.223; p=0.003), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at 20–30?years of age (coefficient= 0.056, SE of the coefficient=0.023; p=0.014). Conclusions Self-rated health considered good or very good was associated with a higher rate of survival without diabetes. Sharing a home with two or more other people and a weight increase at 20–30?years of age was associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25428628

  7. Age of Partner at First Adolescent Intercourse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age?=?26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817

  8. Validation of the Diagnostic Score for Acute Lower Abdominal Pain in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Jearwattanakanok, Kijja; Yamada, Sirikan; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin; Smuthtai, Waratsuda; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2014-01-01

    Background. The differential diagnoses of acute appendicitis obstetrics, and gynecological conditions (OB-GYNc) or nonspecific abdominal pain in young adult females with lower abdominal pain are clinically challenging. The present study aimed to validate the recently developed clinical score for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominal pain in female of reproductive age. Method. Medical records of reproductive age women (15–50 years) who were admitted for acute lower abdominal pain were collected. Validation data were obtained from patients admitted during a different period from the development data. Result. There were 302 patients in the validation cohort. For appendicitis, the score had a sensitivity of 91.9%, a specificity of 79.0%, and a positive likelihood ratio of 4.39. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio in diagnosis of OB-GYNc were 73.0%, 91.6%, and 8.73, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating curves (ROC), the positive likelihood ratios, for appendicitis and OB-GYNc in the validation data were not significantly different from the development data, implying similar performances. Conclusion. The clinical score developed for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominal pain in female of reproductive age may be applied to guide differential diagnoses in these patients. PMID:24971177

  9. Association between Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal bacterial community composition among reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bradford, L. Latey; Conrad, Melissa; Gajer, Pawel; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.; Carlton, Jane M.; Abdo, Zaid; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Some vaginal bacterial communities are thought to prevent infection by sexually transmitted organisms. Prior work demonstrated that the vaginal microbiota of reproductive-age women cluster into five types of bacterial communities; 4 dominated by Lactobacillus species (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii), and one (termed community state type (CST) IV) lacking significant numbers of lactobacilli and characterized by higher proportions of Atopobium, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Mobiluncus, and other taxa. We sought to evaluate the relationship between vaginal bacterial composition and Trichomonas vaginalis. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained cross-sectionally from 394 women equally representing four ethnic/racial groups. T. vaginalis screening was performed using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA and ?-tubulin genes. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. A panel of eleven microsatellite markers was used to genotype T. vaginalis. The association between vaginal microbiota and T. vaginalis was evaluated by exact logistic regression. Results T. vaginalis was detected in 2.8% of participants (11/394). Of the eleven T. vaginalis-positive cases, eight (72%) were categorized as CST-IV, two (18%) as communities dominated by L. iners and one (9%) as L. crispatus-dominated (p-value:0.05). CST-IV microbiota were associated with an 8-fold increased odds of detecting T. vaginalis compared to women in the L. crispatus-dominated state (OR:8.26, 95% CI:1.07–372.65). Seven of the 11 T. vaginalis isolates were assigned to two genotypes. Conclusion T. vaginalis was associated with vaginal microbiota consisting of low proportions of lactobacilli and high proportions of Mycoplasma, Parvimonas, Sneathia, and other anaerobes. PMID:23007708

  10. Reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kubota; K. Maruyama; S. Sato; Y. Ishikawa; T. Shimamoto; M. Inagawa; M. Ohshima; S. Murai; Hiroyasu Iso

    Objective  To examine the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for estimating dietary vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men\\u000a and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  The subjects were 132 men and 130 women aged 40–69 years, selected from participants in cardiovascular risk surveys conducted\\u000a in 4 communities. The reproducibility of the 24-hour dietary recall was tested by comparing nutrient and food intake for two

  11. Reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kubota; K. Maruyama; S. Sato; Y. Ishikawa; T. Shimamoto; M. Inagawa; M. Ohshima; S. Murai; Hiroyasu Iso

    2010-01-01

    Objective  To examine the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for estimating dietary vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men\\u000a and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  The subjects were 132 men and 130 women aged 40–69 years, selected from participants in cardiovascular risk surveys conducted\\u000a in 4 communities. The reproducibility of the 24-hour dietary recall was tested by comparing nutrient and food intake for two

  12. Serologic Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian Women of Child Bearing Age and Effects of Social and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarman; Munawwar, Arshi; Rao, Sugandhi; Mehta, Sanjay; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare. Aim To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted. Results Most women were in the 18–25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26–30 years (28.2%) and 31–35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18–25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers. Conclusions This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737–176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24675656

  13. Age-related bone turnover markers and osteoporotic risk in native Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rate of bone turnover is closely related to osteoporosis risk. We investigated the correlation between bone turnover markers and BMD at various skeletal sites in healthy native Chinese women, and to study the effect of changes in the levels of bone turnover markers on the risk of osteoporosis. Methods A cross-section study of 891 healthy Chinese women aged 20–80 years was conducted. The levels of serum osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), serum cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (sNTX), cross-linked C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (sCTX), urinary NTX (uNTX), urinary CTX (uCTX) and total urinary deoxypyridinoline (uDPD) were determined. BMD at the posteroanterior spine and the hip was measured using DXA. Results Pearson’s correlation coefficient found significant negative correlation between bone turnover marker and BMD T-score at different skeletal sites (r?=??0.08 to ?0.52, all P?=?0.038–0.000). After adjustments for age and body mass index, the partial correlation coefficients between the OC, BAP, sNTX, sCTX and uCTX, and the T-scores at various skeletal sites were still significant. After adjustment of height and weight, the correlation coefficients between most BTMs and PA lumbar spine BMD were also significant. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that bone turnover markers were negative determinants of T-scores. BAP and OC accounted for 33.1% and 7.8% of the variations in the T-scores of the PA spine, respectively. Serum OC, BAP, uDPD, and sNTX accounted for 0.4–21.9% of the variations in the femoral neck and total hip T-scores. The bone turnover marker levels were grouped as per quartile intervals, and the T-scores, osteoporosis prevalence and risk were found to markedly and increase with increase in bone turnover marker levels. Conclusions This study clarified the relationship between bone turnover markers and osteoporosis risk in native Chinese women. Bone turnover marker levels were found to be important determinants of BMD T-scores. Furthermore, osteoporotic risk significantly increased with increase in the levels of bone turnover markers. PMID:24447701

  14. Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy.

    PubMed

    Manly, Jennifer J; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M; Young, Mary

    2011-10-01

    Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n?=?1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed. PMID:21950512

  15. The effect of joint contraceptive decisions on the use of Injectables, Long-Acting and Permanent Methods (ILAPMs) among married female (15–49) contraceptive users in Zambia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zambia’s fertility rate and unmet need for family planning are still high. This is in spite of the progress reported from 1992 to 2007 of the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate from 15% to 41% and use of modern methods of family planning from 9% to 33%. However, partner disapproval of family planning has been cited by many women in many countries including Zambia. Given the effectiveness of long-acting and permanent methods of family planning (ILAPMs) in fertility regulation, this paper sought to examine the relationship between contraceptive decision-making and use of ILAPMs among married women in Zambia. Methods This paper uses data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. The analysis is based on married women (15–49) who reported using a method of family planning at the time of the survey. Out of the 7,146 women interviewed, only 1,630 women were valid for this analysis. Cross-tabulations and binary logistic regressions with Chi-square were used to analyse associations and the predictors of use of ILAPMs of contraception, respectively. A confidence interval of .95 was used in determining relationships between independent and dependent variables. Results Two thirds of women made joint decisions regarding contraception and 29% of the women were using ILAPMs. Women who made joint contraceptive decisions are significantly more likely to use ILAPMs than women who did not involve their husband in contraceptive decisions. However, the most significant predictor is the wealth index. Women from rich households are more likely to use ILAPMs than women from medium rich and poor households. Results also show that women of North Western ethnicities and those from Region 3 had higher odds of using ILAPMs than Tonga women and women from Region 2, respectively. Conclusion Joint contraceptive decision-making between spouses is key to use of ILAPMs in Zambia. Our findings have also shown that the wealth index is actually the strongest factor determining use of these methods. As such, family planning programmes directed at increasing use of LAPMs ought to not only encourage spousal communication but should also consider rolling out interventions that incorporate economic empowerment. PMID:24993034

  16. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits. PMID:21210201

  17. Amniotic fluid interleukin-6: Correlation with upper genital tract microbial colonization and gestational age in women delivered after spontaneous labor versus indicated delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. Andrews; John C. Hauth; Robert L. Goldenberg; Ricardo Gomez; Roberto Romero; Gail H. Cassell

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether amniotic fluid interleukin-6 is increased and inversely proportional to gestational age in women with chorioamnion colonization and spontaneous labor versus women delivered for medical or obstetric indications.STUDY DESIGN: The chorioamnion and amniotic fluid were cultured at cesarean delivery for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fungi, mycoplasmas, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis in 269 women

  18. Ageing influence in the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with physical disabilities in daily activities. Moreover, patients with fibromyalgia present similar levels of functional capacity and physical condition than elderly people. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia along ageing. A total sample of 492 fibromyalgia patients and 279 healthy control women were included in the study. Participants in each group were further divided into four age subgroups: subgroup 1: 30-39 years old, subgroup 2: 40-49 years old, subgroup 3: 50-59 years old and subgroup 4: 60-69 years old. Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand, handgrip strength and arm curl tests). Fibromyalgia patients did not show impairment on muscle mass along ageing, without values of skeletal muscle mass index below 6.76 kg/m(2) in any group. However, in all variables of muscle strength, the fibromyalgia group showed less strength than the healthy group (p < 0.05) for all age groups. As expected, handgrip strength test showed differences along ageing only in the fibromyalgia group (p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = -0.155, p < 0.01) and handgrip strength (r = -0.230, p < 0.001) in the FM group. Women with fibromyalgia showed a reduction in muscle strength along ageing process, with significantly lower scores than healthy women for each age group, representing a risk of dynapenia. PMID:25617055

  19. Trends in age at first hospital admission in relation to trends in life expectancy in Swedish men and women above the age of 60

    PubMed Central

    Karampampa, Korinna; Drefahl, Sven; Andersson, Tomas; Ahlbom, Anders; Modig, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the first admission to hospital after the age of 60 has been postponed to higher ages for men and women in Sweden, in line with the shift in mortality. Design This nationwide observational study was based on data obtained from national registries in Sweden. The study cohort was created by linking the Register of the Total Population in Sweden with the National Patient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Setting The entire Swedish population born between 1895 and 1950 was followed up between 1987 and 2010 with respect to hospital admissions and deaths using the national registry data. Primary outcome measures The time from age 60 until the first admission to the hospital, regardless of the diagnosis, and the time from age 60 until death (remaining life expectancy, LE) were estimated for the years 1995–2010. The difference between these two measures was also estimated for the same period. Results Between 1995 and 2010 mortality as well as first hospital admission shifted to higher ages. The average time from age 60, 70, 80 and 90 until the first hospital admission increased at all ages. The remaining LE at age 60, 70 and 80 increased for men and women. For the 90-year-olds it was stable. Conclusions In Sweden, the first hospital admission after the age of 60 has been pushed to higher ages in line with mortality for the ages 60 and above. First admission to the hospital could indicate the onset of first severe morbidity; however, the reorganisation of healthcare may also have influenced the observed trends. PMID:24065698

  20. Marital Happiness and Sleep Disturbances in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N=2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single-item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4-items from the Women’s Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797

  1. The optimal scaling combination of age and body mass index as an index of metabolic syndrome for postmenopausal Taiwanese women.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheng; Chang, Chia-Hao; Yen, Ching-Ho

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to combine as a new index age with an anthropometric indicator of obesity that is more closely associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) risk than other anthropometric indicators for postmenopausal Taiwanese women. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 1128 postmenopausal women volunteers during the period from September 2008 to December 2009. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for assessing the risk of MS for postmenopausal Taiwanese women were computed for the optimal scaling combination (OSC) and anthropometric indicator of obesity. The area under the ROC curves of the OSC was significantly larger than those of the anthropometric indicator. OSC ? 4.98 was found to be the most prevalent cutoff point. The present investigation suggests that the OSC could be used in clinical practice as a simple parameter for the identification of postmenopausal Taiwanese women at risk of MS. PMID:22500040

  2. Fertility Desires and Intentions of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R.; Hart, Trevor A.; Mohammed, Saira S.; Su, DeSheng; Ralph, Edward D.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Soje, Lena C.; Muchenje, Marvelous; Rachlis, Anita R.; Smaill, Fiona M.; Angel, Jonathan B.; Raboud, Janet M.; Silverman, Michael S.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Gough, Kevin; Yudin, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Improvements in life expectancy and quality of life for HIV-positive women coupled with reduced vertical transmission will likely lead numerous HIV-positive women to consider becoming pregnant. In order to clarify the demand, and aid with appropriate health services planning for this population, our study aims to assess the fertility desires and intentions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario, Canada. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study with recruitment stratified to match the geographic distribution of HIV-positive women of reproductive age (18–52) living in Ontario was carried out. Women were recruited from 38 sites between October 2007 and April 2009 and invited to complete a 189-item self-administered survey entitled “The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire” designed to assess fertility desires, intentions and actions. Logistic regression models were fit to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of significant predictors of fertility intentions. The median age of the 490 participating HIV-positive women was 38 (IQR, 32–43) and 61%, 52%, 47% and 74% were born outside of Canada, living in Toronto, of African ethnicity and currently on antiretroviral therapy, respectively. Of total respondents, 69% (95% CI, 64%–73%) desired to give birth and 57% (95% CI, 53%–62%) intended to give birth in the future. In the multivariable model, the significant predictors of fertility intentions were: younger age (age<40) (p<0.0001), African ethnicity (p<0.0001), living in Toronto (p?=?0.002), and a lower number of lifetime births (p?=?0.02). Conclusions/Significance The proportions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in Ontario desiring and intending pregnancy were higher than reported in earlier North American studies. Proportions were more similar to those reported from African populations. Healthcare providers and policy makers need to consider increasing services and support for pregnancy planning for HIV-positive women. This may be particularly significant in jurisdictions with high levels of African immigration. PMID:19997556

  3. Marital Status and Quality in Middle-Aged Women: Associations With Levels and Trajectories of Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    of reasons. First, as a primary source of social support, marriage may protect against the wellMarital Status and Quality in Middle-Aged Women: Associations With Levels and Trajectories the menopausal transition. Risk factors were measured across more than 5 occasions and 13 years, on average. Data

  4. Influences of player nationality, playing position, and height on relative age effects at women's under-17 FIFA World Cup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Romann; Jörg Fuchslocher

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young male soccer players who are born early in a cohort are overrepresented on elite soccer teams. Selection advantages such as this have been termed ‘relative age effects’ (RAEs). Few studies have examined RAEs in elite women's youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of RAEs in the Fédération

  5. Contraception and sexuality in an area-specific group of Swedish women 15-34 years of age.

    PubMed

    Brännström, M; Josefsson, G B; Liljestrand, J

    1991-10-01

    In a community-based study in a Swedish suburban/rural area, all women aged 15-34 years (n = 671) were invited to the local health centre to be examined for chlamydia infection and for an interview. The attenders were asked about contraceptive history, age at first intercourse, number of life-time sexual partners and socioeconomic background. The net attendance was 69%, and contraceptive information on an additional 20% could be gathered through medical records. The average age at first intercourse was around 16 years, and the average number of sexual partners in the age-groups 20-24, 25-30 and 31-34 years was 4.0, 5.6 and 6.1, respectively. Of all women, around 75% had used contraception at first intercourse, and there was no tendency to a changing pattern during the past 20 years studies through the interviews. Combined estrogen-progestagen pills were by far the most used contraceptive method, presently being used by 42% of the contracepting women, followed by condom (23%), IUD (19%) and other hormonal methods (10%). It is concluded that sexual life in Sweden starts earlier than it did 30 years ago, that the number of sexual partners is higher, that most women in the studied group were efficient contraceptors, and that hormonal contraception was by far the most common method. PMID:1756629

  6. USE OF COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY FOR OBTAINING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Commercial Telephone Directories to Obtain a Population-Based Sample for Mail Survey of Women of Reproductive Age Danelle T. Lobdella, Germaine M. Buckb, John M. Weinerc, Pauline Mendolaa aUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and ...

  7. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  8. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  9. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the distribution of key vulnerable groups, and that doing so has substantial impacts on derived metrics through accounting for spatial demographic heterogeneities that exist within nations across Africa. PMID:23875684

  10. Reliability of reported breastfeeding duration among reproductive-aged women from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    Breastfed children have lower risk of infectious diseases, post-neonatal mortality and chronic diseases later in life. Because epidemiologic studies usually rely on reported history of previous breastfeeding, data on the accuracy and precision of recalled histories allow improved interpretation of the epidemiologic findings. We evaluated the reliability of two reported breastfeeding durations in 567 reproductive-aged women from Mexico using information obtained from nearly identical sets of questions applied at different times after weaning. We compared differences between reports, and examined the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for any and for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the determinants of poor recall (difference between reports of >20%). The reliability of duration of any breastfeeding was high (ICC 0.94). Overall, differences between reports of duration were usually <1 month, and for 385/567, the difference was ?0.5 months. Predictors of poorer recall were having ?4 children, and time between reports of >2 months. The only predictor of better recall was greater age of the baby at weaning. The reliability of EBF duration was lower (ICC 0.49). In this population with a relatively long duration of breastfeeding, reliability of any breast-feeding duration was high. Age, education and previous breastfeeding were not important predictors of recall, in contrast to findings in earlier studies. Consistent with previous reports, however, parity and length of recall were associated with poorer recall of duration of any breastfeeding. Future studies that use reported breastfeeding duration may want to consider the effect of these variables on recall. PMID:19292747

  11. Sexual Dimorphism of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B Immunoreactive Neurons in the Infundibular Nucleus of Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hrabovszky, Erik; Molnár, Csilla S.; Sipos, Máté T.; Vida, Barbara; Ciofi, Philippe; Borsay, Beáta A.; Sarkadi, László; Herczeg, László; Bloom, Stephen R.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Dhillo, Waljit S.; Kalló, Imre; Liposits, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The secretory output of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons is critically influenced by peptidergic neurons synthesizing kisspeptins (KP) and neurokinin B (NKB) in the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus (Inf). These cells mediate negative feedback effects of sex steroids on the reproductive axis. While negative feedback is lost in postmenopausal women, it is partly preserved by the sustained testosterone secretion in aged men. We hypothesized that the different reproductive physiology of aged men and women is reflected in morphological differences of KP and NKB neurons. This sexual dimorphism was studied with immunohistochemistry in hypothalamic sections of aged human male (?50?years) and female (>55?years) subjects. KP and NKB cell bodies of the Inf were larger in females. The number of KP cell bodies, the density of KP fibers, and the incidence of their contacts on GnRH neurons were much higher in aged women compared with men. The number of NKB cell bodies was only slightly higher in women and there was no sexual dimorphism in the regional density of NKB fibers and the incidence of their appositions onto GnRH cells. The incidences of NKB cell bodies, fibers, and appositions onto GnRH neurons exceeded several-fold those of KP-IR elements in men. More NKB than KP inputs to GnRH cells were also present in women. Immunofluorescent studies identified only partial overlap between KP and NKB axons. KP and NKB were colocalized in higher percentages of afferents to GnRH neurons in women compared with men. Most of these sex differences might be explained with the lack of estrogen negative feedback in aged women, whereas testosterone can continue to suppress KP, and to a lesser extent, NKB synthesis in men. Overall, sex differences in reproductive physiology of aged humans were reflected in the dramatic sexual dimorphism of the KP system, with significantly higher incidences of KP-IR neurons, fibers and inputs to GnRH neurons in aged females vs. males. PMID:22654828

  12. Use of emergency department services by women victims of violence in Lazio region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is a significant health problem and a hidden phenomenon, in Italy that about 31% of the women have been victims of violence once in life. Aims of this study are to describe characteristics of women victims of violence (VV) attending the EDs in the Lazio region in 2008 and to illustrate the frequency and characteristics of previous ED visits. Methods Using the Emergency Information System, visits of women, (15–49 years), in the 60 EDs, for a violent trauma have been analysed. For each VV identified, we considered the last episode and searched for ED attendances in a six year period (2003–08) in order to identify other visits. We performed descriptive analyses of socio-demographic and clinical factors of VV and we analyzed the impact previous ED visits. We compared ED utilization of women VV with a random sample of women with the same age distribution who gave birth in 2008. Results In 2008, 7,725 ED attendances of women VV were found (1.1% of the ED visits) corresponding to 6,936 women (prevalence?=?52.0x10,000). The mean number of ED visits for each woman in five years was 5.0 (1–190). Prevalent diagnoses were contusions (45.8%), neurotic disorders (5.4%) complications of medical care (6.3%). The women were young, approximately 70% were residents in Rome or the surrounding areas. Foreign women were three times more likely to visit the ED for intentional injuries than were Italian women (114.1 vs 44.4 per 10.000). Conclusions This study shows high prevalence of violence against women in Lazio region, Italy. Most of the women have been visited by the ED several times before the violent episode, often with traumas. ED medical and nursing staff should be prepared and trained to successfully manage victims of violence. PMID:23870135

  13. Sexual function in a community sample of middle-aged women with partners: effects of age, marital, socioeconomic, psychiatric, gynecological, and menopausal factors.

    PubMed

    Hawton, K; Gath, D; Day, A

    1994-08-01

    A randomly selected community sample of 436 women with partners was studied with regard to frequency of sexual intercourse and orgasm with their partners and to attitudes to their sexual relationships. Associations were examined between these factors and demographic, psychiatric, marital, gynecological, and menopausal status. Frequency of sexual intercourse, orgasm, and enjoyment of sexual activity with the partner were most closely associated with younger age and better general marital adjustment, with the partners' ages also appearing to influence frequency of sexual intercourse and the duration of the relationships to affect enjoyment of sexual activity. Women's satisfaction with their sexual relationships was most closely associated with marital adjustment and bore no relation to age. Weak positive associations were found between higher socioeconomic status and frequency of orgasm and enjoyment of sexual activity. Psychiatric factors (psychiatric disorder and neuroticism) made little contribution to differences in frequency of sexual activity although they were associated with attitudes towards it. Sexual behavior was largely unrelated to gynecological symptoms. Little difference was found between age-matched subgroups of pre- and postmenopausal women in frequency of sexual behavior and attitudes towards their sexual relationships. PMID:7993180

  14. Food consumption patterns and associated factors among Vietnamese women of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Adequate nutrient intakes among women of reproductive age (WRA) are important determinants of maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. However, data on dietary intake for WRA in Vietnam are lacking. This paper aimed to examine the adequacy and determinants of energy and macronutrient intakes among WRA enrolled in a study of preconceptual micronutrient supplementation (PRECONCEPT) being conducted in 20 rural communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. Methods Dietary intakes were determined for 4983 WRA who participated in the baseline survey using a previously validated 107-item (semi-quantitative) food-frequency questionnaire that was administered by trained field workers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with energy and macronutrient intakes. Results A disproportionate number of energy came from starches, primarily rice. Carbohydrate, fat and protein constituted 65.6%, 19.5% and 14.8% of total energy, respectively. Fat intake was below recommended levels in 56.5% of respondents, but carbohydrate intakes were above recommended level in 54.6%. Only 0.1% and 5.2% of WRA achieved adequate intake of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Multivariate linear regression revealed that low education, low socioeconomic status, and food insecurity were significant predictors of reduced total energy intake, reduced energy from protein and fat, and greater energy from carbohydrates. Logistic regression confirmed that inadequate macronutrient intake was more common among the poor, food insecure, and less educated. Conclusions Imbalanced dietary intakes among underprivileged women reflect lack of dietary diversity. Nutrition programs should be linked with social development, poverty reduction, education programs and behavior change counseling in order to improve the nutritional status of WRA in Vietnam. PMID:24028650

  15. Taking It One Day at a Time: African American Women Aging with HIV and Co-Morbidities

    PubMed Central

    Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies. PMID:24933093

  16. Vertebral Size, Bone Density, and Strength in Men and Women Matched for Age and Areal Spine BMD

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Alexander G; Broe, Kerry E; Zhang, Xiaochun; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Meng, Ching-An; Manoharan, Rajaram; D’Agostino, John; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    To explore the possible mechanisms underlying sex-specific differences in skeletal fragility that may be obscured by two-dimensional areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measures, we compared quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based vertebral bone measures among pairs of men and women from the Framingham Heart Study Multidetector Computed Tomography Study who were matched for age and spine aBMD. Measurements included vertebral body cross-sectional area (CSA, cm2), trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD, g/cm3), integral volumetric BMD (Int.vBMD, g/cm3), estimated vertebral compressive loading and strength (Newtons) at L3, the factor-of-risk (load-to-strength ratio), and vertebral fracture prevalence. We identified 981 male-female pairs (1:1 matching) matched on age (± 1 year) and QCT-derived aBMD of L3 (± 1%), with an average age of 51 years (range 34 to 81 years). Matched for aBMD and age, men had 20% larger vertebral CSA, lower Int.vBMD (?8%) and Tb.vBMD (?9%), 10% greater vertebral compressive strength, 24% greater vertebral compressive loading, and 12% greater factor-of-risk than women (p < 0.0001 for all), as well as higher prevalence of vertebral fracture. After adjusting for height and weight, the differences in CSA and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) between men and women were attenuated but remained significant, whereas compressive strength was no longer different. In conclusion, vertebral size, morphology, and density differ significantly between men and women matched for age and spine aBMD, suggesting that men and women attain the same aBMD by different mechanisms. These results provide novel information regarding sex-specific differences in mechanisms that underlie vertebral fragility. PMID:23955966

  17. The assessment of combined first trimester screening in women of advanced maternal age in an Asian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sarah Weiling; Barrett, Angela Natalie; Gole, Leena; Tan, Wei Ching; Biswas, Arijit; Tan, Hak Koon; Choolani, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION First trimester screening (FTS) is a validated screening tool that has been shown to achieve detection rates of 84%–90% for trisomies 21, 18 and 13. However, its effectiveness for different maternal ages has not been assessed. The present study aimed to assess the performance of FTS in an Asian population, and to compare its effectiveness in older (? 35 years) and younger (< 35 years) women. The potential use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) as a contingent screening test is also examined. METHODS Data on cases of FTS performed on singleton pregnancies over a six-year period was collated from two Singapore maternal centres, National University Hospital and Singapore General Hospital. Cases that had a 1:250 risk of trisomy were considered to be screen-positive. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from birth records or karyotype test results. RESULTS From 10,289 FTS cases, we obtained a sensitivity of 87.8%, a specificity of 97.6%, a false positive rate of 2.4% and a false negative rate of 0.06% for the detection of aneuploidy. The overall detection rate for trisomy 21 was 86.5%–85.7% for older women and 87.5% for younger women. The mean number of invasive tests required per case of trisomy 21 was 9.3 in younger women, 8.6 in older women and 13.5 in women with intermediate risk (1:250–1,000). CONCLUSION While the performance of FTS was similar in younger and older women, more invasive procedures were required to diagnose trisomy 21 in women with intermediate risk. It may be advantageous to offer contingent NIPT to this group of women to reduce the risk of iatrogenic fetal loss. PMID:25640099

  18. Why do some women know more? An exploration of the association of community socioeconomic characteristics, social capital, and HIV/AIDS knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of community-level socio-economic status (SES) characteristics and social capital with women's knowledge of HIV/AIDS. We used a representative national sample of 6,771 women ages 15-49 years from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey of 2007. We extended the findings of prior studies by providing new evidence that both community and social capital were related to having knowledge of AIDS. The significant community characteristics associated with women's greater knowledge of AIDS were: women's higher mean age at first marriage, higher mean years of education, the higher percentage of women in the community who work, and higher mean household living standard in the community. Regardless of individual-level SES, living in a community with higher community-level SES and having greater social capital were associated with having a greater likelihood of hearing about AIDS. However, we found that once women knew about AIDS, not all of the community-SES and social capital indicators explained their advanced knowledge of AIDS prevention and transmission. Our findings underscore the importance of HIV/AIDS education campaigns in the disadvantaged communities, specifically targeting women who are not members in any non-governmental organizations, as well as greater use of media in educating women about AIDS. PMID:24093449

  19. Secular Trends in Menarcheal Age in India-Evidence from the Indian Human Development Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Tripathi, Niharika; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified. Methods We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15–49 years) in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey. Results The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77) in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85) among women born prior to 1955–1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67) among women born during late 1985–1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955–1964 (95% CI: 14.89–15.11) to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63–12.56) during 1985–1989. Conclusion The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women. PMID:25369507

  20. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. Methods: A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ?25 and ?30), waist circumference (WC; ?80 cm and ?88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ?35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. Results: The sensitivity of WC ?80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ?80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ?80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ?88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Conclusions: Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ?80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ?88 cm showed better validity than WC ?80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. PMID:25294689

  1. Exercise: An Active Route to Healthy Aging Physical Activity Participation by Presence and Type of Functional Deficits in Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald J. Jerome; Thomas A. Glass; Michelle Mielke; Qian-Li Xue; Ross E. Andersen; Linda P. Fried

    Background. Physical activity is important for maintaining functional independence of older persons, especially for those with existing functional deficits. Since such deficits may pose barriers to activity, it would be instructive to examine activity patterns in relation to specific types of deficits to determine the amount and type of physical activity older women pursue. This study sought to identify categories

  2. Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources. PMID:21070641

  3. Improvement of the Vietnamese Diet for Women of Reproductive Age by Micronutrient Fortification of Staples Foods and Condiments

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Berger, Jacques; Le, Bach Mai; Pham, Van Thuy; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Cong Khan; Panagides, Dora; Rohner, Fabian; Wieringa, Frank; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Background A micronutrient survey carried out in 2010 among randomly selected Vietnamese women in reproductive age indicated that anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are still prevalent. The objective of this study was thus to analyze the dietary micronutrient intakes of these women, to select the food vehicles to be fortified and to calculate their contributions to meet the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for iron, zinc, vitamin A and folic acid. Main Findings Consumption data showed that the median intake was 38.4% of the RNI for iron, 61.1% for vitamin A and 91.8% for zinc. However, more than 50% of the women had daily zinc consumption below the RNI. Rice and vegetable oil were consumed daily in significant amounts (median: 320.4 g/capita/day and 8.6 g/capita/day respectively) by over 90% of the women, making them suitable vehicles for fortification. Based on consumption data, fortified vegetable oil could contribute to an additional vitamin A intake of 27.1% of the RNI and fortified rice could increase the intake of iron by 41.4% of the RNI, zinc by 15.5% and folate by 34.1%. Other food vehicles, such as fish and soy sauces and flavoring powders, consumed respectively by 63% and 90% of the population could contribute to increase micronutrient intakes if they are properly fortified and promoted. Wheat flower was consumed by 39% of the women and by less than 20% women from the lowest socioeconomic strata. Conclusion The fortification of edible vegetable oils with vitamin A and of rice with iron, zinc and folic acid are the most promising fortification strategies to increase micronutrient intakes of women in reproductive age in Vietnam. While rice fortification will be implemented, fortification of fish and soy sauces with iron, that has been proven to be effective, has to be supported and fortification of flavouring powders with micronutrients investigated. PMID:23226308

  4. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  5. Effect of finite element model loading condition on fracture risk assessment in men and women: The AGES-Reykjavik study

    PubMed Central

    Keyak, J.H.; Sigurdsson, S.; Karlsdottir, G. S.; Oskarsdottir, D.; Sigmarsdottir, A.; Kornak, J.; Harris, T. B.; Sigurdsson, G.; Jonsson, B. Y.; Siggeirsdottir, K.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Gudnason, V.; Lang, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    Proximal femoral (hip) strength computed by subject-specific CT scan-based finite element (FE) models has been explored as an improved measure for identifying subjects at risk of hip fracture. However, to our knowledge, no published study has reported the effect of loading condition on the association between incident hip fracture and hip strength. In the present study, we performed a nested age- and sex-matched case-control study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) Reykjavik cohort. Baseline (pre-fracture) quantitative CT (QCT) scans of 5500 older male and female subjects were obtained. During 4-7 years follow-up, 51 men and 77 women sustained hip fractures. Ninety-seven men and 152 women were randomly selected as controls from a pool of age- and sex-matched subjects. From the QCT data, FE models employing nonlinear material properties computed FE-strength of the left hip of each subject in loading from a fall onto the posterolateral (FPL), posterior (FP) and lateral (FL) aspects of the greater trochanter. For comparison, FE strength in stance loading (FStance) and total femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were also computed. For all loading conditions, the reductions in strength associated with fracture in men were more than twice those in women (p?0.01). For fall loading specifically, posterolateral loading in men and posterior loading in women were most strongly associated with incident hip fracture. After adjusting for aBMD, the association between FP and fracture in women fell short of statistical significance (p=0.08), indicating that FE strength provides little advantage over aBMD for identifying female hip fracture subjects. However, in men, after controlling for aBMD, FPL was 424 N (11%) less in subjects with fractures than in controls (p=0.003). Thus, in men, FE models of posterolateral loading include information about incident hip fracture beyond that in aBMD. PMID:23907032

  6. Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among women seeking induced abortion in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261

  7. Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22366948

  8. Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi-Young; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hojun

    2014-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota is regarded as one of the major factors involved in the control of body weight. The antiobesity effects of ginseng and its main constituents have been demonstrated, but the effects on gut microbiota are still unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of ginseng on gut microbiota, 10 obese middle-aged Korean women took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk and assessment of body composition parameters, metabolic biomarkers, and gut microbiota composition was performed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing at baseline and at 8 wk. Significant changes were observed in body weight and body mass index; however, slight changes were observed in gut microbiota. We divided the participants into two groups, the effective and the ineffective weight loss groups, depending on weight loss effect, in order to determine whether the antiobesity effect was influenced by the composition of gut microbiota, and the composition of gut microbiota was compared between the two groups. Results Prior to ginseng intake, significant differences of gut microbiota were observed between both at phyla and genera and the gut microbiota of the effective and ineffective weight loss groups was segregated on a principal coordinate analysis plot. Conclusion Results of this study indicate that ginseng exerted a weight loss effect and slight effects on gut microbiota in all participants. In addition, its antiobesity effects differed depending on the composition of gut microbiota prior to ginseng intake. PMID:24748834

  9. Utilization of Modern Contraceptives among HIV Positive Reproductive Age Women in Tigray, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Yemane; Berhe, Haftu; Abera, Gerezgiher Buruh; Berhe, Hailemariam

    2013-01-01

    Background. HIV infected women in sub-Saharan Africa are at substantial risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. In developing countries including Ethiopia counseling and provision of modern contraceptives of choice to HIV infected women including those on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important strategy to prevent unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Little is known about the existing practices and utilization of modern contraceptives among HIV positive reproductive age women attending ART units. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess utilization of modern contraceptives and associated factors among HIV positive reproductive age women attending ART units in zonal hospitals of Tigray region, North Ethiopia. Method. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 364 HIV positive reproductive age women in all zonal hospitals of Tigray region using systematic sampling technique. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods were used to analyze utilization of modern contraceptives and the factors associated with it. Result. Three hundred sixty-four subjects participated with a response rate of 99.2%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 ± 6.5 (SD) years. About 46% of participants utilized modern contraceptives, 59.9% out of them used dual method. However, a significant proportion of the respondents (46%) reported that they wished to have a desire for children. Being secondary education and higher (AOR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.17–6.95) and currently on HAART (AOR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.49–7.01) they were more likely to utilize modern contraceptive. But those women who were ?25 years old, house wives, single, divorced, or widowed were less likely to utilize modern contraceptive. Conclusion. Results of this study revealed that the number of respondents who were ever heard of modern contraceptives was high. However, modern contraceptive utilization was still low. Additional efforts are needed to promote modern contraceptive utilization in general and dual method use in particular among HIV positive reproductive age women. PMID:24224116

  10. Dyspareunia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative middle-aged women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L R; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Gomes, Debora de C; D'Avanzo, Walquíria C; Moura, Alexandre S; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; de Sousa, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether dyspareunia is associated with HIV status in menopausal women and also to assess which factors are associated with dyspareunia in a group of HIV-positive menopausal women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 178 HIV-negative and 128 HIV-positive women aged 40–60?years. The Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ) was used to collect data. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioural and reproductive factors were evaluated, as well as factors related to the HIV infection. Dyspareunia was defined as pain during intercourse. A bivariate analysis and Poisson multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Overall, 41.4% of the HIV-positive women reported dyspareunia compared with 34.8% of the HIV-negative women (p=0.242). In the HIV-positive women, bivariate analysis revealed an association between dyspareunia and having a steady partner (p=0.047); the woman’s partner having undergone HIV testing (p=0.020); vaginal dryness (p<0.001); muscle/joint pain (p=0.021); physical/emotional violence (p=0.049); urinary incontinence (p=0.004); and the use of lamivudine/zidovudine (p=0.048). The Poisson multiple regression analysis found an association between dyspareunia and vaginal dryness (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.96, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.50, p=0.023) and urinary incontinence (PR=1.86, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.27, p=0.031). Conclusions Dyspareunia was common in this group of HIV-positive women and was associated principally with vaginal dryness and urinary incontinence. The importance of treating dyspareunia within the context of sexual health in this group of women should be emphasised and appropriate management of this issue may reduce the likelihood of lesions on the vaginal wall, which may act as a portal of entry for other infections. PMID:25421335

  11. Skeletal muscle fibre types, physical performance, physical activity and attitude to physical activity in women and men. A follow-up from age 16 to 27.

    PubMed

    Glenmark, B

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-five men and 28 women were tested at age 16 and retested at age 27. Muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis to analyse fibre types, fibre areas and enzyme contents. A cycle ergometer test to was used to estimate the maximal oxygen uptake. Physical performance was assessed in an endurance test, where the subjects had to run as far as possible in 9 min on a 400-m track, and in three strength tests designed to test maximal dynamic strength (Sargent jump) and maximal static strength (handgrip test, two-hand lift). The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning physical activity during their leisure time and an activity index was calculated from the answers. The relative proportion of type I fibres (type I%) tended to increase with age in women and decreased in men. At age 27, the type I% was higher in women than in men. Multiple regression analysis indicated that sex per se could explain some of the interindividual variation in the type I% at age 27 and in the changes with age in the type I%, but also factors as physical activity (increase in type I%) and smoking (decrease in type I%) probably contributed to the variation. VO2max (ml.kg-1.min-1) increased with age in women and was unchanged in men so that there was no significant sex difference in VO2max at age 27. Running performance remained unchanged from age 16 to age 27 in both sexes and men performed better than women at both ages. Running performance was directly related to the type I% for both women and men at age 27, a relationship which existed also for men at age 16, but not for women at that age. It seems that the age related changes in relationship between running performance and type I% may be related to the altered choice of physical activity from speed and strength to more endurance demanding activities and the increased VO2max in the women. This may allow an adaptation of the skeletal muscle towards type I fibres in the active ones. The sex differences in strength increased from age 16 to age 27. The relationship between strength and the type II% in the women changed with age from a positive correlation (Sargent jump only, partiell correlation after body dimensions were considered) to negative correlations for all the strength tests, i.e. the more type I fibres the stronger. A positive correlation between strength and activity index was revealed in the women at both ages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7942046

  12. Barriers to male involvement in contraceptive uptake and reproductive health services: a qualitative study of men and women’s perceptions in two rural districts in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spousal communication can improve family planning use and continuation. Yet, in countries with high fertility rates and unmet need, men have often been regarded as unsupportive of their partner’s use of family planning methods. This study examines men and women’s perceptions regarding obstacles to men’s support and uptake of modern contraceptives. Methods A qualitative study using 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected men aged 15–54 and women aged 15–49 as well as eight key informant interviews (KIIs) with government and community leaders was conducted in 2012 in Bugiri and Mpigi Districts, Uganda. Open-ended question guides were used to explore men and women’s perceptions regarding barriers to men’s involvement in reproductive health. All FGDs and KIIs were recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti. Results Five themes were identified as rationale for men’s limited involvement: (i) perceived side effects of female contraceptive methods which disrupt sexual activity, (ii) limited choices of available male contraceptives, including fear and concerns relating to vasectomy, (iii) perceptions that reproductive health was a woman’s domain due to gender norms and traditional family planning communication geared towards women, (iv) preference for large family sizes which are uninhibited by prolonged birth spacing; and (v) concerns that women’s use of contraceptives will lead to extramarital sexual relations. In general, knowledge of effective contraceptive methods was high. However, lack of time and overall limited awareness regarding the specific role of men in reproductive health was also thought to deter men’s meaningful involvement in issues related to fertility regulation. Conclusion Decision-making on contraceptive use is the shared responsibility of men and women. Effective development and implementation of male-involvement family planning initiatives should address barriers to men’s supportive participation in reproductive health, including addressing men's negative beliefs regarding contraceptive services. PMID:24597502

  13. Increased frequency of gestational and delivery-related complications in women of 35 years of age and above.

    PubMed

    Bereczky, L-K; Kiss, Sz-L; Szabó, B

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated gestational and delivery-related characteristics focusing on women aged 35 and above (? 35 years). Data were collected on maternal (n = 8,407) and newborn records during a 4-year admission period (2008-11) at the County Emergency Hospital, Tîrgu-Mure?, Romania. The prevalence of preterm deliveries increased in all age groups, from 19.5% to 27.8% (p = 0.006) in mothers ? 35 years. Twinning rate showed a highly significant increase, being 2.6% in 2008 and 9.5% in 2011 (p = 0.005), while caesarean delivery incidence increased from 46.3% to 51.0% in women aged ? 35. Our study revealed a highly significant decrease of mean gestational age and mean fetal weight, as well as a higher incidence of comorbidities and pregnancy-related complications in those aged ? 35 years. We assume that comorbidities, maternal and fetal indications to perform caesarean section (CS), in the more mature age group, were a main determinant of the elective or iatrogenic preterm deliveries, which might have contributed to further complications; moreover, previous CSs were likely a promoting factor for further CSs. PMID:25093420

  14. It takes two: the role of partner ethnicity and age characteristics on condom negotiations of heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Amy G; Barnhart, James E

    2006-02-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women across four California universities indicated significant effects of partner ethnicity and age on condom negotiation strategies. Asian women with non-Asian partners were more likely to use nonverbal-direct strategies than those with Asian partners. Asian women with older partners were less likely to use verbal strategies (verbal-direct, verbal-indirect) than those with same-age partners. This study suggests that Asian women's safer sex communication varies by partner characteristics. Obtaining information such as partner ethnicity and age can help health educators provide more culturally appropriate sexual communication skills to clients. PMID:16539577

  15. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center L3-R071, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8338 (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Moonga, Baljit S. [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States)] [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States); Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH and UCd are associated with bone loss, in US women aged 42-60 years.

  16. Age-related site-specific muscle loss in the thigh and zigzag walking performance in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Ogawa, M; Mitsukawa, N

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the relationships between site-specific muscle loss in the thigh, muscle quality and zigzag walking performance, 40 men and 41 women aged 65-79 years had muscle thickness (MTH) measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. Skeletal muscle mass (SM) was estimated from an ultrasound-derived prediction equation. Site-specific thigh sarcopenia was calculated using ultrasound-measured MTH at the anterior/posterior aspects of the thigh (AP-MTH ratio). Zigzag walking time (ZWT) and maximum isometric knee extension (KE) and flexion (KF) torques were measured. Muscle quality (torque/thigh SM) and knee joint strength index (torque/body mass) were calculated. There were no significant correlations between SM index and ZWT. However, AP-MTH ratio was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to ZWT in men (r = -0.335) and women (r = -0.309). ZWT was also inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to KE-strength index in both sexes (men, r = -0.328; women, r = -0.372). Similarly, ZWT was correlated to KF-strength index (r = -0.497) and muscle quality (r = -0.322) in women, but not in men. After adjusting for age, height and body mass, AP-MTH ratio was inversely correlated to ZWT in men (r = -0.325) and tended to be correlated to ZWT in women (r = -0.263). Zigzag walking performance may be associated with site-specific thigh sarcopenia in older men and women. PMID:25201711

  17. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-06-01

    To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16-40 year old women (n = 1,057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0-15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P < .001). Obese women (P = .002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P = .030), and some college hours/degree (P < .001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.18], switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04-1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.06-1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.04-1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  18. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. Methods we conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16–40 year old women (n=1057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Results The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0–15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P<.001). Obese women (P=.002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P=.030), and some college hours/degree (P<.001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food (odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.18), switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Conclusions Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  19. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-06-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births). PMID:24690028

  20. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)] [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  1. “COMING OUT” IN THE AGE OF SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM:Sexual Identity Formation among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAULA C. RUST

    1993-01-01

    This article examines sexual identity formation among 346 lesbian-identified and 60 bisexual-identified women. On average, bisexuals come out at later ages and exhibit less “stable” identity histories. However, variations in identity history among lesbians and bisexuals overshadow the differences between them and demonstrate that coming out is not a linear, goal-oriented, developmental process. Sexual identity formation must be reconceptualized as

  2. Bone Mass and Structure at the Hip in Men and Women over the Age of 60 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Peacock; G. Liu; M. Carey; W. Ambrosius; C. H. Turner; S. Hui; C. C. Johnston Jr

    1998-01-01

    :   Bone mass and structure at the proximal femur are important predictors of hip fracture. The aims of this study were to compare\\u000a in a large sample of elderly men and women the precision of measurements of bone mass and structure at multiple sites at the\\u000a proximal femur, to examine their interrelationships, to establish their relationships with age and body

  3. Physical activity social support and middle- and older-aged minority women: results from a US survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy A. Eyler; Ross C. Brownson; Rebecca J. Donatelle; Abby C. King; David Brown; James F. Sallis

    1999-01-01

    Background: Many American adults remain sedentary despite many known health benefits. Research on the determinants of physical activity have indicated that social support is one of the strongest correlates, but little is known about this relation in important subgroups of middle and older-aged women.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association of physical activity-related social support on

  4. Increasing Mammography among Women Aged 40–74 by Use of a Stage-Matched, Tailored Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Rakowski; Beverly Ehrich; Michael G. Goldstein; Barbara K. Rimer; Deborah N. Pearlman; Melissa A. Clark; Wayne F. Velicer; Hugh Woolverton

    1998-01-01

    Background.Tailoring is a promising technique for encouraging greater performance of health-related behaviors. Tailored interventions are designed to be more individualized to personal characteristics, in contrast to “standard” interventions where all participants receive the same materials.Methods.A total ofN= 1864 women aged 40–74 were recruited from a staff model HMO and randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: (a) No Educational

  5. The effect of two different health messages on physical activity levels and health in sedentary overweight, middle-aged women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebely Pal; Cheryl Cheng; Suleen Ho

    2011-01-01

    Background  Most public health guidelines recommend that adults need to participate in 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity\\u000a on most days of the week to maintain good health. Achieving the recommended 30 minutes of exercise a day can be difficult\\u000a in middle aged, overweight women. This 12 week study evaluated whether a 10,000 steps per day message was more effective

  6. Oral Health Conditions and Dental Visits Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral diseases can be prevented or improved with regular dental visits. Our objective was to assess and compare national estimates on self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed self-reported oral health information on 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15–44 years) from NHANES 1999–2004. We used ?2 and 2-sample t tests to assess statistical differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, poverty, and education. We applied the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results Our data show significant differences in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among women, regardless of pregnancy status, when stratified by selected sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences were also found in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits between pregnant and nonpregnant women, especially among young women, women from minority race/ethnicity groups, and women with less than high school education. Conclusion We found disparities in self-reported oral health conditions and use of dental services among women regardless of pregnancy status. Results highlight the need to improve dental service use among US women of childbearing age, especially young pregnant women, those who are non-Hispanic black or Mexican American, and those with low family income or low education level. Prenatal visits could be used as an opportunity to encourage pregnant women to seek preventive dental care during pregnancy. PMID:25232750

  7. Effects of age on levator function and morphometry of the levator hiatus in women with pelvic floor disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjam Weemhoff; Ka Lai Shek; Hans P. Dietz

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis  Epidemiological data supports the hypothesis that ageing is a risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse. In this study, we intended\\u000a to determine the effect of age on levator function and morphometry in women with pelvic floor disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Three hundred seventy-five patients underwent an interview, physical examination and transperineal ultrasound. Clinical assessment\\u000a included palpation using the Modified Oxford Scale.

  8. Psychosocial Determinants of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-Aged Women: A Prospective Study in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah Kuper; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2006-01-01

    A social gradient in coronary heart disease (CHD) has been documented in a variety of settings, predominantly among men. This study aimed to establish whether a social gradient in CHD existed in a group of Swedish women and whether it could be explained by established coronary risk factors or psychosocial factors. The Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study includes 49,259

  9. Purpose in Life among Men and Women Aged 85 Years and Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, Pia; Gustafson, Yngve; Brulin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate purpose in life in relation to psychological well-being, social relations, and physical and psychological symptoms among very old women (n = 120) and men (n = 69). Their purpose in life was evaluated using the Purpose in Life (PIL) scale. Women scored lower on this PIL scale than men (102 vs. 108 p =…

  10. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  11. Age and Meanings of Violence: Women's Experiences of Partner Violence in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piispa, Minna

    2004-01-01

    The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men's violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don't support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as…

  12. Widowhood and divorce in relation to overall survival among middle-aged Norwegian women with cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Kvikstad, A.; Vatten, L. J.; Tretli, S.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relations between widowhood and divorce and overall survival among women with cancer. All Norwegian women born between 1935 and 1954, and diagnosed with cancer between 1966 and 1990, were followed up until 1991. In all, 14,231 cases were followed up for a median length of approximately 4.5 years (mean = 6 years), and 4311 women died during follow-up. In addition to overall cancer, separate analyses have been made for cancer at specific sites. Widows had a risk of dying which was nearly identical to that of married women for all sites except colorectal cancer, for which widows had a 2-fold increased death rate compared with married women. Divorced women had an overall increased hazard ratio of 1.17 (95% CI 1.07-1.27), which was confined to cancer of the breast, lung and cervix. With few clear exceptions women with children had a better survival than nulliparous women (overall hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87). PMID:7779736

  13. Influence of Second-Trimester Ultrasound Markers for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women of Advanced Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Rumi Kataguiri, Mariza; Silva Bussamra, Luiz Claudio; Machado Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes; Fernandes Moron, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ? 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3%) presented markers and 758 (82.7%) did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P < 0.001) and structural malformation (P < 0.001) were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age. PMID:24795825

  14. The Quality of Life for Older Women: Older Women Living Alone. A Report by the Chairman of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (December 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Edward R.

    This document presents a summary report of the hearing conducted by the Select Committee on Aging of the United States House of Representatives to study the quality of living of older American women who live alone. Section I reviews information collected by the committee, focusing on the unique circumstances and needs of older women. It provides…

  15. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  16. Is younger really safer? A qualitative study of perceived risks and benefits of age-disparate relationships among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women's perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women's perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive. PMID:24260585

  17. Relationship of blood and bone lead to menopause and bone mineral density among middle-age women in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Garrido Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tamayo Orozco, Juan; Albores Medina, Carlos A; Aro, Antonio; Palazuelos, Eduardo; Hu, Howard

    2003-01-01

    To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in Mexico City during the first quarter of 1995. Information regarding reproductive characteristics and known risk factors for blood lead was obtained using a standard questionnaire by direct interview. The mean age of the population was 54.7 years (SD = 9.8), with a mean blood lead level of 9.2 microg/dL (SD = 4.7/dL) and a range from 2.1 to 32.1 microg/dL. After adjusting for age and bone lead levels, the mean blood lead level was 1.98 microg/dL higher in PosM women than in PreM women (p = 0.024). The increase in mean blood lead levels peaked during the second year of amenorrhea with a level (10.35 microg/dL) that was 3.51 microg/dL higher than that of PreM women. Other important predictors of blood lead levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, schooling, trabecular bone lead, body mass index, time of living in Mexico City, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Bone density was not associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with health effects in women in menopause transition. PMID:12676627

  18. Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Sleeth, Michelle L; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-11-28

    As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid hormone production during pregnancy, women who are planning to become pregnant should ideally consume 150 ?g iodine/d (US RDA). As few UK data exist for this population group, a cross-sectional study was carried out at the University of Surrey to assess the iodine intake and status of women of childbearing age. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24 h urine samples in fifty-seven women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90 % of ingested iodine was excreted. The average iodine intake was also estimated from 48 h food diaries that the participants completed. The median urinary iodine concentration value (63·1 ?g/l) indicated the group to be mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24 h urinary iodine excretion value (149·8 ?g/24 h) indicated a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. The median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 ?g/d, whereas it was lower, at 123 ?g/d, when estimated from the 48 h food diaries. Iodine intake estimated from the food diaries and 24 h urinary iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r 0·75, P< 0·001). The intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. The present study highlights the need for revised cut-off values for iodine deficiency that are method- and age group-specific. PMID:25274294

  19. Knowledge of, beliefs about, and perceived barriers to the use of the emergency contraception pill among women aged 18-51 in Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Anne Marie; Langille, Donald B.; White, Samantha J.K.; Asbridge, Mark; Flowerdew, Gordon

    Objective To investigate women in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada with respect to their knowledge of, beliefs about, and perceptions of barriers to accessing emergency contraception pills (ECP). Methods A random digit dialing approach was used to survey a representative sample of NS women aged 18-51. Analyses described the knowledge, beliefs, and perceived barriers associated with ECP access among participants. Particular focus was given to differences between younger (age 18-31) and older (age 32-51) women. Results The survey response rate of 49% achieved the desired sample size of 770. Overall, women in NS appeared to be poorly informed about ECP with regards to effectiveness, proper timing of administration, how it works, as well as how to access Plan B®. Younger women (age 18-31) were significantly more likely than older women (age 32-51) to know that ECP does not always prevent pregnancy (p<0.01), that it can be taken more than 12 hours after unprotected intercourse (p<0.01), and that it is available without a prescription in pharmacies (p<0.01). Thirty percent of women agreed that ECP will cause an abortion, with older women (p<0.01) being more likely than younger women to agree. Cost and lack of privacy in pharmacies were identified as potential barriers to access. Conclusions Lack of knowledge and the perception that ECP causes an abortion may influence a woman’s ability to consider ECP as an option should she find herself at risk of an unplanned pregnancy. To address this, efforts should be made to educate women (including older women) about ECP and its availability in pharmacies. PMID:24367469

  20. A qualitative study of the views of women aged 18-29 on over-the-counter availability of hormonal emergency contraception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liz Folkes; Anna Graham; Marjorie Weiss

    2001-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore women's views on the deregulation of hormonal emergency contraception (EC) prior to it becoming deregulated on 1 January 2001.DesignQualitative study using face to face, semi-structured interviews.SettingA NHS family planning clinic, a voluntary sector family planning clinic and a general practice in the South West region.SubjectsTwenty-seven women aged 18-29 years.ResultsMost women were in favour of deregulation with over-the-counter provision

  1. Evaluation of new and established age-related macular degeneration susceptibility genes in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. This is a multice...

  2. Folic Acid and the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: A Survey of Awareness Among Latina Women of Childbearing Age Residing in Southeast Michigan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srimathi Kannan; Elaine Menotti; Holly K. Scherer; Jennifer Dickinson; Kimberly Larson

    2007-01-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce the risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). To inform southeast Michigan Latina women of childbearing age about the benefits of food and supplemental sources of the micronutrient in the prevention of NTDs, Spanish-English bilingual health educators carried out 20 education events in supermarkets and community organizations serving Latina women. One hundred

  3. Effects of Folic Acid Public Education on Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior Change in Women of Childbearing Age in Preventing Neural Tube Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. McFarland; C. B. Johnson; J. M. Moore; C. D. Pierce; K. T. Robinson; K. M. Smith; W. B. Boone; K. N. Broome

    1999-01-01

    One goal of Healthy People 2000 is to reduce incidence of spina bifida and other neural tube defects to 3\\/10,000 live births. The US Public Health Service confirms the role of folate hi preventing NTDs by recommending that all women of childbearing age consume at least 400 micrograms of folate per day. NTDs occur before most women realize they are

  4. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  5. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women

  6. Age-dependent differences in diabetes and acute hyperglycemia between men and women with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both acute hyperglycemia as diabetes results in an impaired prognosis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. It is unknown whether there is a different prevalence of diabetes and acute hyperglycemia in men and women within age-groups. Methods Between 2004 and 2010, 4640 consecutive patients (28% women) with STEMI, were referred for primary PCI. Patients were stratified into two age groups, women and men in the younger age group (14% vs 12%, p?=?0.52), whereas in the older age group diabetes was more prevalent in women (25% vs 17% p?women than in men (8.7?±?2.1 mmol/l vs 8.4?±?2.1 mmol/l p?=?0.028). After multivariable analyses, the occurrence of increased admission glucose was comparable between men and women in the younger age group (OR 1.1, 95%CI 0.9-1.5), but increased in women in the older age group (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Both diabetes and hyperglycemia were associated with a higher one-year mortality in both men and women. Conclusions The differences between men and women in hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients with STEMI are age dependent and can only be observed in older patients. This may have implications for medical treatment and should be investigated further. PMID:23822149

  7. Correlates of intimate partner physical violence among young reproductive age women in Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) in south India. This article examines the frequency and correlates of IPPV among 898 young married women from urban, rural, and periurban areas of Mysore, India. Most (69.2%) of the participants were Hindus and 28.7% were Muslims. Overall, 50% of participants reported some type of IPPV. Factors that were independently associated with IPPV included being younger than 18 years at the time of marriage, contributing some household income, having anal sex, reporting sexual violence, and having a sex partner who drinks alcohol and smokes cigarettes. Women with skilled occupation were at reduced odds of experiencing IPPV compared with women who did not work. These findings suggest that IPPV is highly prevalent in this setting and that additional interventions are needed to reduce morbidity particularly among young women. These data also suggest that more studies are needed among men who perpetrate IPPV in south India. PMID:22186382

  8. Menstrual problems and contraception in women of reproductive age receiving oral anticoagulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farah Yasmine Huq; Katerina Tvarkova; Aliaa Arafa; Rezan A. Kadir

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundOral anticoagulation is associated with increased bleeding complications. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in menstrual loss and pattern in women taking anticoagulant treatment.

  9. Sleep in women: Normal values for sleep stages and position and the effect of age, obesity, sleep apnea, smoking, alcohol and hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carin Sahlin; Karl A. Franklin; Hans Stenlund; Eva Lindberg

    2009-01-01

    ObjectivesTo define normal values for total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, sleep stages and sleeping positions in women and to investigate how sleep is affected by age, obesity, sleep apnea, smoking, alcohol dependency and hypertension.

  10. Case–control study of anaemia among middle-aged and elderly women in three rural areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengkun; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Wang, Chunrong; Meng, Liping; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To propose a feasible suggestion to reduce the high prevalence of anaemia in middle-aged and elderly women by investigating risk factors, particularly nutritional factors, and analysing the effect on anaemia in three different rural areas of China. Design A case–control study. Setting Three counties of China. Participants Women aged 50–75?years in the three counties. Main outcome measures Adjusted OR (95% CI) of anaemia associated with diet, lifestyle and blood biochemical indices. Results Compared with controls, women with anaemia had lower body mass index (22.1 (3.2) kg/m2 vs 23.2 (3.5)?kg/m2; p<0.001), a higher experience of shortage of food (45.0% vs 36.5%; p<0.001), less soy food intake (0.5 (0.3, 26.7)?g/day vs 5.6 (0.4, 27.8)?g/day; p<0.048), lower serum iron (13.4 (5.4)??mol/L vs 16.4 (5.7)??mol/L; p<0.001), lower ferritin (109.6 (85.6)?ng/mL vs 131.0 (92.0)?ng/mL; p<0.001), lower transferrin saturation levels (22.5 (9.5)% vs 26.8 (9.6)%; p<0.001) and higher levels of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (42.4 (21.2)??g/dL vs 39.6 (17.8)??g/dL; p<0.001). Anaemia was significantly associated with BMI(OR=0.90, 95% CI (0.87 to 0.92)), food shortage experience (OR=1.39, 95% CI (1.15 to 1.69)), total protein (OR=0.66, 95%CI (0.54 to 0.80)), Albumin (OR=0.72, 95%CI (0.59 to 0.87)) in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index, experience of food shortage, total protein and albumin were independently related to anaemia. Conclusions Among middle-aged and elderly women in rural China, the nutrition status of anaemic cases is far below that of controls. Lower body mass index and a greater experience of food shortage are closely related to anaemia. Improving the blood protein status by consuming protein-sufficient foods such as soy food is a feasible approach for elderly anaemic women. Further research is needed on the effect of chronic inflammation and infectious disease on anaemia in elderly women in rural China. PMID:25138800

  11. Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    A wide variety of strategies were used to recruit women into an acupuncture trial. The investigators collected data on the numbers of study inquiries (telephone calls and e-mail messages) received from women in the study area and sorted them by recruitment method. Posters, flyers, and direct mailings proved to be the most effective methods. However, maximizing study exposure through active recruitment using multiple methods was necessary to reach accrual goals.

  12. The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Susan; Taylor, E Laurette; Hofford, Craig W; Brittain, Danielle R; Branscum, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance-10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, ?(2) > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women. PMID:24652905

  13. PAHA study: Psychological Active and Healthy Aging: psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude and happiness effects of whole-body vibration versus Multicomponent Training in aged women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (N?=?300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Discussion Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Trial registration Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013 PMID:24886107

  14. Childhood Passive Smoking Exposure and Age at Menarche in Chinese Women Who Had Never Smoked: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    He, Yao; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations between childhood passive smoking exposure and age at menarche in women who had never smoked in southern China. Methods Among 30,518 participants in Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) from 2003-2008, 20,061 women who had never smoked and had complete outcome data were included. Childhood passive smoking exposure was defined as living with 1 or more smokers in the same household during childhood. Data on the number of smokers in the household and frequency of exposure (density and frequency) were also obtained. Age at menarche was measured as a continuous variable. Results 11,379 (56.7%) participants were exposed to passive smoking during childhood. Compared to those with no passive smoking exposure during childhood, those with exposure ?5 days/week had menarche 0.19 year (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.25) earlier on average. Those exposed to more than two smokers had menarche 0.38 year earlier (95% CI: 0.29-0.47). Childhood exposure was associated with early age at menarche (?13 vs. >13 years), with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.21-1.48) for high density, and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.09-1.26) for high frequency of exposure. Conclusion Childhood passive smoking exposure was associated with earlier age at menarche, with a dose-response relationship in Chinese women who had never smoked. If causal, the results support the promotion of smoking cessation in families with children, particularly young girls. PMID:26186646

  15. Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Mygind, Vanessa L; Evans, Sophie E; Peddie, Meredith C; Miller, Jody C; Houghton, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Recently, choline has been associated with neurodevelopment, cognitive function and neural tube defect incidence. However, data on usual intakes are limited, and estimates of dietary intakes of choline and its metabolite betaine, are not available for New Zealanders. The objective of the present study was to determine usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in a group of New Zealand reproductive age women. Dietary intake data were collected from a sample of 125 women, aged 18-40 years, by means of a 3-day weighed food record, and usual choline and betaine intake distributions were determined. The mean (SD) daily intakes of choline and betaine were 316 (66) mg and 178 (66) mg, respectively. The total choline intake relative to energy intake and body weight was 0.18 mg/kcal and 5.1 mg/kg, respectively. Only 16% of participants met or exceeded the Adequate Intake (AI) for adult women of 425 mg of choline. The top five major food contributors of choline were eggs, red meat, milk, bread and chicken; and of betaine were bread, breakfast cereal, pasta, grains and root vegetables (carrots, parsnips, beetroot, swedes). Our findings contribute towards the recent emergence of published reports on the range of dietary choline and betaine intakes consumed by free-living populations. In our sample of New Zealand women, few participants were meeting or exceeding the AI level. Given recent epidemiological evidence suggesting health benefits of increased choline and betaine intakes, recommendations should be made to encourage the consumption of choline and betaine-rich foods. PMID:23635379

  16. A daunting challenge: Human Papillomavirus assays and cytology in primary cervical screening of women below age 30years.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Ejegod, Ditte; Preisler, Sarah; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-07-01

    We compared cytology with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays in primary cervical screening at age 23-29years based on data from the Danish Horizon study. SurePath samples were collected from 1278 women undergoing routine cytology-based screening. Abnormal cytology was managed according to the routine recommendations, and women with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5years. Loss to follow-up was similar between HPV assays. ?CIN3 was detected in 44 women. The sensitivity of HC2 for ?CIN3 was 95% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85-99), of cobas 98% (95% CI: 88-100), of CLART 100% (95% CI: 92-100), of APTIMA 82% (95% CI: 67-92), and of cytology 59% (95% CI: 43-74). Specificity for ?CIN3 varied between 61% (95% CI: 59-64) for cobas and 75% (95% CI: 73-78) for APTIMA, and was 94% (95% CI: 93-96) for cytology. Similar results were observed for ?CIN2 (N=68). HPV screening with cytological triage doubled the number of colposcopies compared to cytology screening, and increased the frequency of repeated testing by four (APTIMA) to seven (cobas) times. The positive predictive value of a referral for colposcopy was relatively high for all screening tests (?30% for ?CIN3, and ?50% for ?CIN2). CIN1 was detected by cytology in ?1% of women, and in ?2% by any of the four HPV assays. Although highly sensitive, HPV-based screening of young Danish women should be approached cautiously, as it resulted in large reductions in specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:25979832

  17. Validity of self-reported body mass index among middle-aged participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study

    PubMed Central

    Skeie, Guri; Mode, Nicolle; Henningsen, Maria; Borch, Kristin Benjaminsen

    2015-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight has been criticized as being biased because of an observed tendency for overweight and obese people to overestimate height and underestimate weight, resulting in higher misclassification for these groups. We examined the validity of BMI based on self-reported values in a sample of Norwegian women aged 44–64 years. Methods The study sample of 1,837 participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study self-reported height and weight, and then, within 1 year, either self-reported anthropometric again, or were measured by medical staff. Demographic and anthropometric were compared using t-tests and chi-square tests of independence. Misclassification of BMI categories was assessed by weighted Cohen’s kappa and Bland–Altman plot. Results On average, the two measurements were taken 8 months apart, and self-reported weight increased by 0.6 kg (P<0.05), and BMI by 0.2 kg/m2 (P<0.05). The distribution of BMI categories did not differ between self-reported and measured values. There was substantial agreement between self-reported values and those measured by medical staff (weighted kappa 0.73). Under-reporting resulting in misclassification of BMI category was most common among overweight women (36%), but the highest proportion of extreme under-reporting was found in obese women (18% outside the 95% limits of agreement). The cumulative distribution curves for the measured and self-reported values closely followed each other, but measurements by medical staff were shifted slightly toward higher BMI values. Conclusion While there was substantial agreement between self-reported and measured BMI values, there was small but statistically significant under-reporting of weight and thus self-reported BMI. The tendency to under-report was largest among overweight women, while the largest degree of under-reporting was found in the obese group. Self-reported weight and height provide a valid ranking of BMI for middle-aged Norwegian women. PMID:26170718

  18. Age factor and implication of human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in women with normal cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Lai, C H; Chao, A; Chang, C J; Huang, C C; Wang, L C; Hsueh, S; Lin, C T; Wu, T I; Jao, M S; Chou, H H

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women with normal cervical cytology varies widely according to the population studied. Two non-overlapping population-based cohort studies of women aged ?30 years for the periods 2008-2009 (n=5026) and 2004-2005 (n=10 014) were analysed. The prevalence rate of HPV was 11·0% (95% CI 10·5-11·6). HPV infection was significantly associated with age, menopausal status, and inversely associated with hormone replacement therapy. There was an increasing trend of ?3/?15, ?5/?6, and multiple HPV infections with increasing age. The five most common types were HPV52, 18, 53, 58 and 70, while HPV16, 31, 33 ranked 21st, 25th, and 16th, respectively, in the merged cohort with normal cytology (n=14 724). HPV16, 31, and 33 were significantly associated with abnormal cytology, which could have resulted in their rarity in the total merged cohort (n=15 040). PMID:21524341

  19. Absence of Age-Related Increase in Central Arterial Stiffness in Physically Active Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Tanaka; Christopher A. DeSouza; Douglas R. Seals

    Increased arterial stiffness is thought to contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease with age. Little, however, is known about the influence of aging on central and peripheral arterial stiffness in females. Moreover, it is unknown whether physical activity status influences age-related increases in arterial stiffness in females. Arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI, applanation tonometry)

  20. Ovarian cancer mortality among women aged 40-79 years in relation to reproductive factors and body mass index: latest evidence from the Japan Collaborative Cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aklimunnessa; Nojima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Sadao; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tokudome, Shinkan; Tamakoshi, Koji; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study mainly aimed to investigate the association of ovarian cancer mortality with reproductive factors and body mass index among Japanese women aged 40-79 years. Methods The source of the data was the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study which covered the period of 1988 to 2009. A representative sample of 64,185 women was used. Cox model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The total number of ovarian cancer deaths was 98, with a mortality rate of 9.30 per 100,000 person-years. Women with single marital status revealed significantly higher age-adjusted RR (RR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.66 to 10.23; p=0.005) as compared to married women. The effect of single marital status was stronger among older women aged 50+ years (RR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.65 to 12.72; p=0.003) than younger women. An elevated risk was found for both nulliparous and nullipregnant women. Similarly, an increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality was estimated among overweight among aged 50 years or less. Conclusion Out of many factors only single marital status indicated a higher risk for ovarian cancer mortality. All other factors provided inconclusive results, which imply further epidemiological investigations. PMID:23875075

  1. Women Bib # First Last Age Time Ages 12-15 4 Danielle Gore 12 25:52:00

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    44 32:22:00 67 Crystal Rapp 44 20:26 Overall Winner 77 Amy Costello 44 42:04:00 25 Jill Garrett 45 30 29 27:21:00 Ages 30-39 39 Nicholas Kempker 33 21:25 79 Dave Loewensteiner 34 19:09 1 Michael Bryan 34 41 30:20:00 38 Daniel Bradberry 42 75 Carl McCoy 43 22:30 34 Michael Fick 43 27:37:00 68 George Hall

  2. Effects of combined exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and serum BDNF level in mid-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Chul; Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Nam Ju; Kim, Seung Yoon; Yoon, Nam Kyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study is first to examine a positive effect of long term combined exercise including aerobic and resistance exercise on increasing level of serum BDNF, and investigate how aerobic exercise is related to improving BDNF circulation and resistance exercise improves fat oxidation in mid-aged women. [Methods] Initially, 30 mid-aged women, according to their exercise preference, was randomly assigned as a non-exercise group (n=7, control group; CG) and exercise group (n=23). Then, 23 exercise participants were divided by aerobic exercise group (n=15, AEG) and combination of aerobic and resistance exercise group (n=8, CEG). Prior to the experiment, all participants’maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, and blood factors were measured. Changes (? delta value) in body composition, fitness level, and serum BDNF level of the different groups were tested through one way ANOVA. [Results] For AEG and CG after 24 weeks, VO2max and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly increased. During this period, CEG had significant increase in muscular strength and decrease in triglyceride (TG) total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C (p=0.013). Continuously, serum BDNF concentration of both AEG and CEG was significantly increased (F=6.328, p=0.001) compared to CG. There, however, was no significant between-group difference. [Conclusion] Although there was no difference in serum BDNF level between AEG and CEG, we confirmed that CEG may have a possibility of positive changes in increase of serum BDNF level in mid-aged women. PMID:25566440

  3. Effect of Strength Training and Short-term Detraining on Muscle Mass in Women Aged Over 50 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Delshad, Maryam; Ghanbarian, Arash; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Ebrahim, Khosro

    2013-01-01

    Background: The loss of muscle mass is associated with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle mass in elderly women. Methods: Twenty post-menopausal women aged ?50 years old were enrolled. Matching for age, they were randomly assigned into control and resistance training group (RT). The intervention consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions for 10 movements with Thera-Band tubing (based on 80-100% 10-RM), three times a week, for 12 weeks and thereafter, four weeks detraining. Skinfold thickness was determined by caliper. Percentage of body fat was estimated from skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) by McArdle method. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were calculated. Range of motion for trunk flexion and extension was determined. Results: During 12 weeks of intervention, significant increases were observed in 1-RM of biceps curl, FFM, trunk flexion and extension and significant decreases during four weeks detraining in RT group. The RT group demonstrated significant decreases during resistance training and increases during detraining in skinfold thickness. FFM, trunk flexion, and extension decreased and skinfold thickness, %FM, and weight of body fat increased in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Resistance training with Thera-Band enhanced strength and muscle endurance in elderly women and a 4-week detraining period had an adverse effect on muscle power. This suggests that a strength training program is an effective intervention to prevent functional reductions, and can contribute to improve neuromuscular function in older adults. PMID:24498494

  4. Predicting relatedness and self-definition depressive experiences in aging women based on personality traits: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Campos, Rui C; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta; Junqueira, Diana

    2013-01-01

    As part of the research relating personality and depression, this study seeks to predict depressive experiences in aging women according to Sidney Blatt's perspective based on the Five-Factor Model of Personality. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were administered. The domains Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted self-criticism, explaining 68% of the variance; the domains Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted dependency, explaining 62% of the variance. The subfactors Neediness and Connectedness were differently related to personality traits. These findings are relevant to the research relating personality and anaclitic / introjective depressive experiences in late adulthood. PMID:24020611

  5. Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a Swedish setting

    PubMed Central

    Krantz, G.; Ostergren, P.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Over the past few decades there has been a growing interest among researchers, in women's overall life circumstances and their relation to women's health status. For example, paid employment has been considered an important part of women's living conditions in Western societies as the number of women entering the labour market has grown constantly over the past decades. When comparing men's and women's health, one of the most consistent findings is a higher rate of symptoms among women. The most commonly reported symptoms in women are depressive symptoms, symptoms of bodily tension and chronic pain from muscles and joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social network/support are associated with middle aged women's health status in terms of common symptoms.?DESIGN—A mailed questionnaire was used in a cross sectional design assessing socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions according to the demand/control model, social network/support and an index based on the 15 most frequent symptoms presented by middle aged women when seeking health care.?SETTING—A rural community with 13 200 inhabitants in the western part of Sweden.?PARTICIPANTS—Women were randomly selected from the general population in the study area, 40 to 50 years of age. The response rate was 81.7 per cent.?MAIN RESULTS—Women who were non-employed had a significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR=2.82; 95% confidence intervals 1.69, 4.70), as well as women exposed to job strain (OR=3.27; 1.92, 5.57), independently of the level of social network/support. Furthermore, exposure to low social support, low social anchorage or low social participation independently showed significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR=2.75; 1.71, 4.42; OR=2.91; 1.81, 4.69 and OR=1.69; 1.10, 2.61, respectively).?CONCLUSIONS—Work related factors, such as non-employment and job strain, and circumstances within the private sphere, such as social network/support, seem equally important for middle aged women's health status. These findings ought to have important policy implications and also to be of major importance in a primary health care setting when meeting women who seek health care because of common symptoms.???Keywords: women's health; common symptoms; job strain; non-employment; social support PMID:10746113

  6. The Resume Characteristics Determining Job Interviews for Middle-Aged Women Seeking Entry-Level Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emily; Lahey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining an entry-level job can be critically important for women with little education, particularly those who have taken time out of the labor force. This article uses archival data from a field experiment, called a resume audit study, to examine the characteristics of entry-level resumes that are important to potential employers. In accordance…

  7. Folic acid fortified milk increases blood folate and lowers homocysteine concentration in women of childbearing age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J Green; C Murray Skeaff; Jennifer EP; Bernard J Venn

    2005-01-01

    Daily consumption of 400 µg folic acid prior to conception and during early pregnancy is recommended for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD). Strategies to increase folic acid consumption include supplements and fortified foods. Milk is consumed by women and can be fortified with folic acid but little is known about the effect of fortified milk on blood folate

  8. Factors That May Influence the Experience of Hot Flushes by Healthy Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in menopausal symptoms in general and hot flushes (HFs) in particular has grown in recent years. This is mostly due to increased awareness and the vast impact these symptoms have on women's lives. Despite the high prevalence of women who experience HFs, a definitive etiology for HFs is yet to be found. Our objective was to review the current literature dealing with associated factors for experiencing HFs and to provide a synthesized overview on this common and often debilitating condition. Methods We systematically searched the English-language literature in the PubMed database using relevant key words and included only those articles that contained information on associated factors for HFs in generally healthy midlife women. Results Both conflicting scientific results between studies documenting factors that influence HFs and the lack of validated measuring tools make it difficult to truly pinpoint associated factors for HFs. Nonetheless, we identified the following clusters of associated factors: the menopausal stages, sex steroid hormones, other endocrine agents, genetic polymorphisms, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and obesity, mood disorders, smoking, soy isoflavones and phytoestrogens, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Conclusions No single associated factor was consistently identified as having a major role in experiencing HFs. More resources should be directed to develop a unified study system along with multivariable analyses to get a better understanding of this condition, which often imposes a tremendous social and personal toll on the women who experience it. PMID:20831431

  9. Prospective study of smoking, antioxidant intake, and lung cancer in middle-aged women (USA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Speiurt; A. Colditz; J. Hunter; C. Hennekens

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that higher intake of fruits and vegetables can reduce the adverse impact of smoking on lung cancer risk, great uncertainty exists regarding the specific foods and their constituents that are protective . We therefore examine prospectively the relation between cigarette smoking and lung cancer incidence among women, and quantify the associations between dietary antioxidants, other

  10. Multiple environmental chemical exposures to lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls among childbearing-aged women (NHANES 1999–2004): Body burden and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Marcella Remer; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are neurotoxicants with intergenerational health consequences from maternal body burden and gestational exposures. Little is known about multiple chemical exposures among childbearing-aged women. Objectives To determine the percentage of women aged 16–49 of diverse races and ethnicities whose body burdens for all three xenobiotics were at or above the median; to identify mixed exposures; and to describe those women disproportionately burdened by two or more of these chemicals based on susceptibility- and exposure-related attributes, socioeconomic factors and race-ethnicity. Methods Secondary data analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Results The best-fit logistic regression model without interactions contained 12 variables. Four risk factors associated with body burden were notable (P ? 0.05). An exponential relationship was demonstrated with increasing age. Any fish consumption in past 30 days more than doubled the odds. Heavy alcohol consumption increased the relative risk. History of breastfeeding reduced this risk. These women were more likely to have two xenobiotics at or above the median than one. More than one-fifth of these childbearing-aged women had three xenobiotic levels at or above the median. Conclusions These findings are among the first description of US childbearing-aged women’s body burden and risk factors for multiple chemical exposures. This study supports increasing age, any fish consumption and heavy alcohol consumption as significant risk factors for body burden. History of breastfeeding lowered the body burden. Limited evidence was found of increased risk among minority women independent of other risk factors. PMID:23158727

  11. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance of Urinary Tract Isolates in Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis among College-Aged Women: Choosing a First-Line Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hames, Leesa; Rice, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors of this retrospective case study focused on antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary tract isolates in cases of acute uncomplicated cystitis in college-aged women, aged 18 to 24 years, diagnosed at a major south-central university student health center. Methods: The authors obtained pertinent data from…

  13. Enhancing participation of women of child-bearing age in a literacy for health project in southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T T; Oriuwa, C L; Uzoho, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the approach of a 'literacy for health project' in southeastern Nigeria to recruit and maintain participants. Literacy for health projects enhance and develop the educational abilities of women while at the same time acting as a vehicle to combat the problems associated with maternal and child health. We describe ways to foster and enhance the participation of women of child-bearing age in a literacy for health project operated in Igbo-speaking southeastern Nigeria. Findings reveal that of four literacy centres, participation rates ranged from 50.35% to 61.1%. We maintain that efforts designed to impart the transference of literacy and numeracy skills to such women in southeastern Nigeria must: (a) address the farming needs, practices and operations of the target community prior to programme implementation; (b) consider the inclusion of counsellors in addition to traditional village health workers and/or literacy instructors; (c) determine the impact of using other sites based on community activities; as opposed to traditional locations such as schools and churches; (d) use incentives to motivate participants; and (e) extend the current level of participation beyond focus groups to planning beyond curriculum development. PMID:10418274

  14. Influences of player nationality, playing position, and height on relative age effects at women's under-17 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young male soccer players who are born early in a cohort are overrepresented on elite soccer teams. Selection advantages such as this have been termed 'relative age effects' (RAEs). Few studies have examined RAEs in elite women's youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of RAEs in the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) U-17 Women's World Cup competition and their link to playing positions. In the entire cohort of 672 players, we found significant RAEs in the geographical zones of Europe and North and Central America, no RAEs in the zones of Asia, Oceania, and South America, and significant inverse RAEs in the zone of Africa. Additionally, significant RAEs were found for goalkeepers and defenders from Europe and North and Central America. Inverse RAEs occurred for African goalkeepers, defenders, and strikers. Goalkeepers of all zones were significantly taller than players of all other playing positions. The results of this study show that remarkable RAEs do exist at elite women's youth soccer. Similar to men's soccer, there is a bias toward the inclusion of relatively older players, and a link between RAEs and playing positions. PMID:22909307

  15. The Effects of Health Education through Face To Face Teaching and Educational Movies, on Suburban Women in Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Vameghi, R; Mohammad, K; Karimloo, M; Soleimani, F; Sajedi, F

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ‘face-to-face education’ and ‘educational movies’ on ‘knowledge’ and ‘practice’ of women of child-bearing-age, in terms of health-care during pregnancy and during infancy in a suburban region near Tehran City, Iran. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, the sample included 873 married women. Questionnaires for knowledge and practice assessment were designed. The women were assigned to three groups: control (group I), face-to-face education (group II), and educational movie (group III). Knowledge questionnaires were completed before and immediately after intervention. Practice questionnaires were completed before and three months after intervention. Both questionnaires consisted of two types of questions: type A (concerning infant care issues) and type B (concerning prenatal health care). Results: There was a significant difference in post-test knowledge between groups I and II and between groups I and III, but not between groups II and III. In terms of post-test practice, the changes were determined for every individual question, and significantly, better results were seen in group II, especially concerning type B questions. Conclusion: Face to face education lead to better practice than educational movies. In addition, significantly better practice occurred regarding child health care issues rather than prenatal issues in both groups. Realistic and tangible issues, those easy to practice, and with little or no economical burden imposed on the family, progressed from the knowledge state to the practice state more successfully in both groups. PMID:23113010

  16. Birthweight, parental age, birth order and breast cancer risk in African-American and white women: a population-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Newman, Beth; Millikan, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Much recent work has focused on hypotheses that very early life exposures influence adult cancer risk. For breast cancer it has been hypothesized that high in utero estrogen exposure may increase risk. Methods We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study of incident breast cancer in North Carolina, to examine associations for three possible surrogates of high prenatal estrogen exposure: weight at birth, maternal age, and birth order. We also examined paternal age. Birthweight analyses were conducted for white and African-American women born in North Carolina on or after 1949 (196 cases, 167 controls). Maternal age was analyzed for US born participants younger than 49 years of age (280 cases, 236 controls). Results There was a weak inverse association between birthweight in the highest tertile and breast cancer overall (odds ratio [OR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–1.2), although associations differed by race (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–1.0, and OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5–2.1 for African-American and white women, respectively). For maternal age there was an approximately threefold increase in risk in women whose mothers were older than 22 years of age, relative to 19–22 years of age, when the women were born. After adjustment for maternal age, older paternal age increased risk in the oldest and youngest age categories (relative to 23–27 years of age at the woman's birth: OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.1 for age 15–22 years; OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7–2.2 for age 28–34 years; and OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7–3.2 for age 35–56 years). There was no association with older paternal age for white women alone. After adjustment for maternal age (265 cases, 224 controls), a birth order of fifth or higher relative to first had an inverse association with breast cancer for women younger than 49 years old (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3–1.3). Conclusion Although the CIs are wide, these results lend support to the possibility that the prenatal period is important for subsequent breast cancer risk, but they do not support the estrogen hypothesis as a unifying theory for the influence of this period. PMID:15535848

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake and body mass index in a large sample of middle-aged Australian men and women.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Kowal, Paul; Soriano, Melinda M; Williams, Sharon; Banks, Emily; Vo, Kha; Byles, Julie

    2014-06-01

    Dietary guidelines around the world recommend increased intakes of fruits and non-starchy vegetables for the prevention of chronic diseases and possibly obesity. This study aimed to describe the association between body mass index (BMI) and habitual fruit and vegetable consumption in a large sample of 246,995 Australian adults aged 45 + year who had been recruited for the "45 and Up" cohort study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed using validated short questions, while weight and height were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was used, by sex, to assess the association between fruit and vegetable intake and BMI. Compared to the referent normal weight category (BMI 18.5 to 24.9), the odds ratio (OR) of being in the highest vegetable intake quartile was 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.14) for overweight women (BMI 25.0-29.9) and 1.18 (95% CI 1.12-1.24) for obese women. The association was in the opposite direction for fruit for overweight (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.80-0.90) and obese women (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.69-0.80). Obese and overweight women had higher odds of being in the highest intake quartile for combined fruit and vegetable intake, and were more likely to meet the "2 and 5" target or to have five or more serves of fruit and vegetables per day. In contrast, overweight men were less likely to be in high intake quartiles and less likely to meet recommended target of 5 per day, but there was no consistent relationship between obesity and fruit and vegetable intake. Underweight women and underweight men were less likely to be in the highest intake quartiles or to meet the recommended targets. These data suggest that improving adherence to dietary targets for fruit and vegetables may be a dietary strategy to overcome overweight among men, but that overweight and obese women are already adhering to these targets. The association between fruit and vegetable intake and underweight in adults suggests that improving fruit and vegetables intakes are important for the overall dietary patterns of people in this group. PMID:24941447

  18. Evaluation of Clinical Variables Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Middle-Aged Hypertensive Women

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Michelle; Martucci, Renata Brum; Burlá, Adriana K.; Oigman, Wille; Neves, Mario Fritsch; Araújo, Denizar Vianna

    2012-01-01

    It has been previously documented that carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify clinical parameters associated with an increased cIMT treated hypertensive women. Female patients (n = 116) with essential hypertension, aged 40–65 years, were included in this study. Vascular ultrasound was performed and the patients were divided into two groups according to the values of cIMT (< or ?0.9?mm). Patients with greater cIMT presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. Serum HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower and CRP was significantly higher in the same group. There was a significant correlation between cIMT and age (r = 0.25, P = 0.007), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.19, P = 0.009), pulse pressure (r = 0.30, P = 0.001), and LDL-cholesterol (r = 0.19, P = 0.043). cIMT was correlated to CRP (r = 0.31, P = 0.007) and negatively correlated to HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.33, P = 0.001). In logistic regression, only HDL-cholesterol, CRP, and pulse pressure were shown to be independent variables associated to increased cIMT. In conclusion, pulse pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and CRP are variables correlated with cIMT in treated hypertensive women. PMID:22701780

  19. Body composition and age in african-american and caucasian women: Relationship to plasma leptin levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Perry; J. E. Morley; M. Horowitz; F. E. Kaiser; D. K. Miller; G. Wittert

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is a recently isolated peptide hormone released from adipocytes that has been postulated to play a role in appetite regulation and energy metabolism. Aging affects both food intake and body composition. Body composition is also affected by ethnicity. We have evaluated the relationships between serum leptin levels, age, body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and hormonal parameters in a

  20. TMPRSS6 rs855791 Polymorphism Influences the Susceptibility to Iron Deficiency Anemia in Women at Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Sung-Nan; Ma, Ming-Chun; You, Huey-Ling; Fu, Hung-Chun; Kuo, Ching-Yuan; Rau, Kun-Ming; Wang, Ming-Chung; Lee, Chien-Te

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide-association studies have identified the TMPRSS6 polymorphism rs855791 has the strongest association with red blood cell indices or iron parameters in general population. Whether this genetic variant influences the susceptibility of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in women with menstruation has not been well studied. Methods: In this case-control study, we enrolled 67 women with IDA and 107 healthy volunteers, and analyzed their complete blood counts, rs855791 genotypes, and menstrual amounts. Menstrual blood loss was evaluated with a pictorial blood-loss assessment chart. Results: There were significantly fewer rs855791 C homozygotes in the IDA group than in the healthy group (11.9% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.03). The odds ratio (OR) of C homozygotes having IDA versus non-CC subjects having IDA was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.17 - 0.95, p = 0.04). When the analysis was confined to study subjects with menorrhagia, this difference became more prominent (9.6% vs. 28.6%, p = 0.01; OR, 0.27, 95% CI, 0.09 - 0.77, p = 0.01). For women with non-CC genotypes, there was an inverse correlation between hemoglobin levels and menstrual loss (p < 0.001); however, this association was not found for those with genotypes CC (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Our study suggests homozygosity for TMPRSS6 rs855791 C genotype has a protective role against IDA in women at reproductive age, especially in those with menorrhagia. PMID:24782651

  1. Associations of cardiovascular variables and HAART with cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Howard A.; Weedon, Jeremy; Holman, Susan; Manly, Jennifer; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Mack, Wendy J.; Golub, Elizabeth; Lazar, Jason; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kaplan, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite use of HAART, cognitive impairment remains prevalent in HIV. Indeed, a recent study suggested that in certain instances, stopping HAART was associated with improved cognitive function (Robertson et al. 2010). HAART is occasionally associated with cardiovascular pathology and such pathology may be associated with cognitive impairment. To explore these associations, we assessed the relative contributions of cardiovascular variables such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, of HIV and HAART to cognition. Participants were members of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). In analysis of cross-sectional data using general linear models we assessed the relationship between each cardiovascular variable and Stroop interference time and symbol digit modalities test while adjusting for age, HIV, education, depression, and race/ethnicity. We also analyzed the association of summary measures of HAART use with cognition. In multivariate models significance was limited to carotid lesions and carotid intima-medial thickness quintile (CIMT) with Stroop interference time (for carotid lesions, coefficient = 10.5, CI: 3.5 to 17.5, p = 0.003, N = 1130; for CIMT quintile, coefficient = 8.6, CI = 1.7 to 15.4, p = 0.025, N = 1130). Summary measures of protease inhibitor use and other HAART measures were in most cases not associated with cognitive score in multivariate models. We conclude that in the HAART era among middle-aged women with HIV, carotid disease may be significantly associated with some measures of cognitive impairment. In this cross-sectional study, we could detect neither positive nor negative effects of HAART on cognition. PMID:22006469

  2. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Grineva, EN; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, IL

    2013-01-01

    It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(OH)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p<0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p<0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p<0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2. PMID:23924693

  3. Iron status of middle-aged women in five counties of rural China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MM Root; J Hu; LS Stephenson; RS Parker; TC Campbell

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationships of dietary iron sources, other dietary factors, and lifestyle to iron status among premenopausal and recently postmenopausal Chinese women with widely varying regional dietary patterns.Design: Cross-sectional. Subjects were interviewed, blood samples were drawn, and dietary intakes were measured by a 3-day dietary survey for subjects in the five survey counties.Setting: Rural ChinaSubjects: About 80 randomly

  4. The Life Control Scale: Validation with a Population Cohort of Middle-Aged Australian Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Lee; Jess Ford; Helen Gramotnev

    2009-01-01

    Background  The concept of perceived control is central to many theories of physical and emotional well-being. However, existing measures\\u000a are lengthy and generally focus on job control. In epidemiological research, brief measures and those which can be applied\\u000a across entire populations are needed. Among women in particular, a substantial minority have no paid work, while most also\\u000a have major unpaid family

  5. Unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women in Lesotho and implications for mother-to-child transmission.

    PubMed

    Adair, Timothy

    2009-03-01

    In Lesotho, the risk of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV is substantial; women of childbearing age have a high HIV prevalence rate (26.4%), low knowledge of HIV status and a total fertility rate of 3.5 births per woman. An effective means of preventing MTCT is to reduce unwanted fertility. This paper examines the unmet need for contraception to limit and space births among HIV-positive women in Lesotho aged 15-49 years, using the 2004 Lesotho Demographic and Health Survey. HIV-positive women have their need for contraception unmet in almost one-third of cases, and multivariate analysis reveals this unmet need is most likely amongst the poor and amongst those not approving of family planning. Urgent action is needed to lower the level of unmet need and reduce MTCT. A constructive strategy is to improve access to family planning for all women in Lesotho, irrespective of HIV status, and, more specifically, integrate family planning with MTCT prevention and voluntary counselling and testing services. PMID:18847526

  6. Women's Empowerment and Contraceptive Use: The Role of Independent versus Couples' Decision-Making, from a Lower Middle Income Country Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Sheikh, Muhammad Ishaque; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined - and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach. Methods We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR), to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods. Results Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method. Conclusion Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to be made to educate women and their husbands equally, with particular focus on highly effective contraceptive methods. PMID:25119727

  7. Women's autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background How socio-demographic factors influence women's autonomy in decision making on health care including purchasing goods and visiting family and relatives are very poorly studied in Nepal. This study aims to explore the links between women's household position and their autonomy in decision making. Methods We used Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2006, which provided data on ever married women aged 15-49 years (n = 8257). The data consists of women's four types of household decision making; own health care, making major household purchases, making purchase for daily household needs and visits to her family or relatives. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of these variables to all four types of decision making. Results Women's autonomy in decision making is positively associated with their age, employment and number of living children. Women from rural area and Terai region have less autonomy in decision making in all four types of outcome measure. There is a mixed variation in women's autonomy in the development region across all outcome measures. Western women are more likely to make decision in own health care (1.2-1.6), while they are less likely to purchase daily household needs (0.6-0.9). Women's increased education is positively associated with autonomy in own health care decision making (p < 0.01), however their more schooling (SLC and above) shows non-significance with other outcome measures. Interestingly, rich women are less likely to have autonomy to make decision in own healthcare. Conclusions Women from rural area and Terai region needs specific empowerment programme to enable them to be more autonomous in the household decision making. Women's autonomy by education, wealth quintile and development region needs a further social science investigation to observe the variations within each stratum. A more comprehensive strategy can enable women to access community resources, to challenge traditional norms and to access economic resources. This will lead the women to be more autonomous in decision making in the due course. PMID:20630107

  8. Noninvasive assessment of left ventricular and myocardial contractility in middle-aged men and women: disparate evolution above the age of 50?

    PubMed

    Claessens, T E; Rietzschel, E R; De Buyzere, M L; De Bacquer, D; De Backer, G; Gillebert, T C; Verdonck, P R; Segers, P

    2007-02-01

    End-systolic elastance (E(es)) is a frequently used index of left ventricular (LV) contractility. However, because of its inherent dependence on LV geometry, E(es) cannot be used to compare myocardial contractile state between ventricles with different geometries, which is the case in any cross-sectional study. Various normalization methods for E(es) have been proposed in the literature, but a standardized method is still lacking. In this study, we introduced a novel alternative normalization technique and compared it with three previously suggested methods. We tested all normalization methods to assess the age- and sex-related differences in myocardial contractility in a large population sample of 2,184 middle-aged (ages, 35-55 yr) untreated subjects free from overt cardiovascular disease. Ventricular contractility E(es) was determined using a previously validated noninvasive single-beat method, based on two-dimensional echocardiographic and brachial blood pressure measurements. Myocardial contractility was estimated as 1) E(es).end-diastolic volume (EDV); 2) E(es).LV mass (LVM); 3) 0.433.E(es).LVM/relative wall thickness (RWT), based on a theoretical LV model; and 4) 0.0941.E(es).LVM(0.455).RWT(-0.159), a novel semiempirical expression derived in this study. Because of the difference in their underlying assumptions, the various myocardial contractility indexes do not provide consistent information with respect to sex differences. Despite these discrepancies, it was found that myocardial contractility in women appears to be better preserved after the age of 50 yr compared with that in men. The physiological mechanisms behind this potentially clinically important phenomenon at population level require further investigation. PMID:17287452

  9. Fractionated myotatic reflex times in women by activity level and age.

    PubMed

    Hart, B A

    1986-05-01

    A lifetime habit of participation in vigorous physical exercise has been associated with the maintenance of efficient neuromuscular performance into old age. During test sessions on three consecutive days, measures of fractioned patellar (knee-jerk) reflex times under normal and Jendrassik conditions were obtained from 60 female participants classified as old inactive, old active, young inactive, or young active. A three-factor analysis of variance showed that age/activity group differences were present for reflex latency, but not for reflex motor time or total reflex time. Age differences were demonstrated for degree of reflex facilitation resulting from the Jendrassik maneuver. The results demonstrate that the functional reflex is well maintained into the sixth decade, but that sensitivity to Jendrassik facilitation of the pathway is diminished with age. PMID:3700986

  10. Night eating and weight change in middle-aged men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G S Andersen; A J Stunkard; T I A Sørensen; L Petersen; B L Heitmann

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the habit of eating at night, and the 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight changes in a middle-aged population, with particular focus on the obese.DESIGN: Prospective study with initial examination of the cohort in 1982–83, re-examination in 1987–88 and a third examination in 1992–93.SUBJECTS: The Danish MONICA cohort includes an age- and sex-stratified random

  11. Hand osteoarthritis in older women is associated with carotid and coronary atherosclerosis: the AGES Reykjavik study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Jonsson; G P Helgadottir; T Aspelund; G Eiriksdottir; S Sigurdsson; T Ingvarsson; T B Harris; L Launer; V Gudnason

    2009-01-01

    Objective:There is evidence that atherosclerosis may contribute to the initiation or progression of osteoarthritis. To test this hypothesis, the presence and severity of hand osteoarthritis (HOA) was compared with markers of atherosclerotic vascular disease in an elderly population.Patients and Methods:The AGES Reykjavik Study is a population-based multidisciplinary study of ageing in the elderly population of Reykjavik. In a study of

  12. Age at natural menopause in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a follow-up study of U.S. black women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Se; Rosenberg, Lynn; Wise, Lauren A.; Boggs, Deborah A.; LaValley, Michael; Palmer, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Early age at natural menopause has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in several studies, although the literature is not consistent. This relation has not been examined among African American women. Study design Data were from the Black Women’s Health Study, a follow-up study of African-American women enrolled in 1995. Among 11,212 women who were naturally menopausal at entry to the study or during follow-up through 2008, we assessed the relation of age at natural menopause to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. At baseline and biennially, participants reported on reproductive and medical history, including gynecologic surgeries and exogenous hormone use. Mortality data were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for categories of age at menopause. Results Of 692 deaths identified during 91,829 person years of follow-up, 261 were due to cancer, 199 to cardiovascular diseases and 232 to other causes. Natural menopause before age 40 was associated with increased all-cause mortality (MRR=1.34, 95% CI 0.96-1.84, relative to menopause at 50-54 years; P-trend=0.04) and with the subcategories of death considered--cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all other causes. The associations were present among never and ever users of postmenopausal female hormones and among never and ever smokers. Conclusions In this large prospective cohort of African-American women, natural menopause before age 40 was associated with a higher rate of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. These findings provide support for the theory that natural menopause before age 40 may be a marker of accelerated somatic aging. PMID:23642541

  13. Improving medicaid: three decades of change to better serve women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kay; Applegate, Mary; Gee, Rebekah E

    2015-06-01

    Over the past 3 decades, major changes enhanced Medicaid's role in improving the health of women and perinatal outcomes. Reforms in the 1980s and 1990s had impact not only on coverage but also on current policy debates. Whether or not states expand eligibility under the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid is important. Increased coverage for well-woman visits, preconception care, and contraceptive methods are opportunities in gynecology. As a critical source of maternity coverage, Medicaid can improve prenatal care, reduce preterm births, limit early elective deliveries, and increase postpartum visits. Obstetrician-gynecologists play a role in translating coverage into access to quality services. PMID:25860326

  14. Power doppler ultrasound assessment of the relationship between age and ovarian perifollicular blood flow in women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Costello; Sanu M. Shrestha; Peter Sjoblom; Glen McNally; Michael J. Bennett; Stephen J. Steigrad; Graeme J. Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between age and ovarian perifollicular blood flow (PFBF) in women undergoing IVF.\\u000a Methods: Serial transvaginal power Doppler ultrasound (PDU) scans to assess ovarian PFBF were performed prospectively throughout the follicular phase of ovarian stimulation in women undergoing IVF. The ultrasound assessment days were categorized according to day of hCG trigger.\\u000a Results: A total of 1050

  15. Estimated Numbers of Men and Women Infected with HIV/AIDS in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Bravo-García, Enrique; Gayet, Cecilia; Patterson, Thomas L.; Bertozzi, Stefano M.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    Tijuana, Mexico, just south of San Diego, California, is located by the busiest land border crossing in the world. Although UNAIDS considers Mexico to be a country of “low prevalence, high risk,” recent surveillance data among sentinel populations in Tijuana suggests HIV prevalence is increasing. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of men and women aged 15 to 49 years infected with HIV in Tijuana. Gender and age-specific estimates of the Tijuana population were obtained from the 2000 Mexican census. Population and HIV prevalence estimates for at-risk groups were obtained from published reports, community based studies, and data from the Centro Nacional para la Prevención y Control del VIH/SIDA (CENSIDA). Age-specific fertility rates for Mexico were used to derive the number of low and high-risk pregnant women. Numbers of HIV-positive men and women were estimated for each at-risk group and then aggregated. A high growth scenario based on current HIV prevalence and a conservative, low growth estimate were determined. A total of 686,600 men and women in Tijuana were aged 15 to 49 years at the time of the 2000 census. Considering both scenarios, the number of infected persons ranged from 1,803 to 5,472 (HIV prevalence: 0.26 to 0.80%). The majority of these persons were men (>70%). The largest number of infected persons were MSM (N = 1,146 to 3,300) and IDUs (N = 147 to 650). Our data suggest that up to one in every 125 persons aged 15–49 years in Tijuana is HIV-infected. Interventions to reduce ongoing spread of HIV are urgently needed. PMID:16736378

  16. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Ma?gorzata; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Karakiewicz, Beata; Do??gowska, Barbara; Grochans, El?bieta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1) The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2) A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3) AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve. PMID:25826396

  17. Racial differences in fibroid prevalence and ultrasound findings in asymptomatic young women (ages 18–30 years old): A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Erica E.; Ekpo, Geraldine E.; Cardozo, Eden R.; Brocks, Maureen; Dune, Tanaka; Cohen, Leeber S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine the prevalence of fibroids in asymptomatic young black and white women (ages 18–30yo); 2) To determine other differences in uterine and adnexal anatomy; 3) To obtain preliminary data for sample size calculations. Design A pilot cross-sectional study. Setting An academic medical center Patients 101 non-parous black and white women, ages 18–30 years old, with no known diagnosis of fibroids or clinically suggestive symptoms. Interventions A transvaginal ultrasound was performed in the follicular phase in all subjects. Main Outcome Measure(s) 1) Presence of fibroids; 2) endometrial thickness; 3) ovarian findings. Results Of the 101 participants (mean age 24.5 ± 3.5), 43% self-identified as black and 57% as white. The prevalence of ultrasound-diagnosed fibroids was 15% overall (26% in black women and 7% in white women). The mean fibroid size was 2.3 ± 2.1 cm. There was a significant difference in endometrial thickness between races, even after adjusting for contraception use and fibroid presence. Conclusions Racial differences in fibroid prevalence exist even before women become symptomatic. Findings of thicker endometrium in black women could have clinical implications and warrants further investigation. PMID:23498888

  18. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seino, Satoshi; Shinkai, Shoji; Iijima, Katsuya; Obuchi, Shuichi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Hideyo; Kawai, Hisashi; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women). Body weight, fat mass (FM), percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM), and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI), FM index (FMI), FFM index (FFMI), and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Results Simple means (standard deviation) of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9) kg/m2, 24.9 (6.3)%, 5.96 (2.09) kg/m2, 17.4 (1.5) kg/m2, and 7.29 (0.76) kg/m2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3) kg/m2, 31.7 (7.1)%, 7.40 (2.61) kg/m2, 15.3 (1.2) kg/m2, and 5.86 (0.67) kg/m2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends), but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends), but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends). Conclusion The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition change in older Japanese women. PMID:26147341

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates Genetic Influences on Age at First Consensual Sexual Intercourse in Women

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Andrew C.; Turkheimer, Eric N.; Emery, Robert E.; Nelson, Elliot; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    We examine interactive effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on heritable variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse in a young cohort of 3,350 female and 2,724 male Australian twins. Consistent with hypotheses, genetic influences explained little if any variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse for female twins reporting CSA (CSA+), with shared environment explaining 73%. For female twins reporting no history of CSA (CSA?), 39% of variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse was explained by genetic effects, with shared environment accounting for 30%. For male twins, significant interactive effects of CSA on genetic and environmental variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse were not observed. Overall genetic influences explained 51% of variation in age at first consensual sexual intercourse for male twins, with shared environment accounting for 8%. For both female and male twins, results from models that included conduct disorder as a covariate were near identical to results from models without conduct disorder. PMID:18193478

  20. Why Are the Benefits of Increased Resources Not Impacting the Risk of HIV Infection for High SES Women in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    Mumah, Joyce N.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence of a positive SES-HIV gradient in some SSA countries, researchers and policy-makers frequently assume that a range of protective interventions – increasing awareness of mechanisms of HIV transmission, techniques for prevention, greater access to health care facilities, and greater availability of condoms – will reduce the likelihood of contracting HIV, even among higher SES populations. We therefore explore the relationships between SES and these intervening behaviors to illuminate the complex factors that link SES and HIV among women in Cameroon. Methods We use bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis to examine patterns among the 5, 155 women aged 15–49 who participated in the 2004 CDHS. Results The results show a strong pattern where higher SES women have greater access to and use of health care facilities, higher levels of condom use, more HIV knowledge, and command higher power within their relationships, yet also have higher rates of HIV. These traditionally protective factors appear to be offset by riskier sexual behaviors on the part of women with increased resources, most notably longer years of premarital sexual experience, multiple partners in last 12 months, and sexual encounters outside of relationship. Multivariate analyses suggests net of the effect of other factors, women who command higher decision-making power, have greater access to health care, more negative attitudes toward wife beating, longer years of premarital sexual exposure, and partners with professional/white collar jobs (characteristics associated with rising SES) had higher odds of testing positive for HIV. Conclusion Results show that higher riskier sexual practices on part of high SES women offset benefits that may have accrued from their increased access to resources. The results suggest that traditional approaches to HIV prevention which rely on poverty reduction, improving access to health care, improving HIV knowledge, and boosting women’s social and economic power may be insufficient to address other drivers of HIV infection among women in SSA. PMID:24968350

  1. Perception, attitude and practices of women towards pelvic examination and Pap smear in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Charles, Christopher A.D.; Francis, Cynthia G.; South-Bourne, Neva; Peters, Racquel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that women's ability to access contraceptive methods depend on their socio-economic, educational, professional status, and the health and well-being of their families and themselves. Therefore, the embarking of the Governments of the Caribbean on important initiatives relating to gynecological matters is very important and timely. Aims: This study aims to examine the perception, attitude and practice of Jamaican women towards the matter of pelvic examination. Patients and Methods: The current study used an extracted sample of 7,168 women in their reproductive years (15-49 yrs) from a study which was undertaken by the National Family Planning Board in 2002 on Reproductive Health. Data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, Ill. USA). Logistic regression was used to analyze factors/variables pertaining to Pelvic examination. Results: The findings revealed that older women are more likely to have done a Pelvic examination compared to younger women (?2 = 675.29, P < 0.001). Age, number of pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, number of pregnancies that resulted in induced abortion, age of first sexual intercourse, number of years of schooling, area of residence and socio-economic class are statistically significant factors of Pelvic examinations in Jamaica. Therefore, the model had significant predictive power where (?2 = 1022.79, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The multidimensional nature of the variables, which emerged in the current study, indicate that a multisectoral approach should be used to address low pelvic and Pap smear examination among Jamaican women. PMID:22558551

  2. When Old Age Became a Social Problem, Women Were Left Behind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1987-01-01

    Social policies and programs for aged are characterized by failure to recognize that females predominate among elderly persons. Masculine bias toward independence and disregard for feminine values of relatedness are considered in relation to studies of interdependence of elderly, their families, and communities. Foundations of this bias are found…

  3. Brain-Age Quotients in Recently Detoxified Alcoholic, Recovered Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochla, Nancy A. Nichols; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined performance of female alcoholics, recovered alcoholics, and controls on the Brain-Age Quotient (BAQ) and subtests. The mean BAQs of the alcoholics and recovered alcoholics were significantly lower than that of the controls. Results suggest a differential recovery of cognitive abilities in abstinent female alcoholics. (Author)

  4. Patterns of and Factors Potentially Influencing the Age at First Surgery for Women with Ovarian Endometriomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xishi Liu; Lei Yuan; Fanghua Shen; Sun-Wei Guo

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate patterns of and factors that may influence age at the first surgery (AATFS) for ovarian endometrioma. Methods: Five hundred and ninety-two consecutive patients with ovarian endometriomas who underwent surgery at the Shanghai OB\\/GYN Hospital from 2003 to 2004 were interviewed and their charts studied. Twelve variables were examined to assess their effect on AATFS using survival analysis

  5. Chrono- and Immunocorrection of Inflammatory Disorders of Internal Reproductive Organs in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Litvinenko, G I; Shurlygina, A V; Dergacheva, T I; Mel'nikova, E V; Trufakin, V A

    2015-05-01

    We compared the effectiveness of immunomodulators used in the treatment of patients with chronic salpingitis and oophoritis with or without changes in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in blood lymphocytes at incubation with the drug. Diurnal variations in individual reaction of SDH in blood lymphocytes to thymalin or ridostin were revealed. In the groups of women receiving ridostin or thymalin during the reaction of lymphocyte SDH to it, improvement of clinical laboratory and immunological parameters was observed in the majority of the patients and no effect was found in a lesser group of patients than in the groups treated with drugs during the absence of lymphocyte SDH reaction thereto. The timing of the presence of SDH reaction to drugs in the immunocompetent cells makes it possible to set the optimal daily regime of their application and to select a drug that would be most effective in each particular case. PMID:26033592

  6. Effect of intake of gardenia fruits and combined exercise of middle-aged obese women on hormones regulating energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae Sug; Huh, Yu Sub

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study is aimed at analyzing how exercise and gardenia affect hormones that regulate energy metabolism by having middle aged, obese women exercise and take gardenia simultaneously. [Methods] This study assigned a total of 35 middle-aged obese women with body fat percentage of more than 35 percent into 9 people of the complex treatment group of intake of gardenia and exercise, 9 people of the exercise group, 9 people of the gardenia group and 8 people of the control group in order to find out the effect of the intake of gardenia fruits and Combined exercise of 8 weeks on the body composition, hormones regulating energy metabolism. This study arranged .08 g per weight of 1 kg of the gardenia fruits to be taken twice a day for 8 weeks after breakfast and dinner through the numerical method of roasting the gardenia fruits on fire. And the exercise program was set to be five times a week for 8 weeks, whereas the aerobic exercise of 60 to 70 minutes was 50 to 60 percent for HRmax; thus, the resistance exercise was set to be 1-RM 50 percent. As for the data analysis, the two-way repeated measures ANOVA was utilized for the analysis of interactive effect between groups and times. [Results] Thus, the obtained conclusion is as follows: The %fat and WHR has decreased further in the gardenia+exercise group and the exercise group as compared with the control group. And the visceral fat area has decreased further in the gardenia and exercise group and the gardenia group as compared with the control group (p<.05). In addition, the gardenia+exercise group and the exercise group were found to have a significant improvement effect in all the items of body composition, and the gardenia group has reduced the fat percentage and BMI after the treatment (p<.05). Leptin has decreased further in the gardenia+exercise group and the exercise group as compared with the control group, and the insulin resistance and GLP-1 have decreased in all the treatment groups (p<.05). [Conclusion] As a result of this study, all the treatment groups were found to have an improvement effect of research variables in general; therefore, the single treatment and complex treatment for the middle-aged obese women were found to have a positive impact on body composition, adjusting factors for energy metabolism. Also, the complex treatment was found to be more positive in terms of change amount. In particular, in the case of visceral fat area that is the major risk factor for metabolic disease of middle-aged obese women, it was found to have decreased further in the complex treatment group than the gardenia group; therefore, the complex treatment was found to be more advantageous. PMID:25566438

  7. Associations of cardiovascular variables and HAART with cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Howard A; Weedon, Jeremy; Holman, Susan; Manly, Jennifer; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Mack, Wendy J; Golub, Elizabeth; Lazar, Jason; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kaplan, Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Despite the use of highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART), cognitive impairment remains prevalent in HIV. Indeed a recent study suggested that in certain instances, stopping HAART was associated with improved cognitive function (Robertson et al. Neurology 74(16):1260-1266 2010). HAART is occasionally associated with cardiovascular pathology and such pathology may be associated with cognitive impairment. To explore these associations, we assessed the relative contributions of cardiovascular variables such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, of HIV and HAART to cognition. The participants were members of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. In the analysis of cross-sectional data using general linear models, we assessed the relationship between each cardiovascular variable and Stroop interference time and symbol digit modalities test while adjusting for age, HIV, education, depression, and race/ethnicity. We also analyzed the association of summary measures of HAART use with cognition. In multivariate models, significance was limited to carotid lesions and carotid intima-medial thickness quintile (CIMT) with Stroop interference time (for carotid lesions, coefficient?=?10.5, CI 3.5 to 17.5, p?=?0.003, N?=?1,130; for CIMT quintile, coefficient?=?8.6, CI?=?1.7 to 15.4, p?=?0.025, N?=?1,130). The summary measures of protease inhibitor use and other HAART measures were in most cases not associated with cognitive score in multivariate models. We conclude that in the HAART era among middle-aged women with HIV, carotid disease may be significantly associated with some measures of cognitive impairment. In this cross-sectional study, we could detect neither positive nor negative effects of HAART on cognition. PMID:22006469

  8. Pregnancy glucose levels in women without diabetes or gestational diabetes and childhood cardiometabolic risk at 7 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Rosas, Lisa G.; Ferrara, Assiamira; King, Janet C.; Abrams, Barbara; Harley, Kim G.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between pregnancy glucose values in women without recognized pregestational diabetes or gestational diabetes (GDM) and cardiometabolic risk in their children. Study design This longitudinal cohort study of 211 Mexican-American mother-child pairs participating in CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas) used multiple logistic regression to estimate the children’s risk of non-fasting total cholesterol, non-fasting triglycerides, blood pressure and waist circumference g?75th percentile at 7 years of age associated with a 1 mmol/L (18 mg/dl) increase in maternal pregnancy glucose level, measured 1-hour after a 50-g oral glucose load. Results The odds ratios for children belonging to the upper quartile of diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and waist circumference (WC) associated with a 1 mmol/L increase in pregnancy glucose level were 1.39 (95% CI 1.10-1.75), 1.38 (95% CI 1.10-1.73) and 1. 25 (95% CI 1.02-1.54), respectively. Pre-pregnancy obesity was independently associated with increased odds of children belonging to the upper quartile of WC; maternal sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and gestational weight gain prior to the glucose test were not independently associated with any of the cardiometabolic outcomes. Conclusion In Mexican-American women without recognized pregestational diabetes or GDM, we found an association between increasing pregnancy glucose values and the children’s DBP, SBP and WC at 7 years of age. Whether interventions to reduce pregnancy glucose values, even if below levels diagnostic of overt disease, will mitigate subsequent high BP and abdominal obesity in late childhood remains to be determined. PMID:22790183

  9. Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, R.; Malis, V.; Hodgson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4–5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11–12% vs. SW: 6–8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104

  10. Acculturation and Post-migration Stress in Middle-aged Chinese Immigrant Women in Philadelphia: Variation between the Fujianese and the non-Fujianese Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Wen Ying; Meekyung Han; Marilyn Tseng

    2012-01-01

    This study examines acculturation and post-migration stress in 204 Fujianese immigrant women and 162 female immigrants from other parts of China currently residing in Philadelphia. Bivariate analyses showed variation in demographic characteristics between the Fujianese and non-Fujianese women was marginal, and both reported a unidimensional process of acculturation. However, the Fujianese women showed a higher level of post-migration stress. After

  11. Correlations of psycho-physiological parameters influencing the physical fitness of aged women.

    PubMed

    Bretz, É; Kóbor-Nyakas, D É; Bretz, K J; Hrehuss, N; Radák, Z; Nyakas, Csaba

    2014-12-01

    Regular assessment of psycho-physiological parameters in aged subjects helps to clarify physical and mental conditions which are important in the prevention of health-endangering events to assure a healthy aging. Thirty older care female residents consented voluntarily to participate in the study. The somatic and psycho-physiological parameters recorded were handgrip force, disjunctive reaction time, balance control and whole body movement coordination, the electrocardiogram and heart rate variability. Significant correlations were found between (a) reaction time and balance control efficiency (r = -0.567, p < 0.009), (b) reaction time and movement coordination accuracy (r = -0.453, p < 0.045), (c) cardiac state and movement coordination accuracy (r = 0.545, p < 0.016), (d) cardiac stress and cardiac state (r = -0.495, p < 0.031), and (e) cardiac stress and force (r = -0.822, p < 0.045). In conclusion, for the aim of establishing basic battery tests for assessing psycho-physiological condition of physical fitness our results emphasize the importance of systematic physical activity, endurance and strength training supporting muscle force, balance control and whole-body movement coordination, in addition to improving the cardiac stress index level. The strong interrelation among these parameters allows the drawing of a more complete view regarding the health condition of aged individuals. PMID:25201709

  12. Domestic violence and its predictors among married women in reproductive age in Fagitalekoma Woreda, Awi zone, Amhara regional state, North Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is one of the most systematic and prevalent human rights abuses in the world. It is a form of discrimination and deeply rooted in power imbalances and structural inequality between women and men. Documenting the extent of the problem and associated factors is essential to develop public health interventions to tackle violence against women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine magnitude of domestic violence and identify its predictors among married women in the reproductive age in north western Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to March 15, 2011 among 682 married women and 46 key informants. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents for the quantitative method. Purposive sampling was used to select in-depth interview key informants for and focus group discussants. Data were analyzed using SPSS window version 16.0. Binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the prevalence and identify independent predictors of domestic violence against women. Statistical association was measured by adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was declared at P?women reported different forms of psychological, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Alcohol consumption by husband (AOR?=?1.9, 95%CI?=?1.3, 2.8), being pregnant (AOR?=?2.1, 95% CI?=?1.4, 3.4), decision making power (AOR?=?2.3, 95% CI?=?1.5, 3.4) and annual income (AOR?=?1.9, 95% CI?=?1.1, 3.3) were predictors of domestic violence. Conclusion The prevalence of domestic violence was very high as compared to other studies. Women’s husband alcohol consumption, decision making power annual household income and being pregnant are some of the predictors of domestic violence against women. PMID:24308763

  13. Hormone receptors do not predict the HER2\\/neu status in all age groups of women with an operable breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Huang; P. Neven; M. Drijkoningen; R. Paridaens; H. Wildiers; E. Van Limbergen; P. Berteloot; F. Amant; I. Vergote; M. R. Christiaens

    2005-01-01

    Background: In breast cancer, there is an inverse relationship between HER2\\/neu overexpression and receptors for estrogen (ER) or progesterone (PR). Some clinical observations such as the age-related association between hormone receptors and tumour grade, which predicts HER2\\/neu overexpression, suggest an age-related relationship. Patients and methods: Our study population consisted of 1362 consecutive women receiving primary surgery for non-metastatic invasive breast

  14. Effects of prolonged and maintenance strength training on force production, walking, and balance in aging women and men.

    PubMed

    Holviala, J; Häkkinen, A; Alen, M; Sallinen, J; Kraemer, W; Häkkinen, K

    2014-02-01

    To examine effects of 21-week twice/week strength training (ST) period followed by an additional 21-week twice or once/week ST period on force production, walking and balance in aging people. Seventy-two women (58?±?7 years; W) and 63 (58?±?6 years) men (M) were randomized for the first 21-week ST period: STW and STM, control (C) CW and CM. Training participants were randomized for the second 21-week ST period: once/week STWx1 and STMx1, twice/week STWx2 and STMx2. LegPress, isometric leg extension rate of force development (RFD), walking time, and balance. First 21-week ST period: leg press, RFD, balance, and walking improved significantly in STW and STM. Second 21-week ST period: leg press first increased in STMx1 and STMx2, and then decreased to the level of 21 weeks in STMx2 and remained unchanged in STWx2 and decreased in STWx1 and STMx1. Walking and balance improved significantly in STWx1 and STWx2. A progressive 21-week ST period twice/week in aging people can lead to large improvements in maximal strength, walking time, and balance in both genders. A further strength training period with the same amount of training may maintain the strength gains, whereas balance and walking may be maintained with less training. PMID:22540957

  15. Association between toe grasping strength and accelerometer-determined physical activity in middle-aged and older women

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takashi; Thiebaud, Robert S.; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Mitsukawa, Naotoshi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To test the hypothesis that toe grasping strength is associated with daily physical activity in older adults. [Subjects] Fifty-seven Japanese women, aged 52–78?years, volunteered. [Methods] Toe grasping and knee extension strength were measured. Physical activity was also measured, using an accelerometer, and the total duration of each level of exercise intensity (light, moderate, and vigorous) and average step counts were calculated. Subjects were separated into two groups on the basis of accelerometer-determined step counts: LOW (n=28, <8000 steps/day) and HIGH (n=29, ?8000 steps/day). [Results] Body mass index and body composition (% fat and fat-free mass) were similar between the two groups. Absolute and relative toe grasping strengths (divided by body weight) were greater in HIGH than in LOW. However, both absolute and relative knee extension strength were similar between the groups. Relative toe grasping and knee extension strength correlated with all 3 intensities of physical activity and average step count. After adjusting for age, the duration of light plus moderate physical activity and average step counts correlated to toe grasping strength but not to knee extension strength. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that toe grasping strength may be associated with the amount of light intensity daily physical activity. PMID:26180343

  16. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES). The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal. PMID:21958069

  17. Do Age and Gender of Social Supports Matter for Low-Income African-American Women Attending an HIV Prevention Program?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogério M. Pinto; Mary M. McKay

    2005-01-01

    Although social support has been linked to improvement in health behaviors, little is known about social support among those most affected by the AIDS epidemic: low-income, young adult, African-American women and their children. Since the age and gender of informal support providers have been shown to influence the types and degrees of social support one receives, this paper examines differences

  18. Influence of the Perceived Taste Intensity of Chemesthetic Stimuli on Swallowing Parameters Given Age and Genetic Taste Differences in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Cathy A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the perceived taste intensity of liquids with chemesthetic properties influenced lingua-palatal pressures and submental surface electromyography (sEMG) in swallowing, compared with water. Method: Swallowing was studied in 80 healthy women, stratified by age group and genetic taste status. General Labeled…

  19. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  20. Laboratory pain perception and clinical pain in post-menopausal women and age-matched men with osteoarthritis: relationship to pain coping and hormonal status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher R. France; Francis J. Keefe; Charles F. Emery; Glenn Affleck; Janis L. France; Sandra Waters; David S. Caldwell; David Stainbrook; Kevin V. Hackshaw; Christopher Edwards

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between pain coping, hormone replacement therapy, and laboratory and clinical pain reports in post-menopausal women and age-matched men with osteoarthritis. Assessment of nociceptive flexion reflex threshold was followed by an assessment of electrocutaneous pain threshold and tolerance. Participants rated their arthritis pain using the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales. To assess pain coping, participants completed measures

  1. A Review of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV Vaccine-Related Attitudes and Sexual Behaviors among College-Aged Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV vaccine-related attitudes among college-aged women and the relationship between HPV vaccine uptake and subsequent sexual behaviors. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar searches were performed from 2006, the date after the first HPV vaccine became available, to…

  2. The body image and embodied experience of older women: The construction and negotiation of the meanings of aging and identity in later life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura C. Hurd

    2000-01-01

    This study examines older women's perceptions of and experiences in their aging bodies within the context of a society that places strong emphasis on youth and beauty. Using the concepts of body image and embodied experience, the theoretical framework of the study is symbolic interactionism which combines insights from an analysis of sexism and ageism. The study is based on

  3. Traumatic physical health consequences of intimate partner violence against women: what is the role of community-level factors?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious public health issue with recognizable direct health consequences. This study assessed the association between IPV and traumatic physical health consequences on women in Nigeria, given that communities exert significant influence on the individuals that are embedded within them, with the nature of influence varying between communities. Methods Cross-sectional nationally-representative data of women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used in this study. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between IPV and several forms of physical health consequences. Results Bruises were the most common form of traumatic physical health consequences. In the adjusted models, the likelihood of sustaining bruises (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.05 - 3.46), wounds (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.31 - 4.95), and severe burns (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.63 - 6.28) was significantly higher for women exposed to IPV compared to those not exposed to IPV. However, after adjusting for individual- and community-level factors, women with husbands/partners with controlling behavior, those with primary or no education, and those resident in communities with high tolerance for wife beating had a higher likelihood of experiencing IPV, whilst mean community-level education and women 24 years or younger were at lower likelihood of experiencing IPV. Conclusions Evidence from this study shows that exposure to IPV is associated with increased likelihood of traumatic physical consequences for women in Nigeria. Education and justification of wife beating were significant community-level factors associated with traumatic physical consequences, suggesting the importance of increasing women's levels of education and changing community norms that justify controlling behavior and IPV. PMID:22185323

  4. Impact of maternal age on obstetric and neonatal outcome with emphasis on primiparous adolescents and older women: a Swedish Medical Birth Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, Marie; Birch Tyrberg, Rasmus; Kjølhede, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the associations between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in primiparous women with emphasis on teenagers and older women. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants Primiparous women with singleton births from 1992 through 2010 (N=798?674) were divided into seven age groups: <17?years, 17–19?years and an additional five 5-year classes. The reference group consisted of the women aged 25–29?years. Primary outcome Obstetric and neonatal outcome. Results The teenager groups had significantly more vaginal births (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.04 (1.79 to 2.32) and 1.95 (1.88 to 2.02) for age <17?years and 17–19?years, respectively); fewer caesarean sections (aOR 0.57 (0.48 to 0.67) and 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58)), and instrumental vaginal births (aOR 0.43 (0.36 to 0.52) and 0.50 (0.48 to 0.53)) compared with the reference group. The opposite was found among older women reaching a fourfold increased OR for caesarean section. The teenagers showed no increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome but presented an increased risk of prematurity <32?weeks (aOR 1.66 (1.10 to 2.51) and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)). Women with advancing age (?30?years) revealed significantly increased risk of prematurity, perineal lacerations, preeclampsia, abruption, placenta previa, postpartum haemorrhage and unfavourable neonatal outcomes compared with the reference group. Conclusions For clinicians counselling young women it is of importance to highlight the obstetrically positive consequences that fewer maternal complications and favourable neonatal outcomes are expected. The results imply that there is a need for individualising antenatal surveillance programmes and obstetric care based on age grouping in order to attempt to improve the outcomes in the age groups with less favourable obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Such changes in surveillance programmes and obstetric interventions need to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:25387756

  5. Offspring of women with nonorganic psychosis: infant attachment to the mother at one year of age.

    PubMed

    Näslund, B; Persson-Blennow, I; McNeil, T; Kaij, L; Malmquist-Larsson, A

    1984-03-01

    Attachment to the mother at 1 year of age was studied in 46 "high-risk" offspring of index mothers with a history of nonorganic psychosis and in 80 demographically similar control offspring. Attachment was measured in the home in a standardized manner by a modified version of Ainsworth's Strange Situation procedure. Three different patterns, representing "secure attachment" (Type B), "anxiously avoidant attachment" (Type A) and "anxiously ambivalent attachment" (Type C), were defined. While no significant difference on attachment type was found between the total index versus control group, a significantly increased rate of anxious attachment (A + C) was found for offspring of schizophrenics but no other diagnostic group. Attachment type was unrelated to index mothers' psychiatric hospitalization, psychotic status and known mental disturbance during the infants' first year of life, as well as to the infants' sex. PMID:6711349

  6. Cost-effectiveness of bone densitometry among Caucasian women and men without a prior fracture according to age and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Gourlay, M.; Fink, H. A.; Taylor, B. C.; Orwoll, E. S.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Melton, L. J.; Cummings, S. R.; Ensrud, K. E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We used a microsimulation model to estimate the threshold body weights at which screening bone densitometry is cost-effective. Among women aged 55–65 years and men aged 55–75 years without a prior fracture, body weight can be used to identify those for whom bone densitometry is cost-effective. Introduction Bone densitometry may be more cost-effective for those with lower body weight since the prevalence of osteoporosis is higher for those with low body weight. Our purpose was to estimate weight thresholds below which bone densitometry is cost-effective for women and men without a prior clinical fracture at ages 55, 60, 65, 75, and 80 years. Methods We used a microsimulation model to estimate the costs and health benefits of bone densitometry and 5 years of fracture prevention therapy for those without prior fracture but with femoral neck osteoporosis (T-score??2.5) and a 10-year hip fracture risk of ?3%. Threshold pre-test probabilities of low BMD warranting drug therapy at which bone densitometry is cost-effective were calculated. Corresponding body weight thresholds were estimated using data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF), the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2005–2006. Results Assuming a willingness to pay of $75,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and drug cost of $500/year, body weight thresholds below which bone densitometry is cost-effective for those without a prior fracture were 74, 90, and 100 kg, respectively, for women aged 55, 65, and 80 years; and were 67, 101, and 108 kg, respectively, for men aged 55, 75, and 80 years. Conclusions For women aged 55–65 years and men aged 55–75 years without a prior fracture, body weight can be used to select those for whom bone densitometry is cost-effective. PMID:22349916

  7. Genetic Determinants of Macular Pigments in Women of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Kristin J.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Bernstein, Paul S.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Karki, Chitra K.; Liu, Zhe; Igo, Robert P.; Truitt, Barbara; Klein, Michael L.; Snodderly, D. Max; Blodi, Barbara A.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Wallace, Robert B.; Robinson, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Hageman, Gregory; Tinker, Lesley; Mares, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate genetic determinants of macular pigment optical density in women from the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods. 1585 of 2005 CAREDS participants had macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measured noninvasively using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry and blood samples genotyped for 440 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 candidate genes related to absorption, transport, binding, and cleavage of carotenoids directly, or via lipid transport. SNPs were individually tested for associations with MPOD using least-squares linear regression. Results. Twenty-one SNPs from 11 genes were associated with MPOD (P ? 0.05) after adjusting for dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin. This includes variants in or near genes related to zeaxanthin binding in the macula (GSTP1), carotenoid cleavage (BCMO1), cholesterol transport or uptake (SCARB1, ABCA1, ABCG5, and LIPC), long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status (ELOVL2, FADS1, and FADS2), and various maculopathies (ALDH3A2 and RPE65). The strongest association was for rs11645428 near BCMO1 (?A = 0.029, P = 2.2 × 10?4). Conditional modeling within genes and further adjustment for other predictors of MPOD, including waist circumference, diabetes, and dietary intake of fiber, resulted in 13 SNPs from 10 genes maintaining independent association with MPOD. Variation in these single gene polymorphisms accounted for 5% of the variability in MPOD (P = 3.5 × 10?11). Conclusions. Our results support that MPOD is a multi-factorial phenotype associated with variation in genes related to carotenoid transport, uptake, and metabolism, independent of known dietary and health influences on MPOD. PMID:23404124

  8. ESTIMATES OF WATER INGESTION FOR WOMEN IN PREGNANT, LACTATING AND NON-PREGNANT AND NON-LACTATING CHILD BEARING AGE GROUPS BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96, 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKE BY INDIVIDUALS (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the child bearing age of 15 to 44 years and, in particular, pregnant and lactating women in this age cohort are considered a sensitive subpopulation when assessing risk from ingestion of contaminated water because ingested contaminants may pose a risk not only to the mot...

  9. [Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and its relation to biological and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and aged Japanese women (Part 1). Relationship of age and menopause to bone mineral density of the lumbar spine measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry].

    PubMed

    Kajita, E; Iki, M; Nishino, H; Dohi, Y; Moriyama, T; Tobita, Y; Deguchi, Y; Kusaka, Y; Ogata, A

    1994-08-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in 198 community-dwelling Japanese women aged 35 years and over was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to investigate the effects of aging and menopause on BMD. A highly significant negative correlation between age and BMD was observed in postmenopausal women as widely accepted. We found a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between age and BMD in even premenopausal women, suggesting that their bone loss had commenced before menopause. Marked decrement in BMD was seen during the first ten years after menopause. Menopause clearly accelerated bone loss in the lumbar spine. Two-way analysis of variance of BMD on age and menopausal status showed that these explanatory variables had a significantly decreasing effect on BMD independently of each other. Menopausal status had a greater sum of squares than age, which suggested that menopause played a greater role in bone loss than did aging. Early menopause has been implied as one of the risk factors for bone loss. The women aged 50 to 59 having encountered menopause before 49 years old exhibited significantly lower BMD than those of similar age who experienced menopause at age 49 and older. This difference in BMD was not observed in the women aged 60 and over. Early menopause was no more likely to be a risk factor for bone loss in the elderly women. We conclude that bone loss in the lumbar spine begins before menopause and is accelerated markedly by menopause for about ten years, and that menopause has a greater decreasing effect on the bone mass than does chronological age while each of them has an independent effect on the bone mass decrement. PMID:7933654

  10. Assessing Awareness, Knowledge and Use of Folic Acid in Kansas Women Between the Ages of 18 and 44 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glynda F. Sharp; Lorenda A. Naylor; Jinwen Cai; Melissa L. Hyder; Pradeep Chandra; V. James Guillory

    2009-01-01

    Taking folic acid daily, before and during early pregnancy, has been proven to reduce neural tube birth defects (NTD). Unfortunately,\\u000a many women fail to take it daily as recommended. Objectives To assess women’s self-reported awareness, knowledge and use of folic acid. Methods Data were obtained by cross-sectional, random digit-dialing, computer-assisted telephone interviews with 250 women in Kansas.\\u000a Associations were determined

  11. Growth and aging of proximal femoral bone: a study with women spanning three generations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Chen, Decai; Cheng, Shu Mei; Nicholson, Patrick; Alen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporotic hip fracture is a serious clinical event associated with high morbidity and mortality. Understanding femoral growth patterns is important for promoting bone health in the young and preventing fractures in later life. In this study, growth patterns of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and geometric properties of the proximal femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. They were studied in 251 girls from premenarche (11.2?±?0.7 years) to late adolescence (18.3?±?1.1 years) and compared with their premenopausal mothers (n?=?128, aged 44.9?±?4.1 years) and postmenopausal grandmothers (n?=?128, aged 70.0?±?6.3 years). Hip axis length (HAL) was the first to reach peak growth velocity (-10.5 months before menarche), followed by neck diameter (ND) and neck cross-sectional area (CSA), (-7.1 and -4.1 months before menarche, respectively). Both neck-shaft angle (NSA) and aBMD of neck and total hip peaked at menarche. At 18 years (7-year follow-up), girls already had higher femoral neck aBMD but similar HAL and NSA compared with their mothers. Grandmothers had the longest HAL, narrowest NSA, widest ND but lowest aBMD and CSA. Hip strength index (HSI), an index of femoral neck strength during a fall, dropped rapidly after menarche in girls but thereafter remained relatively constant. Grandmothers had lower HSI than either mothers or girls. In conclusion, differences in proximal femoral bone mass and structure in adulthood are largely established before menarche, indicating that heritable factors are responsible for most of the individual variance. The development of geometric properties precedes aBMD in puberty, resulting in relatively constant hip strength after menarche. This asynchronous growth leads to adaptation of bone strength to the imposed loads, avoiding fractures in a biologically efficient manner. Both deterioration of aBMD and inadequate compensatory change in bone geometry after menopause contribute to the increased fracture risk later in life. PMID:25195663

  12. Prevalence and causes of chronic energy deficiency and obesity in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Bharati, S; Pal, M; Bhattacharya, B N; Bharati, P

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the nutritional status of women in India and its relation to the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) and obesity. To do this, we have used the data from the Indian National Family Health Survey, 1998-1999, on body mass index (BMI) of ever-married women, ages 15-49 years, along with several socioeconomic factors, such as level of education, religion or caste, occupational status, and standard of living index. The study was based on 81,712 women from 26 states and 6 zones, which were grouped according to geographic proximity of the states of India. A multiple linear regression analysis was done to see the relation between nutritional status of women and different socioeconomic factors. The data reveal that the prevalences of CED, overweight, and obesity in India are 31.2%, 9.4%, and 2.6%, respectively. The incidences of CED and obesity are negatively related. The prevalence of CED is the lowest in Arunachal Pradesh and highest in Orissa. Punjab has the highest prevalence of obesity, and Bihar has the lowest. For the zonewise distribution the Northeast zone has the lowest degree of prevalence of CED and the East zone is at the bottom of the list with the highest degree of malnutrition. We also found that the nutritional status of women goes together with the enhancement of their educational status, standard of living, and so on. There are also significant differences between rural and urban sectors and among castes, religions, and occupations. Furthermore, regression analysis shows that all the socioeconomic variables considered here significantly affect BMI in Indian women. PMID:18075004

  13. College women who had sexual intercourse when they were underage minors (13-15): age of their male partners, relation to current adjustment, and statutory rape implications.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, Harold; Saltzman, Heidi

    2003-04-01

    In a survey of 1,439 female college students, 24% reported that they had what they considered consensual sexual intercourse between ages 13 and 15 (2% at age 13, 7% at age 14, and 15% at age 15). Contrary to the impression left by studies of teenage mothers, the majority of their male sexual partners were not substantially older than them but instead were more typically "somewhat older" (2-4 years apart) or similar aged (less than 2 years apart). The percentage of "much older" partners (5 or more years older) was 31% for those who had intercourse at age 13, 17% for those who had intercourse at age 14, and 13% for those who had intercourse at age 15. Women who had intercourse at age 13 endorsed more current symptoms of psychological distress than those who first had intercourse at age 14 or 15. There were no significant differences between the groups in current levels of sexual satisfaction. Partner's age difference was not significantly associated with current levels of either psychological distress or sexual satisfaction. The implications of these results were discussed in light of recent calls in the United States for more strict and rigorous enforcement of statutory rape laws. PMID:12731148

  14. Om.breast cancer in very young women aged 25 year-old or below in the center of Tunisia and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abdelkrim, Soumaya Ben; Fathallah, Khadija; Rouatbi, Rim; Ayachi, Malak; Hmissa, Sihem; Mokni, Moncef

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer in very young women under 40 or 35 years attracted a widespread attention. Few studies have focused on women aged below 25 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of breast cancer in women ?25 years in the center of Tunisia. Retrospective review from 1993 to 2013. Clinical, histopathological, therapeutic and outcome data were recorded. Cases were classified into different molecular subtypes based on the immunohistochemistry-based definitions. The series included 25 patients. The mean duration of symptoms was 7.5 months. The most common presenting symptom was a palpable mass. Four patients had at least one relative diagnosed with breast cancer. Mammography combined with ultrasound was suggestive of malignancy in 60 % of cases. Curative surgical treatment could be offered in 19 cases. The mean tumor size was 39 mm. Nodal metastases were detected in 9/18 cases. Twenty cases could be classified into: luminal A (5 cases), luminal B (6 cases), Her-2 (1 case), triple negative (6 cases) and unclassified (2 cases). Two women experienced locoregional recurrence and 6 had distant recurrence. Asynchronous contralateral breast cancer occurred in one case. The overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 85 and 75 % respectively. The survival was significantly lower in grade III tumors (p?=?0.04) and triple negative tumors (p?=?0.03). Breast cancer in women ?25 years is uncommon. An adequate medical education of young women and physicians is necessary. PMID:25962349

  15. Relative deprivation in income and mortality by leading causes among older Japanese men and women: AGES cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Relative deprivation of income is hypothesised to generate frustration and stress through upward social comparison with one's peers. If psychosocial stress is the mechanism, relative deprivation should be more strongly associated with specific health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease (compared with other health outcomes, eg, non-tobacco-related cancer). Methods We evaluated the association between relative income deprivation and mortality by leading causes, using a cohort of 21?031 community-dwelling adults aged 65?years or older. A baseline mail-in survey was conducted in 2003. Information on cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Our relative deprivation measure was the Yitzhaki Index, derived from the aggregate income shortfall for each person, relative to individuals with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Reference groups were defined according to gender, age group and same municipality of residence. Results We identified 1682 deaths during the 4.5?years of follow-up. A Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for demographic, health and socioeconomic factors including income, the HR for death from cardiovascular diseases per SD increase in relative deprivation was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.08) in men, whereas HRs for mortality by cancer and other diseases were close to the null value. Additional adjustment for depressive symptoms and health behaviours (eg, smoking and preventive care utilisation) attenuated the excess risks for mortality from cardiovascular disease by 9%. Relative deprivation was not associated with mortality for women. Conclusions The results partially support our hypothesised mechanism: relative deprivation increases health risks via psychosocial stress among men. PMID:25700534

  16. Prevalence of HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among Chinese women aged 18–25 in Jiangsu Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shang-ying Hu; Ying Hong; Fang-hui Zhao; Adam K. Lewkowitz; Feng Chen; Wen-hua Zhang; Qin-jing Pan; Xun Zhang; Cindy Fei; Hui Li; You-lin Qiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective  Few data are available on the epidemiology of HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese women younger than 25 years old. This\\u000a study aimed to estimate the HPV infection rate and the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women aged\\u000a 18–25, as well as their knowledge of and attitudes towards HPV vaccination.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A population-based cervical cancer screening study was conducted

  17. Acute effects of resistance exercise on 24-h blood pressure in middle aged overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Tibana, R A; Pereira, G B; Navalta, J W; Bottaro, M; Prestes, J

    2013-05-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate responses of blood pressure (BP) following an acute resistance exercise (RE) session. Middle-aged women (N=13) who were classified as overweight (N=8) or obese (N=5) according to body mass index (BMI) participated in the investigation. Participants were randomly submitted to a control session (30-min seated rest) and a exercise session (3 sets, 10 repetitions at 60% 1RM of exercises for the upper and lower body) with systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean blood pressure (MBP) obtained at rest and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60-min following exercise, and through 24 h. Acute RE decreased SBP at 10, 30, and 40-min compared with pre-exercise and control (P<0.05). DBP decreased at 10 and 40-min post-exercise compared with the control trial (P<0.05). Both SBP and DBP decreased in the nighttime period (-4.2 mmHg and -4.1 mmHg, respectively) and in the overall 24 h period (-3.6 mmHg and -4.5 mmHg, respectively) following the acute RE session when compared with the control trial. These findings indicate important benefits of acute RE on BP circadian rhythm, particularly at night as well as in the morning, which are critical periods associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events. PMID:23065659

  18. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    PubMed

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate. PMID:25333209

  19. Pre- Versus Postmenopausal Age, Estradiol, and Peptide-Secretagogue Type Determine Pulsatile Growth Hormone Secretion in Healthy Women: Studies Using Submaximal Agonist Drive and an Estrogen Clamp

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Susan B.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Bailey, Joy N.; Mielke, Kristi L.; Erickson, Dana; Miles, John M.; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: GH-releasing peptide (GHRP), GHRH, and somatostatin are physiological regulators of pulsatile GH secretion. Hypothesis: Age, independently of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) and basal (nonpulsatile) GH secretion, damps pulsatile GH secretion driven by physiological (rather than pharmacological) amounts of GHRP and GHRH in an experimentally controlled estradiol (E2) milieu. Design and Setting: A prospectively randomized, double-blind parallel-cohort study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: Community-dwelling healthy premenopausal (PRE, age 24 ± 0.8 yr, n = 20) and postmenopausal (POST, age 63 ± 1.8 yr, n = 22) women participated in the study. Interventions: Gonadal-axis down-regulation with leuprolide was followed by randomized addback of placebo or transdermal E2 and separate-day iv bolus injections of a half-maximally stimulatory dose of GHRP-2 or GHRH (each 0.33 ?g/kg). Analysis: Three-way analysis of covariance included main factors age, E2 status, and secretagogue type and covariates AVF and basal GH secretion. Results: Submaximally stimulated pulsatile GH secretion was positively determined by PRE vs. POST age (P < 0.001), E2 repletion vs. depletion (P = 0.001) and GHRP-2 vs. GHRH stimulation (P < 0.001), after adjustment for AVF and basal secretion. E2 vs. placebo elevated fasting mean GH concentrations in both PRE and POST women (P = 0.006) but increased basal (nonpulsatile) GH secretion in PRE only (P = 0.002). PRE vs. POST age prolonged GHRH-driven GH secretory bursts by 36% (P = 0.006). Conclusion: PRE vs. POST age, E2 availability, and physiological peptide drive are triple determinants of pulsatile GH secretion independently of abdominal visceral fat and nonpulsatile GH secretion in healthy women. PMID:19858315

  20. Factors influencing the participation of middle-aged and older Latin-American women in physical activity: a stroke-prevention behavior.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of regular physical activity for preventing stroke and cardiovascular disease, middle-aged and older Latin-American women continue to be physically inactive and demonstrate a high incidence of obesity. Ethnographic methodology was used to explore factors that influenced this health behavior in 25 Latin-American women. Perceptions of health, the health activities in which they engaged, and the factors that influenced their participation in physical activity comprised the three categories of responses. Facilitators and barriers were identified as the two primary categories and were further sorted into intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Conclusions of this study were that these Latin American women, despite multiple role demands and other barriers, participated in some form of physical activity; however, culturally sensitive strategies are needed to promote sustained physical activity in this population. PMID:19160920

  1. Demographic and Spatial Predictors of Anemia in Women of Reproductive Age in Timor-Leste: Implications for Health Program Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Lover, Andrew A.; Hartman, Mikael; Chia, Kee Seng; Heymann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey) in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ?21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035), with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI) are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38); illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80); giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51); consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20); and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49). A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently limited health budgets in reaching these populations. PMID:24632676

  2. Does googling for preconception care result in information consistent with international guidelines: a comparison of information found by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception counseling is effective in reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Internet is commonly used by women and health professionals to search for health information. We compared the consistency of preconception information found on the Internet with the recommendations published by American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AJOG) simulating a web search by women of childbearing age and health professionals. Methods We reviewed websites resulting from a Google search performed using search strings selected by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals. We investigated if retrieved information was consistent with AJOG recommendations for preconception care. Logistic regression was used to compare presence of consistent recommendations between women and health professionals. Results The highest frequency of correct recommendations was found for folic acid supplementation (39.4% of websites). Consistency of preconception information did not significantly differ between search strategies except for folic acid supplementation. “Communities and blogs” website category provided less frequently correct recommendations compared with “Medical/Public Agency" category (i.e. folic acid supplementation (aOR 0.254; CI 0.098-0.664; p?=?<0.01). Commercial links, found in 60% of websites, were associated with presence of correct recommendations excepting few items (i.e. physical exercise (aOR 1.127; CI 0.331-3.840; p?=?0.848). Conclusions Preconception information found is poor and inaccurate regardless of the search is performed by women or health professionals. It is unlikely that information found on the web have any positive impact among women and health professionals in our setting. Strategies to improve preconception information on the web and education of health professionals for web searching of health information should be considered. PMID:23347453

  3. Rheumatological disorder (RD) in Indian women above 40 years of age: A cross-sectional WHO-ILAR-COPCORD-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Kudial, Susheel; Tandon, Vishal R.; Mahajan, Annil

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To evaluate rheumatological profile among Indian women above 40 years. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out for a period of one year using pre-validated questionnaire of COPCORD/WHO-ILAR. Those who complain of pain, tenderness, stiffness or swelling were subjected to clinical evaluation and diagnosis was established using the ACR's criteria for various RDs. Results: Mean age of the patients was 55.06 ± 6.82 years, mean age at menopause was 47.30 ± 2.50 years and the mean time since menopause was 9.077 ± 5.43 years. Among the total population evaluated (N = 130), 37.69% women presented with RD and 37.06% women among the menopausal women had RD with the most common being low backache (16.92%), followed by osteoarthritis (12.30%), fibromyalgia (3.84%) and rheumatoid arthritis (2.30%). The most common site involved was knee (9.23%) followed by lumbar spine (8.46%), hip (3.07%) and other sites (16.92%) such as neck, upper back, hand joints, shoulder, thighs, etc. Study failed to show any statistical correlation with any socio-demographic or other parameters of interest with RD. HAQ-DI (Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index) was found to be highly significant (P < 0.000) in 13.84% women when correlated with RD. Conclusion: The prevalence of RD is substantially high among Indian women above 40 years demanding attention of health care providers.

  4. Maternal Age at First Delivery Is Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women: From 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jeong Han; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Huh, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies demonstrated that earlier maternal age at first childbirth is correlated with a higher risk of diabetes in postmenopausal women. In this study, we evaluated whether the age at first delivery is associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 4,261 postmenopausal women aged 45 years or older were analyzed using data generated from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2010). Subjects were divided into three groups according to the maternal age at first delivery as follows: ? 20 years (n=878), 21-25 years (n=2314), and ? 26 years (n=1069). Results Approximately 37% of subjects had MetS. The prevalence of MetS showed a gradual increase as maternal age at first delivery decreased (? 26 years = 30.9% vs. 21-25 years = 39.9% vs. ? 20 years = 50.8%, respectively, p < 0.001). Central obesity indices such as trunk fat mass and waist circumference were significantly higher in the group aged ? 20 years than other groups. After adjustments for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for predicting the presence of MetS increased gradually as first delivery age decreased (? 26 years vs. 21-25 years vs. ? 20 years: OR [95% CI] = 1 vs. 1.324 [1.118-1.567] vs. 1.641 [1.322-2.036], respectively). Among components of MetS, younger maternal age at first delivery (? 20 years) was significantly associated with increased waist circumference (OR [95% CI] = 1.735 [1.41-2.13]), elevated blood pressure (1.261 [1.02-1.57]), high triglyceride (1.333 [1.072-1.659]), and low HDL-cholesterol (1.335[1.084-1.643]). Conclusions Our findings suggest that younger maternal age at first delivery is independently associated with a higher risk of central obesity and MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:26010910

  5. Increasing Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality From 1979 to 2010 for US Black Women Aged 20 to 49 Years.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Yang, Jianing; Armstrong, Katrina

    2015-07-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality persist, and young Black women have higher disease incidence compared with White women. We compared trends in breast cancer mortality for young Black and White women with mortality trends for other common diseases from 1979 to 2010. In contrast to other cancers, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, the breast cancer mortality disparity has widened over the past 30 years, suggesting that unique aspects of disease biology, prevention, and treatment may explain persistent racial differences for young women. PMID:25905842

  6. Sex-Specific Effects of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Endothelium-Dependent Dilation and Endothelin Activity in Middle-Aged Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Brar, Vijaywant; Gill, Sartaj; Cardillo, Carmine; Tesauro, Manfredi; Panza, Julio A.; Campia, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women have higher endothelium-dependent dilation and lower vasoconstrictor activity of endothelin-1 than men. Whether these sex-specific differences extend to patients with cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. The current study aimed to determine whether, in patients with cardiovascular risk factors, sex-specific differences exist in endothelium-dependent dilation and endothelin-1 activity. Methods Forearm blood flow responses were measured by strain-gauge plethysmography during the intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and the selective endothelin type A receptor blocker BQ-123 in 50 women and 64 men with cardiovascular risk factors. Results Acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside induced a significant vasodilation in women and men alike (p < 0.01 for both). Also BQ-123 caused a significant vasodilation (p < 0.001) in both groups. The vasodilator response to acetylcholine was greater in women compared to men; however there were no differences in the response to sodium nitroprusside and BQ-123 (p = NS for both) between the two sex groups. Conclusions Middle-aged women with cardiovascular risk factors have significantly higher endothelium-dependent dilation than middle-aged men; however, vascular endothelin 1 activity is similar in the two groups. These findings suggest that the presence of cardiovascular risk factors is associated with sex-specific effects on endothelium-dependent dilation but not on endothelin 1 activity. Further study is needed to confirm our findings and to characterize the mechanisms underlying this sex-specific regulation of endothelial function. PMID:25807234

  7. The cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium intake and metabolic syndrome among men and women aged 40 or older in rural areas of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Song Kyoung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Studies conducted in Western populations have suggested that dietary calcium may protect against metabolic abnormalities, but there is little evidence of this effect in Asians, who have relatively low calcium intake. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic syndrome among Korean men and women aged 40 years and over. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 6,375 subjects aged 40 years and over and were recruited between January 2005 and February 2010 from the baseline study of the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study in Rural Communities (MRCohort). A food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. RESULTS Calcium intake was related inversely to metabolic syndrome in women (P-value = 0.0091), but not in men (P = 0.1842). Among metabolic components, high waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.0426) and high blood glucose (P = 0.0027) in women and hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.0017) in men were inversely correlated with calcium intake. Excluding those who used calcium or multinutrient supplements did not attenuate the relationship between dietary calcium and metabolic abnormalities. CONCLUSION Dietary calcium intake from foods may be inversely related to metabolic syndrome, WC, and blood glucose among women in rural areas of Korea. PMID:26060546

  8. Effect of high temperature yoga exercise on improving physical and mental well-being of overweight middle-aged and young women

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Feng; Hu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Li-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of high temperature yoga exercise on improving physical and psychological well-being of overweight middle-aged and young women. Design: 50 overweight middle-aged and young women from yoga clubs were selected. The indexes of their constitution, physiological functions, psychological adaptation were measured and compared before and after one year of uninterrupted high temperature yoga exercise. Results: The indexes of the subjects’ constitution and physiological functions were remarkably uplifted (P < 0.05); their psychological adaptation was improved as well. Conclusion: Aerobics represented by high temperature yoga can improve body shape, lower lipid, reduce weight, and exert an evident therapeutic effect on improving physiological functions and boosting psychological well-being. PMID:25664117

  9. Association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the women of child bearing age: a case-control study in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Milton, Abul H; Shahidullah, S M; Smith, Wayne; Hossain, Kazi S; Hasan, Ziaul; Ahmed, Kazi T

    2010-07-01

    The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 microg/L) through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any) of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI < 18.5) and 360 controls (BMI 18.5-24.99) were recruited from a baseline survey conducted among 2,341 women. An excess risk for malnutrition was observed among the participants chronically exposed to higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water after adjusting for potential confounders such as participant's age, religion, education, monthly household income and history of oral contraceptive pills. Women exposed to arsenic >50 microg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6) increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20-45 years. PMID:20717540

  10. Determinants of neural tube defect (NTD)-protective circulating concentrations of folate in women of child-bearing age in the US post-folic acid fortification era.

    PubMed

    Piyathilake, Chandrika; Eom, Sang Yong; Hyun, Taisun; Badiga, Suguna; Robinson, Constance; Rahman, Nuzhat; Kim, Heon; Johanning, Gary L

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated folate status of child-bearing age women diagnosed with abnormal pap smear in the US post-folic acid (FA) fortification era and assessed the determinants of NTD-protective and supra-physiologic (SP) concentrations of folate. The distribution of 843 women according to NTD-protective concentrations of RBC folate, plasma folate and SP concentrations of plasma folate were tested in relation to demographic and life-style factors. Logistic regression models specified NTD-protective concentrations of RBC and plasma folate or SP concentrations of plasma folate as dependent variables and demographic and life-style factors as independent predictors of interest. More than 82% reached NTD-protective concentrations of RBC and plasma folate and ~30% reached SP concentrations of plasma folate. FA supplement use was associated with having SP concentrations of plasma folate rather than NTD-protective concentrations of folate. African American (AA) women and smokers were significantly less likely to achieve NTD-protective concentrations of RBC and plasma folate. A large majority of women reached NTD-protective concentrations of folate with the current level of FA fortification without using supplementary FA. Therefore, the remaining disparities in AA women and in smokers should be addressed by targeted individual improvements in folate intake. PMID:23964320

  11. Influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status: a cross-sectional study in Spanish women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia. PMID:24663082

  12. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA. PMID:26126860

  13. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M.; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M.; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia. PMID:24663082

  14. Determinants of neural tube defect (NTD)-protective circulating concentrations of folate in women of child-bearing age in the US post-folic acid fortification era

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang Yong; Hyun, Taisun; Badiga, Suguna; Robinson, Constance; Rahman, Nuzhat; Kim, Heon; Johanning, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated folate status of child-bearing age women diagnosed with abnormal pap smear in the US post-folic acid (FA) fortification era and assessed the determinants of NTD-protective and supra-physiologic (SP) concentrations of folate. The distribution of 843 women according to NTD-protective concentrations of RBC folate, plasma folate and SP concentrations of plasma folate were tested in relation to demographic and life-style factors. Logistic regression models specified NTD-protective concentrations of RBC and plasma folate or SP concentrations of plasma folate as dependent variables and demographic and life-style factors as independent predictors of interest. More than 82% reached NTD-protective concentrations of RBC and plasma folate and ~30% reached SP concentrations of plasma folate. FA supplement use was associated with having SP concentrations of plasma folate rather than NTD-protective concentrations of folate. African American (AA) women and smokers were significantly less likely to achieve NTD-protective concentrations of RBC and plasma folate. A large majority of women reached NTD-protective concentrations of folate with the current level of FA fortification without using supplementary FA. Therefore, the remaining disparities in AA women and in smokers should be addressed by targeted individual improvements in folate intake. PMID:23964320

  15. Body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in childbearing-aged women at an intensive electronic-waste recycling site in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna O. W. Leung; Janet K. Y. Chan; Guan Hua Xing; Ying Xu; Sheng Chun Wu; Chris K. C. Wong; Clement K. M. Leung; Ming H. Wong

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  This study is the first to investigate PBDE body burden with regard to the concurrent analyses of multiple human matrices,\\u000a namely milk, placenta, and hair, collected from a group of childbearing-aged women at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling\\u000a site to determine the partitioning of PBDEs in these different human matrices and the possible health risks imposed to

  16. Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic index and load, and body mass index: a cross-sectional study of 3931 Japanese women aged 18–20 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Murakami; S Sasaki; H Okubo; Y Takahashi; Y Hosoi; M Itabashi

    2007-01-01

    Objective:Few observational studies have investigated dietary fiber intake and dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) simultaneously in relation to obesity, particularly in non-Western populations. We examined the associations between dietary fiber intake and dietary GI and GL, and body mass index (BMI) in young Japanese women.Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:A total of 3931 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18–20 years from

  17. Differences in vitamin B6 status indicator responses between young and middle-aged women fed constant diets with two levels of vitamin B61'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Lee

    The responses of adult women to two levels of vitamin B6, was conducted with five young and eight middle-aged subjects. A constant diet (2.3-2.4 mg vitamin B6 per day) was fed for four weeks followed by three weeks of the same diet supplemented with 8.0 mg pyridoxine. Plasmapyridoxal5'-phosphate (PLP), plasmaand urinary vitamin B6, and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) were determined.

  18. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine in women aged 24–45 years: a randomised, double-blind trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nubia Muñoz; Ricardo Manalastas Jr; Punee Pitisuttithum; Damrong Tresukosol; Joseph Monsonego; Kevin Ault; Christine Clavel; Joaquin Luna; Evan Myers; Sara Hood; Oliver Bautista; Janine Bryan; Frank J Taddeo; Mark T Esser; Scott Vuocolo; Richard M Haupt; Eliav Barr; Alfred Saah

    2009-01-01

    Methods Women aged 24-45 years with no history of genital warts or cervical disease were enrolled from community health centres, academic health centres, and primary health-care providers into an ongoing multicentre, parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were allocated by computer-generated schedule to receive quadrivalent HPV vaccine (n=1911) or placebo (n=1908) at day 1, and months 2 and 6. All

  19. Diurnal saliva cortisol levels and relations to psychosocial factors in a population sample of middle-aged swedish men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Sjögren; Per Leanderson; Margareta Kristenson

    2006-01-01

    Whereas psychosocial risk factors increase the risk for disease, psychosocial resources reduce this risk. To examine a possible\\u000a pathway for these effects, the relations between saliva cortisol levels and psychosocial factors were studied in a random\\u000a sample of 257 men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Saliva samples were collected at home on waking, 30 min after waking, and

  20. Recent oral contraceptive use by formulation and breast cancer risk among women 20 to 49 years of age.

    PubMed

    Beaber, Elisabeth F; Buist, Diana S M; Barlow, William E; Malone, Kathleen E; Reed, Susan D; Li, Christopher I

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies of oral contraceptives and breast cancer indicate that recent use slightly increases risk, but most studies relied on self-reported use and did not examine contemporary oral contraceptive formulations. This nested case-control study was among female enrollees in a large U.S. integrated health care delivery system. Cases were 1,102 women ages 20 to 49 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1990 to 2009. Controls were randomly sampled from enrollment records (n = 21,952) and matched to cases on age, year, enrollment length, and medical chart availability. Detailed oral contraceptive use information was ascertained from electronic pharmacy records and analyzed using conditional logistic regression, ORs, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Recent oral contraceptive use (within the prior year) was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9) relative to never or former OC use. The association was stronger for estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+); OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1) than estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) disease (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, 0.8-1.8), although not statistically significantly different (P = 0.15). Recent use of oral contraceptives involving high-dose estrogen (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.2), ethynodiol diacetate (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.7), or triphasic dosing with an average of 0.75 mg of norethindrone (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.9-5.1; Pheterogeneity compared with using other oral contraceptives = 0.004) was associated with particularly elevated risks, whereas other types, including low-dose estrogen oral contraceptives, were not (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6-1.7). Our results suggest that recent use of contemporary oral contraceptives is associated with an increased breast cancer risk, which may vary by formulation. If confirmed, consideration of the breast cancer risk associated with different oral contraceptive types could impact discussions weighing recognized health benefits and potential risks. PMID:25085875

  1. Men's and women's experiences of violence and traumatic events in rural Côte d'Ivoire before, during and after a period of armed conflict

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Kone, Drissa; Bakayoko-Topolska, Monika; Manan K A, David; Lehmann, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed men's and women's experiences of gender based violence and other traumatic events in Côte d'Ivoire, a West African conflict-affected setting, before, during and after a period of active armed conflict (2000–2007). Design Cross-sectional, household survey. Setting 12 rural communities directly impacted by the Crisis in Côte d'Ivoire, spanning regions controlled by government forces, rebels and UN peacekeepers in 2008. Participants 2678 men and women aged 15–49?years. Primary outcome measures Violence exposures measured since age 15. Questions included intimate partner physical and sexual violence; physical and sexual violence by others (including combatants) and exposure to traumatic events before, during and after the Crisis period (2000–2007). Results Physical and/or sexual violence since age 15 was reported by 57.1% women and 40.2% men (p=0.01); 29.9% women and 12.3% men reported exposure to any violence in the past year. Nearly 1 in 10 women (9.9%) and 5.9% men (p=0.03) were forced to have sex by a non-partner since age 15, and 14.8% women and 3.3% men (p=0.00) reported their first sexual experience was forced. Combatants were rarely reported as sexual violence perpetrators (0.3% women). After the Crisis, intimate partner physical violence was the most frequently reported form of violence and highest among women (20.9% women, 9.9% men, p=0.00). Fearing for their life was reported by men and women before, during and after the Crisis. Conclusions Sexual violence in conflict remains a critical international policy concern. However, men and women experience different types of violence before, during and after conflict. In many conflict settings, other forms of violence, including intimate partner violence, may be more widespread than conflict-related sexual violence. Alongside service provision for rape survivors, our findings underscore the need for postconflict reconstruction efforts to invest in programmes to prevent and respond to intimate partner violence and trauma. PMID:24568959

  2. The Socioeconomic Gradient in the Incidence of Stroke A Prospective Study in Middle-Aged Women in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah Kuper; Hans-Olov Adami; Tores Theorell; Elisabete Weiderpass

    Background and Purpose—A socioeconomic gradient in stroke has been demonstrated in a variety of settings, but mostly in men. Our purpose was to establish whether a socioeconomic gradient in stroke existed in a group of Swedish women and whether this gradient could be explained by established stroke risk factors or psychosocial factors. Methods—The Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study includes

  3. Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Balin, Mehmet; Çelik, Ahmet; Kobat, M. Ali; Baydas, Adil

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1) and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2) were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52 ± 0.18?ng/mL and 0.78 ± 0.13, resp., P < 0.001). There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (r = ?0.645, P < 0.001). The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (r = ?0.683, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age. PMID:22619487

  4. Effect of Walking Exercise on Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Syndrome Markers, and High-molecular-weight Adiponectin in Obese Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50–60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (? score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25435686

  5. Etiology of Anemia Among Infants, School-Aged Children, and Young Non-Pregnant Women in Different Settings of South-Central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Righetti, Aurélie A.; Koua, Ahou-Yah G.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Niamké, Sébastien; Wegmüller, Rita; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population, but its etiology remains poorly understood. We determined the prevalence of anemia and studied underlying risk factors in infants (6–23 months), young school-aged children (6–8 years), and young non-pregnant women (15–25 years) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Blood, stool, and urine samples were subjected to standardized, quality-controlled methods. We found high prevalence of anemia, malaria, inflammation, and deficiencies of iron, riboflavin, and vitamin A but low prevalence and intensities of soil-transmitted helminth and schistosome infections. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant associations between anemia and Plasmodium falciparum for infants, inflammation for school-aged children, and cellular iron deficiency for both school-aged children and non-pregnant women. Women with riboflavin deficiency had significantly lower odds of anemia. Our findings call for interventions to protect infants from malaria, improved intake of dietary iron, better access to health care, and health education. PMID:22848097

  6. The morphology of the thumb carpometacarpal joint does not differ between men and women, but changes with aging and early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Halilaj, Eni; Moore, Douglas C; Laidlaw, David H; Got, Christopher J; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Ladd, Amy L; Crisco, Joseph J

    2014-08-22

    The high prevalence of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA) in women has been previously linked to the articular morphology of the trapezium. Studies report conflicting results on how the articular shapes of male and female trapezia compare to one another, however, mainly because their findings are based on data from older cadaveric specimens. The purpose of this in vivo study was to dissociate the effect of sex from that of aging and early OA by using cohorts of healthy young and healthy older subjects, as well as patients with early stage OA. Computed tomography scans from 68 healthy subjects and 87 arthritic subjects were used to obtain 3-D bone models. The trapezial and metacarpal articular surfaces were manually delineated on scaled bone models and compared between sex, age, and health groups by using polar histograms of curvature and average curvatures. We found no sex-related differences, but significant age-group and health-group differences, in the articular surfaces of both bones. Older healthy subjects had higher curvature in the concave and lower curvature in the convex directions of both the trapezial and metacarpal saddles than healthy young subjects. Subjects with early OA had significantly different metacarpal and trapezial articular shapes from healthy subjects of the same age group. These findings suggest that aging and OA affect the articular shape of the CMC joint, but that, in contrast to previously held beliefs, inherent sex differences are not responsible for the higher incidence of CMC OA in women. PMID:24909332

  7. NATIONAL SURVEY OF WOMEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This survey was first conducted in 1983 to document the reproductive behaviors of unmarried women in their twenties. A follow-up survey of the 1983 sample was conducted in 1991 when the women were 28-35 years of age. Also in 1991, a new sample of married and unmarried women age 2...

  8. STDs in women attending family planning clinics: A case study in Addis Ababa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Elizabeth Duncan; Gerard Tibaux; Helmut Kloos; Andrée Pelzer; Letebirhan Mehari; Peter L. Perine; John Peutherer; Hugh Young; Yasmin Jamil; Sohrab Darougar; Inga Lind; Karin Reimann; Peter Piot; Erwin Roggen

    1997-01-01

    For cultural reasons modern contraception has been slow to gain acceptance in Ethiopia. Knowledge about contraception and abortion is still limited in many family and community settings in which it is socially disapproved. By 1990 only 4% of Ethiopian females aged 15–49 used contraception. Little is known of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence in family planning (FP) attenders in Africa

  9. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women. PMID:25828990

  10. Cervical human papillomavirus and HIV infection in women of child-bearing age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, A; Horo, A; Charbonneau, V; Ekouevi, D K; Roncin, L; Toure, B; Coffie, P; Minga, A; Sasco, A J; Garrigue, I; Fleury, H; Dabis, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: We sought to document the association of Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and immunodeficiency with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women with no cervical neoplastic lesions identified through a cervical cancer screening programme in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods: A consecutive sample of women stratified on their HIV status and attending the national blood donor clinic or the closest HIV clinic was recruited during a cervical cancer screening programme based on the visual inspection. Diagnosis of HPV infection and genotype identification were based on the Linear Array; HPV test. Results: A total of 445 (254 HIV-positive and 191 HIV-negative) women were included. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was 53.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 47.9–59.9) in HIV-positive women and 33.7% (95% CI 27.1–40.3) in HIV-negative women (odds ratio (OR)=2.3 (95% CI 1.5–3.3)). In multivariate analysis, HIV-positive women with a CD4 count <200 cells?mm3 or between 200 and 499 cells?mm3 were more likely to harbour an oncogenic HPV compared with women with a CD4 count ?500 cells?mm3 with OR of 2.8 (95% CI 1.1–8.1) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.0–2.9), respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of oncogenic HPV was found in women with no cervical neoplastic lesions, especially in HIV-positive women. Despite antiretroviral use, immunodeficiency was a main determinant of the presence of oncogenic HPV. PMID:22782349

  11. Hemodynamic responses during graded and constant-load plantar flexion exercise in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Catherine; O'Connor, Eamonn; O'Shea, Donal; Green, Simon; Egaña, Mikel

    2014-10-01

    We tested the hypotheses that type 2 diabetes (T2D) impairs the 1) leg hemodynamic responses to an incremental intermittent plantar-flexion exercise and 2) dynamic responses of leg vascular conductance (LVC) during low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) and high-intensity (70% MVC) constant-load plantar-flexion exercise in the supine posture. Forty-four middle-aged individuals with T2D (14 women), and 35 healthy nondiabetic (ND) individuals (18 women) were tested. Leg blood flow (LBF) was measured between each contraction using venous occlusion plethysmography. During the incremental test peak force (Fpeak) relative to MVC was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in men and women with T2D compared with their respective nondiabetic counterparts. Peak LBF and the slope of LBF relative to percentage Fpeak were also reduced (P < 0.05) in women with T2D compared with healthy women (peak blood flow, 460.6 ± 126.8 vs. 628.3 ± 347.7 ml/min; slope, 3.78 ± 1.74 vs. 5.85 ± 3.14 ml·min(-1)·%Fpeak (-1)) and in men with T2D compared with nondiabetic men (peak blood flow, 621.7 ± 241.3 vs. 721.2 ± 359.7 ml/min; slope, 5.75 ± 2.66 vs. 6.33 ± 3.63 ml·min(-1)·%Fpeak (-1)). During constant-load contractions at 30% MVC T2D did not affect the dynamic responses of LVC (LBF/MAP). However, at 70% MVC [completed by a subgroup of participants (20 with T2D, 6 women; 13 ND, 6 women)] the time constant of the second growth phase of LVC was longer and the amplitude of the first growth phase was lower (P < 0.05 for both) in men and women with T2D. The results suggest that the T2D-induced impairments in performance of the leg muscles are related to reductions in blood flow in both men and women. PMID:25123197

  12. Common Clinical Conditions – Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    BAXI, Sanjiv M.; GREENBLATT, Ruth M.; BACCHETTI, Peter; SCHERZER, Rebecca; MINKOFF, Howard; HUANG, Yong; ANASTOS, Kathryn; COHEN, Mardge; GANGE, Stephen J.; YOUNG, Mary; SHLIPAK, Michael G.; GANDHI, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tenofovir is used commonly in HIV treatment and prevention settings, but factors that correlate with tenofovir exposure in real-world setting are unknown. Design Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of tenofovir in a large, diverse cohort of HIV-infected women over 24-hours at steady-state were performed and factors that influenced exposure (assessed by areas-under-the-time-concentration curves, AUCs) identified Methods HIV-infected women (n=101) on tenofovir-based therapy underwent intensive 24-hour PK sampling. Data on race/ethnicity, age, exogenous steroid use, menstrual cycle phase, concomitant medications, recreational drugs and/or tobacco, hepatic and renal function, weight and body mass index (BMI) were collected. Multivariable models using forward stepwise selection identified factors associated with effects on AUC. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) prior to starting tenofovir were estimated by the CKD-EPI equation using both creatinine and cystatin-C measures Results The median (range) of tenofovir AUCs was 3350 (1031–13,911) ng x h/mL. Higher AUCs were associated with concomitant ritonavir use (1.33-fold increase, p 0.002), increasing age (1.21-fold increase per decade, p=0.0007) and decreasing BMI (1.04-fold increase per 10% decrease in BMI). When GFR was calculated using cystatin-C measures, mild renal insufficiency prior to tenofovir initiation was associated with higher subsequent exposure (1.35-fold increase when pre-tenofovir GFR <70mL/min, p=0.0075). Conclusions Concomitant ritonavir use, increasing age, decreasing BMI and lower GFR prior to tenofovir initiation as estimated by cystatin C were all associated with elevated tenofovir exposure in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected women. Clinicians treating HIV-infected women should be aware of common clinical conditions that affect tenofovir exposure when prescribing this medication. PMID:24275255

  13. Relationship between socio-economic and cultural status, psychological factors and body fat distribution in middle-aged women living in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cota, D; Vicennati, V; Ceroni, L; Morselli-Labate, A M; Pasquali, R

    2001-12-01

    This study analyses the relationships between body fat distribution and socioeconomic and psychological factors in a cohort of 426 healthy middle-aged women living in Virgilio, Mantua (Northern Italy). The information concerning their occupational, social and psychological conditions and smoking habits were obtained by means of questionnaires. Psychological factors were investigated using the Italian version of the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire and the Symptom Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), waist/hip ratio (WHR) and clinical/hormonal menopausal status were also collected for each subject. The women reported significantly higher or lower psychological factor scores (symptoms of conversion: p=0.005; perception of disease: p=-0.018; denial: p=0.021; hostility: p=0.57; and laxity: p=0.047) as their WHR increased, thus indicating some concern about their health. In a multiple regression model, their WHR and waist circumference (W) significantly correlated with symptoms of conversion (p=0.005 and p=0.029), and W was also significantly related to the perception of disease (p=0.043). There was a significant inverse correlation between the WHR and educational level (p<0.001). The prevalence of partners who were entrepreneurs or self-employed also decreased as WHR increased (p<0.001). Furthermore, the number of women living in the centre of town significantly diminished, whereas those living in the suburbs or in the country significantly increased (p=0.005). However, using age, BMI and menopausal status as covariates, only the partner's work significantly and negatively correlated with the WHR (p=0.029). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that psychological and socio-economic handicaps are associated with a higher prevalence of abdominal fatness in middle-aged women living in Northern Italy PMID:11808816

  14. Interactions between Psychological Stress and Drinking Status in Relation to Diet among Middle-Aged Men and Women: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Kaori; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between psychological stress (PS) and drinking status in relation to diet among middle-aged Japanese men and women in a large-scale cross-sectional study. The study population included 5,587 middle-aged Japanese men and 2,718 middle-aged Japanese women who underwent annual health checkups. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (non-drinkers and drinkers) and classified as having low, moderate, or high self-reported PS levels. Energy-adjusted food and nutrient consumption was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using a general linear model, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each self-reported PS level in the 2 groups (non-drinkers and drinkers) and the interactions between self-reported PS levels and drinking status were calculated. In men, pork and beef; squid, octopus, shrimp, and clams; eggs; mushrooms; Japanese-style sweets; ice cream; bread; Chinese noodles; coffee; and soda as foods and protein, animal protein, fat, animal fat, carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, cholesterol, vitamin D, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, niacin, pantothenic acid, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc as nutrients significantly interacted with self-reported PS levels and drinking status (p for interaction <0.05 for all). No specific interactions were found in women. These findings suggest interactions between PS levels and drinking status with consumption of some foods and nutrients, especially macronutrient intake, in men but not in women. PMID:26027597

  15. A Comparison of Responses on the Attitudes toward Women Scale and Attitudes toward Feminism Scale: Is There a Difference between College-Age and Later-Life Adults with the Original Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Zinta S.; Felker, Sydney; Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Rickard, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Responses from college-age students and those 50 years and older were compared using the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and the Attitudes Toward Feminism Scale. Results from a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed groups differed on each scale, suggesting unidimensional scales no longer represent attitudes toward women or feminism.…

  16. Age at menarche and risk of type 2 diabetes among African-American and white women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, P. L.; Huxley, R.; Pankow, J. S.; Selvin, E.; Fernández-Rhodes, L.; Franceschini, N.; Demerath, E. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We examined race differences in the association between age at menarche and type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity. Methods We analysed baseline and 9-year follow-up data from 8,491 women (n=2,505 African-American, mean age 53.3 years; n=5,986 white, mean age 54.0 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Stratifying by race, we used logistic regression to estimate the OR for prevalent diabetes at baseline, and Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the HR for incident diabetes over follow-up according to age at menarche category (8–11, 12, 13, 14 and 15–18 years). Results Adjusting for age and centre, we found that early age at menarche (8–11 vs 13 years) was associated with diabetes for white, but not African-American women in both the prevalent (white OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.32, 2.25; African-American OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.84, 1.51; interaction p = 0.043) and incident models (white HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.08, 1.89; African-American HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.87, 1.67; interaction p=0.527). Adjustment for adiposity and lifestyle confounders attenuated associations for prevalent (white OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.05, 1.89; African-American OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.68, 1.30; interaction p=0.093) and incident diabetes (white HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.92, 1.63; African-American HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.80, 1.56; interaction p=0.554). Conclusions/interpretation Early menarche was associated with type 2 diabetes in white women, and adulthood adiposity attenuated the relationship. We did not find a similar association in African-American women. Our findings suggest that there may be race/ethnic differences in the influence of developmental factors in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes, which merit further investigation. PMID:22760786

  17. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Fernando [Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-FCFRP-USP, Ave do cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br; Ramires, Irene [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas/Bioquimica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Universidade de Sao Paulo-FOB, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Heloisa C. [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas/Bioquimica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Universidade de Sao Paulo-FOB, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Saint' Pierre, Tatiana D. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Curtius, Adilson J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Buzalaf, Marilia R. [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas/Bioquimica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Universidade de Sao Paulo-FOB, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [Departamento de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo-FORP-USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo-FMRP-USP, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Monte Alegre, CEP 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2006-09-15

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L, with a mean of 76 {mu}g/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L in men (mean, 98.3 {mu}g/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/L (mean, 62.8 {mu}g/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.66 {mu}g/L) and 0.02-1.5 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.42 {mu}g/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P<0.001 Spearman's correlation). The two quantities are related by the line y=0.0006x {sup 1492} (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x {sup 0.702}) and women (y=0.0534x {sup 0.5209}) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity.

  18. Effectiveness of two year balance training programme on prevention of fall induced injuries in at risk women aged 75-85 living in community: Ossébo randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Cassou, Bernard; Latouche, Aurélien; Aegerter, Philippe; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a two year exercise programme of progressive balance retraining in reducing injurious falls among women aged 75-85 at increased risk of falls and injuries and living in the community. Design Pragmatic multicentre, two arm, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Setting 20 study sites in 16 medium to large cities throughout France. Participants 706 women aged 75-85, living in their own home, and with diminished balance and gait capacities, randomly allocated to the experimental intervention group (exercise programme, n=352) or the control group (no intervention, n=354). Intervention Weekly supervised group sessions of progressive balance training offered in community based premises for two years, supplemented by individually prescribed home exercises. Outcome measures A geriatrician blinded to group assignment classified falls into one of three categories (no consequence, moderate, severe) based on physical damage and medical care. The primary outcome was the rate of injurious falls (moderate and severe). The two groups were compared for rates of injurious falls with a “shared frailty” model. Other outcomes included the rates of all falls, physical functional capacities (balance and motor function test results), fear of falling (FES-I), physical activity level, and perceived health related quality of life (SF-36). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results There were 305 injurious falls in the intervention group and 397 in the control group (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.99). The difference in severe injuries (68 in intervention group v 87 in control group) was of the same order of magnitude (0.83, 0.60 to 1.16). At two years, women in the intervention group performed significantly better on all physical tests and had significantly better perception of their overall physical function than women in the control group. Among women who started the intervention (n=294), the median number of group sessions attended was 53 (interquartile range 16-71). Five injurious falls related to the intervention were recorded. Conclusion A two year progressive balance retraining programme combining weekly group and individual sessions was effective in reducing injurious falls and in improving measured and perceived physical function in women aged 75-85 at risk of falling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00545350). PMID:26201510

  19. Intimate partner violence against women in Maputo city, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is limited research about IPV against women and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, not least Mozambique. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence, severity, chronicity and “predictors” of IPV against women in Maputo City (Mozambique). Methods Data were collected during a 12?month-period (consecutive cases, with each woman seen only once) from 1,442 women aged 15–49?years old seeking help for abuse by an intimate partner at the Forensic Services at the Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo City, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers, and data collected included demographics and lifestyle variables, violence (using the previously validated Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and control (using the Controlling Behaviour Scale Revised (CBS-R). The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Results The overall experienced IPV during the past 12?months across severity (one or more types, minor and severe) was 70.2% (chronicity, 85.8?±?120.9).a Severe IPV varied between 26.3-45.9% and chronicity between 3.1?±?9.1-12.8?±?26.9, depending on IPV type. Severity and chronicity figures were higher in psychological aggression than in the other IPV types. Further, 26.8% (chronicity, 55.3?±?117.6) of women experienced all IPV types across severity. The experience of other composite IPV types across severity (4 combinations of 3 types of IPV) varied between 27.1-42.6% and chronicity between 35.7?±?80.3-64.9?±?110.9, depending on the type of combination. The combination psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion had the highest figures compared with the other combinations. The multiple regressions showed that controlling behaviours, own perpetration and co-occurring victimization were more important in “explaining” the experience of IPV than other variables (e.g. abuse as a child). Conclusions In our study, controlling behaviours over/by partner, own perpetration, co-occurring victimization and childhood abuse were more important factors in “explaining” sustained IPV. More investigation into women’s IPV exposure and its “predictors” is warranted in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Mozambique. PMID:23241146

  20. Risk factors for unwanted pregnancy and subsequent abortion among women aged 16 to 25 years in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Lidaka, Lasma; Viberga, Ilze; Stokenberga, Ieva

    2015-06-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors associated with unwanted pregnancy in 16- to 25-year-old women in Latvia. Methods Case-control study of 16- to 25-year-old, sexually active women who did not want to get pregnant: the cases were 144 women who underwent their first abortion whereas 278 nulliparous women served as controls. Data concerning them were obtained by using a semi-structured anonymous questionnaire that included questions about education, sexual life habits, contraceptive practice and a multiple-choice test to assess knowledge about contraception. Results Women who underwent an abortion had had more lifetime sexual partners, had more often not used any contraception, and were significantly less knowledgeable about the latter than controls. No strong correlation between knowledge and actual contraceptive practice was observed in the study groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that the most significant risk factors were non-use of contraception or use of less effective methods. Conclusions The risk of unwanted pregnancy was associated with the woman's behaviour; her knowledge of contraception was much less relevant. Sexual health programmes should focus more on intrapersonal and interpersonal factors to promote use of effective contraception among young women. Chinese Abstract : ?16-25? ??16-25?144?278?????? ??????Logistic? ????. PMID:25599257

  1. Prevalence and sociodemographic predictors of sexual problems in Portugal: a population-based study with women aged 18 to 79 years.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Studies on epidemiology of female sexual problems consistently indicate high prevalence rates worldwide, suggesting that this clinical presentation should be considered as a public health concern. However, there are no published studies on prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal. The present study investigated the prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of female sexual problems in a Portuguese community sample. In addition, the authors assessed the role of sociodemographic predictors of women's sexual difficulties. The authors recruited 500 women using quota methods to resemble the Portuguese population according to its demographic characteristics. Participants answered to the Female Sexual Function Index and to a sociodemographic questionnaire. Findings indicated that 37.9% of the Portuguese women reported symptoms of sexual problems. Symptoms of lack of sexual desire was the most frequent sexual difficulty with 25.4% of the women reporting low desire most times or always, followed by symptoms of orgasmic (16.8%), sexual arousal (15.1%), and lubrication difficulties (12.9%), dyspareunia (9.8%), and vaginismus (6.6%). Results indicated that age was a significant predictor of female sexual problems. Results also indicated that symptoms of female sexual problems are a significant health concern in Portugal, suggesting that public policies should be developed to promote sexual health. PMID:24364817

  2. [Dynamics of the functional characteristics of the microcirculation system in the women of late reproductive age presenting with chronic endometritis under effect of contrast massage].

    PubMed

    Ga?darova, A Kh; Kul'chitskaia, D B; Sycheva, A Iu; Alisultanova, L S; Kotenko, N V; Tarasova, T Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the functional characteristics of the microcirculation system in the women of late reproductive age presenting with chronic endometritis before and after a course of contrast massage. Three types of functional changes in the microcirulation system were distinguished based on the results of laser-assisted Doppler flowmetry. All of them were characterized by high coefficients of correlation with the results of dopplerometry of uterine blood flow and underwent dynamic changes in the course of the treatment. The study has demonstrated the high therapeutic effectiveness of the contrast massage technique as a tool for inducing hemodynamic changes in the small pelvis basin in the women suffering from chronic endometritis. PMID:25314767

  3. Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Jennifer O.; Tang, HoMan; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2). The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was associated (P = 0.042) with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation. PMID:24067390

  4. The use of a computed tomography scan to rule out appendicitis in women of childbearing age is as accurate as clinical examination: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Peter P; Cohn, Stephen M; Popkin, Charles A; Jackowski, Julie; Michalek, Joel E

    2007-12-01

    Diagnosing appendicitis continues to be a difficult task for clinicians. The use of routine CT scan has been advocated to improve the accuracy of diagnosing appendicitis. When compared with the use of clinical examination alone, CT scan was not significantly different with regard to making the diagnosis of appendicitis in women of childbearing age. The use of computed tomography in making the diagnosis of appendicitis has become the current standard of practice in most emergency rooms. In women of childbearing age, with possible appendicitis, we prospectively compared clinical observation alone (OBS) to appendiceal CT scan with clinical observation (CT). Ninety women (OBS: 48, CT: 42) with questionable appendicitis and an Alvarado Score ranging from two to eight were prospectively randomized. A true positive study/exam resulted in a laparotomy that revealed a lesion requiring operation (confirmed by pathology). A true negative exam/study did not require operation. Hospital stay (OBS = 1.9 +/- 1.6 vs CT = 1.3 +/- 1.4 days) and charges (OBS = $9,459 +/- 7,358 vs CT = $9,443 +/- 8,773) were similar. The OBS group had an accuracy of 93 per cent, sensitivity of 100 per cent, and a specificity of 87.5 per cent. The CT group had an accuracy of 93 per cent, sensitivity of 89.5 per cent, and specificity of 95.6 per cent. Although this study is too small to statistically establish equivalence, the data suggest that a CT scan reliably identifies women who need an operation for appendicitis and seems to be as good as clinical examination. PMID:18186378

  5. Of PCOS Symptoms, Hirsutism Has the Most Significant Impact on the Quality of Life of Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Khomami, Mahnaz Bahri; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Somayeh; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder affecting women both physically and psychologically and can lead to a poor quality of life compared to their normal counterparts. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of various clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome on the health-related quality of life of Iranian women diagnosed with this syndrome. Materials and Methods A total of 796 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged 15–49 years, completed the questionnaires, interviews, and medical assessments required for this study. A reliable and validated Persian version of the health-related quality of life questionnaire for polycystic ovary syndrome patients was used. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and health-related quality of life. Results The mean age of participants was 28.02 years. 35.4% of the subjects were classified as overweight or obese. Hirsutism, was reported to have the strongest impact on the patients’ health-related quality of life, followed in descending order by body mass index, irregular menses and infertility. The relative level of hirsutism was directly proportional to decrease in health-related quality of life score (p<0.001). Conclusions The results of the study found that hirsutism had the strongest impact on the health-related quality of life measures in Iranian women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. Health care officials need to evaluate in depth the effect of each clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome separately and design management strategies, keeping in mind the psychological and physical manifestations. PMID:25874409

  6. Violence against Congolese refugee women in Rwanda and mental health: a cross-sectional study using latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L; Falb, Kathryn L; Willie, Tiara; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Bienkowski, Lauren; Meerdink, Ned; Gupta, Jhumka

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of conflict-related violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) and their associations with emotional distress among Congolese refugee women living in Rwanda. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Two Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Participants 548 ever-married Congolese refugee women of reproductive age (15–49?years) residing in Rwanda. Primary outcome measure Our primary outcome was emotional distress as measured using the Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). For analysis, we considered participants with scores greater than 10 to be experiencing emotional distress and participants with scores of 10 or less not to be experiencing emotional distress. Results Almost half of women (49%) reported experiencing physical, emotional or sexual violence during the conflict, and less than 10% of women reported experiencing of any type of violence after fleeing the conflict. Lifetime IPV was reported by approximately 22% of women. Latent class analysis derived four distinct classes of violence experiences, including the Low All Violence class, the High Violence During Conflict class, the High IPV class and the High Violence During and After Conflict class. In multivariate regression models, latent class was strongly associated with emotional distress. Compared with women in the Low All Violence class, women in the High Violence During and After Conflict class and women in the High Violence During Conflict had 2.7 times (95% CI 1.11 to 6.74) and 2.3 times (95% CI 1.30 to 4.07) the odds of experiencing emotional distress in the past 4?weeks, respectively. Furthermore, women in the High IPV class had a 4.7 times (95% CI 2.53 to 8.59) greater odds of experiencing emotional distress compared with women in the Low All Violence class. Conclusions Experiences of IPV do not consistently correlate with experiences of conflict-related violence, and women who experience high levels of IPV may have the greatest likelihood for poor mental health in conflict-affected settings. PMID:25908672

  7. Alcohol, Smoking and Drug Use among Inuit Women of Childbearing Age during Pregnancy and the Risk to Children

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking, is a well-known public health concern. Aim This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Methods 248 Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Results 92% of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which corresponds to 38% of pregnant women. 36% of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy and the number of young children living with the mother. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. PMID:21332531

  8. A multilevel analysis of effect of neighbourhood and individual wealth status on sexual behaviour among women: evidence from Nigeria 2003 Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Uthman, Olalekan A; Kongnyuy, Eugene J

    2008-01-01

    Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India – where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. Women bear the greatest burden of frequent high-risk pregnancies, raising large families, and increasingly, the AIDS epidemic. Thus, there is a need for better understanding of the determinants of high risk sexual behaviour among women. In this study, we examined factors associated with extra-marital sex among women in Nigeria and investigated how much variation in reported extra-marital sex can be attributed to individual-, and community-level factors. Methods We analyzed data from 6362 sexually active women aged 1549 years who participated in the Nigeria 2003 Demographic and Health Survey using multilevel logistic regression models. Results are presented as odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results Independent of other factors, compared to women aged 15–24 years, those 25 – 34 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.59; 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.79) and 35 years or older (OR 0.36; 95% CI: 0.24 – 0.54) were less likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners in the last 12 years. As expected, women currently or formerly married were less likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners than women never married. Women who drank alcohol in the last three months were more likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners. Compared to women from richest household, women from poorest and middle household were 83% and 51% more likely to multiple concurrent sex partners in the last 12 month respectively. After individual compositional and contextual factors, community wealth status was statistically significant with sexual behaviour. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that individual and community wealth status are independent predictors of women's sexual behaviour, and that there is significant neighbourhood variation in odds of multiple concurrent sex partners, even after controlling for effects of both individual- and community-level characteristics. Scholars trying to understand variation individual high risk sexual behaviour should pay attention to the characteristics of both individuals and places of residence. PMID:18588679

  9. Drinking water arsenic exposure and blood pressure in healthy women of reproductive age in Inner Mongolia, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard K. Kwok; Pauline Mendola; Zhi Yi Liu; David A. Savitz; Gerardo Heiss; He Ling Ling; Yajuan Xia; Danelle Lobdell; Donglin Zeng; John M. Thorp; John P. Creason; Judy L. Mumford

    2007-01-01

    The extremely high exposure levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower exposure levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8790 women who had recently been pregnant in an area of Inner Mongolia, China known to have a gradient of drinking water arsenic

  10. IDENTIFYING FOOD GROUPINGS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE ENERGY DENSITY OF DIETS OF WOMEN IN THE GEISINGER RURAL AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, energy density (ED) (kcal/wt of food) rather than energy intake was shown to be associated with weight status in rural older women. Specifically, diets higher in ED were associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. To understand how to guide specific dietary recommendat...

  11. Serum leptin and C-reactive protein levels in the physiological spontaneous menstrual cycle in reproductive age women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D M Wunder; M Yared; N A Bersinger; D Widmer; R Kretschmer; M H Birkhauser

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Only a few studies have investigated variations of different markers for inflammatory processes during the physiological menstrual cycle. The results are conflicting, particularly concerning the correlation between the marker leptin and steroid hormones. The aim of the study was to investigate the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin in the serum of healthy, normally ovulating women and to

  12. The relation between stress and sexual function and satisfaction in reproductive-age women in iran: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Parvin; Afrazeh, Mahnaz; Javadifar, Nahid; Saki, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the relation between stress and different aspects of female sexual function and satisfaction. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 228 reproductive-age women who were referred to the public Health Centers in Ahvaz, Iran. All eligible participants were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Perceived Stress Scale. The data were analyzed using independent t test, Pearson correlation, and logistic regression. The mean score of stress was 32.9 (SD = 4.7) in the normal sexual function group and 33.3 (SD = 5.5) in the unfavorable sexual function group. There was a significant correlation between stress and sexual function score, sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, lubrication, sexual pain, and satisfaction (p <.001). Spouses' education (OR = 0.15, CI [0.02, 0.97], p =.04) and frequency of sexual intercourse per week (OR = 1.8, CI [1.3, 2.5], p <.001) had a significant relation with stress. There is a significant relation between women's perceived stress and sexual function and satisfaction. Further analytical studies are needed to show the harmful effects of stress on women's sexual activity and satisfaction. PMID:24884353

  13. PCB body burdens in US women of childbearing age 2001-2002: An evaluation of alternate summary metrics of NHANES data.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Goodman, Stephanie; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2009-05-01

    An extensive body of epidemiologic data associates prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with neurodevelopmental deficits and other childhood health effects. Neurological effects and other adverse health effects may also result from exposure during infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Although manufacture and use of PCBs were banned in the US in 1977, exposure to PCBs is a continuing concern due to the widespread distribution of these compounds in the environment and their persistence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provides PCB body burden measurements representative of the US population for the years 1999-2002. Interpretation of these data is challenging due to the large number of PCB congeners reported. We examined 6 PCB body burden metrics to identify an approach for summarizing the NHANES data and for characterizing changes over time in potential risks to children's health. We focused on women of childbearing age, defined here as 16-39 years, because in utero exposures have been associated with neurodevelopmental effects, and used only the 2001-2002 data because of higher detection rates. The 6 metrics, each consisting of different combinations of the 9 most frequently detected congeners, were as follows: total PCBs (all 9 congeners); highly chlorinated PCBs (2 congeners); dioxin-like PCBs (3 congeners, weighted by toxic equivalency factors); non-dioxin-like PCBs (6 congeners); a 4-congener metric (PCBs 118, 138, 153, and 180); and PCB-153 alone. The PCB metrics were generally highly correlated with each other. There was a strong association of PCB body burdens with age for all metrics. Median body burdens of Mexican American women were lower than those of non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black women for 5 of the 6 metrics, and there were no significant differences in body burdens between the latter two groups. Body burdens of women with incomes above poverty level were greater than those for lower-income women at the median and 95th percentiles, but the differences were not statistically significant for any metric. We conclude that the 4-congener and total PCBs metrics are the most promising approaches for tracking changes in body burdens over time and for comparing body burdens of different subgroups in NHANES. PMID:19251256

  14. Urine, peritoneal fluid and omental fat proteomes of reproductive age women: Endometriosis-related changes and associations with endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Katherine E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Johansen, Eric B.; Niles, Richard K.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Albertolle, Matthew; Zhou, Yan; Prasad, Namrata; Drake, Penelope M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Hall, Steven C.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Louis, Germaine M. Buck; Fisher, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis, ectopic growth of the uterine lining (endometrium), which affects 6–11% of reproductive age women, is associated with pelvic pain and infertility. We investigated the peritoneal fluid (PF), urine and omental fat (OF) proteomes of women with endometriosis vs. individuals with no surgically visualized endometriosis. All participants were enrolled in the NICHD-funded ENDO Study. A two-step proteomic study was performed. The first, a broad survey, employed a semi-quantitative gel LC-mass spectrometry (MS) workflow: SDS PAGE fractionation, trypsin digestion and LC–MS/MS. The results showed sample integrity but failed to detect any differences between women with and without endometriosis. The second step was a quantitative analysis of OF samples. We employed another sample set (n = 30) from women ± disease and isobaric mass-tag (iTRAQ) chemistry to label peptides and 2D LC–MS/MS for protein identification and quantification. Three proteins—matrix metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase, and FAM49B—were significantly lower in abundance in samples from women with endometriosis. Interestingly, neutrophil elastase and FAM49B levels were associated with higher levels of a subset of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that were previously measured in the same samples. The results of these experiments showed the feasibility of associating endometriosis with changes in the OF protein repertoire and EDC levels. Biological significance Endometriosis, pathological growth of the uterine lining, is associated with significant morbidities, including pain and infertility. However, the causes of this common condition are poorly understood. This study determined whether endometriosis was associated with changes in the protein composition of peritoneal fluid, urine and/or omental fat. A protein of unknown function (FAM49B) and two proteinases (metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase) were down regulated in OF samples from women with versus without endometriosis. These findings suggested proteinase imbalances at sites that were distant from the endometriotic lesions. Additionally, FAM49B and neutrophil elastase levels were associated with higher levels of a subset of environmental chemicals that were quantified in the same samples, suggesting other possible associations. Thus, this work generated hypotheses that will be tested in further studies. PMID:25284053

  15. Physical and physiological effectiveness of an overall health care program for middle-aged Japanese women with mild obesity: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Amano, Sho; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Hanafusa, Masakazu; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Nishizaka, Saiko; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of an overall health care program (OHCP) for middle-aged Japanese women through assessing physical and physiological changes. The OHCP consisted of diet modification with natural alternative foods, walking and stretching exercises, and body massage and cupping treatments. Sixty-seven participants were assigned to one of three groups during a 3-year study period (2011-2013). The OHCP was performed for 3 months in each year. After the OHCP, most participants had significant decreases in the blood levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyl transferase, and cholinesterase; body weight; body fat percentage; and body-mass index. The oxidative stress markers varied among the study years; however, a significant decrease in blood reactive oxygen-derived metabolites and a significant increase in the relative antioxidative potential were observed in 2013. In 2013, participants who were randomly selected for autonomic nervous activity measurements immediately before and after body massage and cupping treatments showed a significant predominance in parasympathetic nervous activity after the treatments. These results indicate that the OHCP in the present study is an effective and prompt method as a complementary treatment to improve the pre-obese or mild obese status without any noticeable physiological stress in most middle-aged women. However, because of the limitations of this study, the findings of this study need to be confirmed. PMID:26151017

  16. Synergistic effects of E2MATE and norethindrone acetate on steroid sulfatase inhibition: a randomized phase I proof-of-principle clinical study in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Oliver; Bestel, Elke; Gotteland, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The combination of a progestin such as norethindrone acetate (NETA) reducing the ovarian estrogen production with a steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitor (STS-I) decreasing the local estrogen production could result in a new treatment option for endometriosis. The study reported was a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study to investigate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and safety of the STS-I PGL2001 (E2MATE) and NETA. A total of 24 healthy women of reproductive age were treated with weekly doses of PGL2001 or daily doses of NETA or a combination of both compounds for 4 weeks. Four weeks of treatment with PGL2001 or PGL2001 + NETA reduced the STS activity in the endometrium by 91% (±3%) and 96% (±4%), respectively, and comparable values were observed 1 month after the treatment was stopped. The combined treatment of PGL2001 + NETA led to significantly higher STS inhibition at both times (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). This study showed that administration of PGL2001 alone at 4 mg/week or combined with NETA to healthy women of reproductive age led to STS inhibition and changes in functional STS biomarkers in the endometrium, resulting in synergistic effects of PGL2001 and NETA on STS activity. PMID:24604234

  17. Physical and physiological effectiveness of an overall health care program for middle-aged Japanese women with mild obesity: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Sho; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Hanafusa, Masakazu; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Nishizaka, Saiko; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of an overall health care program (OHCP) for middle-aged Japanese women through assessing physical and physiological changes. The OHCP consisted of diet modification with natural alternative foods, walking and stretching exercises, and body massage and cupping treatments. Sixty-seven participants were assigned to one of three groups during a 3-year study period (2011–2013). The OHCP was performed for 3 months in each year. After the OHCP, most participants had significant decreases in the blood levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyl transferase, and cholinesterase; body weight; body fat percentage; and body-mass index. The oxidative stress markers varied among the study years; however, a significant decrease in blood reactive oxygen-derived metabolites and a significant increase in the relative antioxidative potential were observed in 2013. In 2013, participants who were randomly selected for autonomic nervous activity measurements immediately before and after body massage and cupping treatments showed a significant predominance in parasympathetic nervous activity after the treatments. These results indicate that the OHCP in the present study is an effective and prompt method as a complementary treatment to improve the pre-obese or mild obese status without any noticeable physiological stress in most middle-aged women. However, because of the limitations of this study, the findings of this study need to be confirmed.

  18. Postural sway reduction in aging men and women: Relation to brain structure, cognitive status, and stabilizing factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith V. Sullivan; Jessica Rose; Torsten Rohlfing; Adolf Pfefferbaum

    2009-01-01

    Postural stability becomes compromised with advancing age, but the neural mechanisms contributing to instability have not been fully explicated. Accordingly, this quantitative physiological and MRI study of sex differences across the adult age range examined the association between components of postural control and the integrity of brain structure and function under different conditions of sensory input and stance stabilization manipulation.

  19. Estradiol for treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a large-scale randomized-controlled trial in women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, J; Gavrilidis, E; Wang, W; Worsley, R; Fitzgerald, P B; Gurvich, C; Van Rheenen, T; Berk, M; Burger, H

    2015-06-01

    Many women with schizophrenia remain symptomatic despite optimal use of current therapies. While previous studies suggest that adjunctive oestrogen therapy might be effective, large-scale clinical trials are required before clinical applications are possible. This study is the first large-scale randomized-controlled trial in women with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. This Definitive Oestrogen Patch Trial was an 8-week, three-arm, double-blind, randomized-controlled trial conducted between 2006 and 2011. The 183 female participants were aged between 18 and 45 (mean=35 years), with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and ongoing symptoms of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, PANSS score>60) despite a stable dose of antipsychotic medication for at least 4 weeks. Mean duration of illness was more than 10 years. Participants received transdermal estradiol 200??g, transdermal estradiol 100??g or an identical placebo patch. For the 180 women who completed the study, the a priori outcome measure was the change in PANSS score measured at baseline and days 7, 14, 28 and 56. Cognition was assessed at baseline and day 56 using the Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status. Data were analysed using latent growth curve modelling. Both estradiol groups had greater decreases in PANSS positive, general and total symptoms compared with the placebo group (P<0.01), with a greater effect seen for 200??g than 100??g estradiol. The largest effect size was for the positive subscale of PANSS in the estradiol 200??g treatment group (effect size 0.44, P<0.01). This study shows estradiol is an effective and clinically significant adjunctive therapy for women with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, particularly for positive symptoms. PMID:24732671

  20. Postpartum and Depression Status are Associated With Lower [11C]raclopride BPND in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Price, Julie C; Wisner, Katherine L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Berga, Sarah L; Grace, Anthony A; di Scalea, Teresa Lanza; Kaye, Walter H; Becker, Carl; Drevets, Wayne C

    2012-01-01

    The early postpartum period is associated with increased risk for affective and psychotic disorders. Because maternal dopaminergic reward system function is altered with perinatal status, dopaminergic system dysregulation may be an important mechanism of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Subjects included were non-postpartum healthy (n=13), postpartum healthy (n=13), non-postpartum unipolar depressed (n=10), non-postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7), postpartum unipolar (n=13), and postpartum bipolar depressed (n=7) women. Subjects underwent 60?min of [11C]raclopride–positron emission tomography imaging to determine the nondisplaceable striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPND). Postpartum status and unipolar depression were associated with lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in the whole striatum (p=0.05 and p=0.02, respectively) that reached a maximum of 7–8% in anteroventral striatum for postpartum status (p=0.02). Unipolar depression showed a nonsignificant trend toward being associated with 5% lower BPND in dorsal striatum (p=0.06). D2/3 receptor BPND did not differ significantly between unipolar depressed and healthy postpartum women or between bipolar and healthy subjects; however, D2/3 receptor BPND was higher in dorsal striatal regions in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives (p=0.02). In conclusion, lower striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in postpartum and unipolar depressed women, primarily in ventral striatum, and higher dorsal striatal D2/3 receptor BPND in bipolar relative to unipolar depressives reveal a potential role for the dopamine (DA) system in the physiology of these states. Further studies delineating the mechanisms underlying these differences in D2/3 receptor BPND, including study of DA system responsivity to rewarding stimuli, and increasing power to assess unipolar vs bipolar-related differences, are needed to better understand the affective role of the DA system in postpartum and depressed women. PMID:22257897

  1. Iron status in 268 Danish women aged 18–30?years: influence of menstruation, contraceptive method, and iron supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Milman; J. Clausen; K.-E. Byg

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of menstruation, method of contraception, and iron supplementation\\u000a on iron status in young Danish women, and to assess whether iron deficiency could be predicted from the pattern of menstruation.\\u000a Iron status was examined by measuring serum (S-) ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb) in 268 randomly selected, healthy, menstruating,\\u000a nonpregnant Danish

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthropometric Traits and Evidence of Interactions With Age and Study Year in Filipino Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien C. Croteau-Chonka; Amanda F. Marvelle; Ethan M. Lange; Nanette R. Lee; Linda S. Adair; Leslie A. Lange; Karen L. Mohlke

    2011-01-01

    Increased values of multiple adiposity-related anthropometric traits are important risk factors for many common complex diseases. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study for four quantitative traits related to body size and adiposity (BMI, weight, waist circumference, and height) in a cohort of 1,792 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). This is the first

  3. Joint Exposure to Chemical and Nonchemical Neurodevelopmental Stressors in U.S. Women of Reproductive Age in NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Amanda M.; Rice, Glenn E.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Wright, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and methyl mercury (MeHg) are well established neurodevelopmental toxicants (NDTs), but joint exposure to chemical and nonchemical (e.g., maternal stress) stressors has rarely been considered. We characterized exposure to Pb, MeHg and a measure of physiological dysregulation associated with chronic stress and examined race/ethnicity as a predictor of joint NDT exposure. Using data from the 2003?2004 NHANES, potential chronic stress exposure was estimated using allostatic load (AL), a quantitative measure of physiological dysregulation. A Hazard Index was calculated for joint exposure to Pb and MeHg (HINDT). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between an indicator of elevated joint NDT exposures (HINDT > 1) and race/ethnicity. The multivariate model was stratified by AL groups to examine effect measure modification. African American (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 2.2 [1.4, 3.3]) and Mexican American (1.4 [0.7, 2.6]) women were more likely to have an HINDT > 1 compared to Caucasian women. Chronic stress was identified as an effect measure modifier with the largest ORs among women with high AL scores (African Americans = 4.3 [2.0, 9.5]; Mexican Americans = 4.2 [1.3, 14.1]). Chronic stress was found to modify the association between elevated joint NDT exposure and race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of evaluating chemical and nonchemical stressor exposures leading to a common endpoint. PMID:24758893

  4. Age and task differences in functional fitness in older women: comparisons with Senior Fitness Test normative and criterion-referenced data.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Diane E; Talley, Susan Ann; Goldberg, Allon

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in physical abilities, such as strength and flexibility, contribute to functional losses. However, older individuals may be unaware of what specific physical abilities compromise independent functioning. Three groups of women, aged 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 to 92 years, were administered the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) to determine age differences in physical abilities and risk for functional losses. The oldest group showed significant differences in lower body strength, aerobic endurance, and agility and dynamic balance when compared with the other groups who performed similarly. Across all groups, a faster rate of decline was found for lower body strength (50.6%) and dynamic balance and agility (45.7%) than upper body strength (21.3%) and aerobic endurance (33.6%). Criterion-referenced (CR) fitness standards suggested that 45% of the individuals were at risk for loss of independent functioning. This study highlights age-related differences in physical abilities and the risk for the loss of independence in later life. PMID:24412879

  5. Evidence for Age-Dependent Education-Related Differences in Men and Women with First-