Note: This page contains sample records for the topic women aged 15-49 from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. Methods Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried

Vonthanak Saphonn; Leng Bun Hor; Sun Penh Ly; Samrith Chhuon; Tobi Saidelb; Roger Detelsc

2

The silent epidemic of reproductive morbidity among ever married women (15-49 years) in an urban area of Delhi.  

PubMed

Concept of reproductive health has long been discussed and need to focus on reproductive morbidity as a measure of reproductive health has evolved. There is poor reproductive health with neglect of women's own health. Compounded with socio-cultural factors, the result is poor treatment seeking and hence poor quality of life. This community based study was conducted to find out the magnitude, type of reproductive morbidity and treatment seeking behavior for the same. Cross sectional study was conducted in Palam Village among married women aged 15-49 years. 750 women were interviewed by visiting every fifth house through systematic random sampling. Symptomatic women were referred for gynecological examination and investigations. The overall prevalence of Reproductive Morbidity was found to be 46.3 %: Gynaecological morbidity in 31.3 % subjects, obstetric morbidity in 43.4 % of the eligible women and contraceptive induced morbidity in 11.2 % of the ever contraceptive users with 5 % reporting more than one symptom. Problem perception and treatment compliance was poor for subjects with gynecological morbidity as compared with contraceptive and obstetric morbidity respectively. High self-reported obstetric morbidity was observed with good treatment seeking behavior as compared to poor treatment seeking behavior in women with gynaecological morbidity. Contraceptive morbidity was reported by fewer subjects but treatment seeking was good. There is a need to understand the pattern of reporting and health seeking behavior among women suffering from reproductive morbidity. The large magnitude of reproductive morbidity warrants attention and hints the poor quality of MCH care delivered to women. PMID:22968821

Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Khandekar, Jyoti; Singh, Amarjeet; Saxena, Sonal

2013-04-01

3

Women and population aging.  

PubMed

In 1985, there were approximately 427 million persons aged 60 and over in the world, accounting for about 9% of the world's population. By 2020, the elderly population will comprise 13% of the world's population and 70% of these people will live in developing countries. Governments and international agencies should increase their efforts and activities to improve care for the elderly within the family unit. The socioeconomic implications of aging are greater for females because of their higher life expectancy. In the year 2000, 11% of the world's female population will be aged 60 and over. By 2025, there will be 604 million elderly women in the world, 70% of whom will be living in developing countries, and among them, 70% in rural areas. An important issue requiring both research and policy attention is the interdependence among women's economic, health, and social concerns, which increase with age. The author calls for more specific policies that aim to eliminate discrimination against disabled persons, the elderly, and particularly elderly women. The author urges governmental and nongovernmental organizations to implement these recommendations: 1) promote research studies and the collection and analysis of information on the socioeconomic, health, legal, and demographic situation of elderly women; 2) promote awareness of elderly women's contribution to society; 3) eliminate discriminatory treatment of elderly women; 4) develop health promotion programs and services to meet elderly women's long-term care needs; 5) promote wider appreciation of continued participation of elderly women in social and cultural activities; 6) promote the development of elderly women's organizations and self-help groups; 7) promote and assure the participation of elderly women in the process of development; and 8) develop literacy programs and training programs for elderly women. PMID:12316025

Kunugi, T

1989-06-01

4

Aging women with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

2003-01-01

5

Women Aging Together in Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a fiftieth birthday party 17 years ago, a group of women—lesbian, bisexual, and straight—decided to create a conscious community in which they could age together. The group, where they discuss this process and support each other, is politically and personally meaningful, and a buffer against the isolation and powerlessness many aging women experience. They meet monthly, and at weekend

Jane Ariel

2008-01-01

6

Race-ethnicity differences in folic acid intake in women of childbearing age in the United States after folic acid fortification: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. Up to 70% of neural tube defects can be prevented by the consumption of folic acid by women before and early during pregnancy. Objective:Theobjectivewastoexaminefolicacidintakeinwomen of childbearing age in the United States. Design: We analyzed nutrient intake data reported by 1685 non- pregnant women aged 15-49 y

Quan-He Yang; Heather K Carter; Joseph Mulinare; RJ Berry; JM Friedman; J David Erickson

7

Minority women's attitudes about aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors combine to make middle age a critical period with respect to views about aging. To examine the effects of culture, background, and familial characteristics on attitudes toward old age, 304 middle-aged women from Black, Cuban, American Indian, Chicano, and white cultures were studied. A stepwise multiple regression analysis examined the contribution of each variable in the prediction of

Kathleen Hunter; Margaret W. Linn; Theodore C. Pratt

1979-01-01

8

Women, Aging, and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology that typically has an onset in early adulthood and persists for the remainder of the life span. For most affected individuals, the illness is recurrent with psychotic symptoms that tend to be episodic in nature. The illness has pervasive and disruptive effects on many life domains; for example, women with schizophrenia are

Faith B. Dickerson

2007-01-01

9

[The course of recurrent urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women of childbearing age, the consequences for daily life and the ideas of the patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women of childbearing age and to gain insight into their consequences and the ideas of the patients. DESIGN: Historical cohort-study and interviews with patients. METHOD: All non-pregnant women in the age-range 15-49 years who had had > or =2 urinary tract infections in one year in the period

S. Groen; A. L. M. Lagro-Janssen

2005-01-01

10

Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

Saucier, Maggi G.

2004-01-01

11

Growing rejection of female genital cutting among women of reproductive age in Amhara, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Data on female genital cutting are presented from 1942 women aged 15-49 years in Amhara region, Ethiopia, 2005. Reportedly 69% (1333/1942) had undergone the procedure. Rates showed a secular decline, decreasing from 77% in women aged 45-49 years old to 59% in those age 15-24 years. Of women with daughters, 64% had at least one circumcised daughter. Again, prevalence declined from 78% in daughters of mothers aged 45-49 years to 45% in those aged 15-24 years. In logistic regression, controlling for maternal FGC status, age and religion, maternal education was a strong predictor of having a circumcised daughter. Fifty-four percent of respondents disapproved of the continuation of FGC. In logistic regression controlling for covariates, education and self-empowerment were factors associated with rejecting FGC. Women who had ever attended a school had a 4-fold increase in the odds of disapproving the practice than those who never did and respondents who scored high on empowerment indices had a 1.5-fold increase in the odds to favour discontinuation compared to women scoring low. Future efforts to eliminate this harmful practice should be particularly directed to illiterate populations in rural areas. Efforts strengthening women's empowerment will accelerate the progress of these programmes. PMID:19326265

Rahlenbeck, Sibylle I; Mekonnen, Wubegzier

2009-05-01

12

Biological age versus physical fitness age in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this study was to determine whether adult women who are in a state of high physical fitness are in a good state biologically, in terms of biological and physical fitness ages as estimated by statistical means. The subjects were 65 healthy Japanese women (aged 20–64 years). Biological and physical fitness ages were estimated from the data for

E. Nakamura; T. Moritani; A. Kanetaka

1990-01-01

13

Survival analysis of timing of first marriage among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: regional differences.  

PubMed

Early marriage is common among women in developing countries. Age at first marriage (AFM) has health implication on women and their under-five children. In Nigeria, few studies have explored AFM; the current study was designed to fill the gap. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 dataset on married women aged 15-49 (N = 24,986) was used. Chi-square, OLS regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. The mean AFM was 17.8 +/- 4.8 years and significant difference existed between the mean AFM of women in the North (16.0 +/- 3.6) and South (20.4 +/- 5.0) (p < 0.001). Region, education, religion, residence, nutritional status, age at first sexual intercourse and children ever born were significantly associated with timing of first marriage (p < 0.001). Majority of the women married between ages 15-19 years (43.1%), while very few married late (2.3%) and about 27.0% married too early (less than 15 years). Early marriage was more common in all the regions in the North than the South and the hazard was highest in the North West and North East. Women who reside in rural area (H.R = 1.15; C.I = 1.11-1.18) married early than their counterparts in the urban area. Age at first marriage was directly related to levels of education (p < 0.001). Muslim women married early (H.R = 1.34; C.I = 1.29-1.39) than Christians. Three models were generated from the data. Women married too early in Nigeria with Teenage marriage more common in the North than the South. Education has influence on AFM; therefore, women should have at least secondary education before marriage in Nigeria. PMID:23444547

Adebowale, Stephen A; Fagbamigbe, Francis A; Okareh, Titus O; Lawal, Ganiyu O

2012-12-01

14

Age, Women, and Hiring: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the baby boom cohort reaches retirement age, demographic pressures on public programs such as social security may cause policy makers to cut benefits and encourage employment at later ages. This paper reports on a labor market experiment to determine the hiring conditions for older women in entry-level jobs in Boston, MA and St. Petersburg, FL. Differential interviewing by age

Joanna N. Lahey

2005-01-01

15

Attempted Suicide in Reproductive Age Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we described the frequency of attempted suicide among women of reproductive age (10 to 49 years) in a General University Hospital in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil (conducted 2005). Relevant comorbidities associated with the suicide attempt were calculated. Secondary data were obtained through the hospital's records where attempted suicides were reported. Findings revealed 132 attempted suicides; most women took

Flavia Azevedo Gomes; Beverley OBrien; Ana Marcia Spano Nakano

2009-01-01

16

Age, Women, and Hiring: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the baby boom cohort reaches retirement age, demographic pressures on public programs such as Social Security may cause policy makers to cut benefits and encourage employment at later ages. This prospect raises the question of how much employer demand exists for older workers. This paper reports on a labor market experiment to determine the hiring conditions for older women

Joanna Lahey

2006-01-01

17

Older Women's Perceptions of Successful Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the ways in which older adults view or define successful aging. This qualitative study, therefore, examined older women's perceptions of the characteristics and components of successful aging. Transitions are complex person–environment interactions that include the disruption of the individual's life and their responses to the disruption. Older adults experience many life transitions or changes in life

Eileen K. Rossen; Kathleen A. Knafl; Meredith Flood

2008-01-01

18

Work related injury among aging women.  

PubMed

This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

2013-03-25

19

Aging and reproductive potential in women.  

PubMed Central

Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age.

Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

1998-01-01

20

Role of condom negotiation on condom use among women of reproductive age in three districts in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes.

2012-01-01

21

Candies in hell: women’s experiences of violence in Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of domestic violence against women in León, Nicaragua. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 488 women between the ages of 15–49. The physical aggression sub-scale of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to identify women suffering abuse. In-depth interviews with formerly battered women were performed and

Mary Ellsberg; Rodolfo Peña; Andrés Herrera; Jerker Liljestrand; Anna Winkvist

2000-01-01

22

Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study  

PubMed Central

Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27?957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100?000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100?000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research.

Haglund, Bengt; Hogberg, Ulf; Essen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

23

Routine Osteoporosis Screening Recommended for All Women over Age 65  

MedlinePLUS

... Archive, 1995-2009 Routine osteoporosis screening recommended for all women over age 65 Research Activities, March 2011, ... Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) now recommends that all women aged 65 and older be routinely screened ...

24

Women’s Perceptions and Use of “Anti-Aging” Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the cosmetics industry have accelerated the availability of products marketed as “anti-aging.” Our research\\u000a goals were to identify the factors that predict women’s purchase of these products, and to gain insight into women’s perceptions\\u000a of the anti-aging market. Three hundred and four Canadian women were surveyed about their use of anti-aging products, body\\u000a satisfaction, aging anxiety, appearance

Amy Muise; Serge Desmarais

2010-01-01

25

Sexuality in Women of Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Women of childbearing age have health-care needs related to sexuality. The health-care needs that are most obvious are the need for contraception and the need for the prevention and treatment of vaginal and sexually transmitted infections. Although providers may have questions related to sexual activity, sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual satisfaction, and intimate partner violence on patient history forms, they often offer little discussion on issues related to sexuality unless the patient raises the issues. Women's sexuality is intensely personal and individual. Changes may occur in sexuality during pregnancy or as a response to infertility. These changes may be physical or emotional. During her prepregnancy and prenatal care, a woman may meet with a range of health-care providers, including childbirth educators, lactation consultants, nurses, midwives, and physicians. It is within the scope of practice of each of these clinicians to address sexuality concerns, validate women's feelings, and provide suggestions of modifications in sexual practices to meet women's needs for sexual expression within the range of activities that are safe and acceptable.

Lewis, Judith A.; Black, Jennifer J.

2006-01-01

26

Female genital cutting starts to decline among women in Oromia, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explored factors influencing attitudes towards the practice of female genital cutting (FGC) among women in Oromia region, Ethiopia. Representative data from 2221 women aged 15–49years from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey in 2005 were evaluated. Overall, 88.4% of women had undergone FGC. Prevalence significantly decreased with birth date, ranging from 95.1% in women aged 45–49years to 75.8%

S. Rahlenbeck; W. Mekonnen; Y. Melkamu

2010-01-01

27

Prevalence of cigarette smoking in Hispanic women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

A secondary analysis of Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted to determine the prevalence and degree of cigarette smoking among large probability samples of Cuban-American, Mexican-American, and Puerto Rican women of childbearing age. Percentages, means, and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine age-adjusted and age-specific rates for each Hispanic group. Age-adjusted smoking prevalence rates were 23.2%, 22.6%, and 33.5% for Mexican-Americans, Cuban-Americans, and Puerto Ricans, respectively. Age-specific rates indicated that all Puerto Rican women under the age of 40, Mexican-American women in their 40's, and Cuban-American women in their 30's had smoking prevalences higher than the national average for women. Although most Hispanic women were relatively light smokers, prevention and cessation interventions need to be developed for Puerto Rican women of childbearing age who demonstrated high smoking prevalences. PMID:2003068

Pletsch, P K

28

MIDDLE?AGED AND OLDER WOMEN IN PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined images of aging women as depicted in advertisements from three periodicals during a ten?year period. Five major variables were considered in this content analysis: the frequency with which aging women appeared, the types of products involved, the setting, the value orientation, and the change in the image of older women over time. Differences between time periods and

Carol Hollenshead; Berit Ingersoll

1982-01-01

29

What is a healthy weight for middle aged women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between body mass index (BMI) and selected indicators of health and well-being and to suggest a healthy weight range (based on BMI) for middle aged Australian women.DESIGN: Population based longitudinal study (cross-sectional baseline data).SUBJECTS: 13 431 women aged 45–49 y who participated in the baseline survey for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health.RESULTS: Forty-eight percent

WJ Brown; AJ Dobson; G Mishra

1998-01-01

30

Risk Factors for Falls in Older Disabled Women With Diabetes: The Women's Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The aim of this study was to determine whether older disabled women with diabetes have an increased risk of falls compared to women without diabetes and to identify fall risk factors among this high-risk subgroup of patients. Methods. Data are from the Women's Health and Aging Study I (n ¼ 1002, age ? 65 years), a prospective, population- based

Stefano Volpato; Suzanne G. Leveille; Caroline Blaum; Linda P. Fried; Jack M. Guralnik

2005-01-01

31

Women's social networks and child survival in Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the influence of women's social networks on child survival through a comparative investigation of two ethnic groups in Mali, West Africa. Data are drawn from a study of women's social networks and health conducted during the period 1996–97. Separate samples of 500 ever-married women aged 15–49 were surveyed at two geographically distinct sites representing Bamanan and Fulbe

Alayne M. Adams; Sangeetha Madhavan; Dominique Simon

2002-01-01

32

Older Women: The Economics of Aging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To meet a clear need for policy-oriented research on issues affecting women, an alliance was formed in 1979 between the Women's Studies Program and Policy Center (WSPPC) at George Washington University and the Women's Research and Education Institute (WRE...

1985-01-01

33

Depression in Adult Women: Age Changes and Cohort Effects  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to separate age and cohort associations with depression, assessed 3 times within a 10-year period in 701 women born between 1928 and 1958. Methods. We used regression analysis to examine age differences in women with depression in 2 birth cohorts, pre-1945 and post-1944, who were assessed at comparable ages. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate changes with age in successive birth year cohorts. Results. An age by cohort interaction indicated more depression among younger than older women in the post-1944 cohort but a flat age profile in the pre-1945 cohort. Longitudinal analyses indicated declines in depression with age in more recent cohorts but increases in earlier ones. Conclusions. Increases in depression in younger women in successive cohorts may be offset by decreases in middle age.

Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Castille, Dorothy

2003-01-01

34

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment Substance use during pregnancy may result in premature birth, miscarriage, and a variety of behavioral ...

35

Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p < .000) in women and body image in men (p < .0298). As for aging characteristics, decreasing hearing ability (p < .000), performance as before (p < .004), more irritability (p < .0227), ability to travel alone (p < .0429), needs check up (p < .001), and needs a geriatric home (p < .001) were statistically associated with age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people. PMID:23767841

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

2013-01-01

36

Assessing fertility in women of advanced reproductive age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive capacity in women declines dramatically beyond the fourth decade of life. Oocyte quality seems to be the primary determinant of reproductive potential, although age-related uterine changes may also contribute. Underlying reasons for reproductive decline in women remain unclear, and both ovarian and neuroendocrine mechanisms have been proposed. A number of age-related endocrinologic changes precede menopause and predict diminished reproductive

Jeffrey Klein; Mark V. Sauer

2001-01-01

37

Social age deadlines for the childbearing of women and men  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This study examines whether social age deadlines exist for childbearing in women and men, how they vary across countries, whether they are lower than actual biological deadlines and whether they are associated with childbearing at later ages and the availability of assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). METHODS This study is based on the European Social Survey, Round 3 (2006–2007), which covers 25 countries. Data were gathered on social age deadlines for childbearing in women (21 909 cases) and men (21 239 cases) from samples of representative community-dwelling populations aged 15 and older. RESULTS Social age deadlines for childbearing were perceived more frequently for women than men. These deadlines are often lower than actual biological limits, and for women and men alike: 57.2% of respondents perceived a maternal social age deadline ?40 years of age; 46.2% of the respondents perceived a paternal social age deadline ?45 years of age. There is also considerable variability in deadlines across countries, as well as within them. At the country level, the presence of social age deadlines for the childbearing of women was negatively associated with birth rates at advanced ages and the prevalence of ART, and later deadlines were positively associated with these factors. CONCLUSIONS It is important to understand the factors that increase and limit late fertility. While biological factors condition fertility, so do social expectations. These findings provide widespread evidence across Europe that social limits exist alongside biological ones, though both sets of factors are more binding for women.

Billari, F.C.; Goisis, A.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Settersten, R.A.; Aassve, A.; Hagestad, G.; Speder, Z.

2011-01-01

38

Age and Preference for Complexity among Manifestly Creative Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between age and creativity among a sample of 271 manifestly creative women aged 23-87 years. Creativity showed no significant negative correlation with age. However, among control subjects not selected for creativity, the negative correlation between age and creativity scores was statistically significant. (Author/RH)

Crosson, C. W.; Robertson-Tchabo, E. A.

1983-01-01

39

Post-school-age training among women: training methods and labor market outcomes at older ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine labor market effects of education and training on women at pre-retirement ages, comparing training methods: formal education, on-the-job training, and other training. Results show that younger, more educated women tend to train more than other women and that some women appear in a ‘training track’. While both education and on-the-job

Elizabeth T. Hill

2001-01-01

40

Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

2010-01-01

41

Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

2010-01-01

42

Musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in Puebla, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, complaints of musculoskeletal pain are more frequent than complaints of hot flashes amongst women of menopausal\\u000a age. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in the city of Puebla, Mexico.\\u000a An opportunity sample was recruited from public parks and markets, with representation from all social classes (n=755). Mean age was 50.1~years,

Lynnette Leidy Sievert; Susan K. Goode-Null

2005-01-01

43

[Chronic cystitis in women of reproductive age].  

PubMed

The examination of 112 women suffering from chronic cystitis has detected frequent comorbidity of genital, gastrointestinal, locomotor and pelvic varicose diseases. Myofascial syndrome, hemodynamic disorders and venous congestion play a leading role in development of pain syndrome in women with comorbid diseases of the small pelvis organs. Clinicopsychological investigation of such women has revealed frequent vegetative and psychoemotional disorders with predominance of anxiodepressive conditions. Pain, dysuria and anxiodepressive disorders are among causes of imbalance of the autonomic nervous system which acvitaves regulatory systems and has an impact on quality of life. Women with chronic cystitis show significant deterioration of quality of life. Combined treatment including physical factors and therapeutic exercise reduced treatment duration, frequency of exacerbations, raised cost effectiveness. PMID:21870478

Moskovenko, N V

44

Transition to Overweight or Obesity Among Women of Reproductive Age  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Nearly two thirds of reproductive-aged women in the United States are currently overweight or obese, placing them at elevated risk for adverse health outcomes. This study identifies factors associated with transition in body mass index (BMI) category to overweight or obesity status over a 2-year period among women of reproductive age. Methods Data were collected in the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study (CePAWHS), a longitudinal cohort study of reproductive-aged women. Participants were 689 women with normal or overweight BMI at baseline who were not pregnant at either baseline or 2-year follow-up. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were estimated to model adverse change in weight category for women who were normal weight at baseline and to model transition to obesity among women who were overweight at baseline. Results Among women of normal weight at baseline, 18% became overweight or obese by follow-up; 25% of women overweight at baseline became obese. In multiple regression analyses, low physical activity at baseline was significantly associated with a 2-fold elevation in the odds of transitioning from normal BMI to overweight/obesity (odds ratio [OR] 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-4.20), as was having an interim live birth (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.27-5.95). In contrast, demographics (lower education, younger age) were the only significant predictors of transition from overweight to obesity. Conclusions : Meeting physical activity guidelines should be encouraged among normal weight women of reproductive age as well as those who are overweight or obese, as low physical activity is a risk for transitioning from normal to overweight status. Younger overweight women are particularly at risk for transition to obesity.

Weisman, Carol S.; Chuang, Cynthia; Downs, Danielle Symons; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer; Camacho, Fabian

2011-01-01

45

Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)|

Hill, Elizabeth T.

2001-01-01

46

Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

Troll, Lillian E.

47

Women's Personality in Middle Age: Gender, History, and Midcourse Corrections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines several key features of the course of adult development in the cohort of women born during the baby boom. By focusing on the women in this group and comparing their experience with that of older cohorts and research on men, the authors demonstrate the need for models of aging that take account of the intersections of history,

Abigail J. Stewart; Joan M. Ostrove

1998-01-01

48

Women's Strength Training. Lifting the Limits of Aging?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Strength training is considered a male activity, but physicians are recommending it to women who want to keep their musculoskeletal systems strong and flexible as they age. This article discusses goals and problems of strength training for women and suggests it as an adjunct to cardiovascular fitness exercises. (SM)|

Cinque, Chris

1990-01-01

49

Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

Troll, Lillian E.

50

Thriving Older African American Women: Aging After Jim Crow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on the findings of small group discussions with self-defined successful African American women age 60+ in Charlotte, North Carolina. These women, who lived through the Jim Crow era and thrived in spite of the obstacles, continue to seek meaning in their lives through the roles they play in their families, churches, and communities. They feel strongly

Dena Shenk; Diane Zablotsky; Mary Beth Croom

1997-01-01

51

Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next

D. M. Eddy; V. Hasselblad; W. McGivney; W. Hendee

1988-01-01

52

Middle-Aged and Older Women in Print Advertisements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined images of aging women depicted in periodical advertising over a 10-year period. Analyzed content for frequency, products involved, setting, value orientation, and change over time. Found older women in less than 1% of the advertisements, and no significant changes from 1967-1977. (Author/JAC)|

Hollenshead, Carol; Ingersoll, Berit

1982-01-01

53

Factors associated with intimate partner violence against women in Serbia: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study aimed to identify factors associated with intimate partner violence against women living in Belgrade, Serbia.MethodA cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted in Belgrade as part of the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, using a standard questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1456 women aged 15–49 years. Data used in this study were from

Bosiljka Djikanovic; Henrica A F M Jansen; Stanislava Otasevic

2010-01-01

54

Increased depressive symptoms in menopausal age women with bipolar disorder: Age and gender comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEmerging data suggest the menopausal transition may be a time of increased risk for depression. This study examines the course of bipolar disorder focusing on depressive symptoms in menopausal transition age women, compared to similar-aged men as well as younger adult women and men.

Wendy K. Marsh; Terence A. Ketter; Natalie L. Rasgon

2009-01-01

55

Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

56

Why some women look young for their age.  

PubMed

The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Murray, Peter G; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Strongitharm, Barbara H; Perrett, Dave I; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E; Messenger, Andrew G; Green, Martin R; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

2009-12-01

57

Why Some Women Look Young for Their Age  

PubMed Central

The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

2009-01-01

58

Antiepileptic drug use in women of childbearing age  

PubMed Central

Research on antiepileptic drug (AED) teratogenesis has demonstrated an increased risk for valproate. The impact of these findings on current AED prescribing patterns for women of childbearing age with epilepsy is uncertain. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective multicenter observational investigation that enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on the most common AED monotherapies from October 1999 to February 2004 (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate, and phenytoin). A 2007 survey of AED use in women of childbearing age at eight NEAD centers found a total of 932 women of childbearing age with epilepsy (6% taking no AED, 53% monotherapy, 41% polytherapy). The most common monotherapies were lamotrigine or levetiracetam. Since 2004, prescriptions of carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate have decreased, whereas those for levetiracetam have increased. Except for the top two AED monotherapies, there were marked differences in other monotherapies and in polytherapies between U.S. and UK centers. Future investigations are needed to examine reasons for drug choice.

Meador, Kimford J.; Penovich, Patricia; Baker, Gus A.; Pennell, Page B.; Bromfield, Edward; Pack, Alison; Liporace, Joyce D.; Sam, Maria; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Thurman, David J.; Moore, Eugene; Loring, David W.

2009-01-01

59

Domestic Violence and Chronic Malnutrition among Women and Children in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence has harmful physical and psychological health correlates, but there is little evidence regarding a relation between domestic violence and malnutrition. To investigate this relation, the authors analyzed data from 69,072 women aged 15-49 years and 14,552 children aged 12-35 months in the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Physical domestic violence victimization was self-reported by the women. Aspects

Leland K. Ackerson; S. V. Subramanian

2008-01-01

60

Obesity in women of childbearing age: risks, prevention, and treatment.  

PubMed

This article reviews the health burden of obesity, its treatment and prevention, and potential barriers to care with special emphasis on adult women of childbearing age. From 1988 to 1994, 22% of nonpregnant women 18-49 years old in the United States were overweight (body mass index [BMI] >/= 25-29.9), and 22% were obese (BMI >/= 30). Both conditions increase the risk of chronic disease and mortality, and among women of childbearing age, overweight and obesity also increase the risk of infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes.The three main strategies for preventing obesity are weight maintenance, weight loss for overweight and obese persons, and physical activity for all. More than 44% of nonpregnant women of childbearing age are trying to lose weight, and more than 33% are trying to maintain weight, but less than 21% of women of childbearing age use the recommended combination of physical activity and caloric restriction to try to lose or maintain weight. Pregnant women should try to gain no more than the recommended weight gain range for their prepregnancy BMI, yet about one third gain more weight.Although research has shown that advice from physicians can have an impact on their patients' eating habits and physical activity, many health professionals either provide no such advice or give inappropriate advice to women of childbearing age. Barriers may include inadequate reimbursement, time constraints, and lack of professional training. Frequent contact with women of childbearing age provides obstetricians and gynecologists and nurse specialists an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity successfully. PMID:11378427

Cogswell, M E.; Perry, G S.; Schieve, L A.; Dietz, W H.

2001-05-01

61

The Relationship between Spirituality and Successful Aging Older Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed the research question regarding the relationship between spirituality and successful aging among older Black women. The participants in this study completed a questionnaire that measured spirituality and successful aging as a composite of a) physical health, b) continuity of adaptation over time, c) a sense of meaning in life, and d) psychological well-being. The goals of this

Alicia Angelica Maki

2005-01-01

62

[Reproductive characteristics and utilization of preventive health services by childbearing-age women: results of two cross-sectional population-based studies in the far South of Brazil].  

PubMed

Two surveys were conducted (1995 and 2004) on women 15-49 years of age in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil, assess patterns in their use of preventive health services. The sample included 1,339 women in 1995 and 1,311 in 2004. A standardized household questionnaire covered their demographic, socioeconomic, reproductive, and health care-utilization characteristics. The chi-square test was used to compare indicators in the two studies. During the study period, housing conditions, running water, sanitation, and schooling improved, but family income decreased. Mean age at sexual initiation decreased by one year, teenage pregnancy increased 33%, and clinical breast examination and Pap smears increased 48% and 30%, respectively. Overall use of contraceptive methods declined by 3%, but condom use increased from 8% to 21%. Efforts are needed to improve coverage for breast examination and Pap smears, postpone sexual initiation, and promote the use of contraceptive methods, especially condoms. PMID:18813681

Carlotto, Kharen; Cesar, Juraci A; Hackenhaar, Arnildo A; Ribeiro, Paula R P

2008-09-01

63

College-Aged Women and Leadership: Understanding the Variables Impacting College-Aged Women Student Leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attending college offers many women the opportunity to take on a variety of leadership positions. As women take on more leadership roles today while in college, barriers inhibiting their involvement still exist. The campus climate and societal expectations are two such barriers that can deter women from taking on leadership posi- tions. This paper examines the history and perpetuation of

Maria Duckett

64

Is it all about intimacy? Age, menopausal status, and women?s sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the contribution of aging to various aspects of sexual functioning. Study 1 examined the association between age and sexual response among 289 women. Results showed that aging and relationship length were associated with relatively low sexual desire, excitement, and intimacy, with sexual intimacy mediating the association between relationship length and sexual excitement. Furthermore, the negative association between

GURIT E. BIRNBAUM; OHAD COHEN; VERED WERTHEIMERa

2007-01-01

65

An Analysis of College-aged Women’s Personal Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current communication literature regarding personal relations is limited by its focus on romantic, friendship and friends with benefits relations. To better understand the types of relations college-aged women practice, this study sought to explore (a) the types of cross-sex relations college-aged women practice (b) the reasons they give for practicing the relations and (c) the identities they construct by practicing

Amanda E. Hamilton

2012-01-01

66

A Proactive Approach to Aging Well for Women Over 45  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an exploratory two-group, pre- and posttest design study, which employed data triangulation with a convenience sample (n = 120) of women over 45 years aged between 45 and 83 years, living and\\/or working within the South East Sydney and Illawarra areas of New South Wales. Sixty-nine women recorded the Health Check Log (HCL) (33 were health

June N. Sheriff; Lynn Chenoweth

2009-01-01

67

[Sexuality of aging couples--from women's point of view].  

PubMed

The Sexuality Study Group (chairperson: Chineko Araki) has researched the sexuality of middle-aged to elderly men and women who were having problems with their spouse, and suggestions for an improved sexual life. According to the result of the survey, the problem seemed to lie in the gap between men and women; men want sexual intercourse with women, while many women are satisfied with emotional affection. Discontinuance of intercourse is mainly caused by the loss of women's interest in sex. The responses to 'What kind of sexual relationship do you want to have with your spouse?' and other questions showed that whether women want to have sexual intercourse or not is not simply caused by a physical problem such as decrease of sexual desire or pain during intercourse, but is affected by various factors such as the affection to the spouse, physical and mental satisfaction by intercourse and a different way of thinking about sex. Also the survey showed even though both men and women wanted to have a 'casual conversation' or 'showing affection daily', in actual life they lacked having conversations and had little physical contact except for sex. For aging couples to keep matured sexual relations, it is more desirable to build the couples' relationship with casual conversation and physical contact, and also enjoy slow sex, such as pillow talk or caressing one another and not focusing on sex only. PMID:16229370

Araki, Chineko

2005-09-01

68

Psychological stress and reproductive aging among pre-menopausal women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Life history models suggest that biological preparation for current versus longer term reproduction is favored in environments of adversity. In this context, we present a model of reproductive aging in which environmental adversity is proposed to increase the number of growing follicles at the cost of hastening the depletion of the ovarian reserve over time. We evaluated this model by examining psychological stress in relation to reproductive aging indexed by antral follicle count (AFC), a marker of total ovarian reserve. We hypothesized that stress would be related to (i) higher AFC in younger women, reflecting greater reproductive readiness as well as (ii) greater AFC loss across women, reflecting more accelerated reproductive aging. METHODS In a multi-ethnic, community sample of 979 participants [ages 25–45 (mean (standard deviation) = 35.2 (5.5)); 27.5% Caucasian] in the Ovarian Aging study, an investigation of the correlates of reproductive aging, the interaction of age-x-stress was assessed in relation to AFC to determine whether AFC and AFC loss varied across women experiencing differing levels of stress. Stress was assessed by the perceived stress scale and AFC was assessed by summing the total number of antral follicles visible by transvaginal ultrasound. RESULTS In linear regression examining AFC as the dependent variable, covariates (race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, menarcheal age, hormone-containing medication for birth control, parity, cigarette smoking, bodymass index, waist-to-hip ratio) and age were entered on step 1, stress on step 2 and the interaction term (age-x-stress) on step 3. On step 3, significant main effects showed that older age was related to lower AFC (b = ?0.882, P = 0.000) and greater stress was related to higher AFC (b = 0.545, P = 0.005). Follow-up analyses showed that the main effect of stress on AFC was present in the younger women only. A significant interaction term (b = ?0.036, P = 0.031) showed the relationship between age and AFC varied as function of stress. When the sample was divided into tertiles of stress, the average follicle loss was ?0.781, ?0.842 and ?0.994 follicles/year in the low-, mid- and high-stress groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Psychological stress was related to higher AFC among younger women and greater AFC decline across women, suggesting that greater stress may enhance reproductive readiness in the short term at the cost of accelerating reproductive aging in the long term. Findings are preliminary, however, due to the cross-sectional nature of the current study.

Bleil, M.E.; Adler, N.E.; Pasch, L.A.; Sternfeld, B.; Gregorich, S.E.; Rosen, M.P.; Cedars, M.I.

2012-01-01

69

Quilting as age identity expression in traditional women.  

PubMed

A qualitative study using McCracken's (1988) multistage process for data analysis examined how women in three traditional cultures express themselves and their age identities in quilting. In semi-structured interviews, 10 Amish, 10 Appalachian, and 10 Latter-day Saint (Mormon) women discussed their quilting-related experiences, rewards that they receive from quilting, and the variety of ways in which quilting assists them in creating positive age identities. Results illustrated how quilting aided personal progress in building quilting-related skills and enlarging personal influence through owning quilting businesses, teaching and mentoring others, gaining respect as skilled artisans, and acting as guardians of family traditions. PMID:15612197

Cheek, Cheryl; Piercy, Kathleen W

2004-01-01

70

Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.  

PubMed

With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

2012-01-01

71

Sphincter tears in primiparous women: is age a factor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anal sphincter tears during vaginal delivery may result in serious sequelae. We examined whether younger primiparous patients\\u000a were at increased risk for sphincter tears during vaginal delivery. Data from an obstetric automated record were analyzed.\\u000a Primiparous women delivering term infants (n?=?5,937) were included to test for an association between age and sphincter tear rates. Three age groups were considered:\\u000a young

C. Bryce Bowling; Thomas L. Wheeler II; Kimberly A. Gerten; Victoria R. Chapman; Kathryn L. Burgio; Holly E. Richter

2009-01-01

72

Personality Correlates of Age and Life Roles in Adult Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult, midlife, and older women from four role groups--homemaker, married career, single career, and student--were compared on a number of personality measures including achievement motivation, affiliation, autonomy, cultural sex role characteristics, self-esteem, and adjustment. Some significant age and role differences were found.…

Mellinger, Jeanne C.; Erdwins, Carol J.

1985-01-01

73

Restless Legs Syndrome among Working-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random sample of 200 women, aged 18–64 years, living in a county in mid-Sweden, was sent a questionnaire that included questions about sleep habits, symptoms of sleepiness and neuropsychiatric complaints. Standardized diagnostic criteria determined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were used to investigate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Possible associations between RLS and neuropsychiatric

Jan Ulfberg; Birgitta Nyström; Ned Carter; Christer Edling

2001-01-01

74

Violent deaths among women of reproductive age in rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to investigate levels and trends in mortality due to violence in women of reproductive age and the social and demographic factors associated with such mortality. The study took place in Matlab, a rural sub-district in Bangladesh between 1982 and 1998. The data were furnished by a longitudinal population-based demographic surveillance system located in that

M. K. M. Kapil Ahmed; Jeroen van Ginneken; Abdur Razzaque; Nurul Alam

2004-01-01

75

Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk…

Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

2004-01-01

76

Age of menarche and schizophrenia onset in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The “estrogen hypothesis” posits that this hormone serves as a protective factor in the development of schizophrenia. If true, then it is expected that the earlier the age of menarche, the later the onset of schizophrenia (as has been reported by some investigators). This study attempts to replicate this relationship in a sample of women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective

Karen M Hochman; Richard R Lewine

2004-01-01

77

Prevalence and Causes of Chronic Energy Deficiency and Obesity in Indian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the nutritional status of women in India and its relation to the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) and obesity. To do this, we have used the data from the Indian National Family Health Survey, 1998–1999, on body mass index (BMI) of ever-married women, ages 15–49 years, along with several socioeconomic factors, such as level of education, religion

S Bharati; M Pal; B N Bhattacharya; P Bharati

2007-01-01

78

Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age

Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

2009-01-01

79

Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women

Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

2006-01-01

80

Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Dyslipidemia in Middle-Aged Women  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death throughout the world. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia, as well as dietary factors contributing to the development of dyslipidemia among middle-aged women. Methods: The research design of the present study was a population-based cross-sectional study; anthropometric measures and blood chemistry were obtained. Physical activity was measured using the original International Physical Activity Questionnaires Long Form while food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used in assessing individual’s habitual intake. Overall, 809 women, 30–50 years of age from fourteen active urban Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC) in Babol City, northern Iran, were obtained from 1,905 households across operational areas of 14 PHC using systematic random sampling method. Results: The prevalence rates of women classified as overweight/obese, with central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia were 82.8%, 75.5%, 14.6% and 63.4%, respectively. Total physical activity did not correlate with cholesterol ratio. Soybean protein was inversely associated with cholesterol ratio (rho=?0.18, P? 0.001). The adjusted OR for dyslipidemia in women with moderate protein intake was significantly higher than in women with high and low intake (OR=2.31; 95% CI= 1.61, 3.30). No significant associations were found between dyslipidemia and carbohydrate, fat intake or physical activity. Conclusion: This study showed very high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Iranian middle-aged women. A more detailed study is suggested to develop definitively recommendations for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease for the Iranian population.

Delavar, MA; Lye, MS; Hassan, STBS; Khor, GL; Hanachi, P

2011-01-01

81

Related factors of urge, stress, mixed urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in reproductive age womenin Tabriz, Iran : a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary incontinence remains a pressing problem, particularly for women. So this study was conducted to assess risk factors\\u000a for stress, urge, mixed urinary incontinence and overactive bladder (OVB). Three hundred and thirty women aged 15–49, non-pregnant,\\u000a non-breastfeeding who were referred to gynecologic clinics were surveyed. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Women\\u000a with no symptoms related to urinary incontinence

Sahar Sadat Sobhgol; Sakineh Mohamad Alizadeh Charandabee

2008-01-01

82

Narratives of Desire in Mid-Age Women With and Without Arousal Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is controversy about the nature of women's sexual desire. The aim was to explore narrative descriptions of sexual desire among mid-aged women in hopes of clarifying how women define and experience sexual desire, and how these might differ among women with and without female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Mid-aged women without (age: M = 45, n = 12) and with (age: M = 55, n = 10)

Lori A. Brotto; Julia R. Heiman; Deborah L. Tolman

2009-01-01

83

Age Dependent Susceptibility to Infarct Growth in Women  

PubMed Central

Background It is not known if there is a relationship between gender and tissue outcome in human ischemic stroke. We sought to identify whether the proportion of initially ischemic to eventually infarcted tissue was different between men and women with ischemic stroke. Methods We studied 141 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who had a baseline MRI obtained within 12 hours of symptom onset, a follow-up imaging on day 4 or later, and DWI/MTT mismatch on initial MRI. Lesion growth was calculated as percentage of mismatch tissue that underwent infarction on follow-up (Percentage Mismatch Lost or PML). Multivariable analyses explored the effect of gender and other predictors of tissue outcome on PML. Results There was no difference in median PML between men (19%) and women (11%) (p=0.720). There was, however, an interaction between gender and age; median PML was 7% (0–12%) in women and 18% (1–35%) in men younger than the population median (71 years, p=0.061). The PML was not different between men and women ?71 years old (25% in both groups). The linear regression model revealed gender (p=0.027) and the interaction between age and gender (p=0.023) as independent predictors of PML. Conclusion There is an age-by-gender interaction in tissue outcome after ischemic stroke; brain infarcts in women younger than 70 years grow approximately 50% less than infarcts in their male counterparts. These findings extend the well-known concept that there is a differential age-by-gender effect on stroke incidence, mortality, and functional outcome to the tissue level.

Gokcay, Figen; Arsava, Ethem Murat; Baykaner, Tuna; Vangel, Mark; Garg, Priya; Wu, Ona; Singhal, Aneesh B.; Furie, Karen L.; Sorensen, A. Gregory; Ay, Hakan

2011-01-01

84

Qigong improving physical status in middle-aged women.  

PubMed

Regular exercise has been shown to benefit its practitioners and prevent and control diseases. Muscle/Tendon Change Classic (MTCC) qigong, characterized by simple, slow, and full-body exercise, is appropriate for the middle-age population. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the MTCC qigong program in improving physical status for middle-aged women. A quasi-experimental design was used. The experimental group (n = 37) received an 8-week MTCC qigong program, whereas the control group (n = 34) received none. Physiological parameters of muscular performance, body composition, and bone strength were measured before and after the program. The average age was 49 +/- 4.13 years for the experimental group and 50 +/- 4.74 years for the control group. The demographic characteristics were homogeneous between the two groups. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in muscular endurance, body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index at the completion of 8-week MTCC qigong program. The MTCC qigong could improve muscle endurance and body composition but not bone strength for middle-aged women, thereby demonstrating the qigong practice has certain health-preserving effects on women in this stage of life. PMID:18612090

Tsai, Yi-Kuei; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Lin, I-Hsin; Yeh, Mei-Ling

2008-07-08

85

Nutritional anemia in reproductive age women with postadolescent acne.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Postadolescent acne has been defined as the presence of acne beyond the age of 25 years. Postadolescent acne affects approximately 14% of women between the ages of 25 and 50 years. Namely, postadolescent acne usually occurs in women of reproductive age. Nutritional anemia occurs from an insufficient intake of nutrients such as iron, folate and vitamin B12. It is very common in women of reproductive age. Nutritional anemia causes irritability, apathy, fatigue, depressive symptoms and difficulty in concentration. The major etiological factor in adult acne can be increased levels of emotional stress, leading to increase in adrenal androgens. Thus, nutritional anemia may aggravate the lesions of acne by affecting the emotional status in women of reproductive age. Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between postadolescent acne and nutritional anemia in this study. Materials and methods: The study population comprised of 52 patients with postadolescent acne and 52 healthy control subjects. Hemogram, vitamin B12, folate, serum iron, ferritin and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were measured. Results: No significant differences were observed between both groups in hemoglobin, vitamin B12, serum iron, ferritin and TIBC levels. Serum folate levels were significantly decreased in postadolescent acne patients (p?

Balta, Ilknur; Ekiz, Ozlem; Ozuguz, Pinar; Sen, Bilge Bulbul; Balta, Sevket; Cakar, Mustafa; Demirkol, Sait

2013-01-25

86

Thriving older African American women: aging after Jim Crow.  

PubMed

This paper is based on the findings of small group discussions with self-defined successful African American women age 60+ in Charlotte, North Carolina. These women, who lived through the Jim Crow era and thrived in spite of the obstacles, continue to seek meaning in their lives through the roles they play in their families, churches, and communities. They feel strongly that there is a core of key values that continue to hold meaning and struggle to impart these values to those whose lives they touch. The key values identified include education, religion, work, and giving back to the community, and illustrate the integration of both traditional and nontraditional definitions of success. Mentoring is proposed as an important concept for understanding the lives of African American women in later life. PMID:9870053

Shenk, D; Zablotsky, D; Croom, M B

1998-01-01

87

Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and Older  

MedlinePLUS

... your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Guide for Asian Women Aged 50 and ... Fitness: Overtraining Risks Pregnancy, Nursing and Bone Health Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American ...

88

What Characterises Women Vulnerable to Chronic Energy Deficiency?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Weight-for-squared height or body mass index (BMI) is often considered as an effective predictor of morbidity and mortality rates. This study uses BMI data from a sample of ever-married women in the age group of 15-49 years in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh for the year 1998-1999, to analyse the determinants of chronic energy deficiency…

Kavi Kumar, K. S.; Ramachandran, Maithili; Viswanathan, Brinda

2009-01-01

89

Eternal Mothers or Flexible Housewives? Middle-aged Chinese Married Women in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do Hong Kong Chinese women position themselves in relation to this stigmatized social category of “si-nai” (middle aged-housewives)\\u000a and the prevailing norms and values regarding women’s roles? The case of middle-aged, married women in Hong Kong provides\\u000a empirical support for an alternative understanding of the identity of adult woman and helps to problematize conceptualizations\\u000a of women’s identity as centered

Petula Sik-ying Ho

2007-01-01

90

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among Hispanic women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a potential health risk for women of reproductive age and their children. Household and workplace exposures were estimated for 4256 Hispanic women age 12 to 49 who participated in the Hispanic health and nutrition examination survey. Age-specific household exposure for nonsmokers was 31% to 62% for Mexican-Americans, 22% to 59% for Puerto Ricans, and 40% to 53% for Cuban-Americans. Exposure was significantly high for Puerto Rican and Mexican-American adolescents, 59% and 62%, respectively. Workplace exposure for nonsmokers was 22% to 35% for Mexican-Americans, 28% to 33% for Puerto Ricans, and 33% to 49% for Cuban-Americans. Young Mexican-American and Puerto Rican and all Cuban-American women reported high exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home or workplace. Assessment of family living and smoking patterns, understanding cultural values and norms, and household smoking control and cessation strategies that are mutually derived are useful for nurses and Hispanic and Latino populations to meet the environmental tobacco smoke health objectives for the nation. PMID:7937494

Pletsch, P K

1994-08-01

91

Social relationships, sleep quality, and interleukin-6 in aging women  

PubMed Central

This study examined the interplay of social engagement, sleep quality, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a sample of aging women (n = 74, aged 61-90, M age = 73.4). Social engagement was assessed by questionnaire, sleep was assessed by using the NightCap in-home sleep monitoring system and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and blood samples were obtained for analysis of plasma levels of IL-6. Regarding subjective assessment, poorer sleep (higher scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) was associated with lower positive social relations scores. Multivariate regression analyses showed that lower levels of plasma IL-6 were predicted by greater sleep efficiency (P < 0.001), measured objectively and by more positive social relations (P < 0.05). A significant interaction showed that women with the highest IL-6 levels were those with both poor sleep efficiency and poor social relations (P < 0.05). However, those with low sleep efficiency but compensating good relationships as well as women with poor relationships but compensating high sleep efficiency had IL-6 levels comparable to those with the protective influences of both good social ties and good sleep.

Friedman, Elliot M.; Hayney, Mary S.; Love, Gayle D.; Urry, Heather L.; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; Davidson, Richard J.; Singer, Burton H.; Ryff, Carol D.

2005-01-01

92

Race/Ethnicity disparities in dysglycemia among u.s. Women of childbearing age found mainly in the nonoverweight/nonobese.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To describe the burden of dysglycemia-abnormal glucose metabolism indicative of diabetes or high risk for diabetes-among U.S. women of childbearing age, focusing on differences by race/ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (1999-2008), we calculated the burden of dysglycemia (i.e., prediabetes or diabetes from measures of fasting glucose, A1C, and self-report) in nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15-49 years) by race/ethnicity status. We estimated prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) for dysglycemia in subpopulations stratified by BMI (measured as kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), using predicted marginal estimates and adjusting for age, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, and socioeconomic factors. RESULTS Based on data from 7,162 nonpregnant women, representing >59,000,000 women nationwide, 19% (95% CI 17.2-20.9) had some level of dysglycemia, with higher crude prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites (26.3% [95% CI 22.3-30.8] and 23.8% [19.5-28.7] vs. 16.8% [14.4-19.6], respectively). In women with BMI <25 kg/m(2), dysglycemia prevalence was roughly twice as high in both non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites. This relative increase persisted in adjusted models (PRRadj 1.86 [1.16-2.98] and 2.23 [1.38-3.60] for non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively). For women with BMI 25-29.99 kg/m(2), only non-Hispanic blacks showed increased prevalence vs. non-Hispanic whites (PRRadj 1.55 [1.03-2.34] and 1.28 [0.73-2.26] for non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively). In women with BMI >30 kg/m(2), there was no significant increase in prevalence of dysglycemia by race/ethnicity category. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that dysglycemia affects a significant portion of U.S. women of childbearing age and that disparities by race/ethnicity are most prominent in the nonoverweight/nonobese. PMID:23780951

Marcinkevage, Jessica A; Alverson, C J; Narayan, K M Venkat; Kahn, Henry S; Ruben, Julia; Correa, Adolfo

2013-06-18

93

Ageing in a foreign country: voices of Iranian women ageing in Canada.  

PubMed

Older Iranian women, who immigrated to Canada in later adulthood, experience unique issues as they age. In order to better understand this experience, in-depth, personal and semi-structured interviews were conducted with five immigrant/refugee Iranian women who immigrated to Canada in their later life. Analysis revealed that although each woman's story conveyed individual differences and idiosyncrasies, all the stories highlighted the critical interweaving of the aging experience and the immigration experience: neither experience could be understood in isolation of the other; each aspect gave meaning to the other experience. Two interrelated messages dominated the women's stories: first was the importance of each woman's immigration story for grounding her experience of the aging process in Canada. Second, each woman's personal story suggested that the immigration experiences were accorded priority for accounting for her experiences in Canada. Specifically, cultural identity (i.e., social class, education, religious affiliation and immigration status) offered a valuable cloak for overshadowing the force of the aging process and the aging process emerged as an elusive force that lurked in the background without ever being fully acknowledged or given power in their lives. The implications of these findings in relation to theory development on intersectionality and professional practice are discussed. PMID:16782661

Shemirani, Farimah Shakeri; O'Connor, Deborah L

2006-01-01

94

Heart Rate Variability and Exercise in Aging Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Our group has shown a positive dose-response in maximal cardiorespiratory exercise capacity (VO2max) and heart rate variability (HRV) to 6 months of exercise training but no improvement in VO2max for women ?60 years. Here, we examine the HRV response to exercise training in postmenopausal women younger and older than 60 years. Methods We examined 365 sedentary, overweight, hypertensive, postmenopausal women randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups exercising at 50% (4?kcal/kg/week, [KKW]), 100% (8 KKW) and 150% (12 KKW) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Panel physical activity guidelines. Primary outcomes included time and frequency domain indices of HRV. Results Overall, our analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in parasympathetic tone (rMSSD and high frequency power) for both age strata at 8 KKW and 12 KKW. For rMSSD, the age-stratified responses were: control, <60 years, 0.20?ms, 95% confidence interval (CI)?2.40, 2.81; ?60 years, 0.07?ms, 95% CI ?3.64, 3.79; 4 KKW, <60 years, 3.67?ms, 95% CI 1.55, 5.79; ?60 years, 1.20?ms, 95% CI ?1.82, 4.22; 8-KKW, <60 years, 3.61?ms, 95% CI 0.88, 6.34; ?60 years, 5.75?ms, 95% CI 1.89, 9.61; and 12-KKW, <60 years, 5.07?ms, 95% CI 2.53, 7.60; ?60 years, 4.28?ms, 95% CI 0.42, 8.14. Conclusions VO2max and HRV are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Despite no improvement in VO2max, parasympathetic indices of HRV increased in women ?60 years. This is clinically important, as HRV has important CVD risk and neurovisceral implications beyond cardiorespiratory function.

Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

2012-01-01

95

Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

Sanders, Beverly

96

Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues…

Sanders, Beverly

97

Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…

Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

98

Hope and coping in HIV-infected African American women of reproductive age  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women of reproductive age, particularly those living in the southern United States, represent a disproportionate number of women with HIV\\/AIDS. Often women who become infected with HIV in the South must cope not only with the disease, but with economic stresses and racial stigma, as well. Faced with these changes, these women experience increased distress and loss of hope.

Kenneth D. Phillips; R. L. Sowell

2000-01-01

99

Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…

Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

100

Lifetime History of Depression and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depression is associated with clinical coro- nary events, but the association between history of ma- jor depression and subclinical cardiovascular disease in women is not yet known. We determined the associa- tion between lifetime history of major depression and sub- clinical carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged women. Methods: Participants included 336 healthy middle- aged women (one third African American) from

Deborah J. Jones; Joyce T. Bromberger; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Karen A. Matthews

2003-01-01

101

Radiation doses in the UK trial of breast screening in women aged 40-48 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although data have been published on the radiation doses involved in screening women in the UK in the age range 50-64 years, data have not been published for the screening of younger women, when one might expect higher doses and a different risk benefit balance. Therefore, data on the radiation doses arising from screening younger women (age range 40-48 years)

K C YOUNG

102

Physically active women demonstrate less adverse age-related changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins.  

PubMed

The results of this study support the hypothesis that women who exercise regularly have less adverse changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins with age than sedentary women. This may contribute to the smaller age-related increase in the incidence of coronary heart disease observed in physically active women. PMID:9388117

Stevenson, E T; DeSouza, C A; Jones, P P; Van Pelt, R E; Seals, D R

1997-11-15

103

Assisted reproduction in women over 40 years of age: how old is too old?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s fertility progressively declines with advanced age due to depletion of the ovarian follicular reserve and poorer oocyte quality. However, many women of advanced age are eager to conceive from their own ova. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of IVF cycles among older patients. All IVF retrievals performed in the unit in patients ?42years

Ariel Hourvitz; Ronit Machtinger; Ettie Maman; Micha Baum; Jehoshua Dor; Jacob Levron

2009-01-01

104

Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated…

Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

2005-01-01

105

Dynamic Balance Differences as Measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test Between Adult-aged and Middle-aged Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Middle-aged women have less postural control than younger women. The Star Excursion Balance Test is a functional and inexpensive postural control measurement tool that is sensitive to age-related changes in balance. Hypothesis: The middle-aged females will experience lower excursion scores compared with the younger women. Methodology: Fifty-three healthy, recreationally active women were divided into 2 groups: adult-aged (n = 29; age range, 23-39 years) and middle-aged (n = 24; age range, 40-54 years). Each participant performed 3 reaches for 3 trials (anteromedial, medial, posteromedial) in a randomized order. The 3 reach trials were converted to a normalized value (percentage of participant’s height) and assessed as an overall mean for the 1-way analysis of variance. Intraclass correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: No differences were found for body mass index and height; however, age was different between groups (P < 0.01). Intraclass correlation coefficient2,3 values for the 3 directions ranged from 0.72 to 0.97. The adult-aged women were able to reach farther in all 3 directions when tested with the Star Excursion Balance Test (6.8-7.6 cm, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Lower postural control scores based on the Star Excursion Balance Test were found for the older women. The younger women were able to reach approximately 7 cm farther during the anterior, anteromedial, and posteromedial excursions.

Bouillon, Lucinda E.; Baker, Joshua L.

2011-01-01

106

Treatment of epilepsy in women of childbearing age.  

PubMed

This article updates the literature on the treatment of epilepsy in women of reproductive age. Specific areas discussed include the effect of menstruation on seizure frequency, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), the effect of pregnancy on epilepsy, the effect of seizures on pregnancy and the fetus, the impact of antiepileptic drugs on the fetus, medical termination of pregnancy, breast feeding, and the risk of epilepsy in offspring. Exacerbtion of seizure activity is often seen in premenstrual and menstrual phases, and cyclic use of acetazolamide and/or progesterone (which exerts a protective effect against seizures) is recommended. OCs appear to have only a minor impact on epilepsy and the metabolism of antiepileptic drugs. On the other hand, these drugs can influence the metabolism and effectiveness of OCs. Concomitant use of OCs and antiepileptics can result in a higher incidence of acne and hirsutism, increased intermenstrual bleeding, and failure of contraception. The incidence of contraceptive failure is higher with low-dose estrogen OCs. In general, pregnancy appears to have an unfavorable effect on cerebral dysrrhythmia in epileptics. Possible causes for the increase in seizure frequency during pregnancy include psychological, hormonal, metabolic, and pharmacokinetic factors. The effect of epilepsy and antiepileptics on offspring is unclear. There appears to be an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirths in women taking antiepileptic drugs. In addition, a 3-fold increase in the incidence of congenital malformations has been noted in these women. The risks of birth defects are greater when there is a family history of birth defects, when the father is also epileptic, when a previous pregnancy resulted in a malformed child, when seizures during pregnancy are poorly controlled, and when multipel antiepileptic drugs are used in high doses. Although offspring may inherit the epileptic trait, they do not always manifest the disease. PMID:4044506

Taly, A B; Sharda, C; Mohan, P K

1985-05-01

107

End of Life and Women Aging with a Disability  

PubMed Central

Abstract Approximately 21 million noninstitutionalized Americans with physical disabilities will ultimately face end-of-life [EOL] issues. Studies have documented disparate care and poorer outcomes for persons with preexisting disabilities who have life-limiting illnesses, which raises the question of how EOL experiences may differ for these individuals. The aim of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore how EOL issues might emerge within the life stories of women aging with functional disabilities. Interview data were obtained from a larger, ongoing ethnographic study focused on the creation of an explanatory model of health disparities of disablement in women with mobility impairment. Each participant was interviewed three to four times using a life-course perspective that captures life trajectories and transitions experienced over time. For this analysis, 41 interviews were selected from 20 participants who discussed issues related to death and dying. Content analysis of the data revealed five analytic categories: death as a signpost, impact of others' deaths, deaths that affected personal insights and choice, EOL possibilities, and a personal brush with death. EOL issues were manifested in a variety of ways that revealed both determination to remain as independent as possible within the context of declining functional ability and uncertainty regarding the future.

Zolnierek, Cynthia; Harrison, Tracie; Walker, Janiece

2012-01-01

108

[Psychopathological profile of battered women according to age].  

PubMed

In this paper, differential psychopathological consequences in battered women according to age were analysed in a sample of 148 victims seeking psychological treatment in a Family Violence Centre. The younger victims exposed to intimate partner violence suffered more often from physical violence and were at higher risk for their lives than the older ones. The prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was higher (42%) in the younger victims than in the older ones (27%). Likewise, younger victims were affected by more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem than the older ones. The severity of PTSD in the younger victims was related to the presence of forced sexual relationship but in the older ones, it was related to the perceived threat to their lives. Implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented upon. PMID:17617986

Sarasua, Belén; Zubizarreta, Irene; Echeburúa, Enrique; Del Corral, Paz

2007-08-01

109

Women, Weight, and Age: Social Comparison to Magazine Images Across the Lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that rates of body dissatisfaction in women remain relatively stable across the adult lifespan may be due to older\\u000a women having fewer but heavier age-relevant comparisons in the media. To examine this, magazine images that depict women’s\\u000a full bodies were coded for age, body size, and clothedness. Analyses suggest that overall, older women are not well represented\\u000a in

Gayle R. Bessenoff; Regan E. Del Priore

2007-01-01

110

Physiologic Markers of Chronic Stress in Premenopausal, Middle-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify physiological markers of chronic stress in middle-aged women that can be assessed simply and are thus feasible for introduction into large-scale, epidemiologic studies of aging. Methods: Subjects were 40 nonsmoking, premenopausal women between the ages of 42 and 52 years, 20 of whom were chronically stressed because of undergoing a divorce

LYNDA H. POWELL; WILLIAM R. LOVALLO; KAREN A. MATTHEWS; PETER MEYER; A. REES MIDGLEY; ANDREW BAUM; ARTHUR A. STONE; LYNN UNDERWOOD; JUDITH J. MCCANN; KRISTI JANIKULA HERRO; MARCIA G. ORY

2002-01-01

111

Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

Tooshi, Ali

112

Rubella seroprevalence among women aged 15-39 years in Morocco.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the age-specific rubella seroprevalence in women of childbearing age in Morocco and to contribute to the development of a rubella vaccination strategy in the country. Of 967 women aged 15-39 years tested in 2000, 161 (16.6%) were susceptible to rubella based on absence of IgG antibodies. A significantly higher rate of susceptibility among women aged 15-19 years was observed (29.3%) compared with age 35-39 years (8.3%). An estimated 77,562 live births occur annually to rubella-susceptible women. No statistical difference in seroprevalence was seen between women in rural and urban areas (81.5% and 85.0% respectively). A substantial risk of rubella infection exists for Moroccan women of childbearing age. PMID:19731768

Caidi, H; Bloom, S; Azilmaat, M; Benjouad, A; Reef, S; El Aouad, R

113

Replication of loci influencing ages at menarche and menopause in Hispanic women: the Women's Health Initiative SHARe Study  

PubMed Central

Several genome-wide studies have identified loci associated with reproductive traits, such as ages of menarche and menopause, in women of European ancestry. In this study, we investigated the relevance of these loci in minority US Hispanic women. We utilized data from 3468 women who were genotyped as a part of the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource. We replicated associations of eight loci (LRP18, LIN28B, CENPW, INHBA, TMEM38B, ZNF483, NFAT5 and OLFM2) with age at menarche, and of two loci (MCM8 and BRSK1/TMEM150B) with age at menopause. The MCM8 locus was also associated with early menopause risk. Three loci (CENPW, MCM8 and BRSK1/TMEM150B) were associated with the length of reproductive lifespan. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in minority US Hispanic women.

Chen, Christina T. L.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Brzyski, Robert G.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chen, Zhao; Heiss, Gerardo; North, Kari E.; Woods, Nancy F.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Kooperberg, Charles; Franceschini, Nora

2012-01-01

114

Sexual problems among married Nigerian women.  

PubMed

We interviewed and examined 293 married women, 15-49 years of age, seeking primary care at a teaching hospital in central Nigeria. One or more sexual problems were identified in 71% of women. The proportion of specific sexual problems was 39% for a desire problem, 40% for an arousal problem, 31% for a sex pain problem and 55% for an orgasmic problem. Poor marital communication, lack of foreplay, Islamic religion and advancing age were independently associated with a desire problem. Absence of foreplay was independently associated with an arousal problem. Lack of foreplay, lower abdominal pain, gynaecological conditions, working outside the home and younger age were independently associated with a sex pain problem. The absence of foreplay, poor marital communication and being a housewife were independently associated with an orgasmic problem. Sexual problems are common among married Nigerian women seeking outpatient care. PMID:17066072

Ojomu, F; Thacher, T; Obadofin, M

2006-10-26

115

Aging is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in premenopausal women  

PubMed Central

AIM: To clarify the relationship between age, menopause, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by using abdominal ultrasonography, and investigated the relationship of age and menopause with the development of NAFLD in women. We followed 1829 women and 2572 men (response rate, 86%) selected in 2001 to represent the non-institutionalized adult population of Gifu, Japan. Data collected included self-reported medical history, lifestyle factors, and menopausal status. The postmenopausal state was defined as beginning 1 year after the cessation of menses. We diagnosed NAFLD with the aid of abdominal ultrasonography by using diagnostic criteria described previously. RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD in women increases with age, but does not alter with age in men. Furthermore, the prevalence of NAFLD in premenopausal women (6%) was lower than that in men (24%) and in postmenopausal women (15%). The associations of the postmenopausal state and hormone replacement therapy with NAFLD were statistically significant in a univariate logistic regression model. At the follow-up examination, 67 women (5%) were newly diagnosed with NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD was 3.5% (28/802) in premenopausal women, 7.5% (4/53) in menopausal women, 6.1% (24/392) in postmenopausal women, and 5.3% (11/206) in women receiving hormone replacement therapy. The weight gain in premenopausal women was equal to that in postmenopausal women. Metabolic syndrome and weight gain were independent risk factors for NAFLD in pre- and postmenopausal women, but age was an independent risk factor in premenopausal women only. CONCLUSION: Aging is a risk factor for NAFLD in premenopausal women, independent of weight gain or influence of metabolic syndrome.

Hamaguchi, Masahide; Kojima, Takao; Ohbora, Akihiro; Takeda, Noriyuki; Fukui, Michiaki; Kato, Takahiro

2012-01-01

116

Understanding Women's Breast Screening Behaviour: A Study Carried out in South East London, with Women Aged 50-64 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To understand low uptake of breast cancer screening through exploring the personal reasoning underlying women's attendance or non-attendance, and identifying differences between those who attend and those who decline. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community and home environments of women eligible for breast screening aged

Barter-Godfrey, Sarah; Taket, Ann

2007-01-01

117

Understanding Women's Breast Screening Behaviour: A Study Carried out in South East London, with Women Aged 50-64 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To understand low uptake of breast cancer screening through exploring the personal reasoning underlying women's attendance or non-attendance, and identifying differences between those who attend and those who decline. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Community and home environments of women eligible for breast screening aged

Barter-Godfrey, Sarah; Taket, Ann

2007-01-01

118

National Women's Organizations/Associations, Federal Agencies, and Other Entities Serving Middle Aged and Older Women: A Resource Directory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Resource Directory provides a summary of program activities and services provided to middle aged and older women, possible areas of collaboration and lists of resources for consumers, practitioners, planners and others serving at-risk populations.

D. A. Idleelburg C. D. Alexander

1994-01-01

119

CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause.

de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

2011-01-01

120

A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women’s Age Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory’s (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age with the youthful-ideal prototype for women presented in the media. The present study extended this research

Casey L. Augustus-Horvath; Tracy L. Tylka

2009-01-01

121

Women and Substance Abuse: Gender, Age, and Cultural Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society,

Sally J. Stevens; Rosi A. C. Andrade; Bridget S. Ruiz

2009-01-01

122

Images of powerful women in the age of ‘choice feminism’  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of scholars and journalists have argued that Western culture has become ‘sexualized’. Both women and men, they maintain, are highly sexualized in popular media. At the same time, scholars have examined the sexualization of women as part of a broader cultural ‘backlash’ against the gains of second-wave feminism and women's increasing power in society. We contribute to both

Erin Hatton; Mary Nell Trautner

2012-01-01

123

Motor performance of women as a function of age and physical activity level.  

PubMed

In Study 1, simple and choice reaction time, balance, sit and reach flexibility, shoulder flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active women on all measures were significantly better than for older inactive women, and much more like those of the younger women. In Study 2, scores of avid women golfers were compared with the older active and inactive women from Study 1. On all variables, the scores of golfers were significantly better than those of the older inactive women, but not significantly different from the older active women. Findings were consistent with previous research on men, indicating that motor performance tends to be more highly related to lifelong physical activity level than to age. PMID:3745821

Rikli, R; Busch, S

1986-09-01

124

Age-related muscle atrophy in the lower extremities and daily physical activity in elderly women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between age-related declines in muscle thickness of the lower extremities and daily physical activity in elderly women. The subjects comprised 20 young women and 17 elderly women residing in a nursing home. Lower limb muscle thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound with the following 10 muscles; gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, psoas major, rectus

Tome Ikezoe; Natsuko Mori; Masatoshi Nakamura; Noriaki Ichihashi

2011-01-01

125

Stroke Incidence in Women under 60 Years of Age Related to Alcohol Intake and Smoking Habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: The association between alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of stroke amongst women remains unclear, especially in young women. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 45,449 Swedish women aged 30–50 years free of stroke and heart diseases at enrolment in 1991 and 1992. Information on drinking and smoking habits at enrolment was collected using a questionnaire. Incident

Ming Lu; Weimin Ye; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

2008-01-01

126

Hair mercury concentration and fish consumption: Risk and perceptions of risk among women of childbearing age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to assess the hair mercury concentration of women of childbearing age in Taiwan, and to calculate a hazard quotient (HQ) to evaluate the risk of fish consumption for these women. We also examined perceptions of risk associated with fish consumption and whether women in our study changed their habits in response to such risks.

Ling-Chu Chien; Chi-Sian Gao; Hsing-Hua Lin

2010-01-01

127

Knowledge of emergency contraception among women of childbearing age at a teaching hospital of Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge and attitudes about Emergency Contraception among women of childbearing age in Karachi, Pakistan.METHODS: A questionnaire based survey was conducted on 400 married women, attending the family practice clinics at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan from July to December 2006. Questionnaire was administered to women at the family practice clinic-seeking level of knowledge of emergency contraception

Farhana Irfan; Syed Irfan Karim; Saman Hashmi; Sajid Ali; Syed Arif Ali

2009-01-01

128

The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

Roy, Carole

2005-01-01

129

Conversing with the minority: relations among Christian, Jewish, and Muslim women in the high middle ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay introduces a special issue of the Journal of Medieval History on the topic of ‘Conversing with the minority: relations among Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Women in the High Middle Ages’. Despite the fact that both interfaith relations and women's history are now well established subdisciplines within the field of medieval studies, the question of how medieval women themselves

Monica H. Green

2008-01-01

130

Mammography stages of change in middle-aged women with schizophrenia: An exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health care providers and educators who seek to create health promotion programs and individualized comprehensive care plans for women with schizophrenia are hindered by the lack of data to guide their efforts. PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that women with schizophrenia adhere to mammography screening guidelines at the same rate as other same-age women. The study also investigated

Laurie A Lindamer; Emily Wear; Georgia Robins Sadler

2006-01-01

131

The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

Roy, Carole

2005-01-01

132

THE IMAGE OF MIDDLE?AGED AND OLDER WOMEN IN MAGAZINE ADVERTISEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturers and retailers have discovered the potential “older” market, but do magazine ads reflect this discovery? The images of older women in advertisements in 1987 issues of Good Housekeeping, JAMA, and Time were examined on several measures. Good Housekeeping printed more ads featuring women, and a greater proportion of its “person pictorial” ads featured women. An age bias was found

William T. Bailey; Diane R. Harrell; Laura E. Anderson

1993-01-01

133

Effects of gender, anthropometric variables, and aging on the evolution of hip strength in men and women aged over 65  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gender differences in fall rates may partly explain the higher prevalence of fractures in elderly women than men, male bones may also be intrinsically stronger or suffer less structural degradation with age than those of women. We used hip structural analysis (HSA) to study gender differences in hip geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) as they evolved over time

Stephen Kaptoge; Nichola Dalzell; Nigel Loveridge; Thomas J Beck; Kay-Tee Khaw; Jonathan Reeve

2003-01-01

134

What do friends and the media tell us? How different information channels affect women’s risk perceptions of age?related female infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates through which channels women receive information about the general risk levels of age?related female infertility and how the different channels affect women’s perceptions of the risk. We find that the media reaches women of all ages, while only about one woman in four has received information from the health care system. We also find that friends and

Elina Lampi

2011-01-01

135

Meanings of Aging Among Older Canadian Women of Varying Physical Activity Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how older women's meanings of successful aging differ depending on their attitudes towards old age and current leisure practices. Twenty-one women aged 75–92 completed in-depth interviews and were divided into three groups (inactive, moderately active, or highly active). Comparisons were made across groups to determine how meanings of “old” and “successful aging” differed. Findings were interpreted using

Rylee A. Dionigi; Sean Horton; Joselyne Bellamy

2011-01-01

136

The aging lower urinary tract: a comparative urodynamic study of men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The fact that aging women report similar voiding symptoms as age-matched men prompted us to compare age-related changes of urodynamic parameters in both sexes.Methods. Four hundred thirty-six patients (253 men and 183 women) 40 years of age or older underwent the following investigations: free uroflowmetry, measurement of postvoid residual volume, and full urodynamic testing, including a pressure-flow study (pQs).

Stephan Madersbacher; Armin Pycha; Georg Schatzl; Christine Mian; Christoph H. Klingler; Michael Marberger

1998-01-01

137

[The vaginal Bifidobacterium flora in women of reproductive age].  

PubMed

The composition of vaginal bifidoflora in 56 clinically healthy women of reproductive age was studied. The study revealed that four species of bifidobacteria, viz. Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. breve, B. adolescentis 2 and B. longum, dominated in the composition of this bifidobacterial population. Nine out of 11 isolated strains were found to be capable of inhibiting indicator microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis when tested in vitro; in addition, strains B. adolescentis 2 F1, B. bifidum G1, B. breve P2 and B. longum Z4 inhibited Klebsiella ozaenae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and were also active acid producers. Three of these 4 bifidobacterial strains were capable of adhesion to vaginal epitheliocytes, while B. bifidum G1 was practically incapable of adherence to these cells, similarly to B. bifidum strain 791 of intestinal origin. In addition, the spectra of antibiotic susceptibility varied from strain to strain, but all bifidobacterial strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin and resistant to lomefloxacin, most of them being also resistant to cyprofloxacin and gentamicin. Thus the data presented in this work are indicative of the possibility and advantages of using bifidobacterial strains belonging to this ecological niche as probiotics for the correction of the microflora of the urogenital tract in females. PMID:10852059

Korshunov, V M; Gudieva, Z A; Efimov, B A; Pikina, A P; Smeianov, V V; Reid, G; Korshunova, O V; Tiutiunnik, V L; Stepin, I I

138

Perceptions of Aging Among Rural, Midwestern Senior Citizens: Signs of Women's Resiliency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized both quantitative and qualitative approaches to examine perceptions of aging among rural-dwelling senior citizens (203 women and 112 men), ages 65 and older. Quantitative results revealed that, despite no significant gender differences in the total number of medical conditions reported, women were less likely than men to report that health problems interfered with their daily functioning. Qualitative

Kimberly Stark-Wroblewski; Jessica K. Edelbaum; Theresa O. Bello

2008-01-01

139

Relations among Parental Divorce, Identity Status, and Coping Strategies of College Age Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations among parental divorce, identity status, and coping strategies were examined in a sample of emerging adult women. Two hundred forty college age women between the ages of 18 and 23 were asked to report whether they had experienced parental divorce and were administered the Coping Strategies Inventory and the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-II. Correlational analyses indicated

Ann K. Mullis; Ronald L. Mullis; Seth J. Schwartz; Jenene L. Pease; Michael Shriner

2007-01-01

140

Transitions into and out of caregiving: Health and social characteristics of mid-age Australian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family caregiving is frequently associated with significant levels of physical, emotional and financial strain. This article examines the health effects of transitions into and out of caregiving in middle age. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) to examine changes in caregiving status among middle-aged women over a 3-year period, and

Christina Lee; Helen Gramotnev

2007-01-01

141

Voices of Transformational Learning: Life Experiences of Women Aged Eighty and above in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative research study examined the lived experiences and stories of dynamic women over 80 years of age. Their contribution to transformational and lifelong learning may offer a blueprint for baby boomers to age successfully. The exploration disclosed common patterns of the individual lives. The interviews revealed that the women were…

Morgan, Lorri A.

2010-01-01

142

Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of ur ban middle-aged Malaysian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to assess nutritiona l and health status as well as nutritional knowledg e in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT, aged ?45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October

LW Pon; FB Ong; N Adeeb FRCOG; SS Seri MOG

143

Iron deficiency anemia in Tarahumara women of reproductive-age in Northern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among Tarahumara women of reproductive age. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 481 women aged 12-49 years, residents of Guachochi Municipality, Chihua- hua, from June to September 1998. The hemoglobin (Hb) level was measured in capillary blood using the Hemocue technique, and the

Joel Monárrez-Espino; Homero Martínez; Ted Greiner

2001-01-01

144

Aging, women and health: From the pains of imprisonment to the pains of reintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine the ways in which older women's experiences of imprisonment, aging, and health impact their lives. Specifically, we focus on the community reintegration experiences of older women who have served long prison sentences, exploring the lasting effects of imprisonment and aging on their physical and mental health. Two separate Canadian studies of reintegration, consisting of interviews

Laura R. Shantz; Sylvie Frigon

2009-01-01

145

To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

Eriksen, Shelley J.

2012-01-01

146

South Korean women at work: gender wage differentials by age, 1988–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earning differences between South Korean women and men were compared to better understand how gender differences in wages have changed between 1988 and 1998 for five age groups. Utilizing labor market data from Korea's Occupational Wage Survey (OWS) for the years 1988 and 1998, we found that men enjoy a wage advantage over women in all age groups in both

Elizabeth Monk-Turner; Charlie Turner

2008-01-01

147

Characteristics and psychological correlates of young adult men's and women's subjective age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined young adult men's and women's subjective perceptions of their age along several dimensions including how old they felt, looked, acted, desired to be, and thought they were regarded by others. The relationship between young adults' subjective age identities and other perceptions of the self were also examined. It was found that both men and women felt and

Joann M. Montepare

1991-01-01

148

Age-Based Differences in Treatment Outcome Among Alcohol-Dependent Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests that women are at higher risk for negative consequences from alcohol use than men and that these risks are compounded by age. The current study investigated how alcohol-dependent women from different age groups might differ in terms of baseline functioning and treatment response. The sample consisted of 181 participants drawn from two randomized clinical trials of cognitive–behavioral

Zayed Al-Otaiba; Elizabeth E. Epstein; Barbara McCrady; Sharon Cook

2012-01-01

149

Age-Related Differences in Cardiovascular Reactions to Mental Stress Tests in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 84 healthy, sedentary women in the laboratory during performance of difficult and easy problem-solving tasks. They were divided into three age groups: 19 to 32 years, 33 to 43 years, and 44 to 60 years (n = 28 women per group). Baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure increased with age, whereas skin conductance level was lower

Andrew Steptoe; Jennifer Moses; Sara Edwards

1990-01-01

150

Weaning Ages in a Sample of American Women who Practice Extended Breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined age and method of weaning in a sample of 179 women who practiced extended breastfeeding. The average age for weaning was between 2 years 6 months and 3 years 0 months and ranged from 1 month to 7 years 4 months. Fourteen women had each weaned at least three children, and the youngest children were significantly older

Muriel Sugarman; Kathleen A. Kendall-Tackett

1995-01-01

151

Health Insurance Coverage of Women Ages 18 to 64, by State, 2010-2011  

MedlinePLUS

Health Insurance Coverage of Women Ages 18 to 64, by State, 2010-2011 December 2012 Estimated Number of ... Kaiser Family Foundation’s website at www.kff.org. Health Insurance Coverage of Low-income Women Ages 18 to ...

152

Racial and ethnic differences in mammography use among U.S. women younger than age 40  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Evidence-based recommendations for routine breast cancer screening suggest that women begin mammography at age 40, although\\u000a some women receive a mammogram before that age. Little is known about mammography use among younger women, especially with\\u000a respect to race and ethnicity. Methods We used data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey to examine racial\\/ethnic differences in mammography use among

Julie M. Kapp; A. Blythe Ryerson; Steven S. Coughlin; Trevor D. Thompson

2009-01-01

153

[Age dependence of metabolic syndrome association with obesity types among women].  

PubMed

The study included 335 women aged 21 to 74 years. Results showed that age appears to be associated with progressive accumulation of fat tissue and magnitude of the waist-to-hip circumference ratio, which are mostly expressed in the second period of middle age. Ratio of gynoid and android species frequency among women with overweight and obesity in the first and second period of middle age groups and elderly age was 2.7:1; 1.3:1 and 0.2:1, respectively. Occurrence of metabolic syndrome in this age groups of women with gynoid species was 16.3; 18.9 and 30.0%; but with android species 62.5; 47.9 and 83.0%, respectively. Our results allow to state that women with gynoid species have the lowest risk of metabolic syndrome even in elderly age. PMID:23734506

Pinkhasov, B B; Seliatitskaia, V G; Karapetian, A R; Galanova, Zh M; Dobrovol'skaia, N P

2012-01-01

154

Slimmer Women's Waist is Associated with Better Erectile Function in Men Independent of Age.  

PubMed

Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness. PMID:23264164

Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

2012-12-22

155

HIV Prevalence and Sexual Behaviour at Older Ages in Rural Malawi  

PubMed Central

Summary Research on HIV infection and sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa typically focuses on individuals aged 15-49 under the assumption that both become less relevant for older individuals. We test this assumption using data from rural Malawi to compare sexual behaviour and HIV infection for individuals aged 15-49 with individuals aged 50-64 and 65+. Although general declines with age were observed, levels of sexual activity and HIV remained considerable: 26.7% and 73.8% of women and men aged 65+ reported having sex in the last year; men's average number of sexual partners remained above 1; and HIV prevalence is significantly higher for men aged 50-64 (8.9%) than men aged 15-49 (4.1%). We conclude that older populations are relevant to studies of sexual behaviour and HIV risk. Their importance is likely to increase as access to ARVs in Africa increases. We recommend inclusion of adults over 49 in African HIV/AIDS research and prevention efforts.

Freeman, Emily; Anglewicz, Philip

2013-01-01

156

Aging with a disability: a systematic review of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis among women aging with a physical disability.  

PubMed

Compared to men, women live longer but experience greater morbidity as they age. However, little is known about the rapidly growing population of women aging with disability. Women aging with disabilities may encounter barriers that increase risk of morbidity, including lack of access to medical care or inadequate assistance, equipment, or services. To evaluate risks of morbidity in this group, we conducted a systematic review focused on two important and prevalent conditions: cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis. MEDLINE was searched for reports published between January 1, 1990 and August 6, 2010 and additional studies were identified through searches of bibliographies. 9156 abstracts and 93 articles were reviewed to identify empirical studies of women with physical disability who were 45 years or older and that reported CVD or osteoporosis as an outcome and not a cause of the disability. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were then critically appraised to exclude poor quality studies. In seven articles that evaluated CVD outcomes, we found limited evidence to support an increased risk of prevalence of CVD or risk factors for CVD in women aging with physical disabilities compared to non-disabled control populations. The literature is limited by small sample sizes that reduced statistical power to detect true differences. No articles meeting inclusion criteria were identified to evaluate osteoporosis risk in this group. This review is limited by the narrow focus on physical disabilities and two health outcomes. Additional high quality empirical research is necessary to understand the risks to health of women aging with disabilities. PMID:21075569

Rosso, Andrea L; Wisdom, Jennifer Pelt; Horner-Johnson, Willi; McGee, Marjorie G; Michael, Yvonne L

2010-11-13

157

Maternal age and number of children are risk factors for depressive disorders in non-perinatal women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. It remains unclear whether or not the vulnerability of depression in women of reproductive age is related with pregnancy or perinatal period. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders and related factors in a large sample of non-perinatal women of reproductive age. Method. This study involved 589 women of reproductive age. At baseline, sociodemographic data and premenstrual assessment forms were completed, and screening tests for the assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms were administered to all of the participants. Participants who had over scale scores of the cut-off point in the screening instruments were assessed with module A of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-I) to determine DSM IV Axis I disorders. Results. The prevalence of depressive disorders was 32.8%. Depressive disorders had high rates in women who were married at younger ages and who had three or more children. Although the prevalence of depressive disorders was 32.8%, only 10.4% of the women had follow-up and treatment in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Conclusion. Low education levels, early maternal age, and having more than three children and higher premenstrual symptom scores were risk factors for depressive disorders in non-perinatal reproductive age. PMID:23822181

Aras, Neriman; Oral, Elif; Aydin, Nazan; Gulec, Mustafa

2013-09-25

158

Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of

Lynne C Giles; Gary FV Glonek; Vivienne M Moore; Michael J Davies; Mary A Luszcz

2010-01-01

159

Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the

J. C. Gallagher; D. Goldgar; Alan Moy

1987-01-01

160

Heart rate responses of women aged 23–67 years during competitive orienteering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the heart rate responses of women orienteers of different standards and to assess any relation between heart rate responses and age.Methods: Eighteen competitive women orienteers completed the study. They were divided into two groups: eight national standard orienteers (ages 23–67 years); 10 club standard orienteers (ages 24–67 years). Each participant had her heart rate monitored during a

S Bird; M George; J Balmer; R C R Davison

2003-01-01

161

‘I want to do everything!’: leisure innovation among retirement-age women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation theory asserts that the adoption of new leisure activities in later life (leisure innovation) may facilitate healthy ageing through personal growth, interest renewal, identity reconstruction and increased sense of meaning in life. The purpose of this study was to explore innovation theory among retirement-age women. Thirteen women aged 60–70 completed in-depth interviews and focus groups. Data were analysed through

Toni Liechty; Careen Yarnal; Deborah Kerstetter

2011-01-01

162

Ageism and Sexism at Work: The Middle-Aged Women of Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employment discrimination against middle-aged women has recently captured public attention in Hong Kong. One reason is the economic slowdown and increasing unemploy ment since the 1993-94 and the 1997-to date economic downturns. This paper looks at sex and age discrimination against middle-aged women in colonial Hong Kong where they faced such problems as low labor force participation, occupational and industrial

Kwong-Leung Tang

2000-01-01

163

Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in women over the age of 41  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the results of ongoing pregnancies and deliveries after assisted reproductive technology (ART) in women aged ?41 years, stratified by year of age.Design: Retrospective study.Setting: University hospital, IVF unit.Patient(s): A total of 431 IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were initiated in women ?41 years of age.Intervention(s): Medical files of ART patients and pregnancy outcomes were reviewed.Main

Raphael Ron-El; Arie Raziel; Devorah Strassburger; Morey Schachter; Ester Kasterstein; Shevach Friedler

2000-01-01

164

Beliefs and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus vaccination among college-age women.  

PubMed

Research on the human papillomavirus vaccine has largely focused on parents' attitudes toward vaccinating their young daughters. Yet, little is known about the factors that influence human papillomavirus vaccination in college-age women who are still eligible for the vaccine. This study examined attitudes toward the human papillomavirus vaccine in 150 college-age women who had received the vaccine and 58 who had not. The Health Belief Model was used to predict vaccine intentions and to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Women's self-efficacy, social environment, and perceptions of the vaccine predicted vaccine intentions and behaviors. Interventions might include these factors to promote vaccination. PMID:23188917

Schaefer Ziemer, Kathryn; Hoffman, Mary Ann

2012-11-26

165

Selective Review of Age-Related Needs of Women with Schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Objective: Recognizing that needs differ between men and women with schizophrenia and that they vary over time, this review attempts to categorize the needs that are relevant to younger and to older women. Method: This is a selective literature review focusing on topic areas the two authors determined to be most germane to women with schizophrenia. Articles were selected on the basis of currency, comprehensiveness, and study design. Particular attention was paid to the voices of the women themselves. Results: There is considerable overlap between the needs of younger and older women with schizophrenia, but, as a general rule, younger women require preventive strategies to stop the escalation of illness while older women require recovery interventions to regain lost hopes and abilities. Conclusion: There is clinical utility in cataloguing the needs of younger and older women with schizophrenia and conceptualizing interventions according to gender and age rather than viewing needed services along purely diagnostic lines. PMID:23471090

Seeman, Mv; Gupta, R

2013-03-01

166

Social determinants of rest deprivation amongst Ghanaian women: national and urban-rural comparisons with data from a cross-sectional nationally representative survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rest deprivation (rest\\/napping\\/sleep 6 or less hours daily) is a clinically recognised risk factor for poor health, but its epidemiology is little studied. This study reports prevalence's and social correlates of rest deprivation in Ghana. METHODS: Data are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women ages 15-49 were recruited in a national sampling design. Respondents were 4,916

Maurice B Mittelmark; Torill Bull

2010-01-01

167

Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

2008-01-01

168

Loss of Bone Mineral Density in Women Athletes During Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone turnover were tested in\\u000a 50 highly trained women athletes and 21 sedentary control women (18–69 years; BMI 2). VO2max (ml · kg?1· min?1) and lean tissue mass (DXA) were significantly higher in the athletes versus controls (both P 2–L4) BMD approached statistical significance (r =?0.26; P=

A. S. Ryan; D. Elahi

1998-01-01

169

Racial/Ethnic and Age Differences in Women's Awareness of Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine differences in awareness of heart disease among women according to race/ethnicity by age group, adjusted for confounders. Methods American Heart Association (AHA) National Surveys conducted in 2006 (n=1005) and 2009 (n=1142) were pooled using common variables (n=2147) and reweighted to reflect the 2010 United States Census. Surveys comprised standardized, interviewer-assisted demographic and awareness questions. Associations between racial/ethnic group and heart disease awareness stratified by age were assessed by weighted chi-square statistics; logistic regression was used for multivariable adjustment. Results Black and Hispanic women were 66% less likely than white women to be aware that heart disease is the leading cause of death in women (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.50) after multivariable adjustment for significant confounders. The percent aware among white women was 65%; awareness did not differ between black and Hispanic women (37% vs. 38%). Other significant multivariable predictors included women (age<55 years) were less likely to be aware that heart disease is the leading cause of death in women (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50–0.87) and were less likely to report being very well/well informed about heart disease (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41–0.68) compared to older women (age?55 years). Awareness of heart attack signs, such as shortness of breath (34%), nausea (15%), and fatigue (7%), was low among all women. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority status and age<55 years were significant risk factors for lower heart disease awareness among women, suggesting these groups should be targeted for educational programs. Awareness of heart attack signs was low among all subgroups of women.

Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Miller, Kerri L.

2012-01-01

170

Body appreciation in adult women: Relationships with age and body satisfaction.  

PubMed

The major aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age on positive body image (operationalized as body appreciation) across the female lifespan. A secondary aim was to examine the effect of age on the relationship between positive body image and body satisfaction. Participants were 158 women aged between 18 and 75 years who completed questionnaire measures of body appreciation and body dissatisfaction-satisfaction. A significant positive linear relationship was found between age and body appreciation; that is, older women had higher levels of body appreciation than their younger counterparts. Although body appreciation was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction-satisfaction across all age groups, the association was weaker for older women. The results contribute to a richer picture of women's body image across the lifespan, as well as confirming positive body image as something beyond the mere absence of body dissatisfaction. PMID:23954196

Tiggemann, Marika; McCourt, Alice

2013-08-14

171

Women's and Men's Exercise Adherence after a Cardiac Event: Does Age Make a Difference?  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine if age affects women’s and men’s exercise adherence after a cardiac event. Methods In a convenience sample of 248 adults aged 38–86 having a cardiac event, exercise adherence (exercise three sessions a week) was compared between men and women among three age groups (?60, 61–70, and >70). Exercise patterns were recorded by heart rate monitors worn during exercise. Results No differences were found in adherence between the age groups for women; older men were non-adherent sooner than younger men when controlling for fitness level, pain, comorbidity, self-efficacy, depressed mood, and social support. Conclusion Exercise adherence after a cardiac event was higher for younger men compared to older men. At all age groups, less than 37% of the total sample adhered to a three-times-a-week exercise regimen after one year, suggesting that interventions to maintain exercise are needed.

Dolansky, Mary A.; Stepanczuk, Beth; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Moore, Shirley M.

2010-01-01

172

Relationship of age and sex-role conflict for professional women in human services.  

PubMed

This study provides external validation of the Sex-role Conflict Scale. The relationship between age and sex-role conflict among women with educational interests was investigated. 128 female students in education were assessed on the conflict they experienced in various settings. The mean sex-role conflict scores, although hypothesized to be significantly different, were not among women ages 25 yr. and below, ages 26 to 39 yr., and ages 40 yr. and over. Also investigated was the relationship between age and sex-role conflict in dual-career respondents. Of the 29 respondents who met the criterion for classification, mean sex-role conflict scores were not significantly different for the three age groups. The nonlinear relationship between sex-role conflict and age does not have support for professional women who work in fields other than business. PMID:2263704

Soled, S W; Blair, E D

1990-10-01

173

Unsafe abortion differentials in 2008 by age and developing country region: high burden among young women.  

PubMed

Each year, nearly 22 million women worldwide have an unsafe abortion, almost all of which occur in developing countries. This paper estimates the incidence and rates of unsafe abortion by five-year age groups among women aged 15-44 years in developing country regions in 2008. Forty-one per cent of unsafe abortions in developing regions are among young women aged 15-24 years, 15% among those aged 15-19 years and 26% among those aged 20-24 years. Among the 3.2 million unsafe abortions in young women 15-19 years old, almost 50% are in the Africa region. 22% of all unsafe abortions in Africa compared to 11% of those in Asia (excluding Eastern Asia) and 16% of those in Latin America and the Caribbean are among adolescents aged 15-19 years. The number of adolescent women globally is approaching 300 million. Adolescents suffer the most from the negative consequences of unsafe abortion. Efforts are urgently needed to provide contraceptive information and services to adolescents, who have a high unmet need for family planning, and to women of all ages, with interventions tailored by age group. Efforts to make abortion safe in developing countries are also urgently needed. PMID:22789095

Shah, Iqbal H; Ahman, Elisabeth

2012-06-01

174

The meaning of womanhood in the neoliberal age: Class and age-based narratives of chilean Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the transformations in the meaning of womanhood in Chile as articulated by women of different class\\u000a backgrounds and age cohorts. It argues that the political and economic changes the country has experienced in the last three\\u000a decades—specifically the drive to modernize and the adoption of a free-market approach to economic and social development—have\\u000a clearly influenced women's gendered

Claudia Mora

2006-01-01

175

Low serum carotenoids and development of severe walking disability among older women living in the community: the Women's Health and Aging Study I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to determine whether low serum carotenoid levels, an indicator of low intake of fruits and vegetables, are associated with the progression of disability in older women. Design: longitudinal analysis in a population-based cohort. Setting: moderately-severely disabled women, ?65 years, living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland (the Women's Health and Aging Study I). Participants: 554 women without severe walking

RICHARD D. SEMBA; R AVI VARADHAN; B ENEDETTA BARTALI; L UIGI FERRUCCI; M ICHELLE O. RICKS; CAROLINE BLAUM; L INDA P. FRIED

2006-01-01

176

Labor force participation rates of women age 55 and over, annual averages, 1963-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chart of labor force participation rates of women age 55 and over, by age group, annual averages, 1963–2003 by Robert Hutchens, PhD, School of Industrial and Labor Relations Cornell University, on behalf of the event: What an Aging Workforce Can Teach Us About Workplace Flexibility held on July 18, 2005 by Workplace Flexibility 2010.

HutchensRobert

2011-01-01

177

Midlife Women's Generativity and Authoritarianism: Marriage, Motherhood, and 10 Years of Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generativity and authoritarianism assessed at age 52 were correlated with criterion variables assessed at age 62 in a sample of well-educated women (N = 81). Results indicated that generativity predicted positive personality characteristics, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging. By contrast, although authoritarianism is linked in the literature to endorsing traditional gender roles, authoritarianism was uncorrelated in the

Bill E. Peterson; Lauren E. Duncan

2007-01-01

178

Correlates of Age at First Sexual Intercourse in a National Sample of Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subsample of814 sexually experienced adolescent females from the 1979 Un ited States National Survey of Younig W'omen was analyzed to assess the correlates of age at first sexual intercourse. Multiple regression procedures were used to examine sets of variables sequentiallv. In the hierarchical regression model, the control variables (responidenit's age, race, religion, and age at menarche), along with three

C. Raymond Bingham; Brent C. Miller; Gerald R. Adams

1990-01-01

179

Childhood Abuse and Its Association with Mid-Aged Women's Sexual Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of recalled childhood sexual and physical abuse with current sexual functioning in mid-life. The sample was participants in the longitudinal population-based cohort of mid-aged women, The Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Three hundred sixty two of the women (92% of the available cohort) were administered the Violence Questionnaire in the

LORRAINE DENNERSTEIN; JANET R. GUTHRIE; SIMONE ALFORD

2004-01-01

180

Serum testosterone levels decrease in middle age in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether testosterone levels change as women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) grow older.Design: A follow-up cross-sectional study of a cohort of women with PCOS identified up to 20–25 years ago.Setting: Women with PCOS were recruited primarily from practice records between 1970 and 1990. Voter registration tapes and household directories were used to identify age-, race-, and

Stephen J Winters; Evelyn Talbott; David S Guzick; Jeanne Zborowski; Kathleen P McHugh

2000-01-01

181

Career attainment for women and minorities: the interactive effects of age, gender and race  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the career attainment of managerial women and minorities in an internal labor market. The interactive effects of age, gender, and race were examined on the career attainment levels of women, African-Americans, Asian-Americans and Hispanics. A sample of 7,084 US managers was studied; 3,456 women and minority managers were compared to 3,628 white male managers who entered the

Amy E. Hurley; Cristina M. Giannantonio

1999-01-01

182

Age of smoking initiation and risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between time of smoking initiation and both the independent and joint effects of active and passive tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women. METHODS: Data from two large population-based case-control studies conducted among Ontario women aged 25–75 years were combined for analysis (n = 12,768). RESULTS: Women

Erin Young; Scott Leatherdale; Margaret Sloan; Nancy Kreiger; Andriana Barisic

2009-01-01

183

Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were

Emily R. Rosario; Lilly Chang; Elizabeth H. Head; Frank Z. Stanczyk; Christian J. Pike

2011-01-01

184

Contraceptive patterns among women and men in León, Nicaragua.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the contraceptive patterns among men and women in León, Nicaragua. A questionnaire about sexual, contraceptive, reproductive and socioeconomic issues was directed to 7,789 households including 22% of all women of the municipality aged 15-49 years (n = 10,867). A subsample of 388 men and 413 women aged 15-49 years was drawn at random. Refusals were less than 2%. Private interviews revealed that among fertile women who had been sexually active within the last three months, non-pregnant and wishing to avoid pregnancy, 77% were contracepting. Female sterilization was the most common contraceptive method (39%), followed by intrauterine device (16%). Even though around 60% of women at some time had tried oral contraceptives, only 13% of contraceptors used them currently. The rhythm and interruption methods together constituted only 4%. Condom use was low and mainly occasional. Contraceptive use in sexually active women aged 15-44 years was lower among those having lower education, living in rural areas, and living under poverty conditions. The predominance of female sterilization and the occasional condom use-mainly reported by men-reflects a situation of relative male control over contraception and reproduction. This probably originates from "machista" values where men having many children with different women are considered strong. There was also a significantly higher use of contraceptives among the better-off women and men compared with the extremely poor. The situation of many poor women, in a country with limited contraceptive services, is worrying considering that abortion is illegal and the threat of HIV epidemic is growing. The situation for adolescents is particularly problematic with low experience in contraceptive use. PMID:8968664

Zelaya, E; Peña, R; García, J; Berglund, S; Persson, L A; Liljestrand, J

1996-12-01

185

Responding to Social Service and Health Care Needs of Aging Women Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study about aging women veterans who served in the military during the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s. The Veterans Administration (VA) represents a formal network of health and support services that offers a wide range of benefits for veterans. However, older women veterans may not be aware of, or benefit from, all that may be available to them.

Nina M. Silverstein; Jennifer L. Moorhead

2001-01-01

186

HOW AGED WOMEN REMEMBER THEIR LIFELONG\\/LIFE-WIDE LEARNING: MAKING THE BEST OF LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support the continuing learning of older people, it is essential that we are able to build on their own understandings of learning across the lifespan. This paper uses the life histories of 9 aged Australian women to illustrate how one group of women was able to create a personally meaningful narrative that encompassed learning experiences in formal education settings

Barbara Pamphilon

2005-01-01

187

Anemia, Iron Deficiency, Meat Consumption, and Hookworm Infection in Women of Reproductive Age in Northwest Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency anemia poses an important public health problem for women of reproductive age living in developing countries. We assessed the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia and associated risk factors in a community-based sample of women living in a rural province of northwest Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey, comprised of written questionnaires and laboratory analysis of hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, transferrin

Sant-Rayn Pasricha; Sonia R. Caruana; Tran Q. Phuc; Gerard J. Casey; Damien Jolley; Sally Kingsland; Nong T. Tien; Lachlan MacGregor; Antonio Montresor; Beverley-Ann Biggs

2008-01-01

188

The Economic Legacy of Divorce and Separation for Women in Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or what the nature of this poverty is. Like any other group of older Canadians, unattached

Lynn McDonald; A. Leslie Robb

2004-01-01

189

Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

2004-01-01

190

Two Old Women: Occupation of Resolving Life Crisis in Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a person ages and accumulates life experience, the person becomes a unique occupational being. While people develop their own life styles, repeating and recreating life continuity while meeting life’s events, their personalities and strategies tend to become strong, sometimes rigid. The presentation, “Two old women”, is titled after an Alaskan legend of Inuit women (Wallis, 1993) who experienced a

Etsuko Odawara; Mari Sakaue

2008-01-01

191

Depression Linked to Almost Doubled Stroke Risk in Middle-Aged Women  

MedlinePLUS

Depression linked to almost doubled stroke risk in middle-aged women May 16, 2013 Study Highlights: Depression among women 47-52 years old is associated ... of stroke. Researchers call for greater awareness of depression as a preventable risk factor for stroke among ...

192

Urine reagent strips for diagnosis of schistosomiasis haematobium in women of fertile age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia were semiquantitatively assessed by reagent strips in single morning urine of women of fertile age visiting the outpatient department of the Mangochi district hospital, Malawi. This was part of a diagnostic approach to female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). In 51 women ova of Schistosoma haematobium were detected in urine by a filtration technique. In 33 of these

Svein Gunnar Gundersen; Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland; Gabriele Poggensee; Gertrud Helling-Giese; Joachim Richter; Lester Chitsulo; Newton Koumwenda; Ingela Krantz; Hermann Feldmeier

1996-01-01

193

Evidence for Association Between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Premature Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disorder characterized by obesity, hyperandrogenism, and insulin resistance. An adverse lipid profile has also been observed in PCOS-affected women, suggesting that these individuals may be at increased risk for coronary heart disease at a young age. The objective of the present study was to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis among women with PCOS

Evelyn O. Talbott; David S. Guzick; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Kathleen P. McHugh-Pemu; Jeanne V. Zborowski; Karen E. Remsberg; Lewis H. Kuller

2010-01-01

194

Therapeutic external irradiation in women of reproductive age: risk estimation of hereditary effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of women of childbearing age to ionizing radiation may result in induction of genetic disorders in future generations. This study aims to estimate the risk of hereditary effects attributable to therapeutic external irradiation in women. An anthropomorphic phantom was used to simulate radiotherapy in female patients and ovarian dose was measured for irradiation of brain, breast and lung cancer,

M Mazonakis; J DAMILAKIS; H VARVERIS; N GOURTSOYIANNIS

2004-01-01

195

Reexamining factors predicting Afro-American and white American women's age at first coitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research identifying factors associated with ethnic differences in first coitus has been limited by methodologies and samples used. This study reexamines ethnic differences in Afro-American and white American women's age of first coitus. Demographic, socialization, and decision-making factors were examined in a series of multiple regression analyses, with the prevalence of women's child sexual abuse incidents, in order to identify

Gail Elizabeth Wyatt

1989-01-01

196

Age-related normogram for antral follicle count in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Antral follicle count (AFC) has been shown to be a reliable marker for ovarian reserve. The aims of this study were to create an age-related normogram for AFC in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to compare age-related decline in AFC between infertile women with and without PCOS. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Of a total of 4956 women, 619 women fit criteria for PCOS. In those with PCOS, there were large variations in the AFC between the 10th and 90th percentiles in all age groups. The rate of decline in AFC among women with PCOS was linear, while in those with non-PCOS, it was exponential until 30 years of age, and then became similar to that of PCOS. The rate of follicle loss per year was significantly slower in PCOS women compared with that in non-PCOS women. In both groups, the fastest period of follicle loss was between the ages of 18 and 30. The average follicle loss was 0.8 follicles/year in PCOS women and 1.7 follicles/year in those without PCOS (P<0.001). This study concludes that age-related decline in AFC among women with PCOS is slower than in those without PCOS. Antral follicle count (AFC) has been shown to be a reliable marker for ovarian reserve. The aims of this study were to create an age-related normogram for AFC in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to compare age-related decline in AFC between women with and without PCOS. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All patients underwent a baseline transvaginal ultrasound that was performed on day 2-4 of the menstrual cycle. The total number of antral follicles of 2-9mm in diameter was recorded. Of total 4956 women, 619 women fit criteria for PCOS. In those with PCOS, there were large variations in the AFC between the 10th 90th percentiles in all age groups. The rate of decline in AFC among women with PCOS was linear; while in those with non-PCOS, it was exponential until 30 years of age, and then became similar to that of PCOS. The rate of follicle loss per year was significantly slower in PCOS women compared with that in non-PCOS women. In both groups, the fastest period of follicle loss was between the ages 18-30 years. The average follicle loss was 0.8 follicles/year in PCOS women and 1.7 follicles/year in those without PCOS (P<0.001). We have concluded that age-related decline in AFC among women with PCOS is slower than in those without PCOS. Further studies are needed to determine if the AFC normogram in women with PCOS could be clinically relevant to select the optimal gonadotrophin dose for ovulation induction. PMID:23948452

Wiser, Amir; Shalom-Paz, Einat; Hyman, Jordana H; Sokal-Arnon, Tamar; Bantan, Nadia; Holzer, Hananel; Tulandi, Togas

2013-07-11

197

A qualitative analysis of the meaning of aging for women with disabilities with policy implications.  

PubMed

This is a report of a hermeneutic phenomenological study of the meaning of aging for women with childhood-onset disabilities due to the effects of paralytic polio. Twenty-five women aged 55-65 years were interviewed 2 to 4 times regarding their life course experiences and the meaning they assigned to aging. Field notes, audiotaped interviews, life course charts, and demographics were used in thethematic analysis that produced 5 themes: Bodies Change, Disrupted Meaning, The Unpredictibility of Aging, Slowing Down, and Changing Perspective. Overall, the findings indicate that the experiences of disability due to the result of paralytic polio could not be separated from the experiences of aging, which ultimately led the author to question policies that distribute and fund benefits based on age and disability status without an understanding of the varied experiences of women with disabilities. PMID:16717482

Harrison, Tracie Culp

198

Mammography Screening for Women Ages 40-49 - February 5, 1997  

Cancer.gov

"MAMMOGRAPHY SCREENING FOR WOMEN AGES 40-49" Statement of Richard D. Klausner, M.D. Director, National Cancer Institute on Screening Mammography Before the Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies Senator

199

Vitamin D Status among Bangladeshi Women of Reproductive Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin D deficiency is of particular concern among women in many south Asian countries due to low availability of vitamin D-rich foods, dark skin pigmentation, and cultural and religious practices that promote the wearing of concealing clothing. However, information regarding the vitamin D status of many subpopulations in south Asian countries is limited. The current study was conducted to assess

Ann Micka

2009-01-01

200

Mentoring College-Age Women: A Relational Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the popularity of mentoring programs, the relational dimension of mentoring has not been elucidated. Traditional conceptions of mentoring may exclude factors that are particularly important for women and girls, thus limiting the efficacy of mentoring programs for female adolescents. We suggest that the presence of relational qualities in the mentoring relationship (e.g., empathy, engagement, authenticity, and empowerment) strongly influences

Belle Liang; Allison J. Tracy; Catherine A. Taylor; Linda M. Williams

2002-01-01

201

A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

Perez, Shireese Redmond

2011-01-01

202

Bone density parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between bone density and indices of calcium metabolism including parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women. DESIGN--A cross sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--138 women volunteers aged 45-65 with no known osteoporosis and unselected for disease status recruited for a dietary assessment study from the community using general practice registers. Volunteer rate was 20%.

K. T. Khaw; M. J. Sneyd; J. Compston

1992-01-01

203

A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

Perez, Shireese Redmond

2011-01-01

204

Functional limitations linked to high body mass index, age and current pain in obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe functional limitations in obese women.DESIGN: Comparisons of functional limitations in obese women and in a normal-weight reference group regarding mobility, balance and housework transport.SETTING: A large room with a corridor and staircase nearby.SUBJECTS: Fifty-seven consecutively selected obese female outpatients, mean age 44 y, body mass index (BMI) 37 kg·m?2, and 22 voluntary references, mean age 49 y,

U Evers Larsson; E Mattsson

2001-01-01

205

Assessment of sexuality among middle-aged women using the Female Sexual Function Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The purpose of the present investigation was to assess sexual function among middle-aged women and determine related risk factors (personal and partner) for sexual dysfunction. Methods In this cross-sectional study, women aged 40-59 years were requested to fill out the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and a general demographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Results A total of

P. Chedraui; F. R. Pérez-López; G. San Miguel; C. Avila

2009-01-01

206

Lipoprotein subfractions in women athletes: effects of age, visceral obesity and aerobic fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether lipoprotein subfractions are associated with age-related changes in visceral obesity and maximal aerobic fitness in women athletes.SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and a single slice computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen of 39 women athletes (age: 18–69 y, body mass index (BMI): 19–24 kg\\/m2). Lipoprotein lipids were

BJ Nicklas; AS Ryan; LI Katzel

1999-01-01

207

Health promotion self-care actions of healthy, middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine the theoretical adequacy of health promotion self-care (HPSC) within Orem's general theory of nursing through describing self-care actions which healthy, middle-aged women perform to promote well-being. Utilizing a deliberate sampling model, 153 Black and White women, ages 40 to 59, with heterogeneous work and family patterns and from diverse socioeconomic conditions participated

Donna Lee Hartweg

1991-01-01

208

Awareness and Attitudes Regarding Prenatal Testing among Texas Women of Childbearing Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increased visibility and availability of prenatal testing procedures, very little is known about the attitudes among\\u000a the populace toward these procedures. Using a computer assisted telephone interview of pregnant and non-pregnant women of\\u000a childbearing age we analyze awareness and attitudes regarding prenatal tests among a diverse group of women of childbearing\\u000a age in Texas. We also examine maternal characteristics

Amy P. Case; Tunu A. Ramadhani; Mark A. Canfield; Catherine A. Wicklund

2007-01-01

209

Achievement and identity in college-age vs. adult women students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested a developmental hypothesis with respect to Fear of Success (FOS), Identity Status, and the relationship between the two. Forty college students, equally divided between regular college-age women (18–23) and adult college women (over age 30), were given a multiple-choice and a projective measure of FOS; they were then interviewed regarding exploration and commitment in five content areas:

Mary Kay Freilino; Raymond Hummel

1985-01-01

210

In-vitro fertilisation in women aged 40 years and above  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: To compare the results of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) in women aged less than 40 years with those aged 40 years and above with baseline follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels less than 15iu and using their own oocytes. Methods: A total of 2179 fresh IVF cycles were started in KK Women's and Children's Hospital IVF Centre from 1997 to 2002, of

S W Seng; C T Yeong; S F Loh; N Sadhana; S K E Loh

211

Attitudes of pre-service mature age women students towards teaching primary science: An interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first semester of their teacher education degree mature age women improved significantly in their attitude towards\\u000a teaching primary science compared to other sub-groups. The reasons for this difference were explored by interviewing several\\u000a of the mature age women. An interpretation of these interviews and possible implications for pre-service science education\\u000a are reported.

Keith Skamp

1992-01-01

212

Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 days of Creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in college-aged women. Fifteen healthy college-aged women (mean ± SD = 22.3 ± 1.7 yrs) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into either placebo (PL – 10 g of flavored dextrose

Abbie E Smith; Ashley A Walter; Trent J Herda; Eric D Ryan; Jordan R Moon; Joel T Cramer; Jeffrey R Stout

2007-01-01

213

Does Life Expectancy Affect Treatment of Women Aged 80 and Older with Early Stage Breast Cancers?  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Data are needed on how life expectancy affects treatment decisions among women ?80 years with early stage breast cancer. METHODS: We used the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare claims dataset from 1992-2005 to identify women aged ?80 newly diagnosed with lymph node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors, ?5 centimeters. To estimate life expectancy, we matched these women to women of similar age, region, and insurance, not diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined 5-year mortality of matched controls by illness burden (measured with the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) using Kaplan-Meier statistics. We examined treatments received by estimated life expectancy within CCI levels. We further examined factors associated with receipt of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS). RESULTS: Of 9,932 women, 39.6% underwent mastectomy, 30.4% received BCS plus radiotherapy, and 30.0% received BCS alone. Estimated 5-year mortality was 72% for women with CCIs of 3+, yet 38.0% of these women underwent mastectomy and 22.9% received radiotherapy after BCS. Conversely, estimated 5-year mortality was 36% for women with CCIs of 0 and 26.6% received BCS alone. Age 80-84, urban residence, higher grade, recent diagnosis, mammography use, and low comorbidity, were factors associated with receiving radiotherapy after BCS. Among women with CCIs of 3+ treated with BCS, 36.9% underwent radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Many women aged ?80 with limited life expectancies receive radiotherapy after BCS for treatment of early stage breast cancers while many in excellent health do not. More consideration needs to be given to patient life expectancy when considering breast cancer treatments. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, older women, treatment, life expectancy, radiation. PMID:22368726

Schonberg, Mara A; Marcantonio, Edward R; Ngo, Long; Silliman, Rebecca A; McCarthy, Ellen P

2012-01-01

214

Does Life Expectancy Affect Treatment of Women Aged 80 and Older with Early Stage Breast Cancers?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Data are needed on how life expectancy affects treatment decisions among women ?80 years with early stage breast cancer. METHODS We used the linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare claims dataset from 1992–2005 to identify women aged ?80 newly diagnosed with lymph node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors, ?5 centimeters. To estimate life expectancy, we matched these women to women of similar age, region, and insurance, not diagnosed with breast cancer. We examined 5-year mortality of matched controls by illness burden (measured with the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI]) using Kaplan-Meier statistics. We examined treatments received by estimated life expectancy within CCI levels. We further examined factors associated with receipt of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS). RESULTS Of 9,932 women, 39.6% underwent mastectomy, 30.4% received BCS plus radiotherapy, and 30.0% received BCS alone. Estimated 5-year mortality was 72% for women with CCIs of 3+, yet 38.0% of these women underwent mastectomy and 22.9% received radiotherapy after BCS. Conversely, estimated 5-year mortality was 36% for women with CCIs of 0 and 26.6% received BCS alone. Age 80–84, urban residence, higher grade, recent diagnosis, mammography use, and low comorbidity, were factors associated with receiving radiotherapy after BCS. Among women with CCIs of 3+ treated with BCS, 36.9% underwent radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS Many women aged ?80 with limited life expectancies receive radiotherapy after BCS for treatment of early stage breast cancers while many in excellent health do not. More consideration needs to be given to patient life expectancy when considering breast cancer treatments. KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, older women, treatment, life expectancy, radiation

Schonberg, Mara A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long; Silliman, Rebecca A.; McCarthy, Ellen P.

2011-01-01

215

Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (?) and SE(?) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P < 0.00001); that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P < 0.00001), that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P = 0.001), that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women.

Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W.; Cavelaars, Adrienne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamas; van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

2012-01-01

216

The effect of age and menopausal status on musculoskeletal symptoms in Chinese women aged 35-64 years.  

PubMed

Objective To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms at four different anatomical sites and the impact of menopause, age, and other factors on musculoskeletal symptoms. Methods Generally healthy women aged 35-64 years were recruited from a general community in Beijing, People's Republic of China. Data were collected with a questionnaire including the basic conditions, menopausal status, and frequency of musculoskeletal symptoms (rarely, occasionally or frequently) during the previous 2 weeks at the neck, lower back, knee and other sites. The prevalences of frequent symptoms were calculated for each site. Results A total of 743 women were enrolled in the study; 33.4% complained of frequent lower back pain, 31.0% of frequent knee pain, 29.7% of frequent neck pain, 25.6% of joint pain at other sites, 23.6% of joint stiffness and 21.1% of hand joint swelling. Postmenopausal women experienced a significantly higher prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms compared with premenopausal women. There was a peak in prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms at early postmenopause. The prevalences of neck pain and lower back pain were not associated with age, but did increase during the perimenopausal stage. The prevalences of knee pain, joint stiffness and hand joint swelling increased significantly with age. Higher body mass index (BMI) was related to increased prevalences of knee pain, joint stiffness and hand joint swelling. Logistic regression analysis showed odds ratios for knee pain, joint stiffness and hand joint swelling of 2.256, 1.865 and 1.955, respectively, in the obese women (BMI ? 28 kg/m(2)), compared with women with normal BMI (< 24 kg/m(2)). Conclusion Menopause is known to be a time of increased musculoskeletal symptoms, but the association of musculoskeletal symptoms with age and BMI also should be considered. PMID:23347340

Gao, H-L; Lin, S-Q; Wei, Y; Chen, Y; Wu, Z-L

2013-02-15

217

Dissimilarity of femur aging in men and women from a Nationwide Survey in Korea (KNHANES IV).  

PubMed

In light of the differences in hip fracture rates between men and women of different ages, age-related changes in bone structure that lead to bone fragility might differ depending on both age and gender. To investigate age-related bone loss and geometric deterioration of the femur, hip scans of 1,504 men and 2,076 women aged 19-92 years acquired during the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were analyzed with a structural analysis program. Cross-sectional area and cortical thickness with bone mineral density in men started to decline from the third decade and continued to decline at a constant rate. However, in women, these parameters remained nearly constant until the fifth decade and then declined at a more rapid rate than that seen in men. Consequently, changes in the buckling ratio, earlier onset, and continuation of increase over the lifetime were observed in men. A relatively later onset with a greater acceleration with aging was observed in women. Taken together, there were obvious gender and age differences in structural trends with age. Bone aging, i.e., bone loss and geometric deterioration, actually begins at a young age, especially in men, and osteoporosis prevention strategies should target not only the elderly but also younger individuals. PMID:23247282

Kim, Kyoung Min; Lim, Jung Soo; Kim, Kwang Joon; Choi, Han Seok; Rhee, Yumie; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Choi, Woong Hwan; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung-Kil

2012-12-18

218

What do friends and media tell us? How different information channels affect women’s risk perceptions of age-related female infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a survey given to a random sample of Swedish 20-40 year old females, this paper investigates through which channels women receive information about the general risk levels of age-related female infertility and how the different channels affect women’s perceptions of the risk. We find that the media reach women of all ages, while only about one woman in

Elina Lampi

2007-01-01

219

Proximal femoral density distribution and structure in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.  

PubMed

Hip fracture risk rises exponentially with age, but there is little knowledge about how fracture-related alterations in hip structure differ from those of aging. We employed computed tomography (CT) imaging to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip in relation to age and incident hip fracture. We used intersubject image registration to integrate 3D hip CT images into a statistical atlas comprising women aged 21 to 97 years (n?=?349) and a group of women with (n?=?74) and without (n?=?148) incident hip fracture 4 to 7 years after their imaging session. Voxel-based morphometry was used to generate Student's t test statistical maps from the atlas, which indicated regions that were significantly associated with age or with incident hip fracture. Scaling factors derived from intersubject image registration were employed as measures of bone size. BMD comparisons of young, middle-aged, and older American women showed preservation of load-bearing cortical and trabecular structures with aging, whereas extensive bone loss was observed in other trabecular and cortical regions. In contrast, comparisons of older Icelandic fracture women with age-matched controls showed that hip fracture was associated with a global cortical bone deficit, including both the superior cortical margin and the load-bearing inferior cortex. Bone size comparisons showed larger dimensions in older compared to younger American women and in older Icelandic fracture women compared to controls. The results indicate that older Icelandic women who sustain incident hip fracture have a structural phenotype that cannot be described as an accelerated pattern of normal age-related loss. The fracture-related cortical deficit noted in this study may provide a biomarker of increased hip fracture risk that may be translatable to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and other clinical images. PMID:23109068

Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L Joseph; Keyak, Joyce; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B; Lang, Thomas F

2013-03-01

220

The treatment of early breast cancer in women over the age of 70  

PubMed Central

One third of all breast cancers are diagnosed in women aged 70 or over. Older women are a heterogeneous population who are under-represented in clinical trials, and as a result uncertainty can exist as to what represents optimal treatment. This minireview, from an international authorship, summarises the existing evidence surrounding the management of early breast cancer in women aged 70 and over. The use of primary surgery and endocrine therapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy and trastuzumab are discussed. Reference is made to ongoing clinical trials in this area and areas of controversy are highlighted.

Ring, A; Reed, M; Leonard, R; Kunkler, I; Muss, H; Wildiers, H; Fallowfield, L; Jones, A; Coleman, R

2011-01-01

221

Comprehensive Cancer Screening among Unmarried Women Aged 40-75 Years: Results from the Cancer Screening Project for Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives We explored self-reported rates of individual on-schedule breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screenings, as well as an aggregate measure of comprehensive screenings, among unmarried women aged 40–75 years. We compared women who partner with women (WPW) or with women and men (WPWM) to women who partner exclusively with men (WPM). We also compared barriers to on-schedule cancer screenings between WPW/WPWM and WPM. Methods Comparable targeted and respondent-driven sampling methods were used to enroll 213 WPW/WPWM and 417 WPM (n?=?630). Logistic regression models were computed to determine if partner gender was associated with each measure of on-schedule screening after controlling for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and cancer-related experiences. Results Overall, 74.3% of women reported on-schedule breast screening, 78.3% reported on-schedule cervical screening, 66.5% reported on-schedule colorectal screening, and 56.7% reported being on-schedule for comprehensive screening. Partner gender was not associated with any of the measures of on-schedule screening in multivariable analyses. However, women who reported ever putting off, avoiding, or changing the place of screenings because of sexual orientation were less likely to be on-schedule for comprehensive screening. Women who reported barriers associated with taking time from work and body image concerns were also less likely to be on-schedule for comprehensive screening. Conclusions Barriers to cancer screening were comparable across types of examinations as well as between WPW/WPWM and WPM. Developing health promotion programs for unmarried women that address concomitant detection and prevention behaviors may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare delivery and ultimately assist in reducing multiple disease risks.

Rogers, Michelle L.; Armstrong, Gene F.; Rakowski, William; Bowen, Deborah J.; Hughes, Tonda; McGarry, Kelly A.

2009-01-01

222

Plasma norepinephrine is an independent predictor of vascular endothelial function with aging in healthy women.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that reductions in vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation, EDD) with age are related to increases in sympathetic activity. Among 314 healthy men and women, age was inversely related to brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) (r = -0.30, P < 0.001), a measure of EDD, and positively related to plasma norepinephrine concentrations (PNE), a marker of sympathetic activity (r = 0.49, P < 0.001). Brachial FMD was inversely related to PNE in all subjects (r = -0.25, P < 0.001) and in men (n = 187, r = -0.17, P = 0.02) and women (n = 127, r = -0.37, P < 0.001) separately. After controlling for PNE (multiple regression analysis), brachial FMD remained significantly related to age in all subjects (r = -0.20, P < 0.001) and in men (r = -0.23, P < 0.01), but not women (r = -0.16, P = 0.06). Consistent with this, brachial FMD remained significantly related to PNE when controlling for age (r = -0.24, P < 0.01) and menopause status (r = -0.24, P < 0.01) in women. Indeed, PNE was the strongest independent correlate of brachial FMD in women after controlling for conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors (r = -0.22, P = 0.01). This relation persisted in a subset of women (n = 113) after further accounting for the effects of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05), a circulating marker of oxidative stress. Endothelium-independent dilation was not related to age in either men or women (P > 0.05). These results provide the first evidence that EDD is inversely related to sympathetic activity, as assessed by PNE, among healthy adults varying in age. In particular, our findings suggest that sympathetic nervous system activity may be a key factor involved in the modulation of vascular endothelial function with aging in women. PMID:21903879

Kaplon, Rachelle E; Walker, Ashley E; Seals, Douglas R

2011-09-08

223

Aesthetic anti-ageing surgery and technology: women's friend or foe?  

PubMed

This study investigates women's attitudes about, and experiences of, aesthetic anti-ageing surgeries and technologies against the contextual backdrop of the growing commercialisation of medicine in the United States. Drawing from 44 intensive interviews with a spectrum of women between the ages of 47 and 76 who use, refuse, and are currently undecided about whether or not they will have or use aesthetic anti-ageing surgeries and technologies in the future, this study asks the following question: in what ways does the increasing availability, accessibility, advertising, and use of aesthetic anti-ageing surgeries and technologies interact with and inform women's perceptions and attitudes about growing older? Data analysis occurs in dialogue with the paradigms of successful ageing and agelessness and draws from, and contributes new readings of, contemporary cultural constructions of femininity. PMID:20149147

Brooks, Abigail T

2010-02-08

224

Persisting young age at first marriage among women in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of age at first marriage in India, and to identify the most influential variables. Identifying key determinants is critical in a country like India, which has young ages at marriage and immense regional and residential diversity. It is also an important policy issue with both individual and societal consequences. I

Gitanjali Pande

2004-01-01

225

[Secrets of women: gynaecology in the Middle Ages].  

PubMed

A fifteenth-century Dutch manuscript entitled Der vrouwen heimelijcheit (Secrets of women) presents medieval knowledge on gynaecology and obstetrics in the form of an educational poem. Practical knowledge of women's physiology is combined with what we now consider to be superstition. It mentions, for example, that menstruating women often suffer from headaches and back pain, but also that they should not look in the mirror during their periods because it might get stained. The development of the unborn child is discussed and there are instructions for midwives on how to act in case of a difficult birth, e.g. when the child has a very big head, when the child is in the breech position or when an arm or a foot comes out first. The author also explains how to evoke abortion, but changes the subject quickly, because abortion was a sin. A recent edition including an English introduction and translation makes this text available for a broad audience. PMID:22784595

Brandsma, Margreet

2012-01-01

226

Age-Related Differences in Health Beliefs Regarding Cervical Cancer Screening Among Korean American Women  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer screening rates among older Korean American (KA) women are much lower than the rates for younger KA women, even though the overall cancer screening rates in the population continue to have one of the lowest Papanicolaou (Pap) test adherence rates compared with non-Hispanic White women. Variables based on the Health Belief Model related to cervical cancer screening were compared by age group among KA women. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 KA women living in the midwestern United States. Perceived barriers to having a Pap test predicted the outcome variable of having had Pap tests in the preceding 3 years in older KA women who were 65 or older, but not in younger women who were between 40 and 64 years old. Having physical examinations without symptoms in the preceding 2 years predicted the outcome variable in both age groups. Intervention strategies for all KA women should focus on encouraging them to receive routine physical examinations. In addition, attempts should be made to reduce perception of barriers in older KA women to improve their cervical cancer screening behaviors.

Lee, Eunice E.; Eun, Young; Lee, Shin-Young; Nandy, Karabi

2012-01-01

227

Elevated Serum Carboxymethyl-Lysine, an Advanced Glycation End Product, Predicts Severe Walking Disability in Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Study I  

PubMed Central

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. Our aim was to characterize the relationship between serum carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), a major circulating AGE, and incident severe walking disability (inability to walk or walking speed <0.4?m/sec) over 30 months of followup in 394 moderately to severely disabled women, ?65 years, living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland (the Women's Health and Aging Study I). During followup, 154 (26.4%) women developed severe walking disability, and 23 women died. Women in the highest quartile of serum CML had increased risk of developing of severe walking disability in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age and other potential confounders. Women with elevated serum CML are at an increased risk of developing severe walking disability. AGEs are a potentially modifiable risk factor. Further work is needed to establish a causal relationship between AGEs and walking disability.

Sun, Kai; Semba, Richard D.; Fried, Linda P.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Varadhan, Ravi

2012-01-01

228

Body Image and Beliefs About Appearance: Constraints on the Leisure of College-Age and MiddleAge Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body image, beliefs about appearance, and leisure constraints for college-age women and their mothers. The Body-Image Assessment Scale, the Beliefs About Appearance Scale, and a hierarchical leisure constraints scale were used to assess body image concerns, and leisure constraints. A convenience sample of 116 female students at a private

Toni Liechty; Patti A. Freeman; Ramon B. Zabriskie

2006-01-01

229

Age is no barrier to wanting to look good: women on body image, age and advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Most fashion advertising in the UK uses and targets young, slim women (and\\/or men). The purpose of this paper research is to ask whether this approach is relevant and appropriate to older women, who make up a large and growing segment of the market, and who generally have more disposable income to spend on clothes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Adapted

Selina Akram

2007-01-01

230

Physicians' attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography in women 40 to 49 years of age  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine family physicians’ attitudes and behaviour toward screening mammography, breast self-examination, and breast awareness in women aged 40 to 49 at average risk of breast cancer. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Women’s College Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, both in Toronto, Ont. Participants Family medicine residents, fellows, and staff physicians at 2 academic family practice health centres affiliated with the University of Toronto (n = 95). Main outcome measures Physicians’ answers to questions about offering screening mammography and promoting breast self-examination and breast awareness. Results Fifty-two completed surveys were returned (response rate 55%). Less than half of all surveyed family physicians (46%) routinely offered screening mammography to women aged 40 to 49 who were at average risk of breast cancer. Although 40% of physicians did not think breast cancer screening was necessary for women aged 40 to 49, 62% indicated that they would offer screening if their patients requested it. Physicians’ reasons not to offer screening included no evidence of decreasing breast cancer deaths (63%), grade A recommendation to screen women starting at age 50 and not at age 40 (25%), and the harms of screening outweighing the benefits (19%). Physicians’ reasons to offer screening included patient request (55%), personal clinical practice experience or mentors’ recommendations (27%), and guideline recommendations (18%). Breast self-examination was not recommended by most physicians (74%), yet most encouraged women to practise breast awareness (81%). Conclusion Many women at average risk of breast cancer are not being offered the opportunity to discuss and initiate mammographic screening before 50 years of age. While breast-self examination is not recommended, most physicians promote breast awareness.

Smith, Patricia; Hum, Susan; Kakzanov, Vered; Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Heisey, Ruth

2012-01-01

231

Alcohol consumption and mortality: modelling risks for men and women at different ages  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the relation between alcohol consumption and risk of death, the level of alcohol consumption at which risk is least, and how these vary with age and sex. Design Analysis using published systematic reviews and population data. Setting England and Wales in 1997. Main outcome measures Death from any of the following causes: cancer of lip, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, colon, rectum, liver, larynx, and breast, essential hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, cirrhosis, non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease, chronic pancreatitis, and injuries. Results A direct dose-response relation exists between alcohol consumption and risk of death in women aged 16-54 and in men aged 16-34. At older ages the relation is U shaped. The level at which the risk is lowest increases with age, reaching 3 units a week in women aged over 65 and 8 units a week in men aged over 65. The level at which the risk is increased by 5% above this minimum is 8 units a week in women aged 16-24 and 5 units a week in men aged 16-24, increasing to 20 and 34 units a week in women and men aged over 65, respectively. Conclusions Substantially increased risks of all cause mortality can occur even in people drinking lower than recommended limits, and especially among younger people. What is already known on this topicNon-drinkers and heavy drinkers have higher all cause mortality rates than light drinkers—the U shaped curveThe precise shape and location of the U are likely to depend on age and sex, but this has not been quantifiedWhat this study addsThe level of alcohol consumption that carries the lowest mortality ranges from 0 in men and women aged under 35 to 3 units a week in women aged over 65 and 8 units a week in men aged over 65The level of alcohol consumption that carries a 5% increase in mortality increases with age from 8 to 20 units a week in women and from 5 to 34 units a week in menOur calculations were for England and Wales in 1997: nadirs are likely to be lower in the future and in countries with less ischaemic heart disease

White, Ian R; Altmann, Dan R; Nanchahal, Kiran

2002-01-01

232

Age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease risk factors at age 53 years in men and women: British birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age

R Hardy; D A Lawlor; G D Mishra; D Kuh

2009-01-01

233

Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Methods Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. Results The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6–79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6–8 hours per day, 11.5% slept five hours or less, and 8.7% slept nine hours or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around seven hours/day (6.5–7.4 hours/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. Conclusions In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of these associations so that recommendations can be developed to reduce sleep problems in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. It also provides important information on potential confounders for investigation of sleep duration on health outcomes in this population.

Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

2012-01-01

234

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

235

Relations of cardiovascular risk factors to aortic pulse wave velocity in asymptomatic middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional associations between aortic elasticity assessed by carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and cardiovascular risk factors were examined in 429 apparently healthy middle-aged women. PWV was strongly and positively related to blood pressure and hypertension. Weak but significant positive associations were also found between PWV and age, heart rate, some lipids and lipoproteins, blood glucose (either as a

A. Taquet; C. Bonithon-Kopp; A. Simon; J. Levenson; Y. Scarabin; A. Malmejac; P. Ducimetiere; L. Guize

1993-01-01

236

Relative influence of age and menopause on total and regional body composition changes in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We measured total and regional body composition to evaluate the differences in body composition associated with menopause and to determine whether the changes in fat distribution were more related to age or to menopause. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred five healthy white women who had never received estrogen replacement therapy were studied according to menopausal status and age. Bone mass

Florence A. Trémollieres; Jean-Michel Pouilles; Claude A. Ribot

1996-01-01

237

Women and Retirement Planning: Towards the “Feminization of Poverty” in an Aging Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hong Kong's population is aging but retirement research is largely missing from the research agenda in Hong Kong. This study, based on a telephone survey of 1,078 respondents, examines middle-aged adult's retirement planning activities in Hong Kong. The findings show men are more likely to be involved in financial planning, while women are more likely to take part in some

William Keng Mun Lee

2003-01-01

238

Older Women's Fears of Violence: The Need for Interventions That Enable Active Ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's fear of violence can impact negatively on their active participation in life. An ageing survey conducted with 2,620 Australian respondents aged 50 to 90 years examined aspects of work, learning, social, spiritual and emotional status, health, vision, home, life events, demographics, and asked an open-ended question about what being actively engaged in life meant. Ordinal regression was carried out

Karen Barnett; Laurie Buys; Jan Lovie-Kitchin; Gillian Boulton-Lewis; Dianne Smith; Maree Heffernan

2007-01-01

239

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

240

Phenotype of Frailty: Characterization in the Women's Health and Aging Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. ''Frailty'' is an adverse, primarily gerontologic, health condition regarded as frequent with aging and having severe consequences. Although clinicians claim that the extremes of frailty can be easily recognized, a standardized definition of frailty has proved elusive until recently. This article evaluates the cross-validity, criterion validity, and internal validity in the Women's Health and Aging Studies (WHAS) of a

Karen Bandeen-Roche; Qian-Li Xue; Luigi Ferrucci; Jeremy Walston; Jack M. Guralnik; Paulo Chaves; Scott L. Zeger; Linda P. Fried

2006-01-01

241

A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age

Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

2009-01-01

242

A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age

Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

2009-01-01

243

The Impact of Aging on Sexual Function and Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Review of Population-Based Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Scientific interest in the impact of aging on women's sexual function and dysfunction has increased in the half century since Kinsey described age-related changes in women's sexual activities. However, a range of methodological issues limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many published studies in this area. Aim. To review community-based studies investigating changes in women's sexual function

Richard Hayes; Lorraine Dennerstein

2005-01-01

244

Female genital cutting and HIV/AIDS among Kenyan women.  

PubMed

Female genital cutting (FGC) and HIV/AIDS are both highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, and researchers have speculated that the association may be more than coincidental. Data from 3167 women aged 15-49 who participated in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) are used to test the direct and indirect associations of FGC with HIV. Our adjusted models suggest that FGC is not associated directly with HIV, but is associated indirectly through several pathways. Cut women are 1.72 times more likely than uncut women to have older partners, and women with older partners are 2.65 times more likely than women with younger partners to test positive for HIV Cut women have 1.94 times higher odds than uncut women of initiating sexual intercourse before they are 20, and women who experience their sexual debut before age 20 have 1.73 times higher odds than those whose sexual debut comes later of testing positive for HIV. Cut women have 27 percent lower odds of having at least one extra-union partner, and women with an extra-union partner have 2.63 times higher odds of testing positive for HIV. Therefore, in Kenya, FGC may be an early life-course event that indirectly alters women's odds of becoming infected with HIV through protective and harmful practices in adulthood. PMID:17642409

Yount, Kathryn M; Abraham, Bisrat K

2007-06-01

245

Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health.  

PubMed

A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response that may increase the risk for inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. To better understand the process from IPV to poorer health outcomes in women diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) we developed and tested a biobehavioral model of the psychological and biological pathway from IPV to chronic illness. We hypothesized that among women hospitalized for ACS, those who reported sexual abuse, with or without physical abuse, would have greater alterations in their serum levels of neuroendocrine markers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules and a chemotactic cytokine, at time of hospitalization for ACS, and 3 and 6 months later, than do women with physical abuse only. Participants were 45 women, primarily African American, admitted to a county hospital with a diagnosis of ACS. We evaluated 11 biomarkers and found a moderate group effect size for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. All others had a small effect size. PMID:20551737

Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Frazier, Lorraine; Henderson-Everhardus, Maria C; McGlory, Gayle; Watson, Kathleen Bachtel; Liu, Yan; Rhodes, Charles E; Hoogeveen, Ron Cornelis

246

Which aspects of socio-economic status are related to health in mid-aged and older women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based study was conducted to validate gender- and age-specific indexes of socio-economic status (SES) and to\\u000a investigate the associations between these indexes and a range of health outcomes in 2 age cohorts of women. Data from 11,637\\u000a women aged 45 to 50 and 9,510 women aged 70 to 75 were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis produced four domains of SES

Gita D. Mishra; Kylie Ball; Annette J. Dobson; Julie E. Byles; Penny Warner-Smith

2002-01-01

247

To cut or not to cut: cosmetic surgery usage and women's age-related experiences.  

PubMed

Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86. From these data, this study tested whether women's cosmetic surgery usage would act as a protective factor in age-related experiences related to body image, self-esteem, and aging attitudes. Cosmetic surgery recipients evidenced less body satisfaction, and more appearance investment with age increases while only non-recipients showed improvements in self-esteem ratings with advancing age. Both recipients and non-recipients showed declines in body care with age, a greater felt discrepancy between actual and perceived age, and less aging anxiety--but non-recipients more so than recipients. Thus, despite having undertaken action to improve their appearance through surgical means at some point in their adult lives, cosmetic surgery recipients did not inevitably feel younger than their years, or better about themselves, compared to those who have not pursued surgery. Study limitations and implications are outlined, and given that cosmetic surgery may become normative practice in future cohorts of aging adults, it concludes with a call for nationally-representative studies using matched-control group research designs typical of public health inquiry more generally. PMID:22696841

Eriksen, Shelley J

2012-01-01

248

Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.

2011-01-01

249

Antidepressant Use, Depressive Symptoms, and Incident Frailty in Women Aged 65 and Older from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the associations of depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, and duration of use with incident frailty three years later in nonfrail women ? age 65. Design Secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), a prospective cohort study. Setting WHI-OS was conducted in 40 U.S. clinical centers. Participants Women aged 65-79, not frail at baseline. Measurements Antidepressant use was assessed through medication container inspection at baseline. We created four groups according to baseline use and Burnam depression screen (range 0-1, 0.06 cut-off): antidepressant non-users without depressive symptoms (referent group), antidepressant non-users with depressive symptoms, antidepressant users without depressive symptoms, and antidepressant users with depressive symptoms. Frailty components included slowness/weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintended weight loss, ascertained through self-report and physical measurements at baseline and year 3. Results Among 27652 women at baseline, 4.9% (n=1350) were antidepressant users and 6.5% (n=1794) were categorized depressed. At year 3, 14.9% (n=4125) were frail. All groups had an increased risk for incident frailty compared to the referent group. Odds ratios ranged from 1.73 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.41-2.12) among non-depressed antidepressant users to 3.63 among depressed antidepressant users (95% CI = 2.37-5.55). All durations of use were associated with incident frailty (<1 year OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.41-2.68; 1 to 3 years OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.45-2.74; > 3 years OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.20-2.14). Conclusion In older adult women, depressive symptoms and antidepressant use were associated with frailty after 3 years follow-up.

Lakey, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Gray, Shelly L.; Borson, Soo; Williams, Carla D.; Calhoun, Darren; Goveas, Joseph S.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Ockene, Judith K.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Coday, Mace; Rosal, Milagros C.; Woods, Nancy F.

2012-01-01

250

(Re)imagining aging lives: ethnographic narratives of Muslim women in diaspora.  

PubMed

This article explores the potential of the narrative genre in (re)imagining aging lives of women in diaspora, spanning cultures as well as generations. Minimal attention given to combined constituencies of gender, age and minority status in feminist ethnography and the literature on aging may be redressed by the realization that minority aging women negotiate culturally based and innovative strategies to overcome patriarchal, age-based and colonizing and postcolonizing constraints. Ethnographic narratives of two Ismaili Muslim Canadian women, as part of a cohort of immigrants from East Africa, provide insights into the complex process of reimagining lives in-between spaces of home work and waged work as well as in-between action and repose (silence, and stillness that complement mundane action-oriented activities) modes of the Ismaili tradition. The narratives are a living metaphor of lives engaged in recapturing meaning. As such, the creative endeavors of aging women in diaspora has implications for a feminist ethnography of aging -- an area that to date remains substantively unexplored. PMID:14617884

Dossa, P A

1999-09-01

251

A Qualitative Investigation of Women's and Men's Body Image Concerns and Their Attitudes Toward Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women and men (aged 22–62 years) to explore their relationships with their bodies. The particular focus was age-related changes in body image and attitudes toward the body aging, an area that has received little research attention to date. Thematic analysis revealed distinctive gender differences. Men commonly conceptualized their bodies as a holistic entity, whereas

Emma Halliwell; Helga Dittmar

2003-01-01

252

Regulation of Protein Metabolism in Middle-Aged, Premenopausal Women: Roles of Adiposity and Estradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age-related loss of fat-free mass (FFM) is accelerated in women during the middle-age years and continues at an increased rate throughout the postmenopausal period. Because protein is the pri- mary structural component of fat-free tissue, changes in FFM are largely due to alterations in protein metabolism. Knowledge of the hormonal and physiological correlates of protein metabolism in mid- dle-aged

MICHAEL J. TOTH; CLIFFORD J. ROSEN; DWIGHT E. MATTHEWS; ERIC T. POEHLMAN

253

Stability of Typical Patterns of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Swedish Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical patterns of general subjective well-being (SWB) were searched for in a representative longitudinal sample of Swedish\\u000a women (N = 272) at age 43 and 49. Cluster analysis at each age separately resulted in a six-cluster solution at both ages. The two\\u000a solutions were similar, indicating structural stability across 6 years. Five of the six clusters also showed significant individual\\u000a stability. Among these

Lars R. Bergman; Daiva Daukantaite

2009-01-01

254

Sex differences in soleus strength may predispose middle age women to falls.  

PubMed

This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age. PMID:23222092

Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T

2013-09-01

255

Does the conservation of resources motivate middle-aged women to perform physical activity?  

PubMed

This article aims to examine the factors that motivate middle-aged women to engage in leisure physical activity (LPA) and to explore the relationship between resources loss and gains and engaging in LPA. It is a cross-sectional study based on a self-reported questionnaire (n = 949), using variables of the conservation of resources theory and the theory of planned behavior. Results show that women who engage in physical activity experience lower resources loss than inactive women. The longer they engage in physical activity, the less they experience losses such as youth, attractiveness, optimism, health, and beauty. Conservation of resources, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, and normative beliefs predict 41% (p < .0001) of the variance in the engagement in leisure physical activity. Findings suggest that constructing effective strategies to promote LPA requires also addressing these factors, which are valued by middle-aged women. PMID:19605888

Rotem, Mina; Epstein, Leon; Ehrenfeld, Mally

2009-12-01

256

Characterization of vulvar skin of healthy Thai women: influence of sites, age and menopause.  

PubMed

Although the physiological characteristics of vulvar skin have been characterized in Caucasians, little is known about the vulvar skin of Asian women. This study assessed the moisture content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and pH of vulvar skin of 99 healthy Asian women residing in Bangkok, aged 20-69 years, during their non-menstrual period, including 39 post-menopausal women. Skin pH was acidic at all sites, and the pH of the vulvar areas was significantly higher than the control sites (inner thigh, inner forearm). Skin moisture was slightly, but significantly, lower around the vulvar area and the thigh than around the forearm. TEWL was significantly higher in vulvar areas than control sites. Ageing and menopause did not cause notable alterations in most properties of vulvar skin. In conclusion, the vulvar skin of Asian women has similar properties to that of Caucasians. PMID:23435846

Fujimura, Tsutomu; Sato, Noriko; Ophaswongse, Suwirakorn; Takagi, Yutaka; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Palungwachira, Piti

2013-03-27

257

Age patterns of mortality for older women: An analysis using the age?specific rate of mortality change with age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age?specific rate of mortality change with age, defined by k(x) = d In?(x)\\/dx, where ?(x) is the age?specific death rate at exact age x, is estimated for middle and old ages in ten selected populations that are considered to have relatively accurate age data. For females in each of the study populations, k(x) follows a bell?shaped curve that usually

Shiro Horiuchi; Ansley J. Coale

1990-01-01

258

Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women  

PubMed Central

Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling.

Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

2010-01-01

259

Immunity to rubella in women of childbearing age in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first three years of a surveillance scheme for susceptibility to rubella in women aged 15-44 the results of over 1.3 million serological tests were collected by 80 laboratories throughout the United Kingdom. Seventy eight per cent of the results, or an average of 340,000 a year, were from pregnant women, so that just under half of all pregnant

N. D. Noah; S. E. Fowle

1988-01-01

260

Prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among healthy women of reproductive age in Bhaktapur, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the prevalence of anemia and iron status as assessed by biochemical markers and to explore the associations between markers of iron status and iron intake.Study area and population:Five hundred healthy women of reproductive age from the Bhaktapur district of Nepal were included in the study.Methods:A cluster sampling procedure was applied for this cross-sectional study. Women without any ongoing

R K Chandyo; T A Strand; R J Ulvik; R K Adhikari; M Ulak; H Dixit; H Sommerfelt

2007-01-01

261

Reproductive implications of bariatric surgery: Pre and postoperative considerations for extremely obese women of childbearing age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme obesity remains a frustrating and formidable disease, with most sufferers requiring surgical intervention in order\\u000a to achieve long-term, sustained weight loss. Most bariatric procedures today are performed on women, many of whom are of reproductive\\u000a age; yet minimal evidence exists to guide clinicians in the care of such women before, during, and after pregnancy. This review\\u000a outlines the fundamental

Ellen J. Landsberger; Edith D. Gurewitsch

2007-01-01

262

Age-related loss of trabecular bone in premenopausal women: A biopsy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We measured the trabecular bone volume (TBV) of 62 iliac crest biopsies taken from women admitted to lymphoma protocols at\\u000a Stanford University between 1970–1981. All subjects were active, cycling premenopausal women, with bone marrows that were\\u000a negative for tumor. Disease status was stage III or less in 90% of the subjects. Trabecular bone volume was negatively correlated\\u000a with age, and

Robert Marcus; Jon Kosek; Adolf Pfefferbaum; Sandra Horning

1983-01-01

263

Breast and Cervix Cancer Screening among Multiethnic Women: Role of Age, Health, and Source of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between age, health status, access to care, and breast and cervical cancer screening among multiethnic elderly and nonelderly women.Methods.A structured telephone survey of a quota sample of 1,420 New York City women from four Hispanic groups (Columbian, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Ecuadorian) and three black groups (U.S., Caribbean, and Haitian) was

Jeanne S. Mandelblatt; Karen Gold; Ann S. O'Malley; Kathryn Taylor; Kathleen Cagney; John S. Hopkins; Jon Kerner

1999-01-01

264

Mediators of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance in Middle-aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term behavioral self-regulation is the hallmark of successful weight control. We tested mediators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance in middle-aged women who participated in a randomized controlled 12-month weight management intervention. Overweight and obese women (N = 225, BMI = 31.3 ± 4.1 kg\\/m2) were randomly assigned to a control or a 1-year group intervention designed to promote

Pedro J. Teixeira; Marlene N. Silva; Sílvia R. Coutinho; António L. Palmeira; Jutta Mata; Paulo N. Vieira; Eliana V. Carraça; Teresa C. Santos; Luís B. Sardinha

2010-01-01

265

Selected Body Measurements of Women Aged Sixty-five and Older  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred fourteen white and 91 black women volunteers from Tallahassee, Florida, senior citizen's activity centers were studied to determine if elderly ambulatory women are adequately represented in the garment-sizing system. Thirty-three body measurements were taken on each subject, whose ages ranged from 65 to 96, with a mean of 73.912. Statistical analyses of these 33 measurements used descriptive statistics, t-tests,

Carol A. Patterson; Jessie Warden

1983-01-01

266

Stage and treatment variation with age in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: compliance with guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer-specific mortality is static in older women despite having fallen in younger age groups, possibly due to lack of screening and differences in treatment. This study compared stage and treatment between two cohorts of postmenopausal women (55–69 vs >70 years) in a single cancer network over 6 months. A total of 378 patients were studied (>70: N=167, 55–69 years:

L Wyld; D K Garg; I D Kumar; H Brown; M W R Reed

2004-01-01

267

Factors associated with age at natural menopause in a multiethnic sample of midlife women  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unprecedented number of women will experience menopause in the next decade. Although the timing of menopause affects long-term disease risk, little is known about factors that affect this timing. In the present 1995--1997 cross-sectional study, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, the relation of demographic and lifestyle factors to age at natural menopause was examined in seven

Ellen B. Gold; J Bromberger; Sybil L. Crawford; S Samuels; Gail A. Greendale; Sioban D. Harlow; J Skurnick

2001-01-01

268

Factors Associated with Age at Natural Menopause in a Multiethnic Sample of Midlife Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unprecedented number of women will experience menopause in the next decade. Although the timing of menopause affects long-term disease risk, little is known about factors that affect this timing. In the present 1995-1997 cross-sectional study, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, the relation of demographic and lifestyle factors to age at natural menopause was examined in seven

Ellen B. Gold; Joyce Bromberger; Sybil Crawford; Steve Samuels; Gail A. Greendale; Sioban D. Harlow; Joan Skurnick

269

Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2,283 older, postmenopausal women (aged

Ira Driscoll; Mark A. Espeland; Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller; Sarah A. Gaussoin; Jingzhong Ding; Iris A. Granek; Judith K. Ockene; Lawrence S. Phillips; Kristine Yaffe; Susan M. Resnick

2011-01-01

270

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are widely used in the general population. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials of CAM therapies for obstetrical and gynecologic conditions and presents therapies that are likely to be used by women of reproductive age and by pregnant women. Data Sources: Sources included English-language papers in MEDLINE 1966-2002 and AMED (1985-2000) and the

Adriane Fugh-Bermana; Fredi Kronenberg

2003-01-01

271

Trajectory of Psychological Risk and Incident Hypertension in Middle-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to test the hypotheses that the trajectory of psychological risk (ie, persistent or increasing measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, anger, and low social support over time) increases the risk for the development of hypertension and that blood pressure levels fluctuate with psychological changes in women. Initially, healthy normotensive middle-aged women (n5541; 90.6% white,

Katri Räikkönen; Karen A. Matthews; Lewis H. Kuller

272

Contraindications to progestin-only oral contraceptive pills among reproductive aged women  

PubMed Central

Background Progestin-only oral contraceptive pills (POPs) have fewer contraindications to use compared to combined pills. However, the overall prevalence of contraindications to POPs among reproductive aged women has not been assessed. Study Design We collected information on contraindications to POPs in two studies: 1) the Self-Screening Study, a sample of 1,267 reproductive aged women in the general population in El Paso, Texas, and 2) the Prospective Study of Oral Contraceptive (OC) Users, a sample of current OC users who obtained their pills in El Paso clinics (n=532) or over the counter (OTC) in Mexican pharmacies (n=514). In the Self-Screening Study, we also compared women’s self-assessment of contraindications using a checklist to a clinician’s evaluation. Results Only 1.6% of women in the Self-Screening Study were identified as having at least one contraindication to POPs. The sensitivity of the checklist for identifying women with at least one contraindication was 75.0% (95% CI: 50.6–90.4%), and the specificity was 99.4% (95% CI: 98.8–99.7%). In total, 0.6% of women in the Prospective Study of OC Users reported having any contraindication to POPs. There were no significant differences between clinic and OTC users. Conclusion The prevalence of contraindications to POPs was very low in these samples. POPs may be the best choice for the first OTC oral contraceptive in the US.

White, Kari; Potter, Joseph E.; Hopkins, Kristine; Fernandez, Leticia; Amastae, Jon; Grossman, Daniel

2012-01-01

273

Bodily pain and coping styles among four geriatric age groups of women.  

PubMed

No research is available regarding the association between coping styles and bodily pain by age-specific sub-groups in non-clinical older populations. To address this research gap, we recruited 317 older women (age 55-105, mainly from minority ethnic backgrounds) and divided our sample into sub-groups by decade. Regression analyses on the total sample and the age group of 65-74 demonstrated that denial and venting were inversely related to pain. Findings for the age groups 55-64 and 75-84 were non-significant. Among women age 85 or older, seeking emotional support was inversely associated with pain, while active coping was related to higher pain reports. PMID:21948111

Laganà, Luciana; Hassija, Christina Marie

2011-09-26

274

From ‘The Thing to Do’ to ‘Defying the Ravages of Age’: Older Women Reflect on the Use of Lipstick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from in-depth interviews with 36 women, aged 71 to 93, this manuscript examines older women's use of lipstick. The most ubiquitously used cosmetic by the women we interviewed, lipstick was a taken-for-granted practice in the women's performance of gender. In the women's youth, the performance of gender through lipstick usage was related to rebellion and peer acceptance. In

Laura Hurd Clarke; Andrea Bundon

2009-01-01

275

Milk consumption and bone mineral density in middle aged and elderly women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To study the effects of historical milk consumption on current bone mineral density at the hip and spine. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SUBJECTS--284 community based women aged 44-74 years recruited from four general practice age-sex registers in Cambridge. Subjects categorised their average milk consumption up to age 25, from age 25-44, and from age 44 to the present time as > or = 1 glass/day, < 1 glass/day but > 1 glass/week, or < 1 glass/week. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bone mineral density at the hip and spine measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--Data on milk consumption up to age 25 years were available for 252 women. There was a consistent upward trend in bone mineral density at all sites with increasing historical milk consumption (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, P < 0.05; Ward's triangle, P = 0.005). Adjustment for age and body size did not alter these trends. Milk consumption up to age 25 was a significant independent predictor of bone mineral density at all sites in multiple linear regression analyses controlling for age, body mass index, menopausal status, smoking, ever use of hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptives, physical activity, and alcohol intake. The effects of milk consumption from age 25-44 and from age 44 to the present were similar in direction though not statistically significant. CONCLUSION--Frequent milk consumption before age 25 favourably influences hip bone mass in middle aged and older women.

Murphy, S.; Khaw, K. T.; May, H.; Compston, J. E.

1994-01-01

276

Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

2004-06-01

277

Female genital cutting starts to decline among women in Oromia, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study explored factors influencing attitudes towards the practice of female genital cutting (FGC) among women in Oromia region, Ethiopia. Representative data from 2221 women aged 15-49 years from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey in 2005 were evaluated. Overall, 88.4% of women had undergone FGC. Prevalence significantly decreased with birth date, ranging from 95.1% in women aged 45-49 years to 75.8% in those aged 15-19 years. Overall, 63.7% of women favoured the discontinuation of FGC, while 29.7% favoured its continuation. Education was strongly correlated with a stance against the practice: while only 54.6% of illiterate women were against it, this figure was 95.5% among women who had completed secondary school. While the reported prevalence was similar among Christian (87.8%) and Islamic women (89.1%), 56.3% of Islamic women favoured discontinuation compared with 70.5% of Christian women. The higher that women scored on empowerment indices, the more they opposed the practice. In logistic regression models, educational level (P=0.001), personal FGC experience (P=0.001), religious affiliation (P=0.02) and self-empowerment were factors (P=0.01 and P=0.004) significantly associated with favouring discontinuation. Future efforts encouraging an end to FGC must include the illiterate population in the Oromia region and focus on improving the status of women. PMID:20400376

Rahlenbeck, S; Mekonnen, W; Melkamu, Y

2010-02-01

278

Neonatal outcome of IVF singletons versus naturally conceived in women aged 35 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To compare the delivery and neonatal outcome of IVF singleton pregnancies with those conceived spontaneously in primiparous\\u000a women ?35 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were collected by the hospital’s obstetrics and pediatric staff at the time of examination, hospitalization, delivery\\u000a and discharge. A total of 283 women with in vitro fertilization (IVF) singleton deliveries were matched according to ethnicity,\\u000a age, gravidity, smoking

Vlatka Tomic; Jozo Tomic

279

Socioeconomic factors, immigration status, and cancer screening among Mexican American women aged 75 and older  

PubMed Central

To explore the association between socioeconomic factors and acculturation with cancer screening methods, we analyzed data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, on 1,272 women aged 75 and older residing in the United States in 2004-2005. We found that lower Pap smear or mammography uses were associated with older age, lower education, and having public health insurance compared to private. Other factors associated with mammography use were depressive symptoms, cognition and functional limitations. In sum, socioeconomic factors and health insurance coverage determine cancer screening utilization in very old Mexican American women but not acculturation.

Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

2011-01-01

280

Improvements in quality of life in women after resistance training are not associated with age.  

PubMed

Twenty-three women completed a resistance training program three or four days per week. At baseline and after eight weeks they completed the Vitality Plus Scale measuring exercise-related changes in quality of life. Greater scores indicated better quality of life. Significant improvements in quality of life (p < .001), upper body strength (p < .001), and lower body strength (p < .001) were observed despite training frequency. Age was not associated with quality of life or strength either pre- or posttraining. Resistance exercise three days a week improved quality of life in women, and these improvements were not influenced by age. PMID:22256878

Benton, Melissa J; Schlairet, Maura C

2012-01-01

281

Changes in Waist Circumference and the Incidence of Diabetes in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI). Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study were analyzed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993–97 and 1999–02. Information on diabetes was obtained from The Danish National Diabetes Register. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated from Cox' proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999–02 until December 31 2006. During 5.4 years of follow-up, 1,027 and 876 new cases of diabetes occurred among men and women, respectively. WC was positively associated with diabetes in both sexes also with adjustment for covariates and BMI. DWC was positively associated with diabetes in women, but not in men (HR per 5 cm change?=?1.09 (1.04?1.15) in women, and 1.00 (0.94, 1.07) in men with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI). Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with diseases or diabetes occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. Conclusions/Significance While this study confirmed that WC is positively associated with the risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, it surprisingly showed that changes in WC were not associated with the subsequent risk of diabetes in men, and only weakly positively associated with the risk of diabetes in women. Accordingly, these findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be a weak or insufficient or target for prevention of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tj?nneland, Anne; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.; Overvad, Kim

2011-01-01

282

Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.  

PubMed

Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly disempowered. PMID:12287095

Sethna, C

1992-02-01

283

Age-Based differences in Treatment Outcome among Alcohol Dependent Women  

PubMed Central

The literature suggests that women are at higher risk for negative consequences from alcohol use than men and that these risks are compounded by age. The current study investigated how alcohol dependent women from different age groups might differ in terms of baseline functioning and treatment response. The sample consisted of 181 participants drawn from 2 randomized clinical trials of cognitive behavioral treatments for alcohol dependent women. Demographic and psychopathology data were obtained at baseline using the SCID (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders) I for Axis I disorders and the SCID II or Personality Disorders Questionnaire for Axis II disorders. Social networks data were collected using the Important People and Activities Interview. Drinking data were collected at baseline and follow-up using the Timeline Follow Back Interview. Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) revealed that older women had better psychosocial functioning in terms of being better educated and reporting fewer Axis I disorders. Also, older women had more supportive social networks in terms of more people, a smaller percentage of heavy drinkers, and a non-drinking spouse. Older women reported a less severe lifetime substance use history with a later age of first drink, later onset of alcohol use disorders, fewer lifetime abuse/dependence items, and less drug use. However, they reported drinking more frequently and more heavily over the 90 days prior to treatment. Finally, older women were more compliant with treatment and responded better by reducing drinking frequency and percentage of heavy drinking days. Suggestions to enhance treatment efficacy for younger women are made as well as suggestions for future research.

Al-Otaiba, Zayed; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; McCrady, Barbara; Cook, Sharon

2012-01-01

284

Age-based differences in treatment outcome among alcohol-dependent women.  

PubMed

The literature suggests that women are at higher risk for negative consequences from alcohol use than men and that these risks are compounded by age. The current study investigated how alcohol-dependent women from different age groups might differ in terms of baseline functioning and treatment response. The sample consisted of 181 participants drawn from two randomized clinical trials of cognitive-behavioral treatments for alcohol-dependent women. Demographic and psychopathology data were obtained at baseline using the SCID (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders) I for Axis I disorders and the SCID II or Personality Disorders Questionnaire for Axis II disorders. Social networks data were collected using the Important People and Activities Interview. Drinking data were collected at baseline and follow-up using the Timeline Follow Back Interview. ANOVAs revealed that older women had better psychosocial functioning in terms of being better educated and reporting fewer Axis I disorders. Also, older women had more supportive social networks in terms of more people, a smaller percentage of heavy drinkers, and a nondrinking spouse. Older women reported a less severe lifetime substance use history with a later age of first drink, later onset of alcohol use disorders, fewer lifetime abuse/dependence items, and less drug use. However, they reported drinking more frequently and more heavily over the 90 days prior to treatment. Finally, older women were more compliant with treatment and responded better by reducing drinking frequency and percentage of heavy drinking days. Suggestions to enhance treatment efficacy for younger women are made as well as suggestions for future research. PMID:22369224

Al-Otaiba, Zayed; Epstein, Elizabeth E; McCrady, Barbara; Cook, Sharon

2012-02-27

285

Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

286

Vitamin D Status and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (nmol/L) and the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Methods Stereoscopic fundus photographs, taken from 2001–2004, assessed AMD status. Baseline (1994–1998) serum samples were available for 25(OH)D assays in 1,313 women with complete ocular and risk factor data. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early AMD (n=241), among 1,287 without advanced disease, were estimated with logistic regression and adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, family history of AMD, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hormone therapy use. Results In multivariate models, no significant relationship was observed between early AMD and 25(OH)D (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.79, 95% CI=0.50–1.24; p for trend=0.47). A significant age interaction (p=0.0025) suggested selective mortality bias in women ?75 years: serum 25(OH)D was associated with decreased odds of early AMD in women <75 years (n=968) and increased odds in women ?75 years (n=319) (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.52, 95% CI=0.29–0.91; p for trend=0.02 and 1.76, 95% CI=0.77–4.13; p for trend=0.05, respectively). Further adjustment for body mass index and recreational physical activity, predictors of 25(OH)D, attenuated the observed association in women <75 years. Additionally, among women <75 years, intake of vitamin D from foods and supplements was related to decreased odds of early AMD in multivariate models; no relationship was observed with self-reported time spent in direct sunlight. Conclusions High serum 25(OH)D concentrations may protect against early AMD in women <75 years.

Millen, Amy E.; Voland, Rick; Sondel, Sherie A.; Parekh, Niyati; Horst, Ronald L.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Chappell, Rick; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A.

2010-01-01

287

Influenza and pertussis vaccination coverage among privately insured women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

An increasing number of vaccines are now designated as maternal vaccines, recommended prior to, during, or immediately following pregnancy. The influenza and pertussis (Tdap) vaccines have the potential to improve the health of women and their offspring. Among privately insured women of reproductive age, goals of this study were to describe influenza and Tdap vaccination coverage and to explore variation in coverage by age and race/ethnicity. This cross-sectional, observational study included women 18-44 years of age with continuous enrollment from 1 January 2007-31 March 2011 in a single, Midwestern health insurance plan and at least one visit to a plan affiliated practice. Data on vaccine coverage came from insurance claims, supplemented by electronic medical record data. Primary outcomes were: receipt of Tdap ever, receipt of Tdap or Tetanus vaccination (Td) in the past 10 years, and receipt of influenza vaccination during the 2010-2011 influenza season. Coverage was compared by race/ethnicity. Among 12,657 women with continuous private insurance, 45.5 % had received Tdap ever, 82.5 % had received Td or Tdap in the past 10 years, and 39.8 % received the influenza vaccine in the 2010-2011 season. Marked disparities in influenza vaccination coverage by race/ethnicity were observed, only 30.0 % of African American women received influenza vaccine compared to 40.7 % of white, non-Hispanic women (p < .0001). Among insured women of reproductive age, there is a need for interventions to increase Tdap and influenza vaccination uptake. Further research is needed to understand and address disparities in influenza vaccination coverage in this population. PMID:23108738

Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Parker, Emily D; Nordin, James D; Hedblom, Brita D; Rolnick, Sharon J

2013-11-01

288

The Day-to-Day Impact of Urogenital Aging: Perspectives from Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s day-to-day functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem.

Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam

2009-01-01

289

Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

2012-01-01

290

Cardiovascular risks and physical activity in middle-aged and elderly African American women.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease rates are higher in African American women and they have more cardiovascular risk factors than other groups. Although one of the most important cardiovascular risk reduction behaviors is physical activity, few studies have focused on African American women's cardiovascular risk and physical activity. Therefore, the aims of this descriptive pilot study were to describe modifiable cardiovascular risks and to explore physical activity, as measured by pedometer steps, in younger (n = 22; aged 21-45 years) and older (n = 22; aged 46-75 years) community-dwelling African American women. The total number of pedometer steps recorded in 3 days ranged from 1,153 to 52,742. Day 1 steps were significantly different than day 2 and day 3 steps across the sample (F = 5.30, df = 1, P < .05). Risk factors were similar across the age groups. There was no relationship between the 3-day total or average number of daily steps and cardiovascular risks. Thus, interventions may be used in both age groups, with modifications for cohort effects of approach and health status. Given the disparities in cardiovascular disease and the Healthy People 2010 national health objectives, it is important to continue a variety of efforts to assist adult women of all ages to increase their physical activity and to decrease other CVD risks. PMID:17589282

Crane, Patricia B; Wallace, Debra C

291

Comparison of the Ideal and Real Body as Women AgeRelationships to Age Identity, Body Satisfaction and Importance, and Attention to Models in Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between age, body image, and women's proclivity to compare themselves with fashion models. A sample of 281 women between the ages of 30 and 80 participated in this study. Significant positive relationships between social comparison behavior and (a) appearance self-discrepancy and (b) the importance placed on achieving ideal appearance were found. A significant inverse relationship

Joy M. Kozar; Mary Lynn Damhorst

2009-01-01

292

Attitude Toward Own Aging and Mental Health in Post-menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Attitudes toward own aging (ATOA) refers to expectations about the personal experience of aging. As of now, there is limited literature that addresses the impact of ATOA on indicators of psychological, physical, and social health. In this study, we examine associations between ATOA and several measures associated with successful aging. Methods A detailed cross-sectional survey questionnaire on successful aging was completed by 1,973 older women enrolled in the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative study. ATOA was measured using the Philadelphia Geriatric Morale Scale (PGMS) Results The final sample consisted of 1151 women. The mean ATOA score was 3.8 indicating generally positive ATOA. Positive ATOA score was significantly associated with younger age, lower income, being married, higher SF-36 Physical Composite scores, higher SF-36 Mental composite scores, lower depression scores, and higher resilience scores. Approximately 40% of variance in ATOA scores was explained by successful aging-related domain scores. Conclusions Better physical and emotional functioning, greater resilience and lower depression are associated with more positive ATOA. Associations with sociodemographic traits are complex. Modifying ATOA may have potential to impact a broad range of health and successful aging related outcomes.

Kavirajan, Harish; Vahia, Ipsit V; Thompson, Wesley K.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

2011-01-01

293

Knowledge and use of folic acid in women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects. As approximately 50% of pregnancies are unintended, women of reproductive age should be aware of the importance of folic acid. We reviewed the existing literature on these women's knowledge of folic acid and neural tube defects. Databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, and Health Reference Center Academic. We used terms such as "folic acid knowledge" and "folic acid awareness" to search articles published from 1998 to 2010. Awareness of the benefits of folic acid before conception and during pregnancy was low, although knowledge levels were associated with education and household income. Women who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals, magazines and newspapers, and radio and television as common sources of information. Effective knowledge translation is needed to ensure that women are informed about the benefits of folic acid during the reproductive years. This knowledge will allow them to make informed decisions about folic acid consumption. Health care professionals play an influential role in promoting folic acid knowledge among women of childbearing age. Lower levels of knowledge among women with lower levels of education and/or household income must be addressed. PMID:22146120

Fehr, Kelly R S; Fehr, Kelsey D H; Protudjer, Jennifer Lisa Penner

2011-01-01

294

Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition. PMID:23624642

Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

2013-04-28

295

Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.  

PubMed

Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2011-12-01

296

Age of smoking initiation and risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between time of smoking initiation and both the independent and joint effects of active and passive tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women. Methods Data from two large population-based case-control studies conducted among Ontario women aged 25–75 years were combined for analysis (n = 12,768). Results Women who had ever smoked and were exposed to passive smoke had a significant increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01–1.25). A significant increased risk was also observed among women who initiated smoking: at age 26 or older (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.03–1.55); more than five years from menarche (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.12–1.42); and, after their first live birth (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.02–1.52). Conclusion The results suggest that women who initiate smoking at an older age are at an increased risk of breast cancer.

Young, Erin; Leatherdale, Scott; Sloan, Margaret; Kreiger, Nancy; Barisic, Andriana

2009-01-01

297

The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health.

2012-01-01

298

Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age  

PubMed Central

Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors.

Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

2013-01-01

299

Body mass index and risk of liver cirrhosis in middle aged UK women: prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and liver cirrhosis and the contribution that BMI and alcohol consumption make to the incidence of liver cirrhosis in middle aged women in the UK. Design Prospective cohort study (Million Women Study). Setting Women recruited from 1996 to 2001 in NHS breast screening centres and followed by record linkage to routinely collected information on hospital admissions and deaths. Participants 1?230?662 women (mean age 56 years at recruitment) followed for an average of 6.2 years. Main outcome measures Relative risk and absolute risk of first hospital admission with or death from liver cirrhosis adjusted for age, recruitment region, alcohol consumption, smoking, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. Results 1811 women had a first hospital admission with or died from liver cirrhosis during follow-up. Among women with a BMI of 22.5 or above, increasing BMI was associated with an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis: the adjusted relative risk of cirrhosis increased by 28% (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.38; P<0.001) for every 5 unit increase in BMI. Although the relative increase in the risk of liver cirrhosis per 5 unit increase in BMI did not differ significantly according to the amount of alcohol consumed, the absolute risk did. Among women who reported drinking less than 70 g alcohol per week, the absolute risk of liver cirrhosis per 1000 women over five years was 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) for those with a BMI between 22.5 and 25 and 1.0 (0.9 to 1.2) for those with a BMI of 30 or more. Among women who reported drinking 150 g alcohol or more per week, the corresponding figures were 2.7 (2.1 to 3.4) and 5.0 (3.8 to 6.6). Conclusions Excess body weight increases the incidence of liver cirrhosis. In middle aged women in the UK, an estimated 17% of incident or fatal liver cirrhosis is attributable to excess body weight. This compares with an estimated 42% attributable to alcohol.

2010-01-01

300

What do we know about what happens to myometrial function as women age?  

PubMed

Much has been written about the effects of aging on reproductive function, especially female fertility. Much less is known about how aging may affect the contractility of the smooth muscle within the uterus, the myometrium. The myometrium is active through a woman's entire life, not just during pregnancy. Here we will discuss briefly the contractile functions of the uterus and the changes it undergoes throughout the stages of a woman's life from menstruation and the menopause, before evaluating the evidence for any changes in myometrial contractility and responses as women age, with a particular focus on women of advanced maternal age. We present original contractility analysis for the widest data set for human myometrium so far examined, and determine inherent spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarisation and stimulation with oxytocin. Our data show that in the non-pregnant state there is a significant decrease in contractility for both spontaneous and depolarised-induced contractions, with age. We suggest that muscle atrophy and down regulation of Ca channels may account for this. Interestingly in pregnant myometrium we found a wide range of contractile ability between women and little evidence for decreased spontaneous activity between the ages of 25-40. Oxytocin responses appear to be more affected by aging, a finding that is consistent with previously reported clinical findings, and may partly be the result of membrane lipids such as cholesterol, increasing as women age. The marked differences between the age-related decline of force beyond age 30 in non-pregnant uterus, and the lack of difference in the pregnant state over this period, shows that the uterus retains its ability to respond to gestational hormones. The growth of the pregnant uterus and increase in content of myofibrillar proteins, may abolish any previous age-related force deficit. This finding is consistent with what is apparent for postmenopausal women in their 50s and 60s; that with the appropriate hormonal stimulation the uterus can allow an embryo to implant, and then without further intervention, carry the foetus to term. It is tempting therefore to speculate that unlike other well documented declines in female reproductive functions with age, the myometrium remains able to function into a woman's 7th decade. PMID:22644420

Arrowsmith, Sarah; Robinson, Hayley; Noble, Karen; Wray, Susan

2012-05-30

301

Fruit and Vegetable Intake and the Risk of Hypertension in Middle-Aged and Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDespite the promising findings from short-term intervention trials, the long-term effect of habitual fruit and vegetable intake on blood pressure (BP) remains uncertain. We therefore assessed the prospective association between baseline intake of fruits and vegetables and the risk of hypertension in a large cohort of middle-aged and older women.MethodsWe conducted analyses among 28,082 US female health professionals aged ?39

Lu Wang; JoAnn E. Manson; J. Michael Gaziano; Julie E. Buring; Howard D. Sesso

2012-01-01

302

Weight Loss Readiness in Middle-Aged Women: Psychosocial Predictors of Success for Behavioral Weight Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of weight loss success and failure has eluded researchers for many years. Thus, we administered a comprehensive psychometric battery before a 4-month lifestyle behavioral weight reduction program and analyzed weight changes during that period to identify baseline characteristics of successful and unsuccessful participants, among 112 overweight and obese middle-aged women (age, 47.8 ± 4.4 years; BMI, 31.4 ±

Pedro J. Teixeira; Scott B. Going; Linda B. Houtkooper; Ellen C. Cussler; Catherine J. Martin; Lauve L. Metcalfe; Nuris R. Finkenthal; Rob M. Blew; Luis B. Sardinha; Timothy G. Lohman

2002-01-01

303

Physical Activity Status and Adverse Age-Related Differences in Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Factors in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse changes in coagulation and fibrinolytic factors are thought to contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and atherothrombosis with age. We tested the hypothesis that such age-related changes in specific coagulation and fibrinolytic factors are absent in physically active women. Resting levels of plasma fibrinogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen and activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen and

Christopher A. DeSouza; Pamela Parker Jones; Douglas R. Seals

304

Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to\\u000a subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature,\\u000a we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing\\u000a on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that

Arline T. Geronimus; Margaret T. Hicken; Jay A. Pearson; Sarah J. Seashols; Kelly L. Brown; Tracey Dawson Cruz

2010-01-01

305

The effect of social class on mid-age women's weight control practices and weight gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity and weight gain is higher in the working class, but we know little about class differences in practices used to control weight. This study examined associations between self-reported measures of social class (upper, middle, or working class), weight control practices, and weight among a cohort of 11,589 mid-aged women (aged 47–52) participating in the Australian Longitudinal

Lauren Williams; John Germov; Anne Young

2011-01-01

306

Age at Onset of Ovarian Cancer in Women with a Strong Family History of Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.To determine whether women with a strong family history of ovarian cancer develop ovarian cancer at a younger age than the general population, and to determine if the age at onset of ovarian cancer in families with multiple cases of ovarian cancer is progressively younger with successive generations.Methods.Using a large voluntary familial ovarian cancer registry, 90 probands were identified whose

Jeffrey M. Goldberg; M. Steven Piver; Mohannad F. Jishi; Leslie Blumenson

1997-01-01

307

Mediterranean diet and bone mineral density in two age groups of women.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that adherence to the Mediterranean diet measured as a Mediterranean diet score (MDS) has a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD). For the purposes of this study, a sample of healthy women from Southern Spain was chosen. Subjects were grouped into two major groups: a first group consisted of women of reproductive age (premenopausal, pre-M) and a second group consisted of postmenopausal women (pos-M). The consumption of vegetables and fruit was found to be significantly related to BMD in both groups of subjects studied. In the pre-M group, the lipid ratio was positively associated with BMD and in pos-M women nuts intake was also associated with BMD. After implementing the analysis of covariance analysis, significant linear trends between the MDS and BMD were observed in all subjects studied. Our results indicate that a varied diet based on Mediterranean diet patterns may be beneficial in the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:22946650

Rivas, Ana; Romero, Antonio; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Monteagudo, Celia; Feriche, Belen; Lorenzo, Maria Luisa; Olea, Fatima

2012-09-05

308

Health care utilization patterns of Russian-speaking immigrant women across age groups.  

PubMed

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 substantially increased the numbers of refugees and immigrants to the United States from the former Soviet Union. Little research has been conducted with this population although studies found that immigrant's access to health care services are based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of immigrant women from three former Soviet Republics (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine) with women's health care services. Three focus groups of women were formed; ages 20-30, 37-46, and 60 and above. A focus-group guide was used to learn about their health care experiences. These immigrant women did access health care services based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. Greater understanding of immigrant populations' cultural patterns of health care utilization is needed to improve access and delivery of health care services to these populations. PMID:16228751

Ivanov, L Louise; Buck, K

2002-01-01

309

Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40-45 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40–45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years.

Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

2013-01-01

310

Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.  

PubMed Central

The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a

Minkowski, W L

1992-01-01

311

Married with children: predictors of mental and physical health in middle-aged women.  

PubMed

The relationship between current mental and physical health and history of education, marriage, child-rearing and employment was studied in 541 women aged 42-50. Participants, recruited from the community for a longitudinal study of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, were all premenopausal and free from major diagnosed physical or mental disorder. Physical health measures included weight, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and current physical symptoms. Self-report psychological measures included depression, anxiety, anger, stress, and coping. Women who were mothers and still in their first marriage ("married with children") were somewhat healthier and happier than others. However, women with only a high school education, even when "married with children," were at a fourfold risk of depression compared with college-educated women, unless they were in paid employment, in which case their risk was not increased. Employment did not affect the risk of depression for college-educated women who were "married with children." Among other women, lack of paid employment more than doubled the risk of depression, whatever the educational level. Among the measures of physical health, the only significant finding was a high rate of smoking among high-school-educated women not in traditional marriages. Possible pathways linking education, marital history and current mental health are discussed. PMID:1946829

Costello, E J

1991-08-01

312

Structural trends in the aging proximal femur in Japanese postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Hip structure analysis (HSA) can be used to measure proximal femur geometry using conventional DXA scans of the hip. This study is the first analysis of HSA data in Japanese women to evaluate apparent age trends in the geometry of cross-sectional regions in the proximal femur. 409 Japanese women aged from 50 to 93 years of age were measured by DXA at three sites (narrow neck, intertrochanter, shaft). Using the mean value those between 50-59 years as a reference value, age trends were evaluated using groupings of 5-year intervals and those over 80 as a single group. BMD at three measured sites and section modulus (index of bending strength) at narrow neck declined in a similar age dependent manner, but section modulus at intertrochanter and shaft showed a different pattern. The decline in section modulus at narrow neck occurs after 50-59 years of age, whereas section modulus at intertrochanter remain 70-74 years, after that began to decrease. Section modulus at shaft, an uncommon fracture location, remains fairly static through life. In conclusion, HSA in Japanese women showed that reduction in geometric strength, as reflected by the section modulus, was not dependent on decline in BMD. PMID:17513185

Takada, Junichi; Beck, Thomas J; Iba, Kousuke; Yamashita, Toshihiko

2007-04-21

313

Age-related muscle atrophy in the lower extremities and daily physical activity in elderly women.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between age-related declines in muscle thickness of the lower extremities and daily physical activity in elderly women. The subjects comprised 20 young women and 17 elderly women residing in a nursing home. Lower limb muscle thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound with the following 10 muscles; gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, psoas major, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius and soleus. Daily physical activity was evaluated using life-space assessment (LSA) which assessed the life-space level, degree of independence, and frequency of attainment. Muscle thickness in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, psoas major, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius, but not soleus, was significantly greater in the young group than the elderly group. The greatest rates of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in the lower limbs showed in the psoas major, while the smallest loss showed in soleus muscle. Only the gluteus medius was significantly associated with the LSA score (r = 0.528, p < 0.05) in elderly women. These results suggest that the reduction in skeletal mass with age is smaller in soleus muscle, and that the age-related decline in gluteus medius muscle is influenced by daily physical activity. PMID:20832875

Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

2010-09-15

314

Age-related changes in musculoskeletal mass between black and white women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies from our laboratory indicated that matched black and white women differ significantly in total body potassium (TBK), total body bone density (TBD), and total body bone mineral (TBBM). The aim of this investigation was to examine absolute levels and the kinetics of age-related changes in TBK, TBD, TBBM, and percent body fat in a cross-sectional cohort of 34

James A. Gasperino; Jack Wang; Richard N. Pierson; Steven B. Heymsfield

1995-01-01

315

Is There a Double Standard of Aging?: Older Men and Women and Ageism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to determine current young adults' attitudes toward older adults and to explore, more specifically, whether they hold different attitudes towards older men and women. An additional objective was to examine the association between knowledge of aging processes and attitudes towards older adults. A total of 405 (210 males,…

Narayan, Chetna

2008-01-01

316

Obesity and related metabolic disorders are prevalent in Moroccan women of child- bearing age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to examine their relationship with obesity-related conditions. We examined data from a cross -sectional survey

Rekia Belahsen; Odilia I Bermudez; Mziwira Mohamed; Fertat Fatima; P Kirstin Newby; Katherine L Tucker

2005-01-01

317

Predictors of HPV vaccine uptake among women aged 19–26: Importance of a physician's recommendation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among insured women, aged 19–26 years, those who discussed the HPV vaccine with their physician and received a recommendation were overwhelmingly more likely to be vaccinated. Student status and perception of the personal importance of vaccination were also predictive of vaccination. The strength of the physician's recommendation played a significant role in the decision to be vaccinated, resulting in a

S. L. Rosenthal; T. W. Weiss; G. D. Zimet; L. Ma; M. B. Good; M. D. Vichnin

2011-01-01

318

Positive relationship between bone mineral density and low back pain in middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been a large number of epidemiological studies demonstrating various primary factors that cause musculoskeletal disorders in middle-aged and older women. However, the relationship between low back pain and bone mineral density is not well documented, and no evidence for any direct relationship between the two has been found. To investigate the relationship, we conducted a cross-sectional study, on

Takashi Manabe; Shin-ichiro Takasugi; Yukihide Iwamoto

2003-01-01

319

Age before beauty: an exploration of body image in African-American and Caucasian adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on body image emphasizes risks for eating disorders and typically involves young, Caucasian women. Few studies examine body image beyond the college years and there appears to be a disregard for the mature woman, as if self-acceptance of one's body is part of the aging process. Historically, it has been assumed that race is a protective factor against body

Justine J. Reel; Sonya SooHoo; Julia Franklin Summerhays; Diane L. Gill

2008-01-01

320

Body Composition of Women with Newborns Who Are Small for Gestational Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relationship between maternal and placental hemodynamic disorders and fetal growth is well known, but few studies have evaluated a link between maternal extracellular water (EW) and newborn birth weight. Objective: To identify the characteristics of body composition (BC) of women with small for gestational age (SGA) newborns, and to determine the relationship between maternal EW and birth weight

Margarita Levario-Carrillo; Nora Rodríguez; Edith Tufiño-Olivares; María del Refugio Jiménez; Martha Cecilia Delgado-Monge; Sandra Reza-López

2009-01-01

321

Reproducibility of computer measurement of maximal isometric strength and electromyography in sedentary middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the reproducibility of computer measurements of isometric strength and related electromyography in several muscle groups in sedentary middle-aged women, (ii) to evaluate the effects of different digital signal averaging methods on the reproducibility, (iii) to determine the final test score to be preferred in terms of improved reproducibility of isometric strength

Ari Heinonen; Harri Sievfinen; Jukka Viitasalo; Matti Pasanen; Pekka Oja; Ilkka Vuori

1994-01-01

322

Efficacy of Flour Fortification with Folic Acid in Women of Childbearing Age in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flour fortification with folic acid is one of the main strategies for improving folate status in women of childbearing age. No interventional trial on the efficacy of folic acid fortification has been conducted so far in Iran. Objectives: To study the effects of flour fortification with folic acid on any reduction in neural tube defects (NTDs) and folate status

Z. Abdollahi; I. Elmadfa; A. Djazayery; M. J. Golalipour; J. Sadighi; F. Salehi; S. Sadeghian Sharif

2011-01-01

323

Active and Passive Smoking and Risk of Breast Cancer by Age 50 Years among German Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that both active and passive smokers have an increased risk of breast cancer compared with women who have never been either actively or passively exposed. Data on lifetime active and passive smoking were collected in 1999-2000 from 468 predominantly premenopausal breast cancer patients diagnosed by age 50 years and 1,093 controls who had previously participated in a

Silke Kropp; Jenny Chang-Claude

324

Alcohol use and serious psychological distress among women of childbearing age  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to present nationally representative findings on the prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol use and serious psychological distress among women aged 18–44 years, as well as their access to health care.

James Tsai; R. Louise Floyd; Mary J. O'Connor; Mary M. Velasquez

2009-01-01

325

How Similar are Wise Men and Women? A Comparison Across Two Age Cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orwoll and Achenbaum (1993) suggest that the path to wisdom might be considerably different for men and women, although a wise person might have integrated the feminine and masculine aspects of wisdom. Using samples of 464 undergraduate college students and 178 older adults (age 52+), univariate and multivariate analyses of variance revealed that wisdom (measured by cognitive, reflective, and affective

Monika Ardelt

2009-01-01

326

Randomized trial of exercise in sedentary middle aged women: effects on quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing physical activity is currently considered to be a possible prevention strategy for cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, either alone or in combination with dietary changes. This paper presents results of a randomized trial of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise in middle aged, sedentary women; specifically, we report changes in and correlates of quality of life and functional status of this exercise

Deborah J Bowen; Megan D Fesinmeyer; Yutaka Yasui; Shelley Tworoger; Cornelia M Ulrich; Melinda L Irwin; Rebecca E Rudolph; Kristin L LaCroix; Robert R Schwartz; Anne McTiernan

2006-01-01

327

Fish consumption, advisory awareness, and hair mercury levels among women of childbearing age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wisconsin Division of Public Health and the State of Maine Bureau of Health collaborated on a 12 state mercury awareness project. The primary goals of this initiative were to evaluate mercury sport fishing advisory awareness among women of childbearing age and assess the methylmercury exposure among this subpopulation. The project, which was conducted between December 1998 and December 1999,

Lynda Knobeloch; Henry A. Anderson; Pamela Imm; Debi Peters; Andrew Smith

2005-01-01

328

Understanding women's attitudes towards wife beating in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with attitudes towards wife beating among women in partnerships in Zimbabwe in order to assist public health practitioners in preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: A nationally representative survey of 5907 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was conducted in Zimbabwe. Women were asked about their attitudes towards wife beating in five situations. The survey included sociodemographic characteristics, partnership characteristics, and household decision-making. FINDINGS: Over half of all women in Zimbabwe (53%) believed that wife beating was justified in at least one of the five situations. Respondents were most likely to find wife beating justified if a wife argued with her spouse (36%), neglected her children (33%), or went out without telling her spouse (30%). Among women in partnerships (n=3077), younger age, living in rural areas, lower household wealth, schooling at a lower level than secondary, and lower occupational status were associated with women reporting that wife beating is justified. Women who reported that they make household decisions jointly with their partners were less likely to say that wife beating is justified. CONCLUSIONS: Zimbabwe has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly because the younger generation of women is significantly more likely to believe that wife beating is justified compared with older women. Given the current social and political climate in Zimbabwe, finding means to negotiate rather than settle conflict through violence is essential from the household level to the national level.

Hindin, Michelle J.

2003-01-01

329

Effect of parity and age at delivery on breast cancer risk in Slovenian women aged 25-54 years.  

PubMed

In 1988, a case-control study on breast cancer and oral contraceptives with 624 cases and 624 matched controls in the age range 25-54 years was undertaken in Slovenia. This analysis assesses the relationship between parity and breast cancer risk: the relative importance of age at first birth, age at subsequent births and total parity. We also evaluate whether a dual effect of an increased risk immediately after childbirth followed by a long-term benefit exists. Three logistic regression models were used. Age at first delivery is an important breast cancer risk factor: among parous women it was associated with a 5.3% increase/year in the odds of breast cancer. Multiparity was not shown to be an independent risk factor. Age at subsequent deliveries was associated with a 1% increase in risk for every 1 year increase of age at any birth, but this contribution to the risk was not significant. In the analysis stratified by parity the most important influence is with the age at first birth. We find no evidence of an effect on the odds of breast cancer associated with the age at the second, or later, births. We do find that there is an increased risk associated with the birth of the first child followed by a longer term protective effect. A post-menopausal woman has a reduced breast cancer risk compared with a pre-menopausal woman of the same age, adjusting for the same number of deliveries and ages at these deliveries. PMID:9334801

Robertson, C; Primic-Zakelj, M; Boyle, P; Hsieh, C C

1997-09-26

330

Prospective study of maternal and neonatal outcome in great-grand multiparous women (?10 births) and in aged-matched women with lesser parity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Evaluation of outcome of labor\\/delivery in great-grand multiparous (GGMP) women relative to women with lower parity is complicated\\u000a because of confounding parity with (older) age. Herein, we compare maternal and neonatal outcome in GGMP from a large obstetrics\\u000a department to that in older women with lesser parity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a prospective observational study of older gravid women. All laboring women

Angelica Fadeev; Alexander Ioscovitch; Alina Rivlis; Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky; Arnon Samueloff; Michael S. Schimmel; Deborah Elstein

331

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A BODY MASS REDUCTION PROGRAM IN OBESE WOMEN IN PERIMENOPAUSAL AND MENOPAUSAL AGE COMPARED WITH THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SUCH A PROGRAM IN YOUNGER (18-44 YEARS OF AGE) WOMEN LIVING IN POLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective: The aim of the work was: to compare the effectiveness of body mass reducing program in women of perimenopausal (and menopausal) age with the effectiveness of such a program when it was applied to women aged 18-44 years. Methods: The paper deals with observation study of the group of obese patients recruited and treated in Bialystok's Clinical Center

332

Preparation for menopause: prospective evaluation of a health education intervention for mid-aged women.  

PubMed

Many women approach menopause with uncertainty about what will happen and how to deal with changes that occur. The current study aimed to evaluate the short-term outcome of a health education intervention devised to prepare 45-year old women in general practices. One hundred and seventy-eight 45-year old women registered at five general practices in south London were targeted for the research; 106 of the women responded and 86 of these women formed a usable pre-menopausal sample which was randomly allocated to the preparation intervention and control conditions. Preparation involved two health education sessions carried out in small groups and covering information and discussion of the normal menopause transition in the context of mid-life. The women completed pre- and post-intervention (3 and 15 months) questionnaires which assessed knowledge and beliefs about menopause and a number of health-related behaviours. Knowledge improved significantly at the follow-up assessments for the preparation group but not for the control group. On the whole, the prepared women's beliefs about menopause became less negative following the intervention, although there were also some changes reported by the control group. The proportion of smokers decreased from 25 to 20% for the prepared women although this did not reach statistical significance. There was no change in the prevalence of regular exercise. There was also a decrease in the intention to take hormonal treatments following the intervention. Suggestions for further development of health promotion services for mid-aged women and more holistic health care practices are proposed. PMID:9699192

Liao, K L; Hunter, M S

1998-06-17

333

Hip Structural Geometry in Old and Old-Old Age: Similarities and Differences between Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Changes in hip structure and geometry during aging contribute to decreased bone strength. Little is known, however, about these characteristics at advanced age, when fragility fractures are common. We examined hip structural geometry in men and women of old (72–84 years) and old-old (85–96 years) age to determine (1) gender differences; 2) whether or not these differences are consistent with the increased occurrence of hip fracture in elderly women, compared to men; and (3) whether or not gender-specific changes are consistent with the increased occurrence of fragility fractures after age 80 in both men and women. Methods We used Hip Structure Analysis (HSA) software to analyze bone densitometry scans from 916 community-dwelling men and women aged 72–96 years. We examined gender differences in hip geometry by age group (72–74, 75–79, 80–84, and ? 85 years) and between gender-specific age groups using multivariable linear regression. Results At the femoral narrow neck, there was no gender difference at age 72–74 in bone mineral density (BMD), cortical thickness (CT), and buckling ratio (BR). In contrast, at age 85 or older women had 13% less BMD and CT than men and 8% higher BR. At the intertrochanteric region, women ? 85 years had 25–31% less BMD, cross-sectional bone area (CSA), and CT than men of comparable age, and 38% higher BR. These gender differences were approximately 10–20% greater than those between men and women in their 70s. In gender-specific comparisons, women showed increasing change in structural geometry with increasing age. At both narrow neck and trochanteric regions, women ? 85 years had nearly 35% higher BR, 15% less BMD and CT, and 10% less CSA than women aged 72–74 years. At the narrow neck they also had 6% greater outer diameter than the youngest women and 8% lower section modulus (Z), an index of bending strength. In contrast, men showed significant age differences only at the narrow neck region, and only at 85 years or older, including 22% higher BR, 10% less BMD and CT, and 5% greater outer diameter, compared to men in their early 70s. Unlike women, men showed no age-associated decline in section modulus. Conclusions Gender differences in hip geometry consistent with increased fragility and fracture risk in elderly women, compared to men, continue into old-old age. Both men and women 85 or older show the most unfavorable features, suggesting a structural basis for the increased occurrence of hip fracture in both sexes at advanced age.

Yates, Laurel B.; Karasik, David; Beck, Thomas J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P.

2007-01-01

334

Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania's Lake Victoria Region  

PubMed Central

We conducted a community-based study of 457 women aged 18–50 years living in eight rural villages in northwest Tanzania. The prevalence of female urogenital schistosomiasis (FUS) was 5% overall but ranged from 0% to 11%. FUS was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–13.5) and younger age (OR = 5.5 and 95% CI = 1.2–26.3 for ages < 25 years and OR = 8.2 and 95% CI = 1.7–38.4 for ages 25–29 years compared with age > 35 years). Overall HIV prevalence was 5.9% but was 17% among women with FUS. We observed significant geographical clustering of schistosomiasis: northern villages near Lake Victoria had more Schistosoma mansoni infections (P < 0.0001), and southern villages farther from the lake had more S. haematobium (P = 0.002). Our data support the postulate that FUS may be a risk factor for HIV infection and may contribute to the extremely high rates of HIV among young women in sub-Saharan Africa.

Downs, Jennifer A.; Mguta, Charles; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Mitchell, Katrina B.; Bang, Heejung; Simplice, Harusha; Kalluvya, Samuel E.; Changalucha, John M.; Johnson, Warren D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

2011-01-01

335

[Diagnosis of breast cancer in women age 40 and younger: mammography and breast ultrasound].  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the leading cause of mortality among women aged 25 to 44 years in Serbia. The purpose of this study was to determine basic clinical and radiological features of breast cancer in young women. 93 women aged 31.0 +/- 3.5 years with breast cancer were identified. The analysis included clinical characteristics (TNM classification) and radiological features (mammography and breast ultrasound). 53.8% of the patients had locoregional disease. The mean diameter of breast cancer was 2.6 +/- 6 cm. Carcinoma in situ was found in 2.2%. Mammography was performed in 25.8% of the patients and breast ultrasound in 68.8%. The results of our study indicate that the diagnosis of breast cancer in young women is late, in the stage with palpable breast tumor and lymph node metastases. Mammography or breast ultrasound are not routinely used. The implementation of algorithms for breast cancer detection and diagnosis in young women helps in earlier detection of breast cancer and consequently improves outcomes. PMID:20420001

Milosevi?, Z; Karapandzi?, V Plesinac; Jovi?evi?, A; Vukovi?, V; Vuci?evi?, J; Pavlovi?, T; Borojevi?, N

2009-01-01

336

Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging  

PubMed Central

Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2283 older, post-menopausal women (age 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference collected up to 5 years prior to WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (p?0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in waist circumference. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existent literature.

Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris; Ockene, Judith K.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M.

2011-01-01

337

[Aging: a reflection about physical activity and oxidative stress in women].  

PubMed

The aging process is a universal, multi-factorial and unavoidable process. Physical activity is considered an important factor in the prevention of diseases caused by aging. The authors propose a review on the theme, evaluating the beneficial effects of physical activity and the risks of oxidative stress in menopausal women. Nowadays, is known that regular physical activity associated to antioxidant supplement is one of the most effective strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease, neoplasia, and chronic illnesses specific to old age. The authors concluded: the greatest benefits associated with physical activity are attained through moderation, since excessive exercise can bring about oxidative stress and diseases related to the latter, including death. PMID:22863508

Florencio, Gilzandra L; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Canário, Ana Carla; Silva, Maria José

2011-12-31

338

Who gets a mammogram amongst European women aged 50-69 years?  

PubMed Central

On the basis of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE), we analyse the determinants of who engages in mammography screening focusing on European women aged 50-69 years. A special emphasis is put on the measurement error of subjective life expectancy and on the measurement and impact of physician quality. Our main findings are that physician quality, better education, having a partner, younger age and better health are associated with higher rates of receipt. The impact of subjective life expectancy on screening decision substantially increases after taking measurement error into account. JEL Classification C 36, I 11, I 18

2012-01-01

339

Marital Status and Mortality among Middle Age and Elderly Men and Women in Urban Shanghai  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality. Methods We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996–2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002–2009), two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40–70 years and 61,500 men aged 40–74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR?=?1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR?=?1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively) and cancer (HR?=?1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR?=?1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively) mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR?=?1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women (HR?=?1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) and elevated all-cause mortality (HR?=?2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86) in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR?=?1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88) and CVD (HR?=?1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) mortality. Conclusions Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

Va, Puthiery; Yang, Wan-Shui; Nechuta, Sarah; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Gao, Shan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

2011-01-01

340

Estimated acceptance of HPV vaccination among Italian women aged 18-26 years.  

PubMed

In Italy vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national immunization programme in 2007; the primary target for this vaccination is 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. This project was carried out in the period 2007-2009 to estimate the acceptance rate among 18-26-year-old, to whom free-of-charge vaccination was actively offered. Socio-demographic factors associated with acceptance were also investigated. A sample of 1159 women was randomly selected from resident population lists of 10 Local Health Units in 6 of Italy's 21 Regions; 1032 women were deemed eligible for the study. Of the eligible women, 580 received at least one vaccine dose for an acceptance rate of 56.2% and 542 received all three vaccine doses (52.6%). The acceptance rate was significantly higher for: residents of northern and central Italy (OR(adj)=2.22, 95%CI 1.64-3.01 and OR(adj)=1.77, 95%CI, 1.20-2.61 respectively), compared to southern Italy; women with a high educational level (OR(adj)=1.41; 95%CI: 1.02-1.93); and students (OR(adj)=1.64; 95%CI: 1.13-2.37). The low immunization rate highlights the difficulties of reaching young adult women, although the current coverage rates observed in the primary target population of HPV vaccination campaign (64%) emphasize that achieving high coverage rates is challenging also in younger age groups. Our results suggest that it would be premature to extend the active free-of-charge offer of HPV vaccination to older women and that efforts should be focused on the priority target, considering that the objective of 95% coverage established for this age group is still far from being attained. PMID:21872630

Giambi, Cristina; Donati, Serena; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Degli Atti, Marta Luisa Ciofi; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Scherillo, Isabella; Bella, Antonino

2011-08-26

341

Association of Occupational & Prediabetes Statuses with Obesity in middle aged Women  

PubMed Central

Background: The association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity is very close. The prediabetes status i.e Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) reflects an intermediate condition between normality and diabetes. The socioeconomic position (SEP) is one of the non traditional determinants of type 2 DM. The occupational status, which is a good indicator of the socioeconomic status, also indicates the level and the type of stress that they are exposed to, as well as the individual lifestyle choices. The present work was planned to study the relationship of the prediabetic status with obesity and the occupational status by estimating the Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) levels. Objectives: To study the association of the occupational status with the fasting blood glucose levels and obesity in middle aged women. Method: The Fasting Blood Glucose levels and the BMI were estimated in 300 asymptomatic middle aged women who had no family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (D.M.), who had been divided into the Control (I), the Pre – obese (IIa) and the Obese groups (IIb). The occupational status was broadly divided into the categories of housewives and service women. The results was analysed statistically by using the correlation coefficient and the ‘z’ test. Result: The mean FBG levels in the pre – obese and the obese groups were higher than those in the control group. We found significant differences in the FBG levels in the normal weight, the pre – obese as well as in the obese groups among the service women, but no significant correlation was found in the pre – obese and the obese groups. Among the housewives, we found significant differences in the FBG levels of the normal weight and the obese groups, but not in the pre – obese group. Also, no significant correlation was found in the pre – obese and obese groups among the service women. Conclusion: The BMI may be good risk predictor for Type 2 D.M. irrespective of the occupational status, especially in middle aged women.

Pranita, A; Balsubramaniyan, B; Phadke, A V; Tambe, D B; Apte, G M; Kharche, J S; Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, A R

2013-01-01

342

Association of Occupational & Prediabetes Statuses with Obesity in middle aged Women.  

PubMed

Background: The association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity is very close. The prediabetes status i.e Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) reflects an intermediate condition between normality and diabetes. The socioeconomic position (SEP) is one of the non traditional determinants of type 2 DM. The occupational status, which is a good indicator of the socioeconomic status, also indicates the level and the type of stress that they are exposed to, as well as the individual lifestyle choices. The present work was planned to study the relationship of the prediabetic status with obesity and the occupational status by estimating the Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) levels. Objectives: To study the association of the occupational status with the fasting blood glucose levels and obesity in middle aged women. Method: The Fasting Blood Glucose levels and the BMI were estimated in 300 asymptomatic middle aged women who had no family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (D.M.), who had been divided into the Control (I), the Pre - obese (IIa) and the Obese groups (IIb). The occupational status was broadly divided into the categories of housewives and service women. The results was analysed statistically by using the correlation coefficient and the 'z' test. Result: The mean FBG levels in the pre - obese and the obese groups were higher than those in the control group. We found significant differences in the FBG levels in the normal weight, the pre - obese as well as in the obese groups among the service women, but no significant correlation was found in the pre - obese and the obese groups. Among the housewives, we found significant differences in the FBG levels of the normal weight and the obese groups, but not in the pre - obese group. Also, no significant correlation was found in the pre - obese and obese groups among the service women. Conclusion: The BMI may be good risk predictor for Type 2 D.M. irrespective of the occupational status, especially in middle aged women. PMID:23998053

Pranita, A; Balsubramaniyan, B; Phadke, A V; Tambe, D B; Apte, G M; Kharche, J S; Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, A R

2013-07-01

343

Impaired vitamin D metabolism with aging in women. Possible role in pathogenesis of senile osteoporosis.  

PubMed Central

Calcium absorption decreases with aging, particularly after age 70 yr. We investigated the possibility that this was due to abnormal vitamin D metabolism by studying 10 normal premenopausal women (group A), 8 normal postmenopausal women within 20 yr of menopause (group B), 10 normal elderly women (group C), and 8 elderly women with hip fracture (group D) whose ages (mean +/- SD) were 37 +/- 4, 61 +/- 6, 78 +/- 4, and 78 +/- 4 yr, respectively. For all subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] did not decrease with age, but serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], the physiologically active vitamin D metabolite, was lower (P = 0.01) in the elderly (groups C and D; 20 +/- 3 pg/ml) than in the nonelderly (groups A and B; 35 +/- 4 pg/ml). The increase of serum 1,25(OH)D after a 24-h infusion of bovine parathyroid hormone fragment 1-34, a tropic agent for the enzyme 25(OH)D 1 alpha-hydroxylase, correlated inversely with age (r = -0.58; P less than 0.001) and directly with glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.64; P less than 0.001). The response was more blunted (P = 0.01) in elderly patients with hip fracture (13 +/- 3 pg/ml) than in elderly controls (25 +/- 3 pg/ml). We conclude that an impaired ability of the aging kidney to synthesize 1,25(OH)2D could contribute to the pathogenesis of senile osteoporosis.

Tsai, K S; Heath, H; Kumar, R; Riggs, B L

1984-01-01

344

Frequency of Intimate Partner Violence and Rural Women's Mental Health in Four Indian States.  

PubMed

This study examines the association between self-reported frequency of verbal, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health among 6,303 rural married women (age 15-49), in four Indian states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Data are taken from the 2002-2003 National Family Health Survey-2 Follow-Up Survey. The results indicate that experiencing physical, verbal, or sexual IPV is associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Our results provide support for the importance of screening for IPV in mental health settings, especially in resource-poor settings where both IPV and mental health are often overlooked. PMID:24142954

Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle

2013-09-01

345

Sources of Food Affect Dietary Adequacy of Inuit Women of Childbearing Age in Arctic Canada  

PubMed Central

Dietary transition in the Arctic is associated with decreased quality of diet, which is of particular concern for women of childbearing age due to the potential impact of maternal nutrition status on the next generation. The study assessed dietary intake and adequacy among Inuit women of childbearing age living in three communities in Nunavut, Canada. A culturally-appropriate quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was administered to 106 Inuit women aged 19-44 years. Sources of key foods, energy and nutrient intakes were determined; dietary adequacy was determined by comparing nutrient intakes with recommendations. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was >70%, and many consumed inadequate dietary fibre, folate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A, D, E, and K. Non-nutrient-dense foods were primary sources of fat, carbohydrate and sugar intakes and contributed >30% of energy. Traditional foods accounted for 21% of energy and >50% of protein and iron intakes. Strategies to improve weight status and nutrient intake are needed among Inuit women in this important life stage.

Schaefer, Sara E.; Erber, Eva; Trzaskos, Janel P.; Roache, Cindy; Osborne, Geraldine

2011-01-01

346

Utilization of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age in Australia, 1979-1982.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a complete national survey to measure utilization rates of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis (P.C.D.) in women of advanced maternal age in Australia. P.C.D. has been available throughout Australia for the last decade. Every laboratory in Australia providing a P.C.D. service for the years 1979-1982 took part in this study. Utilization rates (both National and State rates) by ages of mothers, are presented. Big interstate differences exist. The 1982 National P.C.D. utilization rate for pregnant women who were 40 years of age and over was 38.8 per cent, and this rate has shown an average annual increase of 9 per cent. In those four States which offered P.C.D. to pregnant women of 35 years or over the median utilization rate was 20 per cent. These Australian rates indicate an under-utilization of P.C.D. services with (in 1982) 50-80 per cent of 'at risk' women not being tested. Factors which influence this are discussed. PMID:3975222

Bell, J A; Pearn, J; Cohen, G; Ford, J; Halliday, J; Martin, N; Mulcahy, M; Purvis-Smith, S; Sutherland, G

347

Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women  

PubMed Central

Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed.

Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

2011-01-01

348

Fish consumption patterns and mercury exposure levels among women of childbearing age in Duval County, Florida.  

PubMed

Consumption of fish containing methylmercury can pose serious health concerns including neurotoxic effects in adults and toxicity to the fetuses of mothers exposed during pregnancy. In the study described in this article, the authors examined fish consumption patterns and measured hair mercury levels of women of childbearing age in a coastal county in Florida. Women from the community participated in a risk factor assessment survey (N = 703). Hair samples (n = 698) were collected and analyzed for mercury. The authors identified 74.8% below detection limit; 25.2% had detectable limits of mercury, while 7% exceeded 1 pg/g. Hair mercury levels increased with fish consumption and age. Race, income, and education levels were also associated with increased hair mercury levels. Women of Asian/Pacific Islander origin had the highest levels. Although reported fish consumption exceeded the recommendations for women of childbearing age, the study population had lower mercury levels than other comparative studies in Florida and at national levels. PMID:23397644

Traynor, Sharleen; Kearney, Greg; Olson, David; Hilliard, Aaron; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek

349

Implications of college-age narcissism for psychosocial functioning at midlife: Findings from a longitudinal study of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive and negative implications of two types of college-age narcissism on psychosocial functioning at midlife were studied in a longitudinal sample of women. Both types were scored with self-report measures when the women were, on the average, age 21. Throughout the first half of their adult life, high scorers on covert narcissism presented themselves as lacking in confidence and having

Paul Wink; Karen Donahue I

1995-01-01

350

Association of age, race, and obstetric history with urinary symptoms among women in the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to better understand associations among age, race, obstetric history, and urinary incontinence in women.STUDY DESIGN: Race and obstetric history were assessed through the use of biennial mailed questionnaires from 1976 to 1996 among participants of the Nurses' Health Study. In 1996, 83,168 women aged 50 to 75 years reported their frequency of leaking

Francine Grodstein; Ruth Fretts; Karen Lifford; Neil Resnick; Gary Curhan

2003-01-01

351

Response by women aged 65-79 to invitation for screening for breast cancer by mammography: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether there is sufficient benefit to be gained by offering screening for breast cancer with mammography to women aged 65-79, who are not normally invited for screening. DESIGN--Pilot study of women eligible for screening but not for personal invitation. The results of this study were compared with the results of routinely screened younger women (aged 50-64) from the

P Hobbs; C Kay; E H Friedman; A S St Leger; C Lambert; C R Boggis; T M Howard; A W Owen; D L Asbury

1990-01-01

352

The correlation between self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI in reproductive age women.  

PubMed

This prospective, cross-sectional study of 60 women compares self-reported height, weight, and BMI with measured values. Self-reported BMI (29.0±8.37kg/m(2)) was slightly lower than measured BMI (29.1±8.38kg/m(2)) (p=0.4). Eighty percent of participants reported a BMI in the same category in which their BMI was measured. Pearson's correlation coefficient for height (0.96, p<0.001), weight (0.99, p<0.001), and BMI (0.99, p<0.001) were high. Reproductive age women accurately reported their height and weight. PMID:23958434

Roth, Lauren W; Allshouse, Amanda A; Lesh, Jennifer; Polotsky, Alex J; Santoro, Nanette

2013-08-16

353

Clinical significance of benign endometrial cells found in papanicolaou tests of Turkish women aged 40 years and older  

PubMed Central

Background: Spontaneously exfoliated benign-appearing endometrial cells (BEC) on a Papanicolaou smear might indicate endometrial pathology in postmenopausal women, necessitating further investigation. A cut-off age of 40 years was included in the Bethesda System 2001 based on studies of clinical significance of endometrial cells in Pap smears in Western countries. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of age subgroup for women with a cytological diagnosis of BEC, regardless of menopausal status, in a retrospective cohort of Turkish women. Materials and Methods: Between October 2006 and November 2011, 41 patients with a BEC diagnosis and 64 patients with a cytological diagnosis of normal smear (NS) were enrolled; regardless of menopausal status, these women were 40 years and older and for whom follow-up endometrial biopsies had been performed. Results: On subsequent histopathologic evaluation, no malignant lesion was detected in women aged 40-50 years compared to three endometrioid-type adenocarcinomas in women older than 50 years with cytological diagnosis of BEC. There was a significant difference between women older than 50 years with cytologic diagnosis of BEC and NS in relation to premalignant lesions on histopathologic evaluation; however, this was not the case for women aged 40-50 years. Conclusions: According to our study, reporting BEC for women aged between 40 and 50 years has minor clinical significance but is significant for women older than 50 years, regardless of menopausal status. Larger sample size would be appropriate to confirm the results of the current study.

Kir, Gozde; Gocmen, Ahmet; Cetiner, Handan; Topal, Cumhur Selcuk; Yilmaz, Muberra Segmen; Karabulut, Murat Hakan

2013-01-01

354

Women's work, worry and fear: the portrayal of sexuality and sexual health in US magazines for teenage and middle?aged women, 2000–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report on an exploratory content analysis of the portrayal of sexuality, sexual health and disease in select magazines designed for two groups of women: teenagers and women in the 40–50?year?old age category in the USA. The analysis found that magazine portrayal was both similar for the two groups of women and distinctly different.

Juanne Clarke

2009-01-01

355

A comparison of anxiety levels in midlife women (aged 35–65) who are military spouses and a group of non?military?affiliated women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the State?Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970), a comparison of the scores of 199 midlife, military spouses was made with the scores of a sample of 74 midlife non?military women. A total of 273 midlife women (aged 35–65) participated in the study. The women who participated in the study were from similar middle class socioeconomic backgrounds,

Joan M. Jacobson

1986-01-01

356

Clinical performance of osteoporosis risk assessment tools in women aged 67 years and older  

PubMed Central

Summary Clinical performance of osteoporosis risk assessment tools was studied in women aged 67 years and older. Weight was as accurate as two of the tools to detect low bone density. Discriminatory ability was slightly better for the OST risk tool, which is based only on age and weight. Introduction Screening performance of osteoporosis risk assessment tools has not been tested in a large, population-based US cohort. Methods We conducted a diagnostic accuracy analysis of the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool (OST), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), and individual risk factors (age, weight or prior fracture) to identify low central (hip and lumbar spine) bone mineral density (BMD) in 7779 US women aged 67 years and older participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Results The OST had the greatest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC 0.76, 95% CI 0.74, 0.77). Weight had an AUC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.72, 0.75), which was ?AUC values for the ORAI, SCORE, age or prior fracture. Using cut points from the development papers, the risk tools had sensitivities ?85% and specificities ?48%. When new cut points were set to achieve a likelihood ratio of negative 0.1–0.2, the tools ruled out fewer than 1/4 of women without low central BMD. Conclusions Weight identified low central BMD as accurately as the ORAI and SCORE. The risk tools would be unlikely to show an advantage over simple weight cut points in an osteoporosis screening protocol for elderly women.

Gourlay, M. L.; Powers, J. M.; Lui, L.-Y.; Ensrud, K. E.

2008-01-01

357

Factors Noted to Affect Breast Cancer Treatment Decisions of Women Aged 80 and Older  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To identify factors that influence the breast cancer treatment decisions of women aged 80 and older. DESIGN Medical record review. SETTING One academic primary care clinic and two community health centers in Boston. PARTICIPANTS Sixty-five women aged 80 and older diagnosed with breast cancer between 1994 and 2004 and followed through June 30, 2010. MEASUREMENTS Data were abstracted on breast cancer characteristics, comorbidities, treatments received, and outcomes. Notes from primary care physicians, oncologists, and breast surgeons were reviewed to determine factors involved in treatment decision-making. RESULTS Median age at diagnosis was 84.0 (interquartile range 82.0–86.3), 55 (84.6%) were non-Hispanic white, and 40 (61.5%) had at least one comorbidity. Nine women were diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ, 42 with a new primary invasive breast cancer, eight with a second primary, and six with a breast cancer recurrence. Sixty-three (96.9%) received some type of treatment. Fifty-six (86.2%) had at least one detailed physician note on treatment decision-making in their charts. The main categories found to influence participant, family, and physician treatment decision-making were tumor characteristics, ratio of treatment benefits to risks, logistics (e.g., transportation, finances), and participant age, health (including a concurrent diagnosis), and psychosocial characteristics. Family was involved in treatment discussions for 46 (70.8%) participants. CONCLUSION The quality of physician documentation about decision-making in these women was high. A great deal of thoughtful and complex decision-making involving patients, family, and physicians occurs after a woman aged 80 and older is diagnosed with breast cancer.

Schonberg, Mara A.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Marcantonio, Edward R.

2013-01-01

358

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN PARVOVIRUS B19 IN SAUDI WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE IN MAKKAH  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence rate of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) to parvovirus B19 in pregnant Saudi women in Makkah. Subjects and Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total of 1200 serum samples were tested for antibodies to parvovirus B19 known to cause a variety of clinical syndromes in women and newborn infants. Results: Parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies detected in 46.6% and IgM antibodies were found in 2.25% of different age groups. Conclusion: The previous exposure to parvovirus B19 was determined, and 560 (46.6%) of 1200 pregnant Saudi women tested at their first antenatal visit were seropositive for specific IgG. The rate of maternal infection in susceptible pregnancies was 2.25%. These results were in accordance with previous studies performed in other countries.

Ghazi, Hani O.

2007-01-01

359

Emotion communication skills in young, middle-aged, and older women.  

PubMed

We assessed the effectiveness of an emotion induction procedure for the study of emotional communication in adults; we also gathered preliminary age-comparative data on the expressive and receptive capacities of a sample of adult women. Young, middle-aged, and older women (encoders) related emotional experiences following mood induction and then assessed the intensity of their affective experiences. Videotapes of these sessions (facial expressions only) were shown to young, middle-aged, and older female judges (decoders), who rated the encoders for emotional intensity as well as for type of affect being communicated. Validity and reliability issues with respect to the procedure's usefulness are discussed. Decoding accuracy was found to vary with age congruence between encoder and decoder, suggesting a decoding advantage accruing through social contact with like-aged peers. Older decoders did most poorly, but a differential warm-up effect was evident, suggesting that the performance of older subjects might be enhanced with practice. There were also trends suggesting that the affective expressions of older subjects may be harder to decode owing to age-related structural changes in the face. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical models of affective development. PMID:3268208

Malatesta, C Z; Izard, C E; Culver, C; Nicolich, M

1987-06-01

360

Relationship between dietary habits, age, lifestyle, and socio-economic status among adult Norwegian women. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine how dietary intake varies with age in a nation-wide sample of adult Norwegian women, and to evaluate the impact of lifestyle and socio-economic status on important dietary aspects.Design: Cross-section study.Setting and subjects: A food frequency questionnaire was mailed to a random, nation-wide sample of 20 000 women aged 45–69 y, and 9885 questionnaires were accepted for nutritional

A Hjartåker; E Lund

1998-01-01

361

A qualitative study examining women's experiences of an appearance-focussed facial-ageing sun protection intervention.  

PubMed

The study was designed to investigate women's experiences of an appearance-focussed, facial-ageing, morphing intervention to show the effect of UV exposure on their skin. Forty-seven women aged 18-34 took part in the intervention: 35 women in individual sessions, and 12 in four focus groups. Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Women were shocked about the likely effect of UV exposure on their skin. All of the women stated that they were going to make changes to their UV exposure and sun protection behaviours after viewing the images of themselves which were morphed to show the effects of UV exposure. The results are discussed in relation to suggestions for interventions aimed at women aged 18-34. It is concluded that appearance-based interventions do have a role to play in healthcare and educational settings with regards to UV exposure and sun protection intentions. PMID:22627145

Williams, Alison Leah; Grogan, Sarah; Buckley, Emily; Clark-Carter, David

2012-05-22

362

Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 women of reproductive age. Data were collected using questionnaires on sociodemographic factors and perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2). The relationship between the dependent variable (perceived social support) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Results The mean score of social support was 134.3?±?17.9. Women scored highest in the “worth” dimension and lowest in the “social integration” dimension. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that the variables of education, spouse’s occupation, Sufficiency of income for expenses and primary support source were significantly related to the perceived social support. Conclusion Sociodemographic factors affect social support and could be considered in planning interventions to improve social support for Iranian women.

2012-01-01

363

Psychosocial impact of epilepsy in women of childbearing age in India.  

PubMed

The aim was to evaluate comprehensively the psychosocial impact of epilepsy in women between 15-40 years of age with epilepsy, compared to those with migraine and healthy, pregnant women. One hundred women with epilepsy, 50 with migraine and 100 healthy, pregnant women were enrolled over a two-year period. The three groups were assessed using questionnaires for quality of life (QOL), coping strategies and caregiver burden. The influence of demographic and seizure variables on these psychosocial outcomes were also assessed.It was found that quality of life was least, and the burden experienced by the caregiver was significantly more in patients with epilepsy (p < 0.001). Women with epilepsy relied more on religion/faith as a coping method (p = 0.021), and less on problem solving strategies (p < 0.001) when compared to those with migraine. When compared to healthy, pregnant women, they more frequently employed religious methods of coping and denial (p < 0.001), with significantly less use of problem solving techniques, acceptance, and positive and negative distraction(p < 0.001). Less frequent seizures, better education and remission sustained for at least six months, were associated with better QOL. Educational status, frequency of seizures and time elapsed since last seizure emerged as significant determinants of coping behaviour. Low educational status and monthly income of the family contributed significantly to caregiver burden.This study helped to identify the different areas of psychosocial impairment in patients with epilepsy, as well as the contributing factors. Women with epilepsy rarely used constructive coping strategies, and this was found to contribute to their poor psychosocial status and adjustment within the family and society at large. PMID:19017570

Sachin, Sureshbabu; Padma, Madakasira V; Bhatia, Rohit; Prasad, Kameshwar; Gureshkumar, C; Tripathi, Manjari

2008-12-01

364

The Well-being and Quality of Life of Women Over 50: A Gendered-Age Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades renewed attention has been given to the notion of middle age and particularly to women in this age group.\\u000a Many of us think that this is a welcome development. These women (popularly referred to as “baby boomers”) have capitalized\\u000a on the major sociocultural changes and transformed meanings and behavioral codes traditionally attached to this age group.\\u000a In

Varda Muhlbauer

365

Survival and Potential Years of Life Lost After Hip Fracture in Men and Age-matched Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Hip fracture is associated with a higher mortality rate in men than in women. However, mean age of men and women with hip\\u000a fracture differs markedly. Thus, some of the differences in the clinical pattern and outcome between genders could be related\\u000a to different ages. To avoid the influence of age on gender-specific outcome, we analyzed prefracture conditions and

A. Trombetti; F. Herrmann; P. Hoffmeyer; M. A. Schurch; J. P. Bonjour; R. Rizzoli

2002-01-01

366

The relationship between self-report and biomarkers of stress in low-income, reproductive age women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine if there is an association between self-reported and biologic measures of stress in low-income, reproductive age women. STUDY DESIGN Between 1999 and 2005, randomly selected reproductive age women from the 1998 welfare rolls in Chicago were interviewed yearly to assess psychosocial, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. The association of two stress sensitive biomarkers (Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer (EBV) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level) with self-reported stress was assessed. RESULTS Of the 206 women interviewed, 205 (99%) agreed to provide a blood sample. There was no difference in mean EBV or CRP levels based on age, race, parity, employment, marital status, or education. Women who reported a higher degree of perceived stress or reported experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of EBV (p < .05). CONCLUSION Measures of self-reported psychosocial stress are associated with elevated levels EBV antibody in a low-income population of reproductive age women.

Borders, Ann E.B; Grobman, William A.; Amsden, Laura B.; McDade, Thomas W.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Holl, Jane L.

2010-01-01

367

In the Margins: The Impact of Sexualised Images on the Mental Health of Ageing Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes key findings of a study exploring how a cohort of 16 rural Australian women aged over 60 years think,\\u000a feel and respond to the prevalence of sexualised imagery in the media. The qualitative research framework was informed by\\u000a Feminist Standpoint Theory. Participants in three focus groups responded to semi-structured questions and prompts, interspersed\\u000a with viewing examples of sexualised

Rochelle Hine

368

Facial rejuvenation for middle-aged women: a combined approach with minimally invasive procedures  

PubMed Central

Facial rejuvenation is a significant process involved in restoring youthfulness. The introduction of less invasive procedures has increased acceptance of such procedures. Often a combination of different techniques allows individualized treatment with optimal outcomes. Furthermore, this leads to a natural look without a significant downtime. We report herein the use of such a combined approach in middle-aged women with particular emphasis on botulinum toxin type A, dermal fillers, and chemical peels.

Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

2010-01-01

369

The relationship between obesity and falls by middle-age and older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that obesity increases fall-risk, based on diminished static balance and increased fall-related injury-risk. However these findings only indirectly relate obesity and falls. The purpose of this study was to utilize existing data to directly explore the relationship between obesity and falls by community-dwelling women age 55+ years. Eighty-six subjects (42 obese) reported falls occurring during the

Noah J. Rosenblatt; Mark D. Grabiner

370

Coffee consumption and death from coronary heart disease in middle aged Norwegian men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the association between number of cups of coffee consumed per day and coronary death when taking other major coronary risk factors into account. DESIGN--Men and women attending screening and followed up for a mean of 6.4 years. SETTING--Cardiovascular survey performed by ambulatory teams from the National Health Screening Service in Norway. PARTICIPANTS--All middle aged people in three counties:

A Tverdal; I Stensvold; K Solvoll; O P Foss; P Lund-Larsen; K Bjartveit

1990-01-01

371

Coffee Consumption and Circulating B-Vitamins in Healthy Middle-Aged Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coffee consumption has been associated with several risk factors for coronary heart disease, in- cluding increased cholesterol, increased blood pres- sure, and increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). tHcy is determined by several B-vitamins. However, reportsabouttheassociationbetweencoffeeintakeand B-vitamin status are few. METHODS: We measured plasma B-vitamins and tHcy in a cohort of 10 601 healthy, middle-aged Norwegian men and women. Information

Arve Ulvik; Stein Emil Vollset; Geir Hoff; Per Magne Ueland

2008-01-01

372

Modeling Mid-Aged Women's Sexual Functioning: A Prospective, Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a prospectively, annually collected sexuality questionnaire from an 8-year study of 340 mid-aged Melbourne women. We modeled the interactions of sexuality domains, the effect of prior level of sexual functioning, and the effects of change in partner-related factors. We found that we were unable to separate items denoting sexual interest from those denoting responsiveness. Using the statistical

LORRAINE DENNERSTEIN; PHILIPPE LEHERT

2004-01-01

373

Fish Consumption and Mercury Body Burden in Women of Reproductive Age From Urban Area in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mercury entering aquatic environment can be transformed by microorganisms into toxic methyl-mercury that biomagnifies in aquatic\\u000a organisms. Seafood consumption is primary exposure route to mercury for humans. The most vulnerable groups are unborn and\\u000a young children. The aim of this article is to investigate if there possible connection of fish consumption and mercury body\\u000a burden in women of reproductive age

N. J. Holcer; K. Vitale; A. S. Mari?; V. Brumen; J. Mustajbegovi?; D. Andabaka

374

The Effect of Family Planning Methods Used by Women of Reproductive Age on Their Sexual Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family planning (FP) methods used by women of reproductive age can have negative or positive influences on the sex lives\\u000a of couples. Couples should be aware of the effects of the FP method they use on their sex lives to be able to improve the\\u000a quality. This descriptive study was carried out to determine the effects of contraceptive methods

Ebru Gabalci; Fusun Terzioglu

2010-01-01

375

Central adiposity and cortisol responses to waking in middle-aged men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Central obesity is associated with disturbances of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis function. We investigated whether central adiposity indexed by waist\\/hip ratio is related to cortisol responses to waking and other measures of salivary cortisol over the working day.PARTICIPANTS: In total, 89 men and 83 women aged 47–59 y recruited from the British civil service. All were members of the Whitehall

A Steptoe; S R Kunz-Ebrecht; L Brydon; J Wardle

2004-01-01

376

Risk Factors for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Women Under the Age of 45 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the etiologic profile of triple-negative breast cancer (negative for estrogen receptor\\/progesterone receptor\\/human epidermal growth factor), a breast cancer subtype associated with high mortality and inadequate therapeutic options. We undertook this study to assess the risk for triple-negative breast cancer among women 45 years of age and younger in relation to demographic\\/lifestyle factors, reproductive history, and oral

Jessica M. Dolle; Janet R. Daling; Emily White; Louise A. Brinton; David R. Doody; Peggy L. Porter; Kathleen E. Malone

377

Pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of age-related osteoporosis in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the cardinal manifestations of old age in humans is bone loss leading to fragility of the skeleton and increased risk\\u000a of fractures, a disease known as osteoporosis. It is estimated that approximately 45% of all women will suffer at least one\\u000a osteoporotic fracture during their lifetime. Genetic, environmental, nutritional, biomechanical and hormonal factors determine\\u000a the integrity of the

Moustapha Kassem; Kim Brixen

378

The Influence of Health Status, Age, and Race on Screening Mammography in Elderly Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Screening mammography is controver- sial for elderly women because of an absence of efficacy data. Decisions to screen are based on individualized as- sessment of risks and benefits. Our objective was to de- termine how screening mammography varies by age and race when adjusted for propensity to die. Methods:Inaretrospectivecohortstudy,ratesofscreen- ing mammogram performed in 2000-2001 based on claims, adjusted for

Julie P. W. Bynum; Joel B. Braunstein; Phoebe Sharkey; Kathleen Haddad; Albert W. Wu

2005-01-01

379

Relationships of age, menopause and central obesity on cardiovascular disease risk factors in Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inter-relationships of age- and menopause- related changes of general obesity and body fat distribution and their independent effects on cardiovascular risk factors.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: One-hundred and thirty-six premenopausal and 193 postmenopausal Chinese women with body mass index (BMI)<30 kg\\/m2.MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometric surrogates of general obesity (BMI, total body fat percentage) and central obesity (waist-to-hip ratio, centrality index)

C-J Chang; C-H Wu; W-J Yao; Y-C Yang; J-S Wu; F-H Lu

2000-01-01

380

Body mass index at various ages and mortality in Chinese women: impact of potential methodological biases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Inadequate control for potential methodological biases has been suggested as an explanation for the conflicting findings concerning the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality.Methods:Using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study conducted in a relatively lean population, we examined the associations of BMI at various ages and average adult BMI with mortality and evaluated

X Zhang; X-O Shu; W-H Chow; G Yang; H Li; J Gao; Y-T Gao; W Zheng

2008-01-01

381

Severe menopausal symptoms in middle-aged women are associated to female and male factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The frequency and intensity of menopausal symptoms within a given population, as assessed by several tools, may vary and depend\\u000a on several factors, such as age, menopausal status, chronic conditions and personal and partner socio-demographic profile.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To determine the frequency and intensity of menopausal symptoms and related risk factors among middle-aged women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this cross-sectional study a total of 404

Peter Chedraui; Faustino R. Pérez-López; Marcela Mendoza; Bella Morales; María A. Martinez; Ana M. Salinas; Luis Hidalgo

2010-01-01

382

Sex, Age, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Coronary Heart Disease A Prospective Follow-Up Study of 14 786 Middle-Aged Men and Women in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Coronary heart disease (CHD) is markedly more common in men than in women. In both sexes, CHD risk increases with age, but the increase is sharper in women. We analyzed the extent to which major cardiovascular risk factors can explain the sex difference and the age-related increase in CHD risk. Methods and Results—The study cohort consists of 14 786 Finnish

Pekka Jousilahti; Erkki Vartiainen; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Pekka Puska

383

Distribution of serum measles-neutralizing antibodies according to age in women of childbearing age in France in 2005-2006: impact of routine immunization.  

PubMed

Measles antibody titers were measured in 210 French women. Ninety-four percent had protective values (>120 mIU/mL). Geometric mean titers were significantly different (P < 0.001) between women born before and after 1983, when measles vaccination was recommended (731 and 1358 mIU/mL, respectively). geometric mean titers in 4 age cohorts decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing birth year. These data may help identify the appropriate age for infant vaccination. PMID:17848891

Pinquier, Didier; Gagneur, Arnaud; Aubert, Marie; Brissaud, Olivier; Le Guen, Christèle Gras; Hau-Rainsard, Isabelle; Picherot, Georges; De Pontual, Loïc; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Reinert, Philippe

2007-08-01

384

Psychosocial Stress at Work Doubles the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of psychosocial stress at work on risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for conventional risk factors, among a sample of British, white-collar, middle-aged men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective analysis (1991–2004) from the Whitehall II cohort study. The current sample consists of 5,895 Caucasian middle-aged civil servants free from diabetes at baseline. Type 2 diabetes was ascertained by an oral glucose tolerance test supplemented by self-reports at baseline and four consecutive waves of data collection including two screening phases. The job strain and iso-strain models were used to assess psychosocial work stress. RESULTS Iso-strain in the workplace was associated with a twofold higher risk of type 2 diabetes in age-adjusted analysis in women but not in men (hazard ratio 1.94 [95% CI 1.17–3.21). This effect remained robust to adjustment for socioeconomic position and outside work stressors and was only attenuated by 20% after adjustment for health behaviors, obesity, and other type 2 diabetes risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial work stress was an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes among women after a 15-year follow-up. This association was not explained by potential confounding and mediating factors. More evidence from prospective studies using the same work stress models is needed to support the current findings and provide further information on sex differences.

Heraclides, Alexandros; Chandola, Tarani; Witte, Daniel R.; Brunner, Eric J.

2009-01-01

385

Determinants of Vitamin D Status in Fair-Skinned Women of Childbearing Age at Northern Latitudes  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57–58° north. Method Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25–40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OH)D was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. Results Mean 25(OH)D was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R2?=?0.27). Conclusion Every fifth woman had 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

Hedlund, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Olausson, Hanna

2013-01-01

386

Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of Igbo women of southeast Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study determines the age at menarche and menstrual pattern of an Igbo population in 12 randomly selected rural communities of Ebonyi State. Information on recalled ages at menarche, menstrual flow duration and cycle length was collected using a semi structured questionnaire over three months. 1209 women of reproductive age were interviewed. The mean age at menarche was 15.0 years and this declined over the years. The mean menstrual flow duration and cycle lengths were 3.3 days and 29.7 days respectively. Only 10.2% had a menstrual cycle length of 28 days. Account should be taken of the average length of 29-30 days in the rural Igbo population when calculating the expected date of delivery and in the family planning clinics. PMID:20695160

Umeora, Ouj; Egwuatu, Ve

2008-04-01

387

Fracture in Asian Women with Breast Cancer Occurs at Younger Age  

PubMed Central

Background Western breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture. Breast cancer occurs 10 to 20 years earlier in Asian women than in Western women. We investigated if younger Asian women with breast cancer also have increased risk of fracture. Methods We used the universal insurance claims data from 2000 to 2003 to identify 22,076 patients with breast cancer and 88,304 women without cancer, frequency matched with age and index date (the date for a health care visit). The incidence of fracture in both cohorts and the hazard ratios (HRs) of fracture in the cancer cohort were estimated by the end of 2009. Results The incidence of all types of fracture was higher in the breast cancer cohort than in the comparison cohort (46.72 vs. 42.52 per 10,000 person-years), with adjusted HRs (aHRs) of 1.18 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.03–1.35) for hip fractures, 1.12 (95% CI, 0.98–1.28) for forearm fractures and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.04–1.48) for vertebral fractures. The aHRs were significant in both non-traumatic fractures (1.29; 95% CI, 1.11–1.51) and traumatic fractures (1.12; 95% CI, 1.01–1.23). The age-specific aHR was higher for younger breast cancer patients, and was significant for <50 years old patients in both traumatic (aHR 1.35; 95% CI 1.08–1.68) and non-traumatic (aHR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.44) fractures. Conclusion This study suggests that Asian women with breast cancer might have an increased risk of fracture.

Tsa, Chun-Hao; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Tzeng, Huey-En; Tang, Chih-Hsin

2013-01-01

388

20-year trends in Filipino women's weight reflect substantial secular and age effects.  

PubMed

Increasing obesity in low- and middle-income countries is well documented in cross-sectional studies. However, few longitudinal studies identify factors that influence individual weight gain patterns over time in relation to the major social and economic changes that now characterize these settings. This study uses data from adult Filipino women participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey from 1983 to 2005. A sample of 3005 women contributed 1-8 observations each. Longitudinal mixed effects models identified how age and secular weight trends related to underlying effects of urbanization and changing household socioeconomic status (SES) and to proximate individual effects of reproductive history, diet, and occupational physical activity. The 23-y secular trend in weight amounted to nearly 10 kg. Younger women gained more weight than older women (12.4 kg in those < 20 y old in 1983 vs. 4.9 kg in those > 35 y). Periods of more rapid weight gain corresponded to periods of rapid increase in SES and urbanization. Weight was positively related to energy intake, percentage of calories from protein, and more sedentary occupations, but negatively related to months pregnant and lactating and postmenopausal status. These effects all varied with age and over time. The trends contributed to a 6-fold increase in prevalence of overweight and an increasing number of women who have or are likely to develop obesity-related metabolic diseases. The trends are highly relevant for health policy and preventive health measures in the Philippines and other countries now facing the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. PMID:21325475

Adair, Linda S; Gultiano, Socorro; Suchindran, Chiriyath

2011-02-16

389

Screening low-income women of reproductive age for cardiovascular disease risk factors.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Identifying and treating chronic diseases, their precursors, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during family planning visits may improve long-term health and reproductive outcomes among low-income women. A cross-sectional study design was used to describe the prevalence of chronic diseases (hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes), their precursors (pre-hypertension, borderline high cholesterol, and pre-diabetes), and related CVD risk factors (such as obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity) among low-income women of reproductive age. Methods: Prevalence of chronic diseases, their precursors, and related CVD risk factors were assessed for 462 out of 859 (53.8%) female family planning patients, ages 18-44 years, who attended a Title X clinic in eastern North Carolina during 2011 and 2012 and consented to participate. Data were obtained from clinical measurements, blood test results, and questionnaire. Differences in distribution of demographic and health care characteristics and CVD risk factors by presence of prehypertension and pre-diabetes were assessed by Pearson chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 12%, high cholesterol 16%, and diabetes 3%. Nearly two-thirds of women with hypertension were newly diagnosed (62%) as were 75% of women with diabetes. The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 35%, pre-diabetes 31%, obesity 41%, smoking 32%, and physical inactivity 42%. The majority of participants (87%) had one or more chronic disease or related cardiovascular disease risk factor. Conclusions: CVD screening during family planning visits can identify significant numbers of women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes and future chronic disease and can provide prevention opportunities if effective interventions are available and acceptable to this population. PMID:23531099

Robbins, Cheryl L; Keyserling, Thomas C; Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Morrow, John; Majette, Nadya; Sisneros, Jessica A; Ronay, Ashley; Farr, Sherry L; Urrutia, Rachel Peragallo; Dietz, Patricia M

2013-03-26

390

Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal femur are the most devastating outcome of osteoporosis. It is generally understood that age-related changes in hip structure confer increased risk, but there have been few explicit comparisons of such changes in healthy subjects to those with hip fracture. In this study, we used quantitative computed tomography and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to identify three-dimensional internal structural patterns of the proximal femur associated with age and with incident hip fracture. A population-based cohort of 349 women representing a broad age range (21-97years) was included in this study, along with a cohort of 222 older women (mean age 79±7years) with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture. Images were spatially normalized to a standardized space, and age- and fracture-specific morphometric features were identified based on statistical maps of shape features described as local changes of bone volume. Morphometric features were visualized as maps of local contractions and expansions, and significance was displayed as Student's t-test statistical maps. Significant age-related changes included local expansions of regions low in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and local contractions of regions high in vBMD. Some significant fracture-related features resembled an accentuated aging process, including local expansion of the superior aspect of the trabecular bone compartment in the femoral neck, with contraction of the adjoining cortical bone. However, other features were observed only in the comparison of hip fracture subjects with age-matched controls including focal contractions of the cortical bone at the superior aspect of the femoral neck, the lateral cortical bone just inferior to the greater trochanter, and the anterior intertrochanteric region. Results of this study support the idea that the spatial distribution of morphometric features is relevant to age-related changes in bone and independent to fracture risk. In women, the identification by TBM of fracture-specific morphometric alterations of the proximal femur, in conjunction with vBMD and clinical risk factors, may improve hip fracture prediction. PMID:23981658

Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L Joseph; Keyak, Joyce H; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B; Lang, Thomas F

2013-08-25

391

Inflammatory markers and incident frailty in men and women: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies show that higher blood concentrations of inflammatory markers tend to be more common in frail older people, but longitudinal evidence that these inflammatory markers are risk factors for frailty is sparse and inconsistent. We investigated the prospective relation between baseline concentrations of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen and risk of incident frailty in 2,146 men and women aged 60 to over 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The relationship between CRP and fibrinogen and risk of incident frailty differed significantly by sex (p for interaction terms <0.05). In age-adjusted logistic regression analyses, for a standard deviation (SD) increase in CRP or fibrinogen, odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) for incident frailty in women were 1.69 (1.32, 2.17) and 1.39 (1.12, 1.72), respectively. Further adjustment for other potential confounding factors attenuated both these estimates. For an SD increase in CRP and fibrinogen, the fully-adjusted odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) for incident frailty in women was 1.27 (0.96, 1.69) and 1.31 (1.04, 1.67), respectively. Having a high concentration of both inflammatory markers was more strongly predictive of incident frailty than having a high concentration of either marker alone. In men, there were no significant associations between any of the inflammatory markers and risk of incident frailty. High concentrations of the inflammatory markers CRP and fibrinogen are more strongly predictive of incident frailty in women than in men. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying this sex difference. PMID:23543263

Gale, Catharine R; Baylis, Daniel; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

2013-04-02

392

Evaluation of serum transferrin receptor for iron deficiency in women of child-bearing age.  

PubMed

The objective was to study the evaluation of serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) for Fe deficiency in women of child-bearing age. Primary screening was performed in 942 women ranging in child-bearing age. Serum ferritin (SF), Zn protoporphyrin (ZPP) and Hb were determined. Then the subjects were divided into four groups: normal, Fe store depletion (IDs), Fe-deficiency erythropoiesis and Fe-deficiency anaemia. sTfR was determined and sTfR/SF (sTfR/logSF and log(sTfR/SF)) was calculated. Changes of sTfR in women of different Fe status were observed. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate whether sTfR had proper diagnostic efficacy for functional Fe deficiency. The levels of sTfR increased significantly along with the aggravation of Fe deficiency. Increase of STfR/SF along with the aggravation of Fe deficiency was more significant than that of sTfR. STfR had a significant negative correlation with SF and Hb, while it had a significant positive correlation with ZPP. The ROC curve showed that the diagnostic effective rate of sTfR for Fe deficiency could reach 83 %. At this point, the sensitivity was 79 % and the specificity was 63 %. Log(sTfR/SF) could be considered to have the highest effective ratio in detecting IDs, since it reached 99 %. STfR and sTfR/SF could both reflect body Fe-deficiency status specifically. They could be used as reliable indicators for evaluating Fe status and diagnosing Fe deficiency in women of child-bearing age. PMID:18377683

Lin, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Juan; Zou, Zhi-Yong; Long, Zhu; Tian, Wei

2008-04-01

393

[Prevalence of nutritional anemia in women of reproductive age. Costa Rica. National nutrition survey, 1996].  

PubMed

In 1996, The Ministry of Health and Inciensa conducted the latest National Nutrition Survey, to provide support and guidance to the national policies, plans and programs in the field of food and nutrition. The present paper reports the results for the prevalence of anemia estimated in a total of 884 women of reproductive age, in three areas: metropolitan area, other urban areas and rural areas. Anemia was determined through measurements of hemoglobin, plasma ferritin and plasma folates. In addition, hemoglobin patterns were determined by electrophoresis. The cutt-off points used were those recommended by the WHO. Anemia was present in 18.6% of the women. Severe to moderate deficiency of iron (< 12 ng/dl) and of folates (< 6 ng/dl) were found in 43.2 and 24.7% of women respectively, with statistically significant differences by area of residence. The magnitude of the problem for anemia can be classified as mild, for iron deficiency as severe, and for folate deficiency as moderate. In conclusion, Anemia represents a public health problem for Costa Rica that has remained constant throughout the last decade. In women of reproductive age, iron deficiency is the main cause of Anemia, followed by folates deficiency, and in a small percentage hemoglobinopathies. Intestinal parasites are not longer a mayor cause of Anemia. Prevalence of Anemia is influenced by place of residence, but not by age. In summary, despite the favorable health conditions present in Costa Rica, the prevalence of Anemia and of iron deficiency are similar to those of the Latin-American region. To improve this situation, public health interventions are necessary. PMID:11515228

Rodríguez, S; Blanco, A; Cunningham, L; Ascencio, M; Chávez, M; Muñoz, L

2001-03-01

394

Independent beneficial effects of aged garlic extract intake with regular exercise on cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of a 12 weeks aged garlic extract (AGE) regimen with regular exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in postmenopausal women. A total of 30 postmenopausal women (54.4 ± 5.4 years) were randomly divided into the following four groups: Placebo (Placebo; n = 6), AGE intake (AGEI; n = 8), exercise and placebo (Ex + Placebo; n = 8), exercise and AGE (Ex + AGE; n = 8) groups. The AGE group consume 80 mg per day, and exercise groups performed moderate exercise (aerobic and resistance) three times per week. After 12 weeks of treatment, body composition, lipid profile, and CVD risk factors were analyzed. Body weight was significantly decreased in AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups compared to baseline. Body fat % was significantly decreased in the AGEI and Ex + Placebo groups. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups. Fat-free mass was significantly decreased in the AGEI group. Total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in the Ex + Placebo compared to the Placebo group. AGE supplementation or exercise effectively reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Triglyceride (TG) was significantly increased in the AGEI group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE compared to the placebo group. AGE supplementation reduced homocysteine levels regardless of whether the women also exercised. The present results suggest that AGE supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk factors independently of exercise in postmenopausal women.

Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Baek, Yeong Ho; Kwak, Yi Sub; Ko, Tae Hee; Kim, Nari; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Ko, Kyoung Soo; Park, Byung Joo

2012-01-01

395

Wellness in women after 40 years of age: the role of sex hormones and pheromones.  

PubMed

In the past twenty years hundreds of peer-reviewed studies have provided a significant body of information to guide the health care of women in the second halves of their lives. The harmonic nature of the fertile reproductive system forms the background against which hormonal replacement therapy can be understood to best serve women. In addition, the 1986 discovery of human pheromones and the subsequent 1998 confirmation of their existence increases certain sexual options for maturing women. Not all hormonal replacement therapies and wellness regimens serve women well. Some regimens have the potential to produce disease, especially over-the-counter remedies like dehydroepiandrosterone and the formulas that contain estrogen. Some regimens profoundly improve the quality of life of many women; some women do not need or want such regimens. All sex hormones affect physiologic systems including the cardiovascular system, bone metabolism, cognitive function, sexual response, and sexual attractiveness. The 7 years before menopause have recently been revealed to be an extremely complex era. During this period, some women increase their estrogen levels to new lifetime highs; others start an unequivocal decline, and still others vary from month to month. Coupled to this variability in estrogen is an equally variable set of changes in progesterone secretion by the ovary as androgen secretion patterns also change. Many women show increases in circulating androgens while many others show deficiencies. Both the adrenal and the ovarian sources of these hormones show age-related changes that alter a woman's capacity to attract sexual attention through both her physical appearance (and condition) and her pheromonal excretions. The complex contributions to the overall health of a woman may not always be understood. Often a hysterectomy can exacerbate--rather than ameliorate--the conditions that led to the surgery. One in 2 American women is offered a hysterectomy, a rate 5 times higher than that of the European countries for which data are available. Ninety percent of hysterectomies are not related to cancer; they are elective procedures. Avoidance of elective hysterectomy helps prevent its side effects: sexual deficits, acceleration of cardiovascular and bone disease, and more rapid aging. No efficacy data exist that suggest that elective hysterectomy works better than the alternative approaches that do not induce these side effects. The health and well-being of women who have already had hysterectomies, with or without ovariectomies, can be improved by a recognition of the cascade of difficulties that must addressed. Estrogen, progesterone, and androgens all tend to be compromised by hysterectomy; all should be considered for replacement. Because hormonal regimens can be prescribed to enhance the quality of life, the review of the available research can allow the medical art to greatly benefit mature women. Not surprisingly, the emerging conclusion reveals that structurally human hormones, prescribed appropriately, almost always best serve the patient. PMID:9803240

Cutler, W B; Genovese-Stone, E

1998-09-01

396

In the Margins: The Impact of Sexualised Images on the Mental Health of Ageing Women.  

PubMed

This paper describes key findings of a study exploring how a cohort of 16 rural Australian women aged over 60 years think, feel and respond to the prevalence of sexualised imagery in the media. The qualitative research framework was informed by Feminist Standpoint Theory. Participants in three focus groups responded to semi-structured questions and prompts, interspersed with viewing examples of sexualised images. Five strong thematic categories emerged: concern for the harmful impacts of sexualised images on the vulnerable, the media's portrayal of sexual content with a focus on physical appearance and youth, descriptions of the impact of viewing sexualised images, moderators of the impact of sexualised images on well-being, and marginalisation of women in the media. Findings from this research indicate that sexualised images in the media do have an impact on older women's self image and mental health in numerous ways and in a range of situations. Emotional impacts included sadness, anger, concern, envy, desensitisation, marginalisation, and discomfort that their appearance was being judged by others. A strong sense of self apart from appearance, feeling valued by family and community, ignoring or overlooking media content, and being aware that media images are not real and attainable helped buffer the link between sexualised images and well-being. Another important finding is that the impact is variable: women may experience different responses to similar sexualised content depending on a range of social, health and lifestyle factors affecting them at any given time. PMID:22003264

Hine, Rochelle

2011-04-15

397

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior of Women Ages 65 and Older on Mammography Screening and Medicare: Results of a National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Compared to younger women, women 65+ will experience the greatest increase in new breast cancer cases. In 1991, Medicare began offering partial reimbursement for screening mammography every 2 years.Methods: In 1999, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducted a telephone survey on breast cancer, mammography, and Medicare reimbursement with a sample of households containing women ages 65+ using random-digit-dialing. Results

Ellen J. Eisner; Eric G. Zook; Nina Goodman; Everly Macario

2002-01-01

398

Effect of hormone replacement therapy on age-related increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness as measured by B-mode ultrasound in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or not. One hundred and fifty-nine healthy postmenopausal women aged 45–65 years were recruited from our menopause clinic. All the selected women were free of cardio-vascular diseases and had no cardio-vascular risk

Florence A. Tremollieres; Fabienne Cigagna; Cathy Alquier; Colette Cauneille; Jean-Michel Pouilles; Claude Ribot

2000-01-01

399

Fertility Desires and Intentions of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundImprovements in life expectancy and quality of life for HIV-positive women coupled with reduced vertical transmission will likely lead numerous HIV-positive women to consider becoming pregnant. In order to clarify the demand, and aid with appropriate health services planning for this population, our study aims to assess the fertility desires and intentions of HIV-positive women of reproductive age living in

Mona R. Loutfy; Trevor A. Hart; Saira S. Mohammed; Desheng Su; Edward D. Ralph; Sharon L. Walmsley; Lena C. Soje; Marvelous Muchenje; Anita R. Rachlis; Fiona M. Smaill; Jonathan B. Angel; Janet M. Raboud; Michael S. Silverman; Wangari E. Tharao; Kevin Gough; Mark H. Yudin; Landon Myer

2009-01-01

400

Valproic acid use in psychiatry: issues in treating women of reproductive age.  

PubMed Central

Valproic acid, a well known anticonvulsant, is being used by psychiatrists increasingly to manage bipolar and other affective disorders. Because of the demographics of the population affected by such psychiatric conditions, more women of childbearing age are likely to be exposed to this teratogenic drug. Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common of the major anomalies associated with in utero valproic acid exposure, and are estimated to occur in 1% to 2% of exposed fetuses. Other teratogenic effects include facial dysmorphism, congenital cardiac defects, limb reduction defects and other skeletal anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis, in particular maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening and targeted ultrasonography, should be offered to all pregnant women exposed to valproic acid and couples need to be aware of the prenatal diagnostic options available to them. Periconceptual prophylaxis with high doses of folic acid is recommended for all women on valproic acid and counselling should also emphasize planning pregnancy to optimize folic acid supplementation. Psychiatrists should be aware of the teratogenic potential of valproic acid and know how to counsel their patients of reproductive age.

Kennedy, D; Koren, G

1998-01-01

401

The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.  

PubMed

Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

Dai, K

1991-03-01

402

Association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ? 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P < 0.05), and the association was number-dependent. However, no significant association between history of spontaneous abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05). PMID:23389282

Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

2013-02-06

403

Age and menopause-associated variations in body composition and fat distribution in healthy women as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the variation with age and menopause, 407 healthy normal women aged 18 to 75 years had body composition and fat distribution measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The mean ± SD are given for different age decades. Postmenopausal women had significantly more fat, a more central fat distribution, and less lean tissue mass (LTM) than premenopausal women. In

Ole Lander Svendsen; Christian Hassager; Claus Christiansen

1995-01-01

404

Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums  

PubMed Central

This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups.

Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

2009-01-01

405

Discussing childbearing with HIV-infected women of reproductive age in clinical care: a comparison of Brazil and the US.  

PubMed

Despite long term access to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Brazil and the US, little is known about women's communication with their HIV provider regarding childbearing or the unmet need for reproductive counseling. We utilized identical survey questions to collect data from HIV-infected women of reproductive age in Rio de Janeiro (n = 180) and Baltimore (n = 181). We conducted univariate analyses to compare findings between samples of women and multivariate logistic regression to determine factors associated with childbearing desires, childbearing intentions, and provider communication among the combined sample of women (n = 361). Over one-third of women in Rio de Janeiro and nearly one-half of women in Baltimore reported the desire for future childbearing. Nevertheless, the majority of women in clinical care had not discussed future childbearing with their HIV provider. Even in countries with an advanced approach to HIV care, we found low and inadequate communication between providers and female patients about childbearing. PMID:21359541

Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Bastos, F I; Malta, M; Anderson, J; Goggin, K; Sweat, M; Dariotis, J; Bertoni, N; Kerrigan, D

2012-01-01

406

Signs of genital prolapse in a Swedish population of women 20 to 59 years of age and possible related factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our objective was to study the prevalence of genital prolapse and possible related factors in a general population of women 20 to 59 years of age. Study Design: Of 641 eligible women in a primary health care district, 487 (76%) answered a questionnaire and accepted an invitation to a gynecologic health examination. Results: The prevalence of any degree of

Eva C. Samuelsson; F. T. Arne Victor; Gösta Tibblin; Kurt F. Svärdsudd

1999-01-01

407

"Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

2012-01-01

408

Choice of contraceptive method for birth control and attitudes toward abortion in Swedish women ages 23–29  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sweden, contraceptive methods for birth control are readily available, but one in four pregnancies was legally terminated during the period from 1975 to 1990. Our purpose in conducting the present study was to describe young women's choices and use of contraceptive methods and their attitudes to abortion. The participants were 305 Swedish women ages 23–29 years. Eighty?eight percent of

Marianne E. Lindell; Henny M. Olsson

1995-01-01

409

Malaria-related perceptions and practices of women with children under the age of five years in rural Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and children in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the local perceptions, practices and treatment seeking behaviour for malaria among women with children under the age of five years. METHODS: This community-based study was conducted in 2003 in an area of seasonal

Wakgari Deressa; Ahmed Ali

2009-01-01

410

Correspondence Between Secular Changes in Alcohol Dependence and Age of Drinking Onset Among Women in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several lines of evidence suggest that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol depen- dence among women has increased in recent decades, but has not risen significantly for men. Early age at onset of drinking (AOD) is strongly correlated with risk for alcohol dependence and there is evidence that mean AOD has also decreased, particularly for women. The present report sought

Richard A. Grucza; Karen Norberg; Kathleen K. Bucholz; Laura J. Bierut

2008-01-01

411

Feasibility of power-type strength training for middle aged men and women: self perception, musculoskeletal symptoms, and injury rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the feasibility of a power-type strength training programme for middle aged men and women, the impact of the training programme on perceived health and fitness and on knee and low back symptoms, and the rate of exercise induced injuries.Methods: A total of 154 voluntary, healthy, sedentary men and women participated in a training programme lasting about four

J Surakka; S Aunola; T Nordblad; S-L Karppi; E Alanen

2003-01-01

412

"Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

2012-01-01

413

Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

2010-01-01

414

Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

2010-01-01

415

USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711) In the United States, sampling women o...

416

Usefulness of electron beam tomography to detect progression of coronary and aortic calcium in middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron beam tomography (EBT) permits the noninvasive quantification of coronary and aortic calcium as a marker of atherosclerosis. Coronary and aortic calcium are strongly related to premenopausal cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged women. This report evaluates changes in coronary and aortic calcium over an average of 18 months in 80 women. Measurement variation over time and between readings is also

Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Lewis H Kuller; Daniel Edmundowicz; Adam Feldman; Richard Holubkov; Lori Givens; Karen A Matthews

2001-01-01

417

Utilization of Family Planning Services by Currently Married Women 15-44 Years of Age, United States, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistics, based on data collected in 1973 and 1974, are presented on the use of family planning services by currently married women. The percentage of women using such services and the location of the services are distributed by race and age of the resp...

F. Notzon

1977-01-01

418

Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both…

Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

2012-01-01

419

Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women 26 to 39 years of age in the United States, 1999 to 2010.  

PubMed

Using data from a nationally representative survey, we identified predictors of chlamydial infection in women aged 26 to 39 years. Chlamydia prevalence was low overall but varied by sociodemographics and sexual behaviors. Findings support current recommendations that women older than 25 years should not be routinely screened for chlamydial infection. PMID:23486500

Torrone, Elizabeth A; Geisler, William M; Gift, Thomas L; Weinstock, Hillard S

2013-04-01

420

Health and seafood consumption patterns among women aged45–69 years. A Norwegian seafood consumption study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main research question: the aim of the study was to investigate how perception about diet and health, eating habits and socioeconomic pattern influence choice of seafood. Materials and methods: a randomly drawn sample of Norwegian women aged 45–69 years answered a self-administrated mail questionnaire about eating habits, socioeconomic status, and questions related to health. There were 9407 women answered the

T. Trondsen; T. Braaten; E. Lund; A. E. Eggen

2004-01-01

421

Intervention Study on Screening for Breast Cancer Among Single African-American Women Aged 65 and Older.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a community-based intervention study that aims to develop and evaluate an intervention program on breast screening according to the characteristics of older single African-American women. Study subjects are single African-American women ages 65 an...

K. Zhu

1997-01-01

422

Awareness, use and main source of information on preventive health examinations: a survey of childbearing women in Uyo, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study determined awareness, use and the main source of information about preventive health examinations among 387 childbearing women attending three health facilities in Uyo, Nigeria. Respondents were consenting women aged 15-49 years who had a live birth in the two months preceding the survey. Respondents were interviewed using structured questionnaires during child welfare clinic visits at each facility. Awareness about pap smears and breast self examination was 14.2% and 35.3% respectively. Testing rates were highest for blood pressure checks, HIV and blood sugar and lowest for Pap smears and mammograms. Health workers were the main informants on preventive tests. Awareness and secondary education enhanced women's uptake of screening services across levels of health care. Secondary education as a minimum and intensified awareness creation about preventive health examinations through media, school based programs, durbars and public health campaigns are vital to the health and well being of women and children. PMID:23444552

Udofia, Emilia A; Akwaowo, Christie D; Ekanem, Uwemedimbuk S

2012-12-01

423

HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women  

SciTech Connect

Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

Zhang Feng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Xiong Donghai [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Wang Wei [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Shen Hui [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Xiao Peng [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Yang Fang [Laboratory of Molecular and Statistical Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Recker, Robert R. [Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Deng Hongwen [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Molecular Genetics, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China) and Laboratory of Molecular and Statistical Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China) and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)]. E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

2006-10-06

424

Health Disparities Among Mexican American Women Aged 15-44 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We analyzed the health of Mexican American women aged 15 to 44 years, by generation and language preference, to guide planning for reproductive health services in this growing population. Methods. We used personal interview and medical examination data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We used SUDAAN for calculating age-adjusted prevalence estimates of demographic and health characteristics. The Satterthwaite adjusted F test and Student t test were used for subgroup comparisons. Results. The women had different health profiles (P < .05) by generation and language preference. Second- and later-generation women and women who used more English were more likely to be sexually active, to have been younger at first intercourse, and to have had more male sexual partners than were first-generation women and women who used more Spanish. Compared with their first-generation counterparts, second- and later-generation women drank more alcohol, were better educated, had higher incomes, and were more likely to have health insurance. Third-generation women were more likely to have delivered a low-birthweight baby than were first-generation women. Conclusions. Differences by generation and language preference suggest that acculturation should be considered when planning interventions to promote healthy reproductive behaviors among Mexican American women.

Wingo, Phyllis A.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Borrud, Lori G.; McDonald, Jill A.; Villalobos, Susie A.

2009-01-01

425

Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race.

Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

2011-01-01

426

Changes in Waist Circumference and Mortality in Middle-Aged Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in BMI. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 26,625 healthy men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study was analyzed. WC and BMI were assessed in 1993–97 and in 1999–02. Information on mortality was obtained by linkage to the Danish central Person Register. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated with Cox regression models. During 6.7 years of follow-up, 568 and 361 deaths occurred among men and women, respectively. Changes in WC were positively associated with mortality (HR per 5 cm for the sexes combined ?=?1.09 (1.02?1.16) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and changes in BMI), whereas changes in BMI were inversely associated with mortality (HR per kg/m2 for the sexes combined ?=?0.91 (0.86, 0.97) with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and changes in WC). Associations between changes in WC and mortality were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to changes in BMI, baseline WC or when smokers or deaths occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. Conclusions/Significance Changes in WC were positively associated with mortality in healthy middle-aged men and women throughout the range of concurrent changes in BMI. These findings suggest a need for development of prevention and treatment strategies targeted against redistribution of fat mass towards the abdominal region.

Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tj?nneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.

2010-01-01

427

The influence of age at menarche on the fertility of Chinese women.  

PubMed

This paper examines the effect of age at menarche on children ever born (CEB). We use data from the 1997 Sample Survey of Population and Reproductive Health conducted by the China Population Information and Research Center and the State Family Planning Commission. Poisson regression models are estimated for 10,919 ever married Chinese Han women. The influence of a woman's age at menarche on her CEB is examined while controlling for the social effects of rural/urban residency, education, her number of fecund years, whether her first birth occurred before or after the initiation of China's one child policy, and her age at first marriage. The results support our hypothesized positive association between age at menarche and CEB. That is, the later a woman's age at menarche, the greater her number of children ever born. Holding the other five independent variables constant, we show that for every additional month in age at menarche, a Chinese Han woman's mean number of children ever born increases by 0.5 percent. Some of the implications of these results are explored. PMID:16382813

McKibben, Sherry L; Poston, Dudley L

428

Utilization of Postnatal Care Among Nepalese Women.  

PubMed

This study investigated risk factors associated with the type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care among a nationally representative sample of Nepalese women. The 2006 Nepalese Demographic and Health Survey on women age 15-49 years old who had delivered within 3 years prior to the survey (N = 4,136) was used. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the association between socio-demographic variables and type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care. Only 23 % deliveries were assisted by skilled attendants. A majority of Nepalese women did not have postnatal check-ups. Education (OR = 1.46, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.92), wealth (OR = 2.57, 95 % CI = 1.59-4.15) and sufficiency of advice during pregnancy (OR = 3.09, 95 % CI = 2.16-4.41), were all independently associated with having postnatal check-ups. Similarly, maternal age, education, parity, wealth, sufficiency of advice and place of delivery were associated with having delivery assisted by a skilled attendant. The utilization of postnatal services is still very low in Nepal. Public health interventions are needed to increase the utilization of postnatal care as well as delivery assisted by skilled attendants. Such interventions should target poor women, the less educated and those in rural areas in Nepal. PMID:23292803

Neupane, Subas; Doku, David

2013-01-01

429

Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young reproductive age women in India: implications for treatment and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most common curable sexually transmissible infection (STI) worldwide. The presentstudy describes theburdenandcorrelates ofT. vaginalisinfectionamong youngreproductive age women in Mysore, India. Methods: Between November 2005 and March 2006, sexually active women aged 15-30 years were recruited from low-income peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods of Mysore, India. Participants were interviewed and offered a physical examination and testing

Purnima MadhivananA; Melissa T. BartmanC; Karl KruppA; Anjali ArunA; Arthur L. ReingoldC; Jeffrey D. KlausnerB

430

Plasma Interleukin6 and Soluble IL6 Receptors Are Associated With Psychological Well-Being in Aging Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that psychological well-being would predict lower plasma levels of inflammatory factors in aging women. Design: One hundred thirty-five women ages 61–91 years (M = 74.5 years) participated in this study. After completing self-administered questionnaires in their homes, participants stayed overnight at the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) at the University of Wisconsin—Madison. Blood samples

Elliot M. Friedman; Mary Hayney; Gayle D. Love; Burton H. Singer; Carol D. Ryff

2007-01-01

431

Maximum oxygen uptake and body composition of healthy Hong Kong Chinese adult men and women aged 20 – 64 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to assess the maximal oxygen uptake and body composition of adult Chinese men and women, and to determine how these variables relate to age. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 196 men and 221 women aged 20 – 64 years. Maximal oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O2max) was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test on an

Samuel Yeung Shan Wong; Frank Wan Kin Chan; Chi Kei Lee; Martin Li; Fai Yeung; Christopher Chor Ming Lum; Jean Woo; Dicky T. K. Choy

2008-01-01

432

Prospective Change in Health-Related Quality of Life and Subsequent Mortality Among Middle-Aged and Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine prospective changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures and subsequent mortality in middle-aged and older women. Methods. We obtained data from 40337 healthy women from the Nurses' Health Study aged 46 to 71 years in 1992. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations of changes in self-assessed physical and mental component summary

Candyce H. Kroenke; Laura D. Kubzansky; Nancy Adler; Ichiro Kawachi

2008-01-01

433

Positive Influence of Age and Education on Food Consumption and Nutrient Intakes of Older Women Living Alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the effect of age, education, and residence on food consumption and nutrient intakes of older women living alone.Design In-home interviews were conducted using the Health Habits and History Questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute.Subjects One hundred fifty-two free-living, healthy women who were between the ages of 65 and 94 years.Statistical analysis Analysis of variance was used

CAROL ANN HOLCOMB

1995-01-01

434

Concurrent Alcohol Use or Heavier Use of Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking Among Women of Childbearing Age with Accessible Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to provide nationally representative findings on the prevalence and distribution of concurrent alcohol\\u000a use or heavier use of alcohol and cigarette smoking among women of childbearing age with accessible health care. For the years\\u000a 2003–2005, a total of 20,912 women 18–44 years of age who participated in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) reported\\u000a that during the

James Tsai; R. Louise Floyd; Patricia P. Green; Clark H. Denny; Claire D. Coles; Robert J. Sokol

2010-01-01

435

Human cytomegalovirus infection in women of childbearing age throughout Fars Province - Iran: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) has been described as an important etiological agent of intrauterine infection in women of childbearing age that causes congenital malformation. In the present study we examined 844 serum samples from women of child-bearing age for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against hCMV by Elisa technique. 764 out of 844 (93%) of the cases were seropositive

M. Arabpour; A. Jankhah

2007-01-01

436

Hyperandrogenism Sensitizes Leukocytes to Hyperglycemia to Promote Oxidative Stress in Lean Reproductive-Age Women  

PubMed Central

Context: Hyperandrogenism and oxidative stress are related in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but it is unknown whether hyperandrogenemia can activate oxidative stress. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral androgen administration on fasting and glucose-stimulated leukocytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase p47phox subunit gene expression, and plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in lean healthy reproductive-age women. Participants, Design, and Setting: Sixteen lean healthy ovulatory reproductive-age women were treated with 130 mg dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or placebo (n = 8 each) for 5 d in this randomized, controlled, double-blind study that was performed at an an academic medical center. Main Outcome Measures: Leukocytic ROS generation, p47phox gene expression, and plasma TBARS were quantified in the fasting state and 2 h after glucose ingestion, before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, subjects receiving DHEA or placebo exhibited no differences in androgens or any prooxidant markers while fasting and after glucose ingestion. Compared with placebo, DHEA administration raised levels of testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEA-sulfate, increased the percent change in glucose-challenged p47phox RNA content, and increased the percent change in fasting and glucose-challenged ROS generation from mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear cells, p47phox protein content, and plasma TBARS. Conclusion: Elevation of circulating androgens comparable to what is present in PCOS increases leukocytic ROS generation, p47phox gene expression, and plasma TBARS to promote oxidative stress in lean healthy reproductive-age women. Thus, hyperandrogenemia activates and sensitizes leukocytes to glucose in this population.

Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Daniels, Janice K.; Basal, Eati; Schimke, Jill M.; Blair, Hilary E.

2012-01-01

437

Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance.

Milanovic, Zoran; Pantelic, Sasa; Trajkovic, Nebojsa; Sporis, Goran; Kostic, Radmila; James, Nic

2013-01-01

438

Health Literacy and Disease Understanding among Aging Women with Pelvic Floor Disorders  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Few studies on health literacy and disease understanding among women with pelvic floor disorders have been published. We conducted a pilot study to explore the relationship between disease understanding and health literacy, age, and diagnosis type among women with urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. METHODS Study subjects were recruited from urology and urogynecology specialty clinics based on a chief complaint suggestive of urinary incontinence or pelvic prolapse. Subjects completed questionnaires to assess symptom severity and health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Patient-physician interactions were audiotaped during the office visit. Immediately afterwards, patients were asked to describe diagnoses and treatments discussed by the physician and record them on a checklist, with follow-up phone call where the same checklist was administered 2–3 days later. RESULTS A total of 36 women with pelvic floor disorders, aged 42–94, were enrolled. We found that health literacy scores decreased with increasing age; however, all patients had low percentage recall of their pelvic floor diagnoses and poor understanding of their pelvic floor condition despite high health literacy scores. Patients with pelvic prolapse appeared to have worse recall and disease understanding than patients with urinary incontinence. CONCLUSIONS High health literacy as assessed by the TOFHLA may not correlate with patients' ability to comprehend complex functional conditions such as pelvic floor disorders. Lack of understanding may lead to unrealistic treatment expectations, inability to give informed consent for treatment, and dissatisfaction with care. Better methods to improve disease understanding are needed.

Anger, Jennifer T.; Lee, Una; Mittal, Brita M.; Pollard, Matthew; Tarnay, Christopher; Maliski, Sally; Rogers, Rebecca G

2013-01-01

439

A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century  

PubMed Central

Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 40–69 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of children’s socioeconomic circumstances—particularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher education—in maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views.

Merchant, Emily R.; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

2012-01-01

440

A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century.  

PubMed

Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 40-69 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of children's socioeconomic circumstances-particularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher education-in maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views. PMID:22962507

Merchant, Emily R; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

2012-07-14